Huotari, S; Sahle, Ch J; Henriquet, Ch; Al-Zein, A; Martel, K; Simonelli, L; Verbeni, R; Gonzalez, H; Lagier, M C; Ponchut, C; Moretti Sala, M; Krisch, M; Monaco, G
2017-03-01
An end-station for X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at beamline ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. This end-station is dedicated to the study of shallow core electronic excitations using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. The spectrometer has 72 spherically bent analyzer crystals arranged in six modular groups of 12 analyzer crystals each for a combined maximum flexibility and large solid angle of detection. Each of the six analyzer modules houses one pixelated area detector allowing for X-ray Raman scattering based imaging and efficient separation of the desired signal from the sample and spurious scattering from the often used complicated sample environments. This new end-station provides an unprecedented instrument for X-ray Raman scattering, which is a spectroscopic tool of great interest for the study of low-energy X-ray absorption spectra in materials under in situ conditions, such as in operando batteries and fuel cells, in situ catalytic reactions, and extreme pressure and temperature conditions.
What is Double Parton Scattering?
Manohar, Aneesh V
2012-01-01
Processes such as double Drell-Yan and same-sign WW production have contributions from double parton scattering, which are not well-defined because of a delta(z_\\perp=0) singularity that is generated by QCD evolution. We study the single and double parton contributions to these processes, and show how to handle the singularity using factorization and operator renormalization.
Double parton scattering in CMS
Sunar Cerci, Deniz
2017-01-01
Recent results on the double parton scattering measurements performed using the proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector are presented. The observables, which are sensitive to double parton scattering, are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques are used for increasing the sensitivity. The effective cross section, $\\sigma_{eff}$ is also extracted using different processes at various center-of-mass energies.
Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples
Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.
2016-02-01
We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.
Improvement of effective solid angle using virtual-pivot holder and large EDS detector.
Koshiya, Shogo; Kimoto, Koji
2017-02-01
This paper describes the effective solid angle improvement achieved using a large-area silicon drift detector together with a virtual-pivot double-tilt specimen holder. The virtual-pivot mechanism enables various designs of specimen-retaining and can reduce the shadowing effect. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were measured and converted into effective solid angles using different types of specimen holders and specimens. The investigated shadowing-free mechanical system yielded effective solid angles approaching the nominal solid angle of 0.464sr. In addition, we have demonstrated the availability of the plastic (polyetheretherketone) specimen holder for low system noise.
Solid angles III. The role of conformers in solid angle calculations
White, D
1995-06-14
Full Text Available The values of the solid angles Omega for a range of commonly encountered ligands in organometallic chemistry (phosphines, phosphites, amines, arsines and cyclopentadienyl rings) have been determined. The solid angles were derived from a single...
The high granularity and large solid angle detection array EXPADES
Strano, E., E-mail: estrano@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Anastasio, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bettini, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cassese, C. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Castellani, L.; Corti, D. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Meo, P. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Galet, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, Str. Reactorului No. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grebosz, J. [IFJ PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Guglielmetti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nicoletto, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others
2013-12-15
Highlights: • We realized a detection array for Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams. • High granularity (32 × 32 pixels 2 × 2 mm wide for 8 telescopes). • High solid angle (8 telescopes 64 × 64 mm wide in a cylindrical configuration covering up to 2.6 sr). • We tested each component of the array by both alpha particles and in-beam environment. • We measured the angular distribution for {sup 17}O elastic scattering on a {sup 58}Ni target. -- Abstract: The EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System) detector array consists of 16 Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with active areas of 64 × 64 mm{sup 2}, arranged in 8 ΔE (40/50 μm)–E (300 μm) telescopes. All detector faces are segmented into 32 × 2-mm wide strips, ensuring a 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} pixel configuration. Eight ionization chambers can be alternatively used as ΔE stages or, if needed, as an additional third layer for more complex triple telescopes. The signals from silicon ΔE layers and from ionization chambers are read by standard electronics, while innovative 32-channel ASIC chips are employed for the readout of the E stages. The results of off-line tests with alpha sources and from the first in-beam experiment with a {sup 17}O beam are presented.
Double pulse Thomson scattering system at RTP
Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Chu, C.C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Herranz, J. A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Pijper, F.J.
1997-01-01
In this article a double pulse multiposition Thomson scattering diagnostic, under construction at RTP, is discussed. Light from a double pulsed ruby laser (pulse separation: 10-800 mu s, max. 2x12.5 J) is scattered by the free electrons of the tokamak plasma and relayed to a Littrow polychromator fo
Double parton scattering for perturbative transverse momenta
Buffing, Maarten G A; Kasemets, Tomas
2016-01-01
The cross section for transverse momentum dependent double parton scattering involves transverse momentum dependent double parton distributions (DTMDs). In the region of perturbative transverse momentum the DTMDs can be matched onto collinear double parton distributions. We present the framework and results for this matching, as well as the evolution equations for DTMDs in the region of large distance between the two partons. We discuss explicit results for one-loop matching coefficients and evolution kernels.
Studies of double parton scattering in ATLAS
Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
In this contribution, Double Parton Scattering processes observed with the ATLAS detector at LHC are discussed. Results of five analyses are presented: production of W boson in association with 2 jets, production of $J/\\psi$ meson in association with W boson, $J/\\psi$ production with Z boson, $J/\\psi$ pair production and four jet events.
WW Same-Sign Double Parton Scattering
Fascione, Eleanor
2016-01-01
Data collected by the CMS detector of 13 TeV centre of mass proton-proton collisions, provided during run 2 of the LHC, constitutes an integrated luminosity of $12.9\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. This provides a tool to probe a previously unmeasured process, double parton scattering (DPS) in same-sign WW. Leptonic decay to a muon and associated neutrino was selected for each W boson. In this manner complicated backgrounds were all but negated. A BDT was trained against the most kinematically similar background, and appropriate statistical measures were used to estimate the contribution of fake leptons from W+jets and, to a lesser extent, ttbar. An expected uncertainty on the signal of 52\\% was extracted, or $2 \\sigma$ significance. An in-progress analysis will determine a limit on the production cross section.
Double heavy meson production through double parton scattering in hadronic collisions
Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Snigirev, A.M., E-mail: snigirev@lav01.sinp.msu.ru [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-11-03
It is shown that the contribution from double parton scattering to the inclusive double heavy meson yield is quite comparable with the usually considered mechanism of their production at the LHC energy. For some pairs of heavy flavored quarks in the final state the double parton scattering will be a dominant mode of their production.
Double heavy meson production through double parton scattering in hadronic collisions
Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P
2011-01-01
It is shown that the contribution from double parton scattering to the inclusive double heavy meson yield is quite comparable with the usually considered mechanism of their production at the LHC energy. For some pairs of heavy flavored quarks in the final state the double parton scattering will be a dominant mode of their production.
On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations
Friot, Samuel
2014-01-01
Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella Fc functions.
Resonance scattering characteristics of double-layer spherical particles
Xuejin Dong; Mingxu Su; Xiaoshu Cai
2012-01-01
Based on the principle of ultrasonic resonance scattering,sound-scattering characteristics of double-layer spherical particles in water were numerically studied in this paper.By solving the equations of the scattering matrix,the scattering coefficient determined by the boundary conditions can be obtained,thus the expression for the sound-scattering function of a single double-layer spherical particle can be derived.To describe the resonance scattering characteristics of a single particle,the reduced scattering cross section and reduced extinction cross section curves were found through numerical calculation.Similarly,the numerically calculated sound attenuation coefficient curves were used to depict the resonance scattering characteristics of monodisperse and polydisperse particles.The results of numerical calculation showed that,for monodisperse particles,the strength of the resonance was mainly related to the particle size and the total number of particles; while for polydisperse particles,it was primarily affected by the particle size,the coverage of the particle size distribution and the particle concentration.
Underlying Event and Double Parton Scattering Measurements at CMS
Gupta, Rajat
2017-01-01
Recent results on the double parton scattering studies and measurement of the underlying event activity, performed using proton-proton collisions data collected using the CMS detector are presented. Comparisons to previous results at different center of mass energies are also reported.
Studies of double parton scattering in ATLAS arXiv
Lobodzinska, E.M.
In this contribution, Double Parton Scattering processes observed with the ATLAS detector at LHC are discussed. Results of five analyses are presented: production of W boson in association with 2 jets, production of J/psi meson in association with W boson, J/psi production with Z boson, J/psi pair production and four jet events.
Double parton scattering. A tale of two partons
Kasemets, Tomas
2013-08-15
Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions can give sizable contributions to final states in parts of phase space. We investigate the correlations between the partons participating in the two hard interactions of double parton scattering. With a detailed calculation of the differential cross section for the double Drell-Yan process we demonstrate how initial state correlations between the partons affect the rate and distribution of final state particles. We present our results with focus on correlations between the polarizations of the partons. In particular transversely polarized quarks lead to a dependence of the cross section on angles between final state particles of the two hard interactions, and thereby on the invariant mass of particle pairs. The size of the spin correlations, and therewith the degree to which the final state particles are correlated, depends on unknown double parton distributions. We derive positivity bounds on the double parton distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. We show that the bounds are stable under homogeneous leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales. We make direct use of the positivity bounds in numerical investigations on the double DGLAP evolution for two linearly polarized gluons and for two transversely polarized quarks. We find that the linearly polarized gluons are likely to be negligible at high scales but that transversely polarized quarks can still play a significant role. We examine the dependence of the double parton distributions on the transverse distance between the two partons, and therewith between the two hard interactions. We further study the interplay between transverse and longitudinal variables of the distributions, as well as the impact of the differences in integration limits between the evolution equations for single and double parton distributions. (orig.)
Chaotic dephasing in a double-slit scattering experiment
Levnajić, Zoran
2010-01-01
We design a computational experiment in which a quantum particle tunnels into a billiard of variable shape and scatters out of it through a double-slit opening on the billiard's base. The interference patterns produced by the scattered probability currents for a range of energies are investigated in relation to the billiard's geometry which is connected to its classical integrability. Four billiards with hierarchical integrability levels are considered: integrable, pseudo-integrable, weak-mixing and strongly chaotic. In agreement with the earlier result by Casati and Prosen [1], we find the billiard's integrability to have a crucial influence on the properties of the interference patterns. In the integrable case most experiment outcomes are found to be consistent with the constructive interference occurring in the usual double-slit experiment. In contrast to this, non-integrable billiards typically display asymmetric interference patterns of smaller visibility characterized by weakly correlated wave function ...
Measurements of soft QCD and double parton scattering at LHCb
An, Liupan
2017-01-01
Soft QCD and double parton scattering are of great interest in high energy physics. They are both actively studied at the LHCb experiment. The measurement of the central exclusive production of $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\,{\\mathrm{TeV}}$ is presented. The result shows good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The measurement of the $J/\\psi$ pair production cross-section in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\,{\\mathrm{TeV}}$ is reported. The differential cross-sections as functions of various kinematic variables are compared to the theoretical predictions, and show significant evidence of double parton scattering contribution.
Double scattering and final-state interaction in Xd ---> YNN
Alberi, G; Thomé, Z D
1974-01-01
A unified approach to double scattering, as well as the final-state interaction of the two nucleons at small and large momentum transfers are given. The closure sum rule for the final-state interaction at small momentum transfers is shown explicitly in a simple model for the deuteron wave function and nucleon interaction. An application for the process K/sup +/d to K/sup 0/pp is given, trying to explain discrepancies present in recent experiments. (35 refs).
Optical trapping of nanoparticles by full solid-angle focusing
Salakhutdinov, Vsevolod; Carbone, Luigi; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto; Leuchs, Gerd
2015-01-01
We propose and implement a dipole-trap for nanoparticles that is based on focusing from the full solid angle with a deep parabolic mirror. The key aspect is the generation of a linear-dipole mode. For such a mode, our calculations predict a trapping potential that is deeper and tighter than the potential obtainable with microscope objectives. We demonstrate the trapping of dot-in-rod nanoparticles. From the detected fluorescence photons we obtain intensity correlation functions of second order with $g^{(2)}(0)< 0.5$, suggesting the trapping of a single quantum emitter.
Soft factors for double parton scattering at NNLO
Vladimirov, Alexey
2016-01-01
We show at NNLO that the soft factors for double parton scattering (DPS) for both integrated and unintegrated kinematics, can be presented entirely in the terms of the soft factor for single Drell-Yan process, i.e. the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor. Using the linearity of logarithm of TMD soft factor in rapidity divergences, we decompose the DPS soft factor matrices into a product of matrices with rapidity divergences in given sectors, and thus, define individual double parton distributions at NNLO. The rapidity anomalous dimension matrices for double parton distributions are presented in terms of TMD rapidity anomalous dimension. The analysis is done using the generating function approach to web diagrams. Significant part of the result is obtained from the symmetry properties of web diagrams without referring to explicit expressions or a particular rapidity regularization scheme. Additionally we present NNLO expression for the web diagram generating function for Wilson lines with two light-...
Soft factors for double parton scattering at NNLO
Vladimirov, Alexey [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2016-12-13
We show at NNLO that the soft factors for double parton scattering (DPS) for both integrated and unintegrated kinematics, can be presented entirely in the terms of the soft factor for single Drell-Yan process, i.e. the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor. Using the linearity of the logarithm of TMD soft factor in rapidity divergences, we decompose the DPS soft factor matrices into a product of matrices with rapidity divergences in given sectors, and thus, define individual double parton distributions at NNLO. The rapidity anomalous dimension matrices for double parton distributions are presented in the terms of TMD rapidity anomalous dimension. The analysis is done using the generating function approach to web diagrams. Significant part of the result is obtained from the symmetry properties of web diagrams without referring to explicit expressions or a particular rapidity regularization scheme. Additionally, we present NNLO expression for the web diagram generating function for Wilson lines with two light-like directions.
Double parton scattering in the ultraviolet. Addressing the double counting problem
Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2016-03-15
In proton-proton collisions there is a smooth transition between the regime of double parton scattering, initiated by two pairs of partons at a large relative distance, and the regime where a single parton splits into a parton pair in one or both protons. We present a scheme for computing both contributions in a consistent and practicable way.
Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double photon Compton scattering
B S Sandhu; M B Saddi; B Singh; B S Ghumman
2001-10-01
The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent ﬁnal photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin aluminum foils are used as scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(T1) scintillation detectors and a slow-fast coincidence set-up of 30 nsec resolving time. The measured values of scattering and absorption differential cross sections agree with theory within experimental estimated error.
Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)
2010-07-28
We measured the polarization- and angle-resolved optical scattering and reflection spectra of the quasiordered nanostructures in the bird feather barbs. In addition to the primary peak that originates from single scattering, we observed a secondary peak which exhibits depolarization and distinct angular dispersion. We explained the secondary peak in terms of double scattering, i.e., light is scattered successively twice by the structure. The two sequential single-scattering events are considered uncorrelated. Using the Fourier power spectra of the nanostructures obtained from the small-angle x-ray scattering experiment, we calculated the double scattering of light in various directions. The double-scattering spectrum is broader than the single-scattering spectrum, and it splits into two subpeaks at larger scattering angle. The good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data confirms that double scattering of light makes a significant contribution to the structural color.
A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme
Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 and Xcision Medical System, LLC, 12707 Chapel Chase Drive, Clarksville, Maryland 21209 (United States)
2010-08-15
Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.
Bounds for solid angles of lattices of rank three
Fukshansky, Lenny
2010-01-01
We find sharp absolute constants $C_1$ and $C_2$ with the following property: every well-rounded lattice of rank 3 in a Euclidean space has a minimal basis so that the solid angle spanned by these basis vectors lies in the interval $[C_1,C_2]$. In fact, we show that these absolute bounds hold for a larger class of lattices than just well-rounded, and the upper bound holds for all. We state a technical condition on the lattice that may prevent it from satisfying the absolute lower bound on the solid angle, in which case we derive a lower bound in terms of the ratios of successive minima of the lattice. We use this result to show that among all spherical triangles on the unit sphere in $\\mathbb R^N$ with vertices on the minimal vectors of a lattice, the smallest possible area is achieved by a configuration of minimal vectors of the (normalized) face centered cubic lattice in $\\mathbb R^3$. Such spherical configurations come up in connection with the kissing number problem.
Double-parton scattering effects in double charm production within gluon fragmentation scenario
Maciula, Rafal
2016-01-01
We discuss charm $D^0 D^0$ meson-meson pair production in the forward rapidity region related to the LHCb experimental studies at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. We consider double-parton scattering mechanisms of double $c \\bar c$ production and subsequent standard $cc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ scale-independent hadronization as well as new double $g$ and mixed $g c\\bar c $ production mechanisms with $gg \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ and $gc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ scale-dependent hadronization. The new scenario with gluon fragmentation components results also in a new single-parton scattering mechanism of $gg$ production which is also taken here into account. Results of the numerical calculations are compared with the LHCb data for several correlation observables. The new mechanisms lead to a larger cross sections and to slightly different shapes of the calculated correlation observables.
Nonlinear double Compton scattering in the full quantum regime
Mackenroth, F
2012-01-01
A detailed analysis of the process of two photon emission by an electron scattered from a high-intensity laser pulse is presented. The calculations are performed in the framework of strong-field QED and include exactly the presence of the laser field, described as a plane wave. We investigate the full quantum regime of interaction, where photon recoil plays an essential role in the emission process, and substantially alters the emitted photon spectra as compared to those in previously-studied regimes. We provide a semiclassical explanation for such differences, based on the possibility of assigning a trajectory to the electron in the laser field before and after each quantum photon emission. Our numerical results indicate the feasibility of investigating experimentally the full quantum regime of nonlinear double Compton scattering with already available plasma-based electron accelerator and laser technology.
``DELF'', a large solid angle detection system for heavy fragments
Bougault, R.; Duchon, J.; Gautier, J. M.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Mosrin, P.; Regimbart, R.
1987-09-01
To detect the heavy fragments ( Z > 8) emitted at large angle (30° < θ < 150°) in heavy ion collisions at GANIL, a large solid angle detection system has been built. It consists of 18 independent cells surrounding the target, the beam axis being the revolution axis. In each cell, a fragment penetrates at first into a parallel plate avalanche counter with localization which gives velocity, position and {∂E}/{∂x} measurements and then into an ionization chamber with longitudinal field for the residual energy measurement. The Z evaluation is performed over a large range of velocities (0.05 < {E}/{A} < 5 MeV/u) for atomic numbers ranging from 8 to 90.
Defined solid-angle counter with variable geometry
Garcia-Torano, E. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.es; Duran Ramiro, T. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Burgos, C. [Division de Infraestrutura General Tecnica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Begona Ahedo, M. [Unidad de Ingenieria y Obras, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
2008-06-15
We describe a defined solid-angle counter for the standardization of radioactive sources of alpha-particle emitters. It has been built with the aim of combining good counting efficiencies, low uncertainties and flexibility of operation. The distance between source and detector can be changed in a continuous way with a precision guide and a ball screw from 8 to 19 cm, which correspond to counting efficiencies between 0.023 and 0.004 for small size sources. A linear encoder allows the accurate determination of the source position. Alpha spectra of the sources are measured with an implanted silicon detector with an active area of 2000 mm{sup 2}. Uncertainties, excluding counting statistics, are below 0.1%.
New single- and double-parton scattering mechanisms for double charmed meson production
Szczurek, Antoni; Saleev, Vladimir A; Shipilova, Alexandra V
2016-01-01
We discuss charm meson-meson pair production recently observed by the LHCb Collaboration at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in proton-proton scattering. We examine double-parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms of double $c \\bar c$ production and following $cc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ hadronization as well as double $g$ and mixed $g c\\bar c $ production with $gg \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ and $gc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ hadronization calculated with the help of the scale-dependent KKKS08 fragmentation functions. A new single-parton scattering (SPS) mechanism of $gg$ production is also taken into consideration. Calculated differential distributions as a function of transverse momentum $p_{T}$ of one of the $D^{0}$ mesons, pair invariant mass $M_{D^{0}D^{0}}$ and azimuthal angle $\\varphi_{D^{0}D^{0}}$ distributions are confronted with the measured ones. The manifestation of the new SPS mechanisms with $g \\to D^{0}$ fragmentation within the scale-dependent fragmentation scheme change the overall picture suitable for standard scale-independent fragmentation ...
Measurement of Double Parton Scattering at LHC with the CMS experiment
Mehta, Ankita
2015-01-01
Double parton scattering is measured in different channels using the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. Data from pp collisions collected at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy are used. Several final states are investigated to identify and measure the signature of double parton scattering in inelastic events. Parameters are extracted from the data that are suited in an optimal way to distinguish double parton scattering from various backgrounds. Multivariate analysis techniques are exploited to maximise the sensitivity.
Sven M. Ivansson
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Phononic crystals (PCs can be used as acoustic frequency selective insulators and filters. In a two-dimensional (2D PC, cylindrical scatterers with a common axis direction are located periodically in a host medium. In the present paper, the layer multiple-scattering (LMS computational method for wave propagation through 2D PC slabs is formulated and implemented for general 3D incident-wave directions and polarizations. Extensions are made to slabs with cylindrical scatterers of different types within each layer. As an application, the problem is considered to design such a slab with small sound transmittance within a given frequency band and solid angle region for the direction of the incident plane wave. The design problem, with variable parameters characterizing the scatterer geometry and material, is solved by differential evolution, a global optimization algorithm for efficiently navigating parameter landscapes. The efficacy of the procedure is illustrated by comparison to a direct Monte Carlo method.
Matter-wave scattering on a BEC in a double-well potential
Hunn, Stefan; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cohen, Doron; Buchleitner, Andreas; 10.1140/epjd/e2011-10639-9
2012-01-01
We study the inelastic scattering of a probe particle on a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well potential. We identify prominent signatures of the underlying mean-field phase space in the scattering signal and derive an analytical expression for the inelastic scattering cross section.
CMS Underlying Event and Double Parton Scattering Monte Carlo Tunes
AUTHOR|(CDS)2079608
2016-01-01
Three new PYTHIA 8 underlying event (UE) tunes are presented, one using the CTEQ6L1 parton distribution function (PDF), one using HERAPDF1.5LO, and one using the NNPDF2.3LO PDF; two new PYTHIA 6 UE tunes, one for the CTEQ6L1 PDF and one for the HERAPDF1.5LO, and one new HERWIG++ UE tune for the CTEQ6L1 PDF are also available. Simultaneous fits to CDF UE data at center-of-mass energies of 0.3, 0.9, and 1.96 TeV, together with CMS UE data at 7 TeV, check the UE models and constrain their parameters, providing thereby more precise predictions for proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV. In addition, several new double parton scattering (DPS) tunes are examined in order to investigate if the values of the parameters from fits to UE observables are consistent with the values determined from fitting DPS-sensitive observables. It is also examined how well the new UE tunes predict minimum bias (MB) events, jet, and Drell-Yan observables, as well as MB and UE observables at 13 TeV.
Four-jet production in kt-factorization: single and double parton scattering
Serino, Mirko
2016-01-01
We present a preliminary study of both Single and Double Parton Scattering contributions to the inclusive 4-jet production in the kt-factorization framework at Leading Order and $E_{CM} = 7$ TeV. We compare our results to collinear results in the literature and to the ATLAS and CMS data at 8 and 7 TeV respectively. We also discuss the importance of double parton scattering for relatively soft cuts on the jet transverse momenta and find out that symmetric cuts do not quite suit well to kt-factorization predictions, because of a kinematic effect suppressing the double parton scattering contribution.
Off-shell scattering amplitudes in the double-logarithmic approximation
Ermolaev, B I; Olness, F; Troyan, S I
2005-01-01
When scattering amplitudes are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation, it is possible to relate the double-logarithmic on-shell and off-shell amplitudes. Explicit relations are obtained for scattering amplitudes in QED, QCD, and the ElectroWeak Standard Model. The off-shell amplitudes are considered in the hard and the Regge kinematic limits. We compare our results in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.
Development of a software package for solid-angle calculations using the Monte Carlo method
Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie_scu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Xiulian [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Changsheng [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Gang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu, Jiayun, E-mail: xjy@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Sun, Guangai [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2014-02-01
Solid-angle calculations play an important role in the absolute calibration of radioactivity measurement systems and in the determination of the activity of radioactive sources, which are often complicated. In the present paper, a software package is developed to provide a convenient tool for solid-angle calculations in nuclear physics. The proposed software calculates solid angles using the Monte Carlo method, in which a new type of variance reduction technique was integrated. The package, developed under the environment of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) in Microsoft Visual C{sup ++}, has a graphical user interface, in which, the visualization function is integrated in conjunction with OpenGL. One advantage of the proposed software package is that it can calculate the solid angle subtended by a detector with different geometric shapes (e.g., cylinder, square prism, regular triangular prism or regular hexagonal prism) to a point, circular or cylindrical source without any difficulty. The results obtained from the proposed software package were compared with those obtained from previous studies and calculated using Geant4. It shows that the proposed software package can produce accurate solid-angle values with a greater computation speed than Geant4. -- Highlights: • This software package (SAC) can give accurate solid-angle values. • SAC calculate solid angles using the Monte Carlo method and it has higher computation speed than Geant4. • A simple but effective variance reduction technique which was put forward by the authors has been applied in SAC. • A visualization function and a graphical user interface are also integrated in SAC.
Development of a software package for solid-angle calculations using the Monte Carlo method
Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiulian; Zhang, Changsheng; Li, Gang; Xu, Jiayun; Sun, Guangai
2014-02-01
Solid-angle calculations play an important role in the absolute calibration of radioactivity measurement systems and in the determination of the activity of radioactive sources, which are often complicated. In the present paper, a software package is developed to provide a convenient tool for solid-angle calculations in nuclear physics. The proposed software calculates solid angles using the Monte Carlo method, in which a new type of variance reduction technique was integrated. The package, developed under the environment of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) in Microsoft Visual C++, has a graphical user interface, in which, the visualization function is integrated in conjunction with OpenGL. One advantage of the proposed software package is that it can calculate the solid angle subtended by a detector with different geometric shapes (e.g., cylinder, square prism, regular triangular prism or regular hexagonal prism) to a point, circular or cylindrical source without any difficulty. The results obtained from the proposed software package were compared with those obtained from previous studies and calculated using Geant4. It shows that the proposed software package can produce accurate solid-angle values with a greater computation speed than Geant4.
SONG Yan-qi; LIU Shao-pu; LIU Zhong-fang; HU Xiao-li
2011-01-01
In 0.1 mol/L HCl medium,12-tungstophosphoric(TP) acid reacted with matrine(Mat) and oxymatrine(Oxy)to form an ion-association complex.As a result,the new spectra of resonance Rayleigh scattering(RRS),second-order scattering(SOS) and frequency doubling scattering(FDS) appeared and their intensities were enhanced greatly.The maximum scattering wavelengths of RRS,SOS and FDS were located at 370,670 and 390 nm,respectively.The increments of scattering intensity were directly proportional to the concentration of Mat and Oxy in a certain range.Based on this,the method for the determination of matrine and oxymatrine has been established.It has been applied to the determination of matrine and oxymatrine in samples of Radix sophorae flavescentis with satisfactory result.The reaction mechanism and reasons of RRS enhancement were discussed.
A solution of LIDAR problem in double scattering approximation
Leble, Sergey
2011-01-01
A problem of monoenergetic particles pulse reflection from half-infinite stratified medium is considered in conditions of elastic scattering with absorbtion account. The theory is based on multiple scattering series solution of Kolmogorov equation for one-particle distribution function. The analytical representation for first two terms are given in compact form for a point impulse source and cylindric symmetrical detector. Reading recent articles on the LIDAR sounding of environment (e.g. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (2010) 23: 389-395, Kaul, B. V.; Samokhvalov, I. V. http://www.springerlink.com/content/k3p2p3582674xt21/) one recovers standing interest to the related direct and inverse problems. A development of the result fo the case of n-fold scattering and polarization account as well as correspondent convergence series problem solution of the Kolmogorov equation will be published in nearest future.
The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter
Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannnes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany)
2013-11-07
We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.
Lazar, Markus, E-mail: lazar@fkp.tu-darmstadt.de [Heisenberg Research Group, Department of Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstr. 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Po, Giacomo [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2014-01-24
A representation of the solid angle and the Burgers formula as line integral is derived in the framework of the theory of gradient elasticity of Helmholtz type. The gradient version of the Eshelby–deWit representation of the Burgers formula of a closed dislocation loop is given. Such a form is suitable for the numerical implementation in 3D dislocation dynamics (DD).
Characterization of actinide targets by low solid-angle alpha particle counting
Denecke, B; Pauwels, J; Robouch, P; Gilliam, D M; Hodge, P; Hutchinson, J M R; Nico, J S
1999-01-01
Actinide samples were characterized in an interlaboratory comparison between IRMM and NIST, including alpha-particle counting at defined low solid angle and counting in a 2 pi proportional gas counter. For this comparison, nine sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 UF sub 4 samples with high uniformity in the layer thickness were prepared at IRMM by deposition under vacuum. Polished silicon wafers were used as source substrates, and these were rotated during the deposition using a planetary rotation system. The estimated uncertainties for the defined low solid-angle methods were about 0.1% at both NIST and IRMM. The agreement of reported alpha-particle emission rates in the energy range 2.5-5.09 MeV was better than or equal to 0.02% for the defined solid-angle methods. When comparing total alpha-particle emission rates over the larger energy range 0-9 MeV (which includes all emissions from the daughter nuclides and the impurities), the agreement of the defined solid-angle methods was better than or equal to 0.05%. The 2 pi propo...
Utilization of Double Scanning in Ultrasonic Testing to Improve the Quality of the Scatterer Images
Bazulin, E. G.
2001-11-01
Derivation of a formula for double scanning, when a radiator and a receiver move independently along parallel straight lines, is presented. Advantages of this technique are discussed in comparison with the method of projection in the spectral space, which is also used for a coherent reconstruction of a scatterer image. The efficiency of the double scanning technique in suppressing the phantom images produced by transformed and rescattered pulses is demonstrated in a numerical experiment.
Double scattering of light from biophotonic nanostructures with short-range order
Noh, Heeso; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O; Mochrie, Simon G J; Dufresne, Eric R; Cao, Hui
2009-01-01
We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.
Doroshkevich, Anton A.; Bryukhanova, Valentina V.
2015-11-01
The work is devoted to remote sensing droplet clouds by coaxial lidar. The results of numerical modeling of the distribution of polarization ellipse parameters of lidar returns in the double-scattering approximation are discussed. It is shown that the polarization state of sounding radiation transforms from a linear (or circular) to the elliptical at the study droplet clouds.
Double-confocal resonator for X-ray generation via intracavity Thomson scattering
Xie, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1995-12-31
There has been a growing interest in developing compact X-ray sources through Thomson scattering of a laser beam by a relativistic electron beam. For higher X-ray flux it is desirable to have the scattering to occur inside an optical resonator where the laser power is higher. In this paper I propose a double-confocal resonator design optimized for head-on Thomson scattering inside an FEL oscillator and analyze its performance taking into account the diffraction and FEL gain. A double confocal resonator is equivalent to two confocal resonators in series. Such a resonator has several advantages: it couples electron beam through and X-ray out of the cavity with holes on cavity mirrors, thus allowing the system to be compact; it supports the FEL mode with minimal diffraction loss through the holes; it provides a laser focus in the forward direction for a better mode overlap with the electron beam; and it provides a focus at the same location in the backward direction for higher Thomson scattering efficiency; in addition, the mode size at the focal point and hence the Rayleigh range can be adjusted simply through intracavity apertures; furthermore, it gives a large mode size at the mirrors to reduce power loading. Simulations as well as analytical results will be presented. Also other configurations of intracavity Thomson scattering where the double-confocal resonator could be useful will be discussed.
Wang, Jiao; Xue, Jinhua; Xiao, Xilin; Xu, Li; Jiang, Min; Peng, Pengcheng; Liao, Lifu
2017-12-05
The coordination reaction of thorium (IV) with a ditopic bidentate ligand to form supramolecular polymer was studied by resonance light scattering (RLS) spectra, second-order scattering (SOS) spectra and frequency-doubling scattering (FDS) spectra, respectively. The ditopic bidentate ligand is isophthalaldehyde-tetrapyrrole (IPTP). It was synthesized through a condensation reaction of isophthalaldehyde with pyrrole. The formation of supramolecular polymer results in remarkable intensity enhancements of the three light scattering signals. The maximum scattering wavelengths of RLS, FDS and SOS were 290, 568 and 340nm, respectively. The reaction was used to establish new light scattering methods for the determination of thorium (IV) by using IPTP as probe. Under optimum conditions, the intensity enhancements of RLS, SOS and FDS were directly proportional to the concentration of thorium (IV) in the ranges of 0.01 to 1.2μgmL(-1), 0.05 to 1.2μgmL(-1) and 0.05 to 1.2μgmL(-1), respectively. The detection limits were 0.003μgmL(-1), 0.012μgmL(-1) and 0.021μgmL(-1), respectively. The methods were suitable for analyzing thorium (IV) in actual samples. The results show acceptable recoveries and precision compared with a reference method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
刘绍璞; 罗红群; 李念兵; 刘忠芳
2003-01-01
Binding of heparin with methylene blue(MB) in pH5.7 Britton-Robinson buffer can result in a significant enhancement of frequency doubling scattering (FDS) and second-order scattering (SOS).Their maximum scattering wavelengths(λmax) appear at 350nm for FDS and 700nm for SOS,respectively.The optimum conditions of the reaction,the influencing factors and the relationship between the two scattering intensities and the concentration of heparin have been investigated.The new methods for the determination of trace amounts of heparin bassed on the FDS and SOS methods have been developed,which exhibit high sensitivities.The detection limits of heparin are 4.36ng/mL for the FDS method and 3.55ng/mL for the SOS method,respectively.Both of the methods have fairly godd selectivity and ware applied to the determination of heparin in sodium heparinate injection samples with satisfactory results.Moreover,the relative mechamisms have also been discussed.
XI Cun-Xian; LIU Zhong-Fang; HU Xiao-Li; LIU Shao-Pu; DUAN Hui
2008-01-01
In pH 4.9 Britton-Robinson buffer solution,methotrexate (MTX) reacted with thallium(III) to form a 3:1 che late.This resulted in great enhancement of second-order scattering (SOS) spectra and frequency doubling scattering (FDS) spectra and appearance of new SOS and FDS spectra.Their maximum wavelengths were located at 520 and 390 nm,respectively.The increments of scattering intensities (ΔI) were directly proportional to the concentrations of MTX in the ranges of 0.022--2.0 μg·mL-1 (SOS method) and 0.008--2.5μg·mL-1 (FDS method).The methods exhibited high sensitivities.The detection limits for MTX were 7.4 ng·mL-1 (SOS method) and 2.3 ng.mL-1 (FDS method),respectively.The optimum conditions of the reaction,the influencing factors and the effects of coexisting substances were investigated.A highly sensitive,simple and fast method for the determination of MTX has been developed.The method can be applied satisfactorily to the determination of MTX in human serum samples.In this work,the charge distribution of MTX was calculated by a CNDO quantum chemistry method.In addition,the reaction mechanism was discussed.
Double parton scattering in pair-production of $J/\\psi$ mesons at the LHC revisited
Borschensky, Christoph
2016-01-01
Double parton scattering (DPS) is studied at the example of $J/\\psi$ pair-production in the LHCb and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{S}=$ 7, 8, and 13 TeV. We report theoretical predictions delivered to the LHCb and ATLAS collaborations adjusted for the fiducial volumes of the corresponding measurements during Run I and provide new predictions at 13 TeV collision energy. It is shown that DPS can lead to noticeable contributions in the distributions of longitudinal variables of the di-$J/\\psi$ system, especially at 13 TeV. The increased DPS rate in double $J/\\psi$ production at high energies will open up more possibilities for the separation of single parton scattering (SPS) and DPS contributions in future studies.
Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus 11Be from 64Zn
M Hemalatha
2014-05-01
Calculations of elastic scattering cross-sections for 9,10,11Be+64Zn at near-Coulomb barrier energy have been performed using a potential obtained from the double folding model and are compared with the experiment. In the framework of the double folding model, the nuclear matter densities of 9,10,11Be projectiles and a 64Zn target are folded with the complex energydependent effective M3Y interaction. The angular distributions of the differential cross-section for 9,10Be scattering from 64Zn at $E_{c.m.} ≈$24.5 MeV agree remarkably well with the data, while in case of 11Be, calculations show a Coulomb–nuclear interference peak which is not observed in the data.
Large solid-angle polarisation analysis at thermal neutron wavelengths using a sup 3 He spin filter
Heil, W; Cywinski, R; Humblot, H; Ritter, C; Roberts, T W; Stewart, J R
2002-01-01
The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarised sup 3 He opens up the possibility of polarising neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. In this paper we describe the first large solid-angle polarisation analysis measurement using a sup 3 He neutron spin filter at thermal neutron wavelengths (lambda=2.5 A). This experiment was performed on the two-axis diffractometer D1B at the Institut Laue-Langevin using a banana-shaped filter cell (530 cm sup 3 ) filled with sup 3 He gas with a polarisation of P=52% at a pressure of 2.7 bar. A comparison is made with a previous measurement on D7 using a cold neutron beam on the same sample, i.e. amorphous ErY sub 6 Ni sub 3. Using uniaxial polarisation analysis both the nuclear and magnetic cross-sections could be extracted over the range of scattering-vectors [0.5<=Q(A sup - sup 1)<=3.5]. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the D7-data, whe...
Heavy quark production in $pA$ collisions: the double parton scattering contribution
Cazaroto, E R; Navarra, F S
2016-01-01
In this paper we estimate the double parton scattering (DPS) contribution for the heavy quark production in $pA$ collisions at the LHC. The cross sections for the charm and bottom production are estimated using the dipole approach and taking into account the saturation effects, which are important for high energies and for the scattering with a large nucleus. We compare the DPS contribution with the single parton scattering one and demonstrate that both are similar in the kinematical range probed by the LHC. Predictions for the rapidity range analysed by the LHCb Collaboration are also presented. Our results indicate that the study of the DPS contribution for the heavy quark production in $pPb$ collisions at the LHC is feasible and can be useful to probe the main assumptions of the approach.
Abbas, Mahmoud I., E-mail: mabbas@physicist.net [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Hammoud, Sami [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Art, Lebanese International University (Lebanon); Ibrahim, Tarek; Sakr, Mohamed [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon)
2015-01-21
In this article, we introduce a direct analytical mathematical method for calculating the solid angle, Ω, subtended at a point by closed elliptical contours. The solid angle is required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the flux of particle beam of radiation and to determine the activity of a radioactive source. The validity of the derived analytical expressions was successfully confirmed by the comparison with some published data (Numerical Method)
A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies
Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.
2006-01-01
We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature $50\\mathrm{\\mu m}$. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and the cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a d...
Nee, E. V.; Bryukhanova, V. V.; Doroshkevich, A. A.; Konoshonkin, A. V.
2016-10-01
In this paper the results of the study of the polarization characteristics of double scattering lidar return from drip clouds presents. We calculated the distribution of the intensity of the radiation scattered by cloud and detected by CCDcamera at sensing circularly and linearly polarized radiation. CCD-camera setting in the receiving system lidar.
Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.
1999-01-01
A high spatial resolution (3 mm full width half maximum, i.e. 2% of the minor radius) double-pulse multiposition Thomson scattering system was in operation at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project RTP from March 1996 until September 1998. It upgrades the previously installed single-pulse Thomson scattering
Absence of solid angle deficit singularities in beyond-generalized proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-12-01
In Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) scalar-tensor theories, which are outside the domain of second-order Horndeski theories, it is known that there exists a solid angle deficit singularity in the case where the parameter αH characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a nonvanishing constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body. Meanwhile, it was recently shown that second-order generalized Proca theories with a massive vector field Aμ can be consistently extended to beyond-generalized Proca theories, which recover shift-symmetric GLPV theories in the scalar limit Aμ→∇μχ . In beyond-generalized Proca theories up to quartic-order Lagrangians, we show that solid angle deficit singularities are generally absent due to the existence of a temporal vector component. We also derive the vector-field profiles around a compact object and show that the success of the Vainshtein mechanism operated by vector Galileons is not prevented by new interactions in beyond generalized Proca theories.
FAST NEUTRON SOURCE DETECTION AT LONG DISTANCES USING DOUBLE SCATTER SPECTROMETRY.
FORMAN,L.VANIER,P.WELSH,K.
2003-08-03
Fast neutrons can be detected with relatively high efficiency, >15%, using two planes of hydrogenous scintillator detectors where a scatter in the first plane creates a start pulse and scatter in the second plane is separated by time-of-flight. Indeed, the neutron spectrum of the source can be determined as the sum of energy deposited by pulse height in the first added to the energy of the second found by time-of-flight to the second detector. Gamma rays can also create a double scatter by Compton interaction in the first with detection in the second, but these events occur in a single time window because the scattered photons all travel at the speed of light. Thus, gamma ray events can be separated from neutrons by the time-of-flight differences. We have studied this detection system with a Cf-252 source using Bicron 501A organic scintillators and report on the ability to efficiently detect fast neutrons with high neutron/gamma detection ratios. We have further studied cosmic-ray neutron background detection response that is the dominant background in long range detection. We have found that most of the neutrons are excluded from the time-of-flight window because they are either too high in energy, >10 keV, or too low, < 10 keV. Moreover, if the detection planes are position-sensitive, the angular direction of the source can be determined by the ratio of the energy of scattered protons in the first detector relative to the position and energy of the scattered neutron detected in the second. This ability to locate the source in theta is useful, but more importantly increases the signal to noise relative to cosmic-ray produced neutrons that are relatively isotropic. This technique may be used in large arrays to detect neutrons at ranges up to 0.5 kilometer.
All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering
Dixon, Lance J
2016-01-01
Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of t...
Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics
1996-12-31
The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.
The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach
Traini, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Vento, Vicente
2017-05-01
A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom-up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.
The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach
Traini, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Vento, Vicente
2016-01-01
A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom-up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.
A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies
Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.
2006-03-01
We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature 50 µm. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a diffraction-limited (sub-micron) mode-waist at the planar mirror, leading to a large coupling constant between the cavity mode and QD. The half-monolithic design gives more spatial and spectral tuning abilities, relatively to fully monolithic structures. This unique micro-cavity design will potentially enable us to both reach the cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) strong coupling regime and realize the deterministic generation of single photons on demand.
All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering
Dixon, Lance J.; Esterlis, Ilya
2016-07-01
Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 → 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 → 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar {N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.
Kutak, Krzysztof; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas
2016-01-01
In the present paper we discuss how to maximize the double-parton scattering (DPS) contribution in four-jet production. Here both single-parton and double-parton scattering effects are calculated in the $k_t$-factorization approach, following our recent developments of relevant methods and tools. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed in the context of future searches for DPS effects, such as rapidity of jets, rapidity distance, and azimuthal correlations between jets. The dependences of the relative DPS amount is studied as function of those observables. The regions with an enhanced DPS contribution are identified. Future experimental explorations could extract more precise values of $\\sigma_{eff}$.
Scattering Equations, Twistor-string Formulas and Double-soft Limits in Four Dimensions
He, Song; Wu, Jun-Bao
2016-01-01
We study scattering equations and formulas for tree amplitudes of various theories in four dimensions, in terms of spinor helicity variables and on-shell superspace for supersymmetric theories. As originally obtained in Witten's twistor string theory and other twistor-string models, the equations can take either polynomial or rational forms, and we clarify the simple relation between them. We present new, four-dimensional formulas for all tree amplitudes in the non-linear sigma model, a special Galileon theory and the maximally supersymmetric completion of the Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. Furthermore, we apply the formulas to study various double-soft theorems in these theories, including the emissions of a pair of soft photons, fermions and scalars for super-amplitudes in super-DBI theory.
Double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions
Klusek-Gawenda, Mariola
2016-01-01
We present first measurable predictions for electromagnetic (two-photon) double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at LHC. Measureable cross sections are obtained with realistic cuts on electron/positron (pseudo)rapidities and transverse momenta for the ALICE and ATLAS or CMS experiments. The predictions for total and differential cross sections are presented. We show also two-dimensional distributions in rapidities of the opposite-sign (from the same or different subcollisions) and of the same-sign ($e^+ e^+$ or $e^- e^-$) electrons and in rapidity distance between them. Expected number of events are presented and discussed. Our calculations strongly suggest that relevant measurements with the help of ATLAS, CMS and ALICE detectors are possible in a near future.
Double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions
Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Szczurek, Antoni
2016-12-01
We present first measurable predictions for electromagnetic (two-photon) double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at LHC. Measurable cross sections are obtained with realistic cuts on electron/positron (pseudo)rapidities and transverse momenta for the ALICE and ATLAS or CMS experiments. The predictions for total and differential cross sections are presented. We show also two-dimensional distributions in rapidities of the opposite-sign (from the same or different subcollisions) and of the same-sign (e+e+ or e-e-) electrons and in rapidity distance between them. Expected number of events are presented and discussed. Our calculations strongly suggest that relevant measurements with the help of ATLAS, CMS and ALICE detectors are possible in a near future. We show and compare energy dependence of the cross sections for one-pair and two-pair production.
Beam-target double-spin asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering off the deuteron with CLAS
Mayer, M.; Kuhn, S. E.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration
2017-02-01
Background: The deuteron plays a pivotal role in nuclear and hadronic physics, as both the simplest bound multinucleon system and as an effective neutron target. Quasielastic electron scattering on the deuteron is a benchmark reaction to test our understanding of deuteron structure and the properties and interactions of the two nucleons bound in the deuteron. Purpose: The experimental data presented here can be used to test state-of-the-art models of the deuteron and the two-nucleon interaction in the final state after two-body breakup of the deuteron. Focusing on polarization degrees of freedom, we gain information on spin-momentum correlations in the deuteron ground state (due to the D -state admixture) and on the limits of the impulse approximation (IA) picture as it applies to measurements of spin-dependent observables like spin structure functions for bound nucleons. Information on this reaction can also be used to reduce systematic uncertainties on the determination of neutron form factors or deuteron polarization through quasielastic polarized electron scattering. Method: We measured the beam-target double-spin asymmetry (A||) for quasielastic electron scattering off the deuteron at several beam energies (1.6 -1.7 , 2.5, 4.2, and 5.6 -5.8 GeV ), using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The deuterons were polarized along (or opposite to) the beam direction. The double-spin asymmetries were measured as a function of photon virtuality Q2(0.13 -3.17 (GeV/c ) 2) , missing momentum (pm=0.0 -0.5 GeV /c ), and the angle between the (inferred) spectator neutron and the momentum transfer direction (θn q). Results: The results are compared with a recent model that includes final-state interactions (FSI) using a complete parametrization of nucleon-nucleon scattering, as well as a simplified model using the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA). We find overall good agreement with both the PWIA and FSI
Measurements of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities with Double-Polarized Compton Scattering
Martel, P P; Aguar-Bartolome, P; Ahrens, J; Akondi, C S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Barnes, W; Beck, R; Bernstein, A; Borisov, N; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cherepnya, S; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Denig, A; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Fil'kov, L V; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gradl, W; Gurevich, G; Barrientos, P Hall; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jude, T C; Kaeser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lazarev, A; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Meyer, W; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nefkens, B M K; Neganov, A; Nikolaev, A; Oberle, M; Spina, H Ortega; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Polyansky, V; Prakhov, S; Rajabi, A; Reicherz, G; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Schrauf, S; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Steffen, O; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Tiator, L; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Usov, Y; Watts, D P; Witthauer, L; Werthmüller, D; Wolfes, M
2014-01-01
The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to measure the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the $\\Delta(1232)$ region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields $\\gamma_{E1E1} = -3.5 \\pm 1.2$, $\\gamma_{M1M1}= 3.16 \\pm 0.85$, $\\gamma_{E1M2} = -0.7 \\pm 1.2$, and $\\gamma_{M1E2} = 1.99 \\pm 0.29$, in units of $10^{-4}$ fm$^4$.
Nee Yevgeniy
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The results of calculation of the ratio of polarization degrees of the double scattering lidar return from droplet clouds with different microstructure at sensing by circularly and linearly polarized radiation are given in this report. The influence of the droplet size on ellipse parameters of linearly polarized radiation are discussed.
A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering
Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas
1992-06-01
To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.
DENG Ruru; LIU Qinhuo; KE Ruiping; CHENG Lei; LIU Xiaoping
2004-01-01
It is a valid route for quantitatively remote sensing on water pollution to build a model according to the physical mechanisms of scattering and absorbing of suspended substance, pollutant, and molecules of water. Remote sensing model for water pollution based on single scattering is simple and easy to be used, but the precision is affected by turbidity of water. The characteristics of the energy composition of multiple scattering, are analyzed and it is proposed that, based on the model of single scattering, ifthe flux of the second scattering is considered additionally, the precision of the modelwill be remarkably improved and the calculation is still very simple. The factor of the second scattering is deduced to build a double scattering model, and the practical arithmetic for the calculation of the model is put forward. The result of applying this model in the water area around the Zhujiang(Pearl) River outfall shows that the precision is obviously improved. The result also shows that the seriously polluted water area is distributed in the northeast of Lingding Sea, the Victoria Bay of Hong Kong, and the Shengzhen Bay.
Y. Sakai
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Inverse Compton scattering (ICS is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K-edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.
Sakai, Y.; Gadjev, I.; Hoang, P.; Majernik, N.; Nause, A.; Fukasawa, A.; Williams, O.; Fedurin, M.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Polyanskiy, M.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Zhong, Z.; Siddons, P.; Pogorelsky, I.; Yakimenko, V.; Kumita, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Rosenzweig, J. B.
2017-06-01
Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K -edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.
Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I. A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J. C.; Conta, C.; Costa, G.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R. S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G. F.; Einsweiler, K. F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J. M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gössling, C.; Goggi, V. G.; Grünendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E. E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Müller, L.; Munday, D. J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M. A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J. M.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J. P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Simak, V.; Singh, S. L.; Sondermann, V.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A. R.; Wells, P. S.; White, T. O.; Wood, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstejn, A.; UA2 Collaboration
1991-10-01
A study of events containing at least four high transverse momentum jets and a search for double parton scattering (DPS) have been performed using data collected with the UA2 detector at the CERN overlinepp Collider (√ s=630 GeV). The results are in good agreement with leading order QCD calculations. A value of σ DPS<0.82 nb at 95% confidence level (CL) is obtained for the DPS cross section.
Rao, D V; Brunetti, A; Gigante, G E; Takeda, T; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T
2002-01-01
A new approach is developed to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangements using X-ray tube and secondary target as an excitation source in order to produce the nearly monoenergetic K alpha radiation to excite the sample. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the total solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work. (authors)
Kuprash, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of final state objects. The ATLAS collaboration performed a study at 13~TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles in different regions with respect to the direction of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event activity. The results are compared to predictions of several Monte Carlo generators. Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV in the ATLAS detector have been analysed for the presence of hard double parton scattering. The fraction of events originating from hard double parton scattering has been extracted, and used to measure the effective proton cross section. Distributions sensitive to the presence of double parton scattering were unfolded to the parton level and compared to various tunes of a selected Mo...
Kawabata, Kiyoshi
2016-12-01
This work shows that it is possible to calculate numerical values of the Chandrasekhar H-function for isotropic scattering at least with 15-digit accuracy by making use of the double exponential formula (DE-formula) of Takahashi and Mori (Publ. RIMS, Kyoto Univ. 9:721, 1974) instead of the Gauss-Legendre quadrature employed in the numerical scheme of Kawabata and Limaye (Astrophys. Space Sci. 332:365, 2011) and simultaneously taking a precautionary measure to minimize the effects due to loss of significant digits particularly in the cases of near-conservative scattering and/or errors involved in returned values of library functions supplied by compilers in use. The results of our calculations are presented for 18 selected values of single scattering albedo π0 and 22 values of an angular variable μ, the cosine of zenith angle θ specifying the direction of radiation incident on or emergent from semi-infinite media.
Airapetian, A; Amarian, M; Arrington, J; Aschenauer, E C; Avakian, H; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Bains, B; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brauksiepe, S; Braun, B; Brückner, W; Brüll, A; Budz, P; Bulten, H J; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Chumney, P; Cisbani, E; Court, G R; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Devitsin, E G; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; Di Nezza, P; Dzhordzhadze, V; Düren, M; Dvoredsky, A P; Elbakian, G M; Ely, J; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Fiedler, K; Filippone, B W; Fischer, H; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Garibaldi, F; Garutti, E; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Golendukhin, A; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Green, P W; Greeniaus, L G; Gute, A; Haeberli, W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Heinsius, F H; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hofman, G J; Holler, Y; Holt, R J; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Iodice, M; Izotov, A A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Jung, P; Kaiser, R; Kanesaka, J; Kinney, E R; Kiselev, A; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, H; Koch, N; Königsmann, K C; Kolster, H; Korotkov, V A; Kotik, E; Kozlov, V; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kyle, G S; Lagamba, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Lindemann, T; Lorenzon, W; Makins, N C R; Martin, J W; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; McAndrew, M; McIlhany, K; McKeown, R D; Meissner, F; Menden, F; Metz, A; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Milner, R; Muccifora, V; Mussa, R; Nagaitsev, A P; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganesyan, K A; O'Neill, T G; Openshaw, R; Ouyang, J; Owen, B R; Pate, S F; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Rakness, G; Rappoport, V; Redwine, R P; Reggiani, D; Reolon, A R; Ristinen, R; Rith, K; Robinson, D; Rostomyan, A; Ruh, M; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Sato, F; Savin, I A; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schmidt, F; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seibert, J; Seitz, B; Shibata, T A; Shin, T; Shutov, V B; Simani, C; Simon, A; Sinram, K; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Suetsugu, K; Sutter, M F; Szymanowski, L; Taroian, S P; Terkulov, A R; Teryaev, O V; Tessarin, S; Thomas, E; Tipton, B; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van den Brand, J F J; van der Steenhoven, G; Van de Vyver, R; Van Hunen, J J; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Volk, E; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Wise, T; Yen, S; Yoneyama, S; Zohrabyan, H G
2001-01-01
Evidence for a positive longitudinal double-spin asymmetry = 0.24 +-0.11 (stat) +-0.02 (syst) in the cross section for exclusive diffractive rho^0(770) vector meson production in polarised lepton-proton scattering was observed by the HERMES experiment. The longitudinally polarised 27.56 GeV HERA positron beam was scattered off a longitudinally polarised pure hydrogen gas target. The average invariant mass of the photon-proton system has a value of = 4.9 GeV, while the average negative squared four-momentum of the virtual photon is = 1.7 GeV^2. The ratio of the present result to the corresponding spin asymmetry in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering is in agreement with an early theoretical prediction based on the generalised vector meson dominance model.
Kawabata, Kiyoshi
2016-01-01
This work shows that it is possible to calculate numerical values of the Chandrasekhar $H$-function for isotropic scattering at least with 15-digit accuracy by making use of the double exponential formula (DE-formula) of Takahashi and Mori (Publ. RIMS, Kyoto Univ. Vol. 9, 721, 1974) instead of the Gauss-Legendre quadrature employed in the numerical scheme of Kawabata and Limaye (Astrophys. Space Sci. Vol. 332, 365, 2011) and simultaneously taking a precautionary measure to minimize the effects due to loss of significant digits particularly in the cases of near-conservative scattering and/or errors involved in returned values of library functions supplied by compilers in use. The results of our calculations are presented for 18 selected values of single scattering albedo $\\varpi_0$ and 22 values of an angular variable $\\mu$, the cosine of zenith angle $\\theta$ specifying the direction of radiation incident on or emergent from semi-infinite media.
Double parton scattering: A study of the effective cross section within a Light-Front quark model
Matteo Rinaldi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a calculation of the effective cross section σeff, an important ingredient in the description of double parton scattering in proton–proton collisions. Our theoretical approach makes use of a Light-Front quark model as a framework to calculate the double parton distribution functions at low-resolution scale. QCD evolution is implemented to reach the experimental scale. The obtained values of σeff in the valence region are consistent with the present experimental scenario, in particular with the sets of data which include the same kinematical range. However the result of the complete calculation shows a dependence of σeff on xi, a feature not easily seen in the available data, probably because of their low accuracy. Measurements of σeff in restricted xi regions are addressed to obtain indications on double parton correlations, a novel and interesting aspect of the three dimensional structure of the nucleon.
Open charm production in Double Parton Scattering processes in the forward kinematics
Blok, B
2016-01-01
We calculate the rate of double open charm production in the forward kinematics studied recently in the LHCb experiment. We find that the mean field approximation for the double parton GPD (Generalized parton distributions), which neglects parton - parton correlations, underestimates the rate by a factor of two. The enhancement due to the perturbative QCD correlation \\12 mechanism which explains the rates of the double parton interactions at the central rapidities is found to explain 60--80 percentof the discrepancy. We argue that the nonperturbative fluctuations leading to non-factorized(correllated)contributions to the initial conditions for the DGLAP collinear evolution of the double parton GPD play an important role in this kinematics. Combined, two correlation mechanisms provide a good description of the rate of double charm production reported by the LHCb. We also give predictions for the variation of the ratio of double and square of single inclusive rates in the discussed kinematics as a function of p...
Lansberg, Jean-Philippe
2015-01-01
The recent observations of prompt J/psi-pair production by CMS at the LHC and by D0 at the Tevatron reveal the presence of different production mechanisms in different kinematical regions. We find out that next-to-leading-order single-parton-scattering contributions at alpha_s^5 dominate the yield at large transverse momenta of the pair. Our analysis further emphasises the importance of double-parton-scatterings --which are expected to dominate the yield at large rapidity differences-- at large invariant masses of the pair in the CMS acceptance. In addition, we provide the first exact --gauge-invariant and infrared-safe-- evaluation of a class of leading-P_T next-to-next-to-leading-order contributions, which are dominant in the region of large sub-leading transverse momenta, precisely where the colour-octet contributions can be non-negligible. Finally, we discuss the contribution from decays of excited charmonium states within both single- and double-parton scatterings and suggest measurements to distinguish ...
Helmbrecht, S.; Baumann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Krause, M.; Lühr, A.
2016-11-01
Purpose: particle therapy has the potential to improve radiooncology. With more and more facilities coming into operation, also the interest for research at proton beams increases. Though many centers provide beam at an experimental room, some of them do not feature a device for radiation field shaping, a so called nozzle. Therefore, a robust and cost-effective double-scattering system for horizontal proton beamlines has been designed and implemented. Materials and methods: the nozzle is based on the double scattering technique. Two lead scatterers, an aluminum ridge-filter and two brass collimators were optimized in a simulation study to form a laterally homogeneous 10 cm × 10 cm field with a spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP). The parts were mainly manufactured using 3D printing techniques and the system was set up at OncoRay's experimental beamline. Measurement of the radiation field were carried out using a water phantom. Results: high levels of dose homogeneity were found in lateral (dose variation ΔD/D design let it appear as a valuable option for proton therapy centers intending to foster their experimental portfolio.
Kuprash, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. + Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV have been analyzed for the presence of hard double parton scattering collected with the ATLAS detector. The contribution of hard double parton scattering to the production of four-jet events has been extracted using an artificial neural network. The assumption was made that hard double parton scat...
Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Borissov, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Di Nezza, P; Dueren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Golembiovskaya, M; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikas, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Ruiz, A Lopez; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X -G; Lu, X -R; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfre, L; Mao, Y; de la Ossa, B Marianski A Martinez; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Raithel, M; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schaefer, A; Schnell, G; Schueler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zagrebelnyy, V; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2011-01-01
Double-spin asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of real photons from a transversely polarized hydrogen target are measured with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity and beam charge, and with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity alone. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe--Heitler process. They are related to the real part of the same combination of Compton form factors as that determining the transverse target single-spin asymmetries through the imaginary part. The results for the double-spin asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within the uncertainties of the measurement, and are not incompatible with the predictions of the only available GPD-based calculation.
Szczurek, Antoni
2015-01-01
We study, for the first time, differential distributions for two $\\rho^0$ meson production in exclusive ultraperipheral, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions via a double-scattering mechanism. The calculations are done in the impact parameter space. The cross section for $\\gamma A \\to \\rho^0 A$ is parametrized based on an existing model. Smearing of $\\rho^0$ masses is taken into account. The results of calculations for single and double-$\\rho^0$ production are compared to experimental data at the RHIC and LHC energies. The mechanism considered gives a significant contribution to the $AA \\to AA \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ reaction. Some observables related to charged pions are presented too. We compare results of our calculations with the STAR collaboration results for four charged pion production.
Zhang, Ning; Li, Xin; Jiang, Lan; Shi, Xuesong; Li, Cong; Lu, Yongfeng
2013-09-15
This Letter presents a simple, efficient approach for high surface-enhanced Raman scattering by one-step controllable fabrication of hierarchical structures (nanoparticles+subwavelength ripples) on silicon substrates in silver nitrate solutions using femtosecond double pulses based on nanoscale electron dynamics control. As the delays of the double pulses increase from 0 fs to 1 ps, the hierarchical structures can be controlled with (1) nanoparticles--the number of nanoparticles in the range of 40-100 nm reaches the maximum at 800 fs and (2) ripples--the subwavelength ripples become intermittent with decreased ablation depths. The redistributed nanoparticles and the modified ripple structures contribute to the maximum enhancement factor of 2.2×10(8) (measured by 10(-6) M rhodamine 6G solution) at the pulse delay of 800 fs.
Tian, Fengling; Huang, Wei; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin
In pH 3.25-3.35 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, albendazole (ABZ) could react with eosin Y (EY) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 356 nm. The detection limit for ABZ were 21.51 ng mL-1 for the fluorophotometry, 6.93 ng mL-1 for the RRS method and 12.89 ng mL-1 for the FDS method. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. The experimental conditions were optimized and effects of coexisting substances were evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of coexisting substances were tested. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of ABZ in capsules and human urine samples. The composition and structure of the ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed.
Open charm production in double parton scattering processes in the forward kinematics
Blok, B. [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Strikman, M. [Pennsylvania State University, Physics Department, University Park, PA (United States)
2016-12-15
We calculate the rate of double open charm production in the forward kinematics studied recently in the LHCb experiment. We find that the mean field approximation for the double parton GPD (generalized parton distributions), which neglects parton-parton correlations, underestimates the rate by a factor of 2. The enhancement due to the perturbative QCD correlation 1 x 2 mechanism which explains the rate of double parton interactions at the central rapidities is found to explain 60 / 80% of the discrepancy. We argue that the nonperturbative fluctuations leading to non-factorized (correlated) contributions to the initial conditions for the DGLAP collinear evolution of the double parton GPD play an important role in this kinematics. Combined, the two correlation mechanisms provide a good description of the rate of double charm production reported by the LHCb. We also give predictions for the variation of the σ{sub eff} (i.e. the ratio of double and square of single inclusive rates) in the discussed kinematics as a function of p{sub t}. The account for two correlation mechanisms strongly reduces the sensitivity of the results to the starting point of the QCD evolution. (orig.)
Schoenbeck, N. L.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.
2012-10-01
A novel Thomson scattering system has been deployed on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment. It provides a relatively low-cost, simplified design. Scattering is achieved using a 7 ns, 2 J frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The laser focuses to ˜3 mm diameter within the plasma via a 7 m beam-line. The beam-line contains cameras as beam finders and remotely adjustable mirrors for shot-to-shot alignment. A custom multi-element lens collects scattered photons from 15 cm 40%) image intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. Three spectrometers provide a total of 24 channels. Two interchangeable gratings exist to cover low (Te = 10--100 eV) and high (Te = 0.10--1 keV) electron temperature regimes on Pegasus. The spectrometer is optimized for ne from mid-10^18 to mid-10^19 m-3. The signal-to-noise expected is ˜0.5 of an equivalent system using Nd:YAG at 1064 nm and avalanche photodiode detectors.
Wave Scattering by Double Slotted Barriers in A Steady Current: Experiments
无
2008-01-01
The adoption of slotted breakwaters can be an ideal option in the protection of very large near-shore floating structures that may extend offshore to a considerable water depth. In this paper, we experimently investigated the behaviour of wave transmission and reflection coefficients of double slotted barriers in the presence of a steady opposing current. The experimental results show that opposing currents have only minor effects on wave reflection, but can significantly reduce the wave transmission through double slotted barriers. The experimental results suggest that coastal currents should be taken into consideration for an economical design of slotted breakwaters.
Kawabata, Kiyoshi
2016-01-01
An efficient hybrid numerical method for multiple scattering calculations is proposed. We use the well established doubling--adding method to find the reflection function of the lowermost homogeneous slab comprising the atmosphere of our interest. This reflection function provides the initial value for the fast invariant imbedding method of Sato et al., (1977), with which layers are added until the final reflection function of the entire atmosphere is obtained. The execution speed of this hybrid method is no slower than one half of that of the doubling-adding method, probably the fastest algorithm available, even in the most unsuitable cases for the fast invariant imbedding method. The efficiency of the proposed method increases rapidly with the number of atmospheric slabs and the optical thickness of each slab. For some cases, its execution speed is approximately four times faster than the doubling--adding method. This work has been published in NAIS Journal (ISSN 1882-9392) Vol. 7, 5-16 (2012).
Thakkar, Disha; Gevriya, Bhavesh; Mashru, R. C.
2014-03-01
Linezolid reacted with palladium to form 1:1 binary cationic chelate which further reacted with eosin dye to form 1:1 ternary ion association complex at pH 4 of Walpole's acetate buffer in the presence of methyl cellulose. As a result not only absorption spectra were changed but Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS), Second-order Scattering (SOS) and Frequency Doubling Scattering (FDS) intensities were greatly enhanced. The analytical wavelengths of RRS, SOS and FDS (λex/λem) of ternary complex were located at 538 nm/538 nm, 240 nm/480 nm and 660 nm/330 nm, respectively. The linearity range for RRS, SOS and FDS methods were 0.01-0.5 μg mL-1, 0.1-2 μg mL-1 and 0.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively. The sensitivity order of three methods was as RRS > SOS > FDS. Accuracy of all methods were determined by recovery studies and showed recovery between 98% and 102%. Intraday and inter day precision were checked for all methods and %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all methods. The effects of foreign substances were tested on RRS method and it showed the method had good selectivity. For optimization of process parameter, Taguchi orthogonal array design L8(24) was used and ANOVA was adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the scattering intensities of methods. The reaction mechanism, composition of ternary ion association complex and reasons for scattering intensity enhancement was discussed in this work.
Experiments with a double solenoid system: Measurements of the 6He + p Resonant Scattering
Pampa Condori R.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A recent experiment has been performed in the double solenoid system Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil (RIBRAS by impinging a pure 6He secondary beam on a thick CH2 target to measure the 6He + p excitation function. Results of this experiment will be presented.
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Ershov, Alexander; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H
2014-03-05
Double parton scattering is investigated in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV where the final state includes a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, and two jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Observables sensitive to double parton scattering are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. The fraction of W + 2-jet events due to double parton scattering is measured to be 0.055 $\\pm$ 0.002 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.014 (syst.). The effective cross section, sigma[eff], characterizing the effective transverse area of hard partonic interactions in collisions between protons is measured to be 20.7 $\\pm$ 0.8 (stat.) $\\pm$ 6.6 (syst.) mb.
Analysis of the double bounce scattering mechanism of buildings in VHR SAR data
Brunner, D.; Bruzzone, L.; Ferro, A.; Fortuny, J.; Lemoine, G.
2008-10-01
This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the behavior of the backscattering of buildings in very high resolution (VHR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images under varying conditions. The double bounce effect caused by the corner reflector between the front wall of the buildign and its surrounding ground area is an important characterist of the building in VHR SAR. Therefore, we focus on the analysis of the relation between the double bounce effect and the aspect angle of the building. The study is carried out in three phases: i)development of a laboratory experimental setup on a scaled building model under well-controlled conditions with a variety of viewing configurations; ii) validation of the results obtained from the laboratyr measurements with real VHR airborne SAR data; iii) comparison of the above mentioned results with the simulations obtained by two theoretical models derived from electromagnetic theory. The laboratory experiments were carried out at the European Microwave Signature Lab (EMSL) at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC), whie the real airborne SAR images wer acquired by the RAMSES sensor and were processed in order to obtain simulations of COSMO-SkyMed satellite images. The analyses showed that the strength of the double bounce drops rapidly in the low aspect angle range, while it decreases moderately for larter angles.
A double area detector system for simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray scattering
Pokric, B; Ryan, A J; Fairclough, P; Dobson, B R; Derbyshire, G E; Helsby, W; Long, G; Moon, K
2002-01-01
A novel area detector has been designed for material science SR studies, capable of simultaneously collecting the diffraction data in two angular regimes. The detector for collecting wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data consists of four taper-coupled CCDs arranged as a 2x2 mosaic with a central aperture about 40 mm in diameter, so permitting the inclusion of a distant on-axis CCD detector for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The distance of the SAXS detector from the sample can be varied over the range 0.27 m to about 2 m. The overall aperture of WAXS detector is approximately 200x200 mm sup 2 allowing the measurement of the diffraction patterns from 5 deg. to 45 deg. with an average angular resolution of 0.05 deg. The parallax error for large angles is substantially reduced as the individual WAXS CCDs are tilted towards the specimen location. Both WAXS and SAXS diffraction data are simultaneously collected at 30 MB/s data rate, which is equivalent to 6 complete frames per second. Each pixel value is d...
Three disks in a row a two-dimensional scattering analog of the double-well problem
Wirzba, A; Wirzba, Andreas; Rosenqvist, Per E
1996-01-01
We investigate the scattering off three non-overlapping disks equidistantly spaced along a line in the two-dimensional plane with the radii of the outer disks equal and the radius of the inner disk varied. This system is a two-dimensional scattering analog to the double-well-potential (bound state) problem in one dimension. In both systems the symmetry-splittings between symmetric and anti-symmetric states or resonances, respectively, have to be traced back to tunneling effects, as semiclassically the geometrical periodic orbits have no contact with the vertical symmetry axis. We construct the leading semiclassical ``creeping'' orbits which are responsible for the symmetry-splitting of the resonances in this system. The collinear three-disk-system is not only one of the simplest but also one of the most effective systems for detecting creeping phenomena. While in symmetrically placed n-disk systems creeping corrections affect the sub-leading resonances, they here alone determine the symmetry splitting of the ...
Inelastic neutron scattering studies of Ge-76 and Se-76: relevance to neutrinoless double-beta decay
Crider, Ben [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Peters, Erin [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Ross, T.J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; McEllistrem, M [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Prados-Estevez, F. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Allmond, James M [ORNL; Vanhoy, J.R. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis; Yates, S.W. [University of Kentucky, Lexington
2015-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory on enriched Ge-76 and Se-76 scattering samples. From measurements at incident neutron energies from 2.0 to 4.0 MeV, many new levels were identified and characterized in each nucleus; level lifetimes, transition probabilities, multipole mixing ratios, and other properties were determined. In addition, gamma-ray cross sections for the Ge-76(n,n'gamma) reaction were measured at neutron energies up to 5.0 MeV, with the goal of determining the cross sections of gamma rays in 2040-keV region, which corresponds to the region of interest in the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. Gamma rays from the three strongest branches from the 3952-keV level were observed, but the previously reported 2041-keV gamma ray was not. Population cross sections across the range of incident neutron energies were determined for the 3952-keV level, resulting in a cross section of similar to 0.1 mb for the 2041-keV branch using the previously determined branching ratios. Beyond this, the data from these experiments indicate that previously unreported gamma rays from levels in Ge-76 can be found in the 2039-keV region.
Beam-target double spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic electron scattering off the deuteron with CLAS
Mayer, Michael
2016-01-01
Quasi-elastic electron scattering on the deuteron is a benchmark reaction to test our understanding of deuteron structure and the properties and interactions of the two nucleons bound in the deuteron. The experimental data presented here can be used to test state-of-the-art models of the deuteron and the two-nucleon interaction in the final state after two-body breakup of the deuteron. Focusing on polarization degrees of freedom, we gain information on spin-momentum correlations in the deuteron ground state (due to the D-state admixture) and on the limits of the Impulse Approximation (IA) picture as it applies to measurements of spin-dependent observables like spin structure functions for bound nucleons. We measured the beam-target double spin asymmetry for quasi-elastic electron scattering off the deuteron at several beam energies using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The deuterons were polarized along (or opposite to) the beam direction. ...
Tiutiunnyk, A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. M.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.
2017-02-01
In this work we shall present a study of inelastic light scattering involving inter-subband electron transitions in coupled GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells. Calculations include the electron related Raman differential cross section and Raman gain. The effects of an external nonresonant intense laser field are used in order to tune these output properties. The confined electron states will be described by means of a diagonalization procedure within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that the application of the intense laser field can produce values of the intersubband electron Raman gain above 400 cm-1. The system proposed here is an alternative choice for the development of AlxGa1-xAs semiconductor laser diodes that can be tuned via an external nonresonant intense laser field.
Leonard, Anthony P; Gardner, Scott D; Rocha, Karolinne M; Zeldin, Evan R; Tremblay, David M; Waring, George O
2016-11-01
To measure retinal image quality using point spread function (PSF) analysis by double-pass retina point imaging in patients with keratoconus and to correlate visual quality with disease severity. Patients diagnosed as having keratoconus by clinical examination, topography, and tomography and normal eyes were included in this study. A commercially available double-pass retina point imaging instrument (OQAS 108 II AcuTarget HD; Visiometrics S.L., Terrassa, Spain) was used to collect Objective Scatter Index (OSI) values in 21 keratoconic and 22 normal eyes. Eyes were also subjected to corneal topography and tomography, and staged using the Keratoconus Severity Score (KSS) and Amsler-Krumeich (AK) scales. The OSI was increased in keratoconic eyes (5.85 ± 0.98) versus control eyes (0.83 ± 0.12; mean ± SEM), in AK stages 1 to 4, and KSS stages 3 and 4. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.859 when evaluating the OSI as a unimodal diagnostic indicator for any KSS stage and 0.993 for KSS stages 3 and higher. An AUC of 0.949 was obtained in comparing eyes with lower severity topographic aberrations (KSS 1 and 2) versus mild to moderate keratoconus (KSS 3 and 4). Increasing corneal steepening patterns on tomography and topography were associated with PSF broadening and increased OSI. Double-pass retina point imaging is useful in correlating retinal image quality with keratoconus severity. The OSI may represent a clinically significant parameter for staging keratoconus with a unique ability to directly evaluate quality of vision in this population. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):760-765.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier
2016-01-01
Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb$^{-1}$, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 20$ GeV and pseudorapidity $\\eta \\leq 4.4$, and at least one having $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 42.5$ GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be $f_{\\mathrm{DPS}} = 0.092 ^{+0.005}_{-0.011} (\\mathrm{stat.}) ^{+0.033}_{-0.037} (\\mathrm{syst.})$. After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space r...
Tojo, H.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Ejiri, A.; Hiratsuka, J.; Togashi, H.; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Itami, K.
2016-09-01
This paper evaluates the accuracy of electron temperature measurements and relative transmissivities of double-pass Thomson scattering diagnostics. The electron temperature (Te) is obtained from the ratio of signals from a double-pass scattering system, then relative transmissivities are calculated from the measured Te and intensity of the signals. How accurate the values are depends on the electron temperature (Te) and scattering angle (θ), and therefore the accuracy of the values was evaluated experimentally using the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the Tokyo spherical tokamak-2 (TST-2). Analyzing the data from the TST-2 indicates that a high Te and a large scattering angle (θ) yield accurate values. Indeed, the errors for scattering angle θ = 135° are approximately half of those for θ = 115°. The method of determining the Te in a wide Te range spanning over two orders of magnitude (0.01-1.5 keV) was validated using the experimental results of the LHD and TST-2. A simple method to provide relative transmissivities, which include inputs from collection optics, vacuum window, optical fibers, and polychromators, is also presented. The relative errors were less than approximately 10%. Numerical simulations also indicate that the Te measurements are valid under harsh radiation conditions. This method to obtain Te can be considered for the design of Thomson scattering systems where there is high-performance plasma that generates harsh radiation environments.
Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron–deuteron scattering
Reichart, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.reichart@unibw.de; Moser, Marcus; Greubel, Christoph; Peeper, Katrin; Dollinger, Günther, E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de
2016-03-15
Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron–deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering (~100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron–proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel. A deuterium detection limit due to accidental coincidences of 3 at-ppm down to less than 1 at-ppm is demonstrated on deuterated polypropylen sheets as well as thick polycarbonate sheets after various stages of coincidence filtering that is possible with our granular detector.
Jordanova, V.
2015-12-01
The mechanisms for particle injection in the near-Earth space environment and their subsequent trapping or loss have been studied for many years, however, their theoretical evaluation and implementation in numerical models remain challenging. We address these outstanding questions using our RAM-SCB model that couples the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with an Euler potential-based three-dimensional plasma equilibrium code. We simulate wave-particle interactions on a global scale using L and MLT-dependent event-specific wave models and investigate the fast dropout of the radiation belts during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm event. The calculated cold plasma densities with a coupled time-dependent 2-D plasmasphere model show good agreement with in situ EMFISIS observations along the Van Allen Probes' orbits. The simulated with RAM-SCB precipitating electron fluxes are compared with measurements of electron precipitation by multiple NOAA satellites during the investigated storm event. The combined effects from radial transport and scattering by plasma waves on ring current and radiation belt dynamics are evaluated.
Herziger, Felix; Vierck, Asmus; Laudenbach, Jan; Maultzsch, Janina
2015-12-01
We present a theoretical model to describe the double-resonant scattering process in arbitrary carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We use this approach to investigate the defect-induced D mode in CNTs and unravel the dependence of the D -mode frequency on the CNT diameter and on the energy of the resonant optical transition. Our approach is based on the symmetry of the hexagonal lattice and geometric considerations; hence the method is independent of the exact model that is chosen to describe the electronic band structure or the phonon dispersion. We finally clarify the diameter dependence of this Raman mode that has been under discussion in the past and demonstrate that, depending on the experimental conditions, in general two different dependencies can be measured. We also prove that CNTs with an arbitrary chiral index can exhibit a D mode in their Raman spectrum, in contrast to previous symmetry-based arguments. Furthermore, we give a direct quantification of the curvature-induced phonon frequency corrections of the D mode in CNTs with respect to graphite.
Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.
2016-01-01
Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.
Chuprikov, N L
2011-01-01
By probability theory the probability space to underlie the set of statistical data described by the squared modulus of a coherent superposition of microscopically distinct (sub)states (CSMDS) is non-Kolmogorovian and, thus, such data are mutually incompatible. For us this fact means that the squared modulus of a CSMDS cannot be interpreted as the probability density and quantum mechanics itself, with its current approach to CSMDSs, does not allow a correct statistical interpretation. By the example of a 1D completed scattering and double slit diffraction we develop a new quantum-mechanical approach to CSMDSs, which implies decomposition of the non-Kolmogorovian probability space associated with the squared modulus of a CSMDS into the sum of Kolmogorovian ones. We adapt to CSMDSs the presented by Khrennikov ({\\it Found. of Phys., 35, No. 10, p.1655 (2005)}) concept of real contexts (complexes of physical conditions) to determine uniquely the properties of quantum ensembles. Namely we treat the context to crea...
Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M
2009-02-21
In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient.
Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc
2016-01-01
Associated production of bottomonia and open charm hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$TeV is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3$fb^{-1}$ accumulated with the LHCb detector. The observation of five combinations, $\\Upsilon(1S)D^0$, $\\Upsilon(2S)D^0$, $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+$, $\\Upsilon(2S)D^+$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+_{s}$, is reported. Production cross-sections are measured for $\\Upsilon(1S)D^0$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+$ pairs in the forward region. The measured cross-sections and the differential distributions indicate the dominance of double parton scattering as the main production mechanism. This allows a precise measurement of the effective cross-section for double parton scattering.
CMS Collaboration
2015-01-01
The double parton scattering (DPS) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV has been investigated using the same-sign W boson pair final state, with each W boson decaying into muon and associated neutrino. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The observables sensitive to double parton scattering are defined and studied, followed by a multivariate analysis in order to enhance the process sensitivity. A limit on the DPS yield, along with the corresponding limit on the production cross section ($\\sigma^{DPS}_{WW}$), has been evaluated.
Kravchenko, Polina
2010-10-15
The thesis focuses on two aspects of the HERMES data analysis: the measurement of the semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries and the extraction of quark helicity distributions and quark polarizations of the nucleon from deep-inelastic scattering, as a possible interpretation of the HERMES data. The asymmetries are presented using all possible and accessible information about the HERMES data, including the latest systematic studies provided during the last years by HERMES collaboration. (orig.)
Jordanova, V. K.; Tu, W.; Chen, Y.; Morley, S. K.; Panaitescu, A.-D.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.
2016-09-01
Mechanisms for electron injection, trapping, and loss in the near-Earth space environment are investigated during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm using our ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB). Pitch angle and energy scattering are included for the first time in RAM-SCB using L and magnetic local time (MLT)-dependent event-specific chorus wave models inferred from NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science observations. The dynamics of the source (approximately tens of keV) and seed (approximately hundreds of keV) populations of the radiation belts simulated with RAM-SCB is compared with Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer observations in the morning sector and with measurements from NOAA 15 satellite in the predawn and afternoon MLT sectors. We find that although the low-energy (E< 100 keV) electron fluxes are in good agreement with observations, increasing significantly by magnetospheric convection during both SYM-H dips while decreasing during the intermediate recovery phase, the injection of high-energy electrons is underestimated by this mechanism throughout the storm. Local acceleration by chorus waves intensifies the electron fluxes at E≥50 keV considerably, and RAM-SCB simulations overestimate the observed trapped fluxes by more than an order of magnitude; the precipitating fluxes simulated with RAM-SCB are weaker, and their temporal and spatial evolutions agree well with POES/Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors data.
Takada, Y
2002-01-01
A systematic method is given for deriving optimum scatterer parameters for the dual-ring double-scattering system for the incident proton beam with the given phase space parameters. This is accomplished by relating it to the known optimum solution for zero-emittance beam. Limitations on the phase space parameters of the beam incident on the first scatterer have been clarified to obtain such valid solutions. It is shown that the dual-ring double-scattering method can be applied to an incident beam with emittance as large as 100-200 pi mm mrad. The effect of the change of phase space parameters on the lateral distribution has been investigated. It was found that the larger the emittance of the beam, the more sensitive the fluence distribution is to the change of phase space parameters. The effect of the different emittances of the incident beam in x-theta, y-phi spaces is discussed. It is shown that lateral distribution is sensitive to the misalignment of the beam.
Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others
2016-11-21
Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb{sup −1}, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum p{sub T}≥20 GeV and pseudorapidity ∣η∣≤4.4, and at least one having p{sub T}≥42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be f{sub DPS}=0.092 {sub −0.011}{sup +0.005} (stat.) {sub −0.037}{sup +0.033} (syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σ {sub eff}, was determined to be σ {sub eff}=14.9 {sub −1.0}{sup +1.2} (stat.) {sub −3.8}{sup +5.1} (syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σ {sub eff}, performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21{sub −6}{sup +7}% of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √s=7 TeV. The distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.
Yunfeng Yin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H thin-film solar cells are processed on glass superstrates having both micro- and nanoscale surface textures. The microscale texture is realised at the glass surface, using the aluminium-induced texturing (AIT method, which is an industrially feasible process enabling a wide range of surface feature sizes (i.e., 700 nm–3 μm of the textured glass. The nanoscale texture is made by conventional acid etching of the sputter-deposited transparent conductive oxide (TCO. The influence of the resulting “double texture” on the optical scattering is investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM (studying the surface topology, haze measurements (studying scattering into air, and short-circuit current enhancement measurements (studying scattering into silicon. A predicted enhanced optical scattering efficiency is experimentally proven by a short-circuit current enhancement ΔIsc of up to 1.6 mA/cm2 (7.7% relative increase compared to solar cells fabricated on a standard superstrate, that is, planar glass covered with nanotextured TCO. Enhancing the autocorrelation length (or feature size of the AIT superstrates might have the large potential to improve the μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell efficiency, by reducing the shunting probability of the device while maintaining a high optical scattering performance.
PAN Xiao-hua; CHEN Xiao-rong; YANG Fu-sun
2006-01-01
The tiller emergence in seedling nursery beds and field, and panicle formation in the field were investigated under scattered-planting with seedling dry-raised on plastic trays in double-season rice. A significant difference was noted in the non-synchronously-emerged tillers (the tillers that formed from latent buds and did not emerge following the normal tillering law on seedling nursery beds and recovered to grow after scattered-planting or transplanting) as well as the percentage of the available synchronously-emerged tillers between seedlings raised on plastic trays under dry-land conditions (DPT) and seedlings raised on nursery beds under wetland conditions (WB). The seedlings under DPT had some non-synchronously-emerged tillers, but those under WB had not. Therefore, the traditional formula for determining the number of rice seedlings was improved, and the formula for determining the number of basic seedlings under scattered planting with DPT in double-season rice was introduced. For early rice, it was X=YI{(1+t1r1)[1+(N-n-SN)Rr2]+(SN-3-t1)R2r5}, and for late rice, it was X=YI{(1+t1r1)[1+(N-n-SN)Rr2]+(N-n-SN-3)Rr2R1r3+(SN-3-t1)R2r5}. Where, X represents reasonable number of basic seedlings per unit area at scattered-planting; Y,number of fitting panicles per unit area; t1, total number of tillers per plant; r1, percentage of the total available tillers; N, total number of leaves of the main culm; n, total number of elongated internodes in the main culm; SN, seedling leaf ages at scattered-planting; R,percentage of the primary tillers emerged in available node-position; r2, percentage of the available primary tillers; R1, percentage of the secondary tillers in the field (except the secondary tillers of the seedlings); r3, percentage of the available secondary tillers; R2,percentage of the asynchronously-emerged tillers after scattered-planting; r5, percentage of the available non-synchronously-emerged tillers after scattered-planting.
PRAJAPATI P M; PANDEY BHAWNA; GUPTA N C; KUMAR SURESH; NAYAK B K; SAXENA A; SURYANARAYANA S V; JAKHAR S; VALA SUDHIRSINH; RAO C V S; BASU T K
2016-06-01
Measurement of double-differential cross-sections of 14 MeV neutron-inducedcharged-particle productions is very important for estimating the nuclear heating and radiation damage of a fusion reactor. Only a few experimental data are available even though the nuclear reaction cross-section data of structural materials are important in fusion nuclear technology. In this context,general purpose scattering chamber facility has been developed for accelerator-based 14 MeV DT neutron generator to measure double-differential nuclear reaction cross-section at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, IPR. It has been designed for experiments using silicon surface barrier detectors forthe online detection of charged particles. It offers flexibility in the arrangement of silicon surface barrier detectors.
Zhu, L.; Zhao, Y. L.; Lin, X. P.; Gu, X. Q.; Qiang, Y. H.
2014-01-01
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated based on double-layered films of TiO2 nanospheres and TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs). TiO2 nanospheres, including TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs) and TiO2 solid spheres (SSs), were served as light-scattering layers on TiO2 NRAs as composite photoanodes. The as-prepared TiO2 NRAs, TiO2 HSs and TiO2 SSs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric properties of DSSCs were investigated by UV-vis reflectance spectra, current-voltage curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Owing to the synergic effects of the TiO2 HSs (SSs) and NRAs, including large specific surface area of HSs (SSs) as light-scattering layer for effective dye adsorption and harvesting light and rapid electron transport in one dimensional TiO2 NRAs, the optimal energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs with as-prepared double-layered films as nanocomposite photoanode (5.40%) were far higher than the ones using single-layered NRAs films (1.56%).
Gunnellini, Paolo
2014-01-01
Using the ''Rivet" and ''Professor" framework, we construct a new PYTHIA 6 tune using the CTEQ6L1 PDF and two new PYTHIA 8 UE tunes (one using CTEQ6L1 and one using the HERAPDF1.5LO). By simultaneously fitting CDF data from collisions at 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV together with CMS data for pp collisions at 7 TeV, we test the Underlying Event (UE) models and constrain their parameters, allowing for more precise predictions at 13 TeV and 14 TeV. The consistency of these new tunes with measurements of double-parton scattering (DPS) is also investigated. DPS-based tunes are also extracted, relying on differential cross sections as a function of correlation observables, for the production of exactly four jets in proton-proton collisions. From this measurement it is found that the addition of parton showers to fixed-order matrix element calculations describe the measured differential cross sections in only some regions of phase space and that including a contribution from double parton scattering in the models...
MacMullin, Sean Patrick
In underground physics experiments, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, fast neutrons may be the dominant and potentially irreducible source of background. Experimental data for the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections of neutrons from argon and neon, which are target and shielding materials of interest to the dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay communities, were previously unavailable. Unmeasured neutron scattering cross sections are often accounted for incorrectly in Monte-Carlo simulations. Elastic scattering cross sections were measured at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using the neutron time-of-flight technique. Angular distributions for neon were measured at 5.0 and 8.0 MeV. One full angular distribution was measured for argon at 6.0 MeV. The cross-section data were compared to calculations using a global optical model. Data were also fit using the spherical optical model. These model fits were used to predict the elastic scattering cross section at unmeasured energies and also provide a benchmark where the global optical models are not well constrained. Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for (n,xngamma ) reactions in natural argon and neon were measured using the broad spectrum neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Neutron energies were determined using time of flight and resulting gamma rays from neutron-induced reactions were detected using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for six transitions in 40Ar, two transitions in 39Ar and the first excited state transitions is 20Ne and 22Ne were measured from threshold to a neutron energy where the gamma-ray yield dropped below the detection sensitivity. Measured (n,xngamma) cross sections were compared with calculations using the TALYS and CoH3 nuclear reaction codes. These new measurements will help to identify potential backgrounds in
Baranov, A. N.; Butsen, A. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Ivanova, A. K.; Kuchmizhak, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Kudryavtseva, A. D.; Levchenko, A. O.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Strokov, M. A.; Tcherniega, N. V.; Zayarny, D. A.
2017-09-01
Hybrid plasmonic-dielectric nano- and (sub)microparticles exhibit magnetic and electrical dipolar Mie-resonances, which makes them useful as efficient basic elements in surface-enhanced spectroscopy, non-linear light conversion and nanoscale light control. We report the stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering (SLFRS) of a nanosecond ruby laser radiation (central wavelength λ = 694.3 nm (full-width at half-maximum ≈ 0.015 cm-1), gaussian 1/e-intensity pulsewidth τ ≈ 20 ns, TEM00-mode pulse energy Emax ≈ 0.3 J) in nanodiamond (R ≈ 120 nm) hydrosols, induced via optomechanical coherent excitation of fundamental breathing eigen-modes, and the two-fold enhancement of SLFRS in Ag-decorated nanodiamonds, characterized by hybrid dipolar resonances of electrical (silver) and magnetic (diamond) nature. Hybrid metal-dielectric particles were prepared by means of nanosecond IR-laser ablation of solid silver target in diamond hydrosols with consecutive Ag-capping of diamonds, and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis, photoluminescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Intensities of the SLFR-scattered components and their size-dependent spectral shifts were measured in the highly sensitive stimulated scattering regime, indicating the high (≈ 30%) SLFRS conversion efficiency and the resonant character of the scattering species.
Double-grid finite-difference frequency-domain (DG-FDFD) method for scattering from chiral objects
Alkan, Erdogan; Elsherbeni, Atef
2013-01-01
This book presents the application of the overlapping grids approach to solve chiral material problems using the FDFD method. Due to the two grids being used in the technique, we will name this method as Double-Grid Finite Difference Frequency-Domain (DG-FDFD) method. As a result of this new approach the electric and magnetic field components are defined at every node in the computation space. Thus, there is no need to perform averaging during the calculations as in the aforementioned FDFD technique [16]. We formulate general 3D frequency-domain numerical methods based on double-grid
Prokert, F; Gorbunov, A
2003-01-01
Double layers of Fe-Cr and Co-Cu, respectively, were prepared on oxidized Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The interfacial roughness structure was studied by synchrotron X-ray reflectivity measurements at the absorption K-edges using the contrast enhancement due to resonant scattering. The results are determined from simulations of the measured specular and diffuse scans. Whereas in Fe-Cr double layers the sigma sub r sub m sub s -interface width for Fe deposition on Cr (sigma sub C sub r =0.70+-0.1 nm) is not very different from that of Cr deposition on Fe (sigma sub F sub e =0.85+-0.1 nm), in Co-Cu double layers, in contrast, for Cu deposition on Co, the width (sigma sub C sub o =0.65+-0.1 nm) is much smaller than for Co deposition on Cu (sigma sub C sub u =1.5+-0.15 nm). On the basis of the fractal model to describe the interface roughness morphology, from the off-specular scans the lateral roughness correlation length, xi and the roughness exponent, h, were determined. For both types of dou...
Liao, Xue; Chen, Yanhua; Qin, Meihong; Chen, Yang; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Tian, Yuan
2013-12-15
In this paper, Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles were prepared based on the reduction of the metal salts HAuCl4 and AgNO3 at the surface of seed particles. Due to the synergistic effect between Au and Ag, the hybrid nanoparticles are particularly stable and show excellent performances on the detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole). The binding of target molecule at the surface of Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles was demonstrated based on both localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. The LSPR intensity is directly proportional to the methimazole concentration in the range of 0.10-3.00×10(-7) mol L(-1). The SERS spectrum can be applied in identification of methimazole molecule. The LSPR coupled with SERS based on the Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles would be very attractive for the quantitative determination and qualitative analysis of the analytes in medicines.
Schorstein, Kai; Popescu, Alexandru; Göbel, Marco; Walther, Thomas
2008-09-22
Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.
Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.
2008-01-01
Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.
INSPIRE-00232391; Levy, Aharon
The dijet double-differential cross section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass, using data taken during 2010 and during 2011 with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, with a center-of-mass energy, $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The measurements are sensitive to invariant masses between 70 GeV and 4.27 TeV with center-of-mass jet rapidities up to 3.5. A novel technique to correct jets for pile-up (additional proton-proton collisions) in the 2011 data is developed and subsequently used in the measurement. The data are found to be consistent over 12 orders of magnitude with fixed-order NLO pQCD predictions provided by NLOJET++. The results constitute a stringent test of pQCD, in an energy regime previously unexplored. The dijet analysis is a confidence building step for the extraction of the signal of hard double parton scattering in four-jet events, and subsequent extraction of the effective overlap area between the interacting protons, expressed in terms of the variable, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{eff}}$. The measur...
Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-jun; Zhao, Jun-wu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com
2014-09-30
Highlights: • The anti-symmetric scattering could be tuned down to the deep-ultraviolet below 200 nm. • The LSPR scattering with high energy is greater than the scattering with low energy. • The double-bands RLS of oxide coated Al nanoshell could be fine tuned by the geometry. - Abstract: The tunable scattering cross section of oxide layer-coated Al nanoshell has been computationally studied as a function of wavelength. The calculation results show that the two resonance light scattering (RLS) peaks of Al nanoshell have higher frequency and greater intensity than that of Au and Ag nanoshell. Both of the two scattering peaks, which are corresponding to anti-symmetric and symmetric plasmon coupling, take place in the ultraviolet range. And the anti-symmetric scattering peak could be tuned down to the deep-ultraviolet wavelength below 200 nm. By increasing radius and dielectric constant of the inner core, or decreasing the thickness of the oxide layer, the anti-symmetric scattering peak with short wavelength could be enhanced and has greater intensity than that of symmetric scattering peak with long wavelength, which is different from that of Au and Ag nanoshells. Obtaining intense RLS peaks from Al nanoshell at deep-ultraviolet region presents a potential for the application of ultra-sensitive biosensing, ultraviolet material characterization, and ultraviolet nanoscale imaging.
Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.
2015-03-19
Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized ^{14}NH_{3} target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.
The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}\\,=\\,7~\\mathrm{TeV}$ have been analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $(37.3\\pm1.3)~\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double parton scattering to the production of four-jet events has been extracted using an artificial neural network. The assumption was made that hard double parton scattering can be represented by a random combination of dijet events. The fraction of events that corresponds to the contribution made by hard double parton scattering was estimated to be $f_{\\mathrm{DPS}} \\,= \\, 0.084~^{+0.009}_{-0.012} (\\mathrm{stat.})~^{+0.054}_{-0.036}~(\\mathrm{syst.})$ in four-jet events, where each event contains at least four jets with transverse momentum, $p_{\\text{T}} \\geq 20~\\mathrm{GeV}$, pseudo-rapidity, $\\eta \\leq 4.4$, and the highest-$p_{\\text{T}}$ jet has $p_{\\text{T}...
Slopsema, R L; Lin, L; Flampouri, S; Yeung, D; Li, Z; McDonough, J E; Palta, J
2014-09-01
The purpose of this investigation is to determine if a single set of beam data, described by a minimal set of equations and fitting variables, can be used to commission different installations of a proton double-scattering system in a commercial pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm. The beam model parameters required to commission the pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm (virtual and effective SAD, effective source size, and pristine-peak energy spread) are determined for a commercial double-scattering system. These parameters are measured in a first room and parameterized as function of proton energy and nozzle settings by fitting four analytical equations to the measured data. The combination of these equations and fitting values constitutes the golden beam data (GBD). To determine the variation in dose delivery between installations, the same dosimetric properties are measured in two additional rooms at the same facility, as well as in a single room at another facility. The difference between the room-specific measurements and the GBD is evaluated against tolerances that guarantee the 3D dose distribution in each of the rooms matches the GBD-based dose distribution within clinically reasonable limits. The pencil-beam treatment-planning algorithm is commissioned with the GBD. The three-dimensional dose distribution in water is evaluated in the four treatment rooms and compared to the treatment-planning calculated dose distribution. The virtual and effective SAD measurements fall between 226 and 257 cm. The effective source size varies between 2.4 and 6.2 cm for the large-field options, and 1.0 and 2.0 cm for the small-field options. The pristine-peak energy spread decreases from 1.05% at the lowest range to 0.6% at the highest. The virtual SAD as well as the effective source size can be accurately described by a linear relationship as function of the inverse of the residual energy. An additional linear correction term as function of RM-step thickness is
Zotov, N. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: zotov@caesar.de; Feydt, J. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Walther, T. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Ludwig, A. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2006-10-31
Double-period [(Pt 1.7 nm/Fe 0.9 nm){sub 5}Fe(t {sub Fe2})]{sub 8} and [(Pt 1.8 nm/Fe 0.6 nm){sub 5}Fe(t {sub Fe2})]{sub 8} multilayers with different thickness t {sub Fe2} (between 0.23 and 4.32 nm) of the additional Fe layers, prepared by combinatorial sputter deposition, show differences in the mosaic spread and the vertical interfacial roughness when deposited on native or thermally oxidised Si wafers. Simulations of the wide-angle X-ray scattering intensities revealed the presence of interdiffusion in the (Pt/Fe){sub 5} bilayers and systematic variations of the grain sizes, perpendicular to the film surface, as well as the rms variations of the two superlattice periods with the total film thickness. A comparison of {omega}-rocking scans shows an increase of the correlated vertical roughness of the (Pt/Fe){sub 5} multilayers with the total multilayer thickness.
CMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
Same-sign W$^{\\pm}$W$^{\\pm}$ production in which the bosons originate from two distinct parton-parton interactions within the same proton-proton collision is studied in the $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ and $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ final states. A data set of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\, \\mathrm{TeV}$, recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016, is used. A multivariate classifier is trained to distinguish the signal process from the main background components. A measurement of the double-parton scattering process WW is performed on these data. A cross section of 1.09$^{+0.50}_{-0.49}$ pb is extracted for the inclusive WW double parton scattering process, which is compatible with the Monte-Carlo prediction of 1.64 pb.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00227648; Levy, Aharon
Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7~\\mathrm{TeV}$ have been analysed for the presence of double parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $(37.3\\pm1.3)~\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The fraction of events arising from double parton scattering has been extracted using an artificial neural network, under the assumption that the four-jet topology originating from double parton scattering can be represented by a random combination of dijet events. The fraction was estimated to be $f_{\\mathrm{DPS}} = 0.084 ^{+0.009}_{-0.012} (\\mathrm{stat.}) ^{+0.062}_{-0.031} (\\mathrm{syst.})$ in four-jet events, where each event contains at least four reconstructed jets with transverse momentum, $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 20~\\mathrm{GeV}$, pseudo-rapidity, $\\eta \\leq 4.4$, and the highest-$p_{\\text{T}}$ jet has $p_{\\text{T}} \\geq 42.5~\\mathrm{GeV}$. Combined with the measurements of the dijet...
Chang, You-Hao
2017-01-01
This book mainly focuses on the study of photon + 3 jets final state in Proton-Proton Collisions at √s = 7TeV, searching for patterns of two (or more) distinct hard scatterings in the same collision, i.e the so-called Double Parton Scattering (DPS). A new method by using Monte Carlo generators was performed and provides higher order corrections to the description of the Single Parton Scattering (SPS) background. Further it is investigated whether additional contributions from DPS can improve the agreement between the measured data and the Monte Carlo predictions. The current theoretical uncertainties related to the SPS background are found to be larger than expectation. At the same time a rich set of DPS-sensitive measurements is reported for possible further interpretation.
Well-established nucleon resonances revisited by double-polarization measurements
Thiel, A; Bayadilov, D; Bantes, B; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Yu; Bichow, M; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K -Th; Challand, Th; Crede, V; Dietz, F; Drexler, P; Dutz, H; Eberhardt, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fornet-Ponse, K; Friedrich, St; Frommberger, F; Funke, Ch; Gottschall, M; Grüner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, Ph; Honisch, Ch; Jaegle, I; Jürgensen, I; Kaiser, D; Kalinowsky, H; Kalischewski, F; Kammer, S; Keshelashvili, I; Kleber, V; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Lopatin, I; Maghrbi, Y; Makonyi, K; Metag, V; Meyer, W; Müller, J; Nanova, M; Nikonov, V; Novotny, R; Piontek, D; Reicherz, G; Sarantsev, A; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Seifen, T; Sokhoyan, V; Sumachev, V; Thoma, U; van Pee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Winnebeck, A; Wunderlich, Y
2012-01-01
The first measurement is reported of the double-polarization observable G in photoproduction of neutral pions off protons, covering the photon energy range from 620 to 1120 MeV and the full solid angle. G describes the correlation between the photon polarization plane and the scattering plane for protons polarized along the direction of the incoming photon. The observable is highly sensitive to contributions from baryon resonances. The new results are compared to the predictions from SAID, MAID, and BnGa partial wave analyses. In spite of the long-lasting efforts to understand {\\gamma}p -> p{\\pi} 0 as the simplest photoproduction reaction, surprisingly large differences between the new data and the latest predictions are observed which are traced to different contributions of the N (1535) with spin-parity J^P = 1/2^- and N (1520) with J^P = 3/2^- . In the third resonance region, where N (1680) with J^P = 5/2^+ production dominates, the new data are reasonably close to the predictions.
Well-established nucleon resonances revisited by double-polarization measurements.
Thiel, A; Anisovich, A V; Bayadilov, D; Bantes, B; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Yu; Bichow, M; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K-Th; Challand, Th; Crede, V; Dietz, F; Drexler, P; Dutz, H; Eberhardt, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fornet-Ponse, K; Friedrich, St; Frommberger, F; Funke, Ch; Gottschall, M; Grüner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, Ph; Honisch, Ch; Jaegle, I; Jürgensen, I; Kaiser, D; Kalinowsky, H; Kalischewski, F; Kammer, S; Keshelashvili, I; Kleber, V; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Lopatin, I; Maghrbi, Y; Makonyi, K; Metag, V; Meyer, W; Müller, J; Nanova, M; Nikonov, V; Novotny, R; Piontek, D; Reicherz, G; Sarantsev, A; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Seifen, T; Sokhoyan, V; Sumachev, V; Thoma, U; Vanpee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Winnebeck, A; Wunderlich, Y
2012-09-07
The first measurement is reported of the double-polarization observable G in the photoproduction of neutral pions off protons, covering the photon energy range from 620 to 1120 MeV and the full solid angle. G describes the correlation between the photon polarization plane and the scattering plane for protons polarized along the direction of the incoming photon. The observable is highly sensitive to contributions from baryon resonances. The new results are compared to the predictions from SAID, MAID, and BnGa partial wave analyses. In spite of the long-lasting efforts to understand γp→pπ(0) as the simplest photoproduction reaction, surprisingly large differences between the new data and the latest predictions are observed which are traced to different contributions of the N(1535) resonance with spin parity J(P)=1/2(-) and N(1520) with J(P)=3/2(-). In the third resonance region, where N(1680) with J(P)=5/2(+) production dominates, the new data are reasonably close to the predictions.
Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-jun; Zhao, Jun-wu
2014-09-01
The tunable scattering cross section of oxide layer-coated Al nanoshell has been computationally studied as a function of wavelength. The calculation results show that the two resonance light scattering (RLS) peaks of Al nanoshell have higher frequency and greater intensity than that of Au and Ag nanoshell. Both of the two scattering peaks, which are corresponding to anti-symmetric and symmetric plasmon coupling, take place in the ultraviolet range. And the anti-symmetric scattering peak could be tuned down to the deep-ultraviolet wavelength below 200 nm. By increasing radius and dielectric constant of the inner core, or decreasing the thickness of the oxide layer, the anti-symmetric scattering peak with short wavelength could be enhanced and has greater intensity than that of symmetric scattering peak with long wavelength, which is different from that of Au and Ag nanoshells. Obtaining intense RLS peaks from Al nanoshell at deep-ultraviolet region presents a potential for the application of ultra-sensitive biosensing, ultraviolet material characterization, and ultraviolet nanoscale imaging.
Linke, N M; Lucas, D M
2013-01-01
We describe the injection locking of two infrared (794 nm) laser diodes which are each part of a frequency doubled laser system. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in the injection path gives an offset of 1.6 GHz between the lasers for driving Raman transitions between states in the hyperfine split (by 3.2 GHz) ground level of $^{43}$Ca$^+$. The offset can be disabled for use in $^{40}$Ca$^+$. We measure the relative linewidth of the frequency-doubled beams to be 42 mHz in an optical heterodyne measurement. The use of both injection locking and frequency doubling combines spectral purity with high optical power. Our scheme is applicable for providing Raman beams across other ion species and neutral atoms where coherent optical manipulation is required.
On the Quantum Mechanical Scattering Statistics of Many Particles
Dürr, Detlef; Moser, Tilo; Römer, Sarah
2010-01-01
The probability of a quantum particle being detected in a given solid angle is determined by the $S$-matrix. The explanation of this fact in time dependent scattering theory is often linked to the quantum flux, since the quantum flux integrated against a (detector-) surface and over a time interval can be viewed as the probability that the particle crosses this surface within the given time interval. Regarding many particle scattering, however, this argument is no longer valid, as each particle arrives at the detector at its own random time. While various treatments of this problem can be envisaged, here we present a straightforward Bohmian analysis of many particle potential scattering from which the $S$-matrix probability emerges in the limit of large distances.
Bültmann, S; Bogdanov, A A; Chiang, I H; Chrien, R E; Chwastowski, J; De, K; Drees, A; Gill, R L; Guler, N; Guryn, W; Haguenauer, M; Kanavets, V P; Khodinov, A; Koroleva, L I; Landgraf, J; Li, J; Ljubicic, T A; Lynn, D; Morozov, B V; Nurushev, S B; Ozturk, N; Pawlik, B; Pearson, C; Pile, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Runtzo, M F; Rusek, A; Sakitt, M; Sandacz, A; Strikhanov, M N; Svirida, D N; Tepikian, S; Whitehead, L; Yeung, S; Yip, K
2006-01-01
We present the first measurements of the double spin asymmetries A_NN and A_SS at sqrt{s}=200 GeV, obtained by the pp2pp experiment using polarized proton beams at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data were collected in the four momentum transfer t range 0.01<|t|<0.03 (GeV/c)^2. The measured asymmetries, which are consistent with zero, allow us to estimate upper limits on the double helicity-flip amplitudes phi_2 and phi_4 at small t as well as on the difference Delta(sigma_T) between the total cross sections for transversely polarized protons with antiparallel or parallel spin orientations.
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2008-01-01
Two volume integral equation formulations for modelling magneto-dielectric objects are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The first is the combined-field integral equation (CFVIE), in which the unknown quantities are both the electric and magnetic fields, while the second...... is the electric-field integral equation (EFVIE) with a single unknown quantity - the electric field. A resonant double-negative metamaterial spherical shell is analysed as an example....
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2008-01-01
Two volume integral equation formulations for modelling magneto-dielectric objects are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The first is the combined-field integral equation (CFVIE), in which the unknown quantities are both the electric and magnetic fields, while the second...... is the electric-field integral equation (EFVIE) with a single unknown quantity - the electric field. A resonant double-negative metamaterial spherical shell is analysed as an example....
Kotwal, A V; Low, M
2015-01-01
We discuss the sensitivity of a 100 TeV $pp$ collider to heavy resonances produced in longitudinal vector boson scattering and decaying to a pair of Higgs bosons. A Monte Carlo study has been performed using the $H \\to \\tau \\tau$ decay channel for both Higgs bosons, comparing the kinematics of such a signal to the irreducible Standard Model backgrounds. The results are presented in the context of a phenomenological model of a resonance ($\\eta$) coupling to goldstone modes, $V_L V_L \\to \\eta \\to HH$, as can arise in composite Higgs models. With a fractional width of 70% (20%), the $5 \\sigma$ discovery reach is 4.2 (2.9) TeV in resonance mass for 10 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. We also discuss the dependence of the mass reach on the collider energy and integrated luminosity.
Lanqing Xu; Hui Li; Yongping Zheng
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo algorithm and Stokes-Mueller formalism are used to simulate the propagation behavior of polarized light in turbid media. The influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media is discussed. Single and double scattering photons form the major part of backscattered polarization patterns, while multiple scattering photons present more likely as background. Further quantitative analyses show that single scattering approximation and double scattering approxima tion are quite accurate when discussing the polarization patterns near the incident point.
Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface
无
2008-01-01
Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface. If the double scattering effects are neglected in the present method, the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis. Calculations of scattering strength were carried out, and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis were also done. The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h < 1 is satisfied.
Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)
1996-12-31
While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.
Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity: Dilation and rotation
M D Sharma
2001-09-01
Perturbations in elastic constants and density distinguish a volume inhomogeneity from its homogeneous surroundings. The equation of motion for the first order scattering is studied in the perturbed medium. The scattered waves are generated by the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity. First order scattering theory is modified to include the source term generating the primary waves. The body force equivalent to the scattering source is presented in a convenient form involving the perturbations in wave velocities and gradient of density perturbation. A procedure is presented to study the scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity, in time domain. The size of inhomogeneity is assumed small as compared to its distance from source and receiver. No restrictions are placed on the positions of source, receiver and inhomogeneity. The dilatation and rotations are calculated for a pulse scattered from an arbitrary point in a spherical volume. The aggregate of the scattered phases from all the points of the inhomogeneity, reaching at a fixed receiver, gives the amount of scattering from the inhomogeneity. The interaction of both P and S waves with inhomogeneity are considered. Dilatation and rotations for scattering are obtained as integral expressions over the solid angle of inhomogeneity. These expressions are computed numerically, for hypothetical models. The effects of source (unit force) orientations, velocity and density perturbations, and size of inhomogeneity, on the scattered phases, are discussed.
$\\Lambda$ Scattering Equations
Gomez, Humberto
2016-01-01
The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter $\\Lambda$ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting $\\Lambda$ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the $\\Lambda$ algorithm.
软调制双散射质子治疗束流配送系统%A Soft-Modulating and Double-Scattering Beam Delivery System for Proton Therapy
郁庆长; 徐韬光
2001-01-01
The proton therapy is a new developing method in the radiation oncology. The superior dose localization capabilities of proton beams suggest the possibility of depositing a higher dose into the cancer while reducing the unwanted radiation damage in surrounding normal tissues. The merit can be realized with the aid of the beam delivery system, whose functions are energy adjustment, energy modulation, beam spreading and collimation. In this paper a new soft-modulating and double-scattering beam delivery system is proposed. It uses a program-controlled modulator to change proton energy and thereby the proton range in the body so that the Bragg peak is spread out. Moreover, a larger treatment field can be obtained with two scatterers. The delivery system has high reliability and flexibility, and is especially good for conformal therapy.%质子治疗是一种新兴的放射治疗方法，它的主要优点是剂量分布特性优良，可以使高辐射剂量集中于肿瘤部位，减少对周围正常组织的损伤. 这一优点的实现主要依靠束流配送系统，它包含质子能量调节与调制、束流扩展和准直等功能. 现提出一种新的软调制双散射质子治疗束流配送系统. 其特点是利用程序控制质子能量变化以改变质子在体内的射程从而展宽Bragg峰，同时利用两次散射获得较大面积的均匀照射野. 它的优点是运行可靠、调节灵活，并特别有利于实现适形治疗.
肖冉; 刘艳芬; 许文贞; 谭宗泉; 成斌; 孔伟; 叶邦角
2014-01-01
高通量µ子源是国际上µ子科学研究的重要条件。在中国散裂中子源的高能质子应用区中，运用蒙特卡罗工具Geant4和G4beamline软件设计了使用内靶超导螺线管俘获高通量表面µ子的束线。与传统的分离靶和基于四极磁铁的收集系统相比，大孔径超导螺线管可以将收集效率提高两个量级。通过对不同靶材的粒子产率进行分析得出石墨是最佳靶材，然后比较俘获螺线管与束流的不同偏转角度下收集的表面µ的产率，提出了合理的较高产率的俘获和输运螺线管的设计方案，并与常规磁铁方案比较，最终在衰变螺线管端口的表面µ通量高达108/s。%High intense muons are required by many applications in muon science. A large acceptance channel for surface muons was designed at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) using a superconducting solenoid and an internal target, which can provide a large solid angle to collect intense surface muons. Compared to conventional separate target and collection system based on quadrupole magnets, a superconducting solenoid with large aperture can collect two orders larger of surface muons. This device was simulated by Geant4 and G4beamline. By analyzing the surface muon production ratio produced by the process that protons bombard four different materials, we chose the graphite as the target material. Then comparing the intensity of surface muon by different angles between the axis of the capture solenoids and the proton beam line, we proposed the capture and transport solenoid system with higher muon production ratio. Finally, the yield of surface muon at the exit of decay solenoid can be up to 108/s.
Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine
Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.
2016-10-01
Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.
Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
1996-12-31
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.
King, B; Keitel, C H; 10.1038/nphoton.2009.261
2013-01-01
Double-slits provide incoming photons with a choice. Those that survive the passage have chosen from two possible paths which interfere to distribute them in a wave-like manner. Such wave-particle duality continues to be challenged and investigated in a broad range of disciplines with electrons, neutrons, helium atoms, C60 fullerenes, Bose-Einstein condensates and biological molecules. All variants have hitherto involved material constituents. We present a matterless double-slit scenario in which photons generated from virtual electron-positron pair annihilation in head-on collisions of a probe laser field with two ultra-intense laser beams form a double-slit interference pattern. Such electromagnetic fields are predicted to induce material-like behaviour in the vacuum, supporting elastic scattering between photons. Our double-slit scenario presents on the one hand a realisable method to observe photon-photon scattering, and demonstrates on the other, the possibility of both controlling light with light and n...
{sup 12}C+p resonant elastic scattering in the Maya active target
Sambi, S.; Raabe, R.; Flavigny, F.; Khodery, M. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); Borge, M.J.G. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Caamano, M.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Department of Particle Physics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Damoy, S.; Grinyer, G.F.; Pancin, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Roger, T. [CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ion Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Fynbo, H. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Gibelin, J. [Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Caen Cedex (France); Heinz, A.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Thies, R. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Goteborg (Sweden); Orlandi, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); JAEA, ASRC, Tokai-mura (Japan); Randisi, G. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ion Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Ribeiro, G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Datta, U. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)
2015-03-01
In a proof-of-principle measurement, the Maya active target detector was employed for a {sup 12}C(p, p) resonant elastic scattering experiment in inverse kinematics. The excitation energy region from 0 to 3MeV above the proton breakup threshold in {sup 13}N was investigated in a single measurement. By using the capability of the detector to localize the reaction vertex and record the tracks of the recoiling protons, data covering a large solid angle could be utilized, at the same time keeping an energy resolution comparable with that of direct-kinematics measurements. The excitation spectrum in {sup 13}N was fitted using the R-matrix formalism. The level parameters extracted are in good agreement with previous studies. The active target proved its potential for the study of resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, when detection efficiency is of primary importance. (orig.)
12C+p resonant elastic scattering in the Maya active target
Sambi, S.; Raabe, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamano, M.; Damoy, S.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Flavigny, F.; Fynbo, H.; Gibelin, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Heinz, A.; Jonson, B.; Khodery, M.; Nilsson, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pancin, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Randisi, G.; Ribeiro, G.; Roger, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Datta, U.
2015-03-01
In a proof-of-principle measurement, the Maya active target detector was employed for a 12C( p, p) resonant elastic scattering experiment in inverse kinematics. The excitation energy region from 0 to 3MeV above the proton breakup threshold in 13N was investigated in a single measurement. By using the capability of the detector to localize the reaction vertex and record the tracks of the recoiling protons, data covering a large solid angle could be utilized, at the same time keeping an energy resolution comparable with that of direct-kinematics measurements. The excitation spectrum in 13N was fitted using the R-matrix formalism. The level parameters extracted are in good agreement with previous studies. The active target proved its potential for the study of resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, when detection efficiency is of primary importance.
Quantum theory of Thomson scattering
Crowley, B. J. B.; Gregori, G.
2014-12-01
The general theory of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation in atomic plasmas and metals, in the non-relativistic regime, in which account is taken of the Kramers-Heisenberg polarization terms in the Hamiltonian, is described from a quantum mechanical viewpoint. As well as deriving the general formula for the double differential Thomson scattering cross section in an isotropic finite temperature multi-component system, this work also considers closely related phenomena such as absorption, refraction, Raman scattering, resonant (Rayleigh) scattering and Bragg scattering, and derives many essential relationships between these quantities. In particular, the work introduces the concept of scattering strength and the strength-density field which replaces the normal particle density field in the standard treatment of scattering by a collection of similar particles and it is the decomposition of the strength-density correlation function into more familiar-looking components that leads to the final result. Comparisons are made with previous work, in particular that of Chihara [1].
Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.
1996-01-01
Several scattering mechanisms contribute to the total radar backscatter cross section measured by the synthetic aperture radar. These are volume scattering, trunk-ground double-bounce scattering, branch-ground double-bounce scattering, and surface scattering. All of these mechanisms are directly related to the dielectric constant of forest components responsible for that mechanism and their moisture.
Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department
2013-08-01
Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.
Friedrich, Harald
2016-01-01
This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...
Coherence effects in scattering order expansion of light by atomic clouds
Rouabah, Mohamed-Taha; Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Kaiser, Robin; Piovella, Nicola
2014-01-01
We interpret cooperative scattering by a collection of cold atoms as a multiple scattering process. Starting from microscopic equations describing the response of $N$ atoms to a probe light beam, we represent the total scattered field as an infinite series of multiple scattering events. As an application of the method, we obtain analytical expressions of the coherent intensity in the double scattering approximation for Gaussian density profiles. In particular, we quantify the contributions of coherent backward and forward scattering.
Coherence effects in scattering order expansion of light by atomic clouds.
Rouabah, Mohamed-Taha; Samoylova, Marina; Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Kaiser, Robin; Piovella, Nicola
2014-05-01
We interpret cooperative scattering by a collection of cold atoms as a multiple-scattering process. Starting from microscopic equations describing the response of N atoms to a probe light beam, we represent the total scattered field as an infinite series of multiple-scattering events. As an application of the method, we obtain analytical expressions of the coherent intensity in the double-scattering approximation for Gaussian density profiles. In particular, we quantify the contributions of coherent backward and forward scattering.
Positivity bounds on double parton distributions
Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas
2013-03-15
Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.
Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan
1994-01-01
Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime impo
Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan
1994-01-01
Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime
Double-differential spectra of secondary particles from hadrons on tissue equivalent targets.
Porta, Alessandro; Agosteo, Stefano; Campi, Fabrizio; Caresana, Marco
2008-01-01
Double-differential spectra generated by ions on tissue equivalent targets were calculated with the FLUKA code. Seven different species of ion beams were simulated, impinging onto an ICRU tissue equivalent target representing the chest of a patient under treatment. The following ion beams were investigated at an energy level capable of penetrating ICRU tissue up to a 26.2 cm depth: H, He, Li, B, C, N and O at 200.0, 202.0, 234.3, 329.5, 390.7, 430.5 and 468.0 MeV u(-1), respectively. The double-differential spectra of secondary neutrons, protons, photons, positive and negative pions, electrons and positrons were scored over the entire solid angle. Curve-fitting of the calculated data is also given.
Scattered antiproton polarization in pp elastic scattering at 220 MeV in bubble chamber
Ohsugi, T
1973-01-01
The polarization of antiproton scattering in pp elastic collision has been measured in the four intervals of the CM scattering angle theta /sup */ less than 90 degrees by means of double scattering in a bubble chamber. The analysis has been performed on the basis of 999 double elastic events which have been found in about 100K pictures of the 81- cm Saclay hydrogen bubble chamber exposed to a 0.7 GeV/c antiproton beam from the CERN PS. The obtained values of polarization show the maximum value 0.52+or-0.19 at theta /sup */=56 degrees . The polarization for pp scattering seems to be larger than that for pp scattering. The results are also compared with the potential model by Bryan and Phillips (1968) and with the modified diffraction model by Frahn and Venter (1964). Possible systematic errors in the present experiment are discussed in detail. (17 refs).
Superradiant Forward Scattering in Multiple Scattering
Chabe, Julien; Bienaime, Tom; Bachelard, Romain; Piovella, Nicola; Kaiser, Robin
2012-01-01
We report on an interference effect in multiple scattering by resonant scatterers resulting in enhanced forward scattering, violating Ohm's law for photons. The underlying mechanism of this wave effect is superradiance, which we have investigated using cold atoms as a toy model. We present numerical and experimental evidences for this superradiant forward scattering, which is robust against disorder and configuration averaging.
Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.
2016-05-01
Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.
Jaksch, S. [ESS Design Update Programme – Germany, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Garching (Germany); Martin-Rodriguez, D. [ESS Design Update Programme – Germany, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Garching (Germany); Neutron Optics and Shielding Group, European Spallation Source AB, Lund (Sweden); Ostermann, A. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Technische Universität Muünchen, Garching (Germany); Jestin, J. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, LLB, CEA—Saclay, Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Duarte Pinto, S.; Bouwman, W.G. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Uher, J. [Amsterdam Scientific Instruments, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Engels, R. [Zentralinstitut für Elektronik (ZEA-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Frielinghaus, H. [ESS Design Update Programme – Germany, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Garching (Germany)
2014-10-21
A new Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument is proposed for the European Spallation Source. The pulsed source requires a time-of-flight analysis of the gathered neutrons at the detector. The optimal instrument length is found to be rather large, which allows for a polarizer and a versatile collimation. The polarizer allows for studying magnetic samples and incoherent background subtraction. The wide collimation will host VSANS and SESANS options that increase the resolution of the instrument towards µm and tens of µm, respectively. Two 1 m{sup 2} area detectors will cover a large solid angle simultaneously. The expected gains for this new instrument will lie in the range between 20 and 36, depending on the assessment criteria, when compared to up-to-date reactor based instruments. This will open new perspectives for fast kinetics, weakly scattering samples, and multi-dimensional contrast variation studies.
Jaksch, S; Ostermann, A; Jestin, J; Pinto, S Duarte; Bouwman, W G; Uher, J; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Hanslik, R; Frielinghaus, H
2014-01-01
A new Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument is proposed for the European Spallation Source. The pulsed source requires a time-of-flight analysis of the gathered neutrons at the detector. The optimal instrument length is found to be rather large, which allows for a polarizer and a versatile collimation. The polarizer allows for studying magnetic samples and incoherent background subtraction. The wide collimation will host VSANS and SESANS options that increase the resolution of the instrument towards um and tens of um, respectively. Two 1m2 area detectors will cover a large solid angle simultaneously. The expected gains for this new instrument will lie in the range between 20 and 36, depending on the assessment criteria, when compared to up-to-date reactor based instruments. This will open new perspectives for fast kinetics, weakly scattering samples, and multi-dimensional contrast variation studies.
The new small-angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-1 at MLZ-characterization and first results
Mühlbauer, S.; Heinemann, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Karge, L.; Ostermann, A.; Defendi, I.; Schreyer, A.; Petry, W.; Gilles, R.
2016-10-01
A thorough characterization of the key features of the new small-angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-1 at MLZ, a joint project of Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, is presented. Measurements of the neutron beam profile, divergency and flux are given for various positions along the instrument including the sample position, and agree well with Monte Carlo simulations of SANS-1 using the program McStas. Secondly, the polarization option of SANS-1 is characterized for a broad wavelength band. A key feature of SANS-1 is the large accessible Q-range facilitated by the sideways movement of the detector. Particular attention is hence paid to the effects that arise due to large scattering angles on the detector where a standard cos3 solid angle correction is no longer applicable. Finally the performance of the instrument is characterized by a set of standard samples.
The Thomson Scattering System at DANTE
Gadeberg, M.
This report describes the construction and operation of the 90 deg Thomson Scattering diagnostic at DANTE. The system is based on a double-pulse ruby laser and a three channel spectrometer. Two single point measurements can be made during each plasma discharge.......This report describes the construction and operation of the 90 deg Thomson Scattering diagnostic at DANTE. The system is based on a double-pulse ruby laser and a three channel spectrometer. Two single point measurements can be made during each plasma discharge....
Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Heyman, Catherine; Esteban-Betegón, Fatima; Castro, Germán R
2013-05-01
The multipurpose portable ultra-high-vacuum-compatible chamber described in detail in this article has been designed to carry out grazing-incidence X-ray scattering techniques on the BM25-SpLine CRG beamline at the ESRF. The chamber has a cylindrical form, built on a 360° beryllium double-ended conflate flange (CF) nipple. The main advantage of this chamber design is the wide sample temperature range, which may be varied between 60 and 1000 K. Other advantages of using a cylinder are that the wall thickness is reduced to a minimum value, keeping maximal solid angle accessibility and keeping wall absorption of the incoming X-ray beam constant. The heat exchanger is a customized compact liquid-nitrogen (LN2) continuous-flow cryostat. LN2 is transferred from a storage Dewar through a vacuum-isolated transfer line to the heat exchanger. The sample is mounted on a molybdenum support on the heat exchanger, which is equipped with a BORALECTRIC heater element. The chamber versatility extends to the operating pressure, ranging from ultra-high vacuum (<10(-10) mbar) to high pressure (up to 3 × 10(3) mbar). In addition, it is equipped with several CF ports to allocate auxiliary components such as capillary gas-inlet, viewports, leak valves, ion gun, turbo pump, etc., responding to a large variety of experiment requirements. A movable slits set-up has been foreseen to reduce the background and diffuse scattering produced at the beryllium wall. Diffraction data can be recorded either with a point detector or with a bi-dimensional CCD detector, or both detectors simultaneously. The system has been designed to carry out a multitude of experiments in a large variety of environments. The system feasibility is demonstrated by showing temperature-dependence grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and conductivity measurements on a 20 nm-thick La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thin film grown on a SrTiO3(001) substrate.
Neutron scattering on partially deuterated polybutadiene
Kahle, S; Monkenbusch, M; Richter, D; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B
2002-01-01
The molecular nature of the secondary relaxation (Johari-Goldstein relaxation) and its relationship with the alpha relaxation is in most cases still unknown. In order to access these processes on a molecular level, it is necessary to obtain spatial information of the relaxation. Through the momentum-transfer dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t), this information can be provided by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques. The large difference in scattering lengths between hydrogen and deuterium allows us to accentuate specific correlations between atoms in a polymer melt. Here, we report on recent results on a polybutadiene melt, where the double bond was hydrogeneous, while the methylene groups carried deuterons (d4h2-PB). In this way the correlations between the double bonds are emphasised. We will show that the double bond/double bond correlation function, generated in this way, shows the same temperature dependence as the viscosity at higher temperatures at the structure factor peak maximum...
夏唐代; 孙苗苗; 华伟南
2011-01-01
提出了一种新的求解任意排列、任意半径的弹性桩对平面SH波的多重散射的理论方法,以解决以往假设单重散射的计算方法中不考虑桩列作为整体屏障从而忽略桩间相互干涉关系的不足,并且可用于分析多排弹性桩对平面SH波的散射性状.在数值计算分析中讨论了散射重数,排间距,桩土剪切模量比,桩数等对双排弹性桩屏障隔离效果的影响,从而对实际工程中利用排桩进行振动污染的治理和屏障隔振设计提出了重要的理论依据.%A new method is developed differing from traditional ones to figure ont the plane SH waves scattered by rows of arbitrarily configured and radius elastic piles. It eliminates the disadvantages of the single scattering hypothesis without considering the coherent phase relations between the waves they scatter. It is an innovative way of studing on multi-rows of elastic piles. The influence factors of screening effectiveness including the orders of scattering, the space between pile-rows, modulus ratio of piles and soil, pile numbers are investigated. In order to apply the theory to the vibration pollution abatement and practical engineering design, some significant conclusions are drawn.
Linearized inversion of multiple scattering seismic energy
Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad
2014-05-01
Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. So, imaging seismic data with the single-scattering assumption does not locate multiple bounces events in their actual subsurface positions. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provides subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. The resultant image obtained by the adjoint operator is a smoothed depiction of the true subsurface reflectivity model and is heavily masked by migration artifacts and the source wavelet fingerprint that needs to be properly deconvolved. Hence, we proposed a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. The proposed algorithm uses the least-square image based on single-scattering assumption as a constraint to invert for the part of the image that is illuminated by internal scattering energy. Then, we posed the problem of imaging double-scattering energy as a least-square minimization problem that requires solving the normal equation of the following form: GTGv = GTd, (1) where G is a linearized forward modeling operator that predicts double-scattered seismic data. Also, GT is a linearized adjoint operator that image double-scattered seismic data. Gradient-based optimization algorithms solve this linear system. Hence, we used a quasi-Newton optimization technique to find the least-square minimizer. In this approach, an estimate of the Hessian matrix that contains
Exponential Disks from Stellar Scattering: III. Stochastic Models
Elmegreen, Bruce G
2016-01-01
Stellar scattering off irregularities in a galaxy disk has been shown to make an exponential radial profile, but no fundamental reason for this has been suggested. Here we show that exponentials are mathematically expected from random scattering in a disk when there is a slight inward bias in the scattering probability. Such a bias was present in our previous scattering experiments that formed exponential profiles. Double exponentials can arise when the bias varies with radius. This is a fundamental property of scattering and may explain why piece-wise exponential profiles are ubiquitous in galaxies, even after minor mergers and other disruptive events.
Investigation of Simulating Radar Images Concerning the Multipath Scattering Effect
Yang Chun-hua; Zhu Guo-qiang
2004-01-01
In the composed system of a target and rough surface, the electromagnetic scattering mechanism, especially the multipath scattering, is investigated. Using physical optics double bouncing algorithm, the multipath scattering model of the system has been established. Simulated by a wideband radar signal and based on fractal rough surface. the artificial echo of the target has been obtained in virtue of the established multipath scattering model. By simulating to image the target in one dimension using the artificial echo, two kinds of range profiles are attained. It is found that one is from the target and the other is from the multipath scattering effect.
On scattered subword complexity
Kása, Zoltán
2011-01-01
Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.
Cross sections for medium energy He ions scattered from Hf and Au atoms
Nishimura, Tomoaki, E-mail: t-nishi@hosei.ac.jp [Research Center of Ion Beam Technology and College of Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Mitsuhara, Kei; Visikovskiy, Anton; Kido, Yoshiaki [Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga-ken 525-8577 (Japan)
2012-06-01
The elastic scattering cross sections for medium energy He ions incident on Ni, Hf and Au atoms were measured precisely using a toroidal electrostatic analyzer. We prepared the targets of Ni({approx}1 nm)/HfO{sub 2}(1.5 nm)/Si(0 0 1) and Ni({approx}1 nm)/Au({approx}0.5 nm)/Si(1 1 1) and performed in situ ion scattering measurement under ultrahigh vacuum condition. The absolute amounts of Ni, Hf and Au were determined by Rutherford backscattering using 1.5 MeV He ions at a scattering angle of 150 Degree-Sign . The scattering cross sections for Hf and Au were normalized by those for Ni to avoid the ambiguities of the number of incident particles, solid angle subtended by a detector, detection efficiency and the He{sup +} fractions for the emerging He ions from the surfaces. The results obtained are compared with the simple Lee-Hart formula and the calculated values using the Moliere and ZBL potentials and the potentials derived from the Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions.
Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface
2008-01-01
Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface.If the dou- ble scattering effects are neglected in the present method,the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis.Calculations of scattering strength were carried out,and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothe- sis were also done.The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h<1 is satisfied.
Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC
Yip, K.
2011-09-03
Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.
Bidirectional optical scattering facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...
Bidirectional optical scattering facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...
Measurements of Scattering Processes in Negative Ion- Atom Collisions
Kvale, T. J.
2000-12-22
The main research activity is to study various scattering processes which occur in H{sup -} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization.
Delta excitation in deuteron-proton elastic scattering
Ladygina, N.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, LHEP, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
Deuteron-proton elastic scattering is studied in the multiple scattering expansion formalism. The four contributions are taken into account: one-nucleon exchange, single and double scattering, and Δ-isobar excitation. The presented approach was applied to describe the differential cross sections at deuteron energies between 500 and 1300 MeV in a whole angular range. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data. (orig.)
Multi-scattering inversion for low model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-08-19
A successful full wavenumber inversion (FWI) implementation updates the low wavenumber model components first for proper wavefield propagation description, and slowly adds the high-wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded data given by direct arrivals or the transmission parts of the single and double-scattering wave-fields developed from a predicted scatter field. We develop a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update both the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion so initially the high wavenumber (low scattering angle) components of the gradient is directed to the perturbation model and the low wavenumber (high scattering angle) components to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scattering angle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model.
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)
Cederwall, Martin
2016-01-01
A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type II supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup ("pure spinors") define super-sections.
Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2016-06-15
Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)
Imaging with Scattered Neutrons
Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Gaehler, R.; Trapp, M.; Van Overberghe, A.
2006-01-01
We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-re...
Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering
Barker, J. G.; Mildner, D. F. R.
2015-01-01
Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300–700 K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a 3He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scattering from solids. Background from the residual air in detector vacuum vessels and scattering from the 3He detector dome are presented. The thickness dependence of the multiple scattering correction for forward scattering from water is calculated. Inelastic phonon background scattering at small angles for crystalline solids is both modeled and compared with measurements. Methods of maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio by material selection, choice of sample thickness and wavelength, removal of inelastic background by TOF or Be filters, and removal of spin-flip scattering with polarized beam analysis are discussed. PMID:26306088
Elastic scattering measurements for the system 7Be +28Si at 17.2 MeV
Sgouros, O.; Pakou, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Aslanoglou, X.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Grebosz, J.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Parascandolo, C.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Signorini, C.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Strojek, I.; Torresi, D.
2015-02-01
Elastic scattering of 7Be +28Si was studied at several near barrier energies for probing the energy dependence of the optical potential. Our analysis at 17.2 MeV will be presented in this article and discussed, in terms of Continuum Coupled Channel Calculations (CDCC). This research is part of a long term plan concerning the energy dependence of the optical potential for weakly bound projectiles, at near barrier energies and for probing the potential threshold anomaly. The experiment took place at the EXOTIC facility - Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (LNL), and refers to an angular distribution measurement, using the detector array EXPADES (Exotic Particle Detection System). Results at 9 MeV (Rutherford region) were also analyzed and were used for estimating the solid angle. Our analysis for other energies is under process.
Elastic scattering measurements for the system {sup 7}Be+{sup 28}Si at 17.2 MeV
Sgouros, O.; Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Soukeras, V. [Department of Physics and HINP, The University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Departimento di Fisica and INFN - Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I. [Departamento di Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071, Huelva (Spain); Boiano, C. [INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Grebosz, J. [IFJ-PAN, Krakow (Poland); Keeley, N.; Strojek, I. [National Center for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400, Otwock Warsaw (Poland); La Commara, M. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Rusek, K. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5a, 02-093, Warsaw (Poland); and others
2015-02-24
Elastic scattering of {sup 7}Be+{sup 28}Si was studied at several near barrier energies for probing the energy dependence of the optical potential. Our analysis at 17.2 MeV will be presented in this article and discussed, in terms of Continuum Coupled Channel Calculations (CDCC). This research is part of a long term plan concerning the energy dependence of the optical potential for weakly bound projectiles, at near barrier energies and for probing the potential threshold anomaly. The experiment took place at the EXOTIC facility - Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (LNL), and refers to an angular distribution measurement, using the detector array EXPADES (Exotic Particle Detection System). Results at 9 MeV (Rutherford region) were also analyzed and were used for estimating the solid angle. Our analysis for other energies is under process.
2008-01-01
The government has been introducing a string of policies to stabilize the economy and cushion the impact of the global eco-nomic slowdown since October.These policies are generally deemed"timely"and"necessary,"but not a long-term cure for problems in China’s economy.Renowned economist Wu Jinglian says the country must address its"double imbalance"and further reform its economic growth mode.He made his comments at the First Annual Global Management Forum on December 6 in Shanghai.Excerptsf ollow:
Scattering of homogeneous and inhomogeneous seismic waves in low-loss viscoelastic media
Moradi, Shahpoor; Innanen, Kristopher A.
2015-09-01
Motivated by the need to derive and characterize increasingly sophisticated seismic data analysis and inversion methods incorporating wave dissipation, we consider the problem of scattering of homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves from perturbations in five viscoelastic parameters (density, P- and S-wave velocities, and P- and S-wave quality factors), as formulated in the context of the Born approximation. Within this approximation the total wave field is the superposition of an incident plane wave and a scattered wave, the latter being a spherical wave weighted by a function of solid angle called the scattering potential. In elastic media the scattering potential is real, but if dissipation is included through a viscoelastic model, the potential becomes complex and thus impacts the amplitude and phase of the outgoing wave. The isotropic-elastic scattering framework of Stolt and Weglein, extended to admit viscoelastic media, exposes these amplitude and phase phenomena to study, and in particular allows certain well-known layered-medium viscoelastic results due to Borcherdt to be re-considered in an arbitrary heterogeneous Earth. The main theoretical challenge in doing this involves the choice of coordinate system over which to evaluate and analyse the waves, which in the viscoelastic case must be based on complex vector analysis. We present a candidate system within which several of Borcherdt's key results carry over; for instance, we show that elliptically polarized P and SI waves cannot be scattered into linearly polarized SII waves. Furthermore, the elastic formulation is straightforwardly recovered in the limit as P- and S-wave quality factors tend to infinity.
Robust multiscale field-only formulation of electromagnetic scattering
Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y. C.
2017-01-01
We present a boundary integral formulation of electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous bodies that are characterized by linear constitutive equations in the frequency domain. By working with the Cartesian components of the electric E and magnetic H fields and with the scalar functions (r .E ) and (r .H ) where r is a position vector, the problem can be cast as having to solve a set of scalar Helmholtz equations for the field components that are coupled by the usual electromagnetic boundary conditions at material boundaries. This facilitates a direct solution for the surface values of E and H rather than having to work with surface currents or surface charge densities as intermediate quantities in existing methods. Consequently, our formulation is free of the well-known numerical instability that occurs in the zero-frequency or long-wavelength limit in traditional surface integral solutions of Maxwell's equations and our numerical results converge uniformly to the static results in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, we use a formulation of the scalar Helmholtz equation that is expressed as classically convergent integrals and does not require the evaluation of principal value integrals or any knowledge of the solid angle. Therefore, standard quadrature and higher order surface elements can readily be used to improve numerical precision for the same number of degrees of freedom. In addition, near and far field values can be calculated with equal precision, and multiscale problems in which the scatterers possess characteristic length scales that are both large and small relative to the wavelength can be easily accommodated. From this we obtain results for the scattering and transmission of electromagnetic waves at dielectric boundaries that are valid for any ratio of the local surface curvature to the wave number. This is a generalization of the familiar Fresnel formula and Snell's law, valid at planar dielectric boundaries, for the scattering and transmission
di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo
1973-01-01
The art of deriving information about an object from the radiation it scatters was once limited to visible light. Now due to new techniques, much of the modern physical science research utilizes radiation scattering. (DF)
Neutron scattering from fractals
Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.
1986-01-01
The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...
Double-slit experiment in momentum space
Ivanov, I P; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S
2016-01-01
Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space. We show that elastic scattering of vortex electrons proceeds via two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.
Double-slit experiment in momentum space
Ivanov, I. P.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.
2016-08-01
Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.
Scattering approach to quantum transport and many body effects
Pichard, Jean-Louis; Freyn, Axel
2010-12-01
We review a series of works discussing how the scattering approach to quantum transport developed by Landauer and Buttiker for one body elastic scatterers can be extended to the case where electron-electron interactions act inside the scattering region and give rise to many body scattering. Firstly, we give an exact numerical result showing that at zero temperature a many body scatterer behaves as an effective one body scatterer, with an interaction dependent transmission. Secondly, we underline that this effective scatterer depends on the presence of external scatterers put in its vicinity. The implications of this non local scattering are illustrated studying the conductance of a quantum point contact where electrons interact with a scanning gate microscope. Thirdly, using the numerical renormalization group developed by Wilson for the Kondo problem, we study a double dot spinless model with an inter-dot interaction U and inter-dot hopping td, coupled to leads by hopping terms tc. We show that the quantum conductance as a function of td is given by a universal function, independently of the values of U and tc, if one measures td in units of a characteristic scale τ(U,tc). Mapping the double dot system without spin onto a single dot Anderson model with spin and magnetic field, we show that τ(U,tc) = 2TK, where TK is the Kondo temperature of the Anderson model.
Andersson, N
2000-01-01
This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.
High luminosity muon scattering at FNAL
Bazizi, K. (California Univ., Riverside, CA (USA)); Conrad, J.; Fang, G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Erdmann, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Geesaman, D.; Jackson, H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Guyot, C.; Virchaux, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Holmgren, H. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA)); Malensek, A.; Melanson, H.; Morfin
1990-02-01
The charge of this group was to evaluate the physics that can be done with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment at FNAL using the upgraded Tevatron muon beam, and consider the apparatus required. In this report, the physics that can be accomplished with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment is evaluated. The CERN and FNAL {mu} beams are compared in the context of such an experiment. The expected muon flux with the upgraded machine is estimated. Two possible detectors are compared: the air-core toroid experiment proposed by Guyot et al., and an upgraded version of the E665 double-diode apparatus now in place at FNAL. The relative costs of the detectors are considered. A list of detailed questions that need to be answered regarding the double-diode experiment has be compiled. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Microscopic optical potentials for $^4$He scattering
Egashira, Kei; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Yahiro, Masanobu
2014-01-01
We present a reliable double-folding (DF) model for $^{4}$He-nucleus scattering, using the Melbourne $g$-matrix nucleon-nucleon interaction that explains nucleon-nucleus scattering with no adjustable parameter. In the DF model, only the target density is taken as the local density in the Melbourne $g$-matrix. For $^{4}$He elastic scattering from $^{58}$Ni and $^{208}$Pb targets in a wide range of incident energies from 20~MeV/nucleon to 200~MeV/nucleon, the DF model with the target-density approximation (TDA) yields much better agreement with the experimental data than the usual DF model with the frozen-density approximation in which the sum of projectile and target densities is taken as the local density. We also discuss the relation between the DF model with the TDA and the conventional folding model in which the nucleon-nucleus potential is folded with the $^{4}$He density.
Double-slit and electromagnetic models to complete quantum mechanics
De Luca, Jayme
2010-01-01
We analyze a realistic microscopic model for electronic scattering based on the neutral-delay-equations for point charges of the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. We propose a microscopic model according to the electrodynamics of point-charges, complex enough to describe the essential physics. Our microscopic model reaches a simple qualitative agreement with the experimental results as regards interference in double-slit scattering and in electronic scattering by crystals. We discuss our model in the light of existing experimental results, including a qualitative disagreement found for the double-slit experiment. We discuss an approximation for the complex neutral-delay dynamics of our model using piecewise-defined (discontinuous) velocities for all charges and piecewise-constant-velocities for the scattered charge. Our approximation predicts the De Broglie wavelength as an inverse function of the incoming velocity and in the correct order of magnitude. We explain the scattering by crystals in the light of the...
Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.
1983-01-01
A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used in determining eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are derived by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target; these latter are obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for these distributions are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions are made for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles and are then compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained despite the absence of arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory.
Double Conditional Expectation
HU Di-he
2004-01-01
The concept of double conditional expectation is introduced. A series of properties for the double conditional expectation are obtained several convergence theorems and Jensen inequality are proved. Finally we discuss the special cases and application for double conditional expectation.
Robust discrimination of permanent scatterers using Cameron Decomposition
Kouroupis, G.; Elias, P.; Anastassopoulos, V.
2014-10-01
One of the main difficulties encountered in Differential Interferometry (DInSAR) applications is temporal and spatial decorrelation over time. Single pixels, called Permanent Scatterers (PS), overcome this difficulty since they are coherent over time and over wide look-angle variations. Permanent Scatterers identification using interferographic techniques is unfeasible since they require the use of many acquisitions. Samsonov and Tiampo have presented a technique that selects Permanent Scatterers by analyzing their Polarization Phase Difference (PPD). The PPD approach would work just fine looking for single bounce scatterers because they are invariant to any initial arbitrary rotation between the scatterer and the radar Line of Sight (LOS). We propose to replace the PPD technique with Cameron's Coherent Target Decomposition (CTD) because it is more accurate in finding the single and double bounce scatterers as it eliminates the initial orientation angle of the scatterer. Additionally, Cameron's CTD is capable of recognizing more scattering mechanisms which means that more pixels, depending on their amplitude and stability over time, can be classified as Permanent Scatterers. A sample scene of fully polarimetric SAR image depicting the San Francisco bay was employed for experimentation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of the Cameron's CTD approach compared to PPD's approach for the selection of pixels classified as Permanent Scatterers.
Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS
Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1996-12-31
Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Silveirinha, Mario G
2016-01-01
In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...
Introduction to neutron scattering
Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1996-11-01
We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.
The double copy: Bremsstrahlung and accelerating black holes
Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; O'Connell, Donal; White, Chris D
2016-01-01
Advances in our understanding of perturbation theory suggest the existence of a correspondence between classical general relativity and Yang-Mills theory. A concrete example of this correspondence, which is known as the double copy, was recently introduced for the case of stationary Kerr-Schild spacetimes. Building on this foundation, we examine the simple time-dependent case of an accelerating, radiating point source. The gravitational solution, which generalises the Schwarzschild solution, includes a non-trivial stress-energy tensor. This stress-energy tensor corresponds to a gauge theoretic current in the double copy. We interpret both of these sources as representing the radiative part of the field. Furthermore, in the simple example of Bremsstrahlung, we determine a scattering amplitude describing the radiation, maintaining the double copy throughout. Our results provide the strongest evidence yet that the classical double copy is directly related to the BCJ double copy for scattering amplitudes.
Elastic scattering phenomenology
Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)
高翔; 施永强; 杨青真; 陈立海
2015-01-01
尾喷管作为飞行器后向强散射源之一，可通过特殊结构设计和介质涂覆缩减其雷达散射截面(RCS).本文采用迭代物理光学法和阻抗边界条件的混合计算模型，研究了6种涂覆方案和不涂覆时双S弯排气系统的电磁散射特性，采用所提出的射线行程追踪方法提高了几何消隐计算效率，利用前后向迭代方法加速收敛并采用openMP和MPI并行技术缩短计算时间，获得了在X波段下7种模型的RCS随探测角度的变化规律.研究结果表明，介质涂覆能够有效抑制双S弯排气系统的RCS；合理的介质涂覆方案不仅具有明显的抑制效果，同时又具有经济性好、重量轻及涂覆方便等优势；相比全涂覆方案，仅在喷管出口附近涂覆的方案，可减少73.6%的涂覆材料，且其RCS的最大增幅不超过15.6%，相比未涂覆方案， RCS至少降低18.5%.同时所开发的计算程序可用于任意腔体电磁散射特性的计算，可为带介质涂覆腔体试验提供技术支撑.%As one of the strong electromagnetic scattering source of the aircraft, the radar cross section (RCS) of the nozzle can be reduced by the special geometry and coating microwave absorbing material at the backward direction of the aircraft. In order to simulate the radar scattering characteristics of six coating models and one metal surface model of double S-shape nozzle, the mode combining impedance boundary condition with iterative physical optics (IPO) method is built. Forward and back-forward IPO method and open MP, MPI parallel computing technology are added to accelerate the convergence and reduce computational time. Besides, the ray tracing method is also adopted to improve the eﬃciency of geometric blanking judgment. The RCS variation regulations of 7 models under X waveband are obtained. The results indicate that coating medium can effectively diminish the RCS of double S-shape exhaust system. Proper coating method can not
Measurement of Elastic Scattering and of Total Cross-Section at the CERN $\\bar{p}p$ Collider
2002-01-01
The aim of the experiment is to measure elastic scattering and the total cross-section at the $\\bar{p}p$ collider. \\\\ \\\\ Up to 1983 the experimental apparatus was composed of two parts : \\item 1) Telescopes of high accuracy drift and proportional chambers and counters inserted into vertically moveable sections of the vacuum chamber ('Roman pots'), detect elastic scattering in the angular region from .5 mrad up to about 3 mrad. \\item 2) The total inelastic rate is measured with a forward/backward system of drift chambers and counter hodoscopes and the UA2 central detector covering together @= 4@p solid angle. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ With these two set-ups, the measured value of the total cross-section confirms extrapolation with (ln s)|2 behaviour. Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation were measured in the range .03~$<$~-t~$<$~1.6~GeV|2. \\\\ \\\\ From 1984 on, six horizontally moveable ``Roman Pots'' have been installed farther away from the intersection region (up to 100~m). Using an especially desi...
Stover, John C.
1991-12-01
Optical scatter is a bothersome source of optical noise, limits resolution and reduces system throughput. However, it is also an extremely sensitive metrology tool. It is employed in a wide variety of applications in the optics industry (where direct scatter measurement is of concern) and is becoming a popular indirect measurement in other industries where its measurement in some form is an indicator of another component property - like roughness, contamination or position. This paper presents a brief review of the current state of this technology as it emerges from university and government laboratories into more general industry use. The bidirectional scatter distribution function (or BSDF) has become the common format for expressing scatter data and is now used almost universally. Measurements made at dozens of laboratories around the country cover the spectrum from the uv to the mid- IR. Data analysis of optical component scatter has progressed to the point where a variety of analysis tools are becoming available for discriminating between the various sources of scatter. Work has progressed on the analysis of rough surface scatter and the application of these techniques to some challenging problems outside the optical industry. Scatter metrology is acquiring standards and formal test procedures. The available scatter data base is rapidly expanding as the number and sophistication of measurement facilities increases. Scatter from contaminants is continuing to be a major area of work as scatterometers appear in vacuum chambers at various laboratories across the country. Another area of research driven by space applications is understanding the non-topographic sources of mid-IR scatter that are associated with Beryllium and other materials. The current flurry of work in this growing area of metrology can be expected to continue for several more years and to further expand to applications in other industries.
Elastic Impurity Scattering in Double-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures
1989-09-01
integral over a single primitive cell of volume v: (a’,k’,q’UIa, k,q) =j d’rVk,k,,q,(r + R)u*(r + R)U(r + R)O,’,k.q(r + R)u,(r + R). (B - 1) R The...envelope functions vary slowly over a primitive cell , so they can be expanded about an arbitrary lattice vector, 1’cyk,q(R+r) = VPc,k,q(R) + V’ b,k,q(R) • r...exp(iq- r) = v + O(qjRI). where we are assuming that the Bloch functions are normalized to v over the primitive cell . Using these approximations in
Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells
Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.
2012-01-01
Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.
Inelastic Light Scattering Processes
Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.
1973-01-01
Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.
Sorensen, C.M.
1976-01-01
An effort to expand light-scattering autocorrelation techniques to Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems in which multiple scattering effects are important, and to understand the observed similarity of the Rayleigh linewidth of light scattered from these two seemingly different systems is discussed. A formalism was developed to find the light field multiply scattered from a suspension of Brownian diffusing particles. For the field doubly scattered from a system of noninteracting Brownian particles, the intensity and correlation time were much less dependent on the scattering angle than for the singly scattered component. The polarized and depolarized correlation times of light scattered from Brownian particle systems were measured. The double-scattering formalism was extended to light scattered from critical fluid systems. In the region k xi greater than 5 the doubly and singly scattered correlation times were nearly equal. The dynamic droplet model of critical phenomena was developed which gives the proper, experimentally verified, forms for the intensity and linewidth of light scattered from a critical fluid. To test the dynamic droplet model and the mode theories Rayleigh linewidth predictions, light-scattering measurements were performed on the critical fluid system methanol and cyclohexane. The data agreed with both the dynamic droplet and decoupled mode theory predictions. The depolarized scattered spectra from a critical fluid were measured, and qualitative agreement with the double-scattering theory was found. 57 figures, 5 tables.
Polonyi, Janos
2011-01-01
The cross section of elastic electron-proton scattering taking place in an electron gas is calculated within the Closed Time Path method. It is found to be the sum of two terms, one being the expression in the vacuum except that it involves dressing due to the electron gas. The other term is due to the scattering particles-electron gas entanglement. This term dominates the usual one when the exchange energy is in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Furthermore it makes the trajectories of the colliding particles more consistent and the collision more irreversible, rendering the scattering more classical in this regime.
Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials
Lu Cui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.
Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials
Lu Cui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.
Simple technique for scattering experiments of submillimeter droplets
1995-01-01
A simple technique is presented of allowing the generation of submillimeter-sized single droplets for scattering experiments. Multiorder Raman spectra (including Stokes, anti-Stokes, and combination emission) from a liquid CCl4 spherical droplet formed by a hollow glass fiber is also obtained by this technique, with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed pumping (532 nm).
A general purpose exact Rayleigh scattering look-up table for ocean color remote sensing
无
2006-01-01
The current exact Rayleigh scattering calculation of ocean color remote sensing uses the look-up table (LUT), which is usually created for a special remote sensor and cannot be applied to other sensors. For practical application, a general purpose Rayleigh scattering LUT which can be applied to all ocean color remote sensors is generated. An adding-doubling method to solve the vector radiative transfer equation in the plane-parallel atmosphere is deduced in detail. Compared with the exact Rayleigh scattering radiance derived from the MODIS exact Rayleigh scattering LUT, it is proved that the relative error of Rayleigh scattering calculation with the adding-doubling method is less than 0.25%, which meets the required accuracy of the atmospheric correction of ocean color remote sensing. Therefore,the adding-doubling method can be used to generate the exact Rayleigh scattering LUT for the ocean color remote sensors. Finally, the general purpose exact Rayleigh scattering LUT is generated using the adding-doubling method. On the basis of the general purpose LUT, the calculated Rayleigh scattering radiance is tested by comparing with the LUTs of MODIS, SeaWiFS and the other ocean color sensors, showing that the relative errors are all less than 0.5%, and this general purpose LUT can be applied to all ocean color remote sensors.
Structures in T-e profiles: High resolution Thomson scattering in the Rijnhuizen tokamak project
Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; R. T. P. Team,
1999-01-01
In the Rijnhuizen tokamak project, the double pulse multiposition Thomson scattering diagnostic is in full operation. Its high spatial resolution enables the measurement of small scale structures in T-e, n(e), and p(e). Thomson scattering profiles during an ordinary sawtooth crash show the displacem
Applied electromagnetic scattering theory
Osipov, Andrey A
2017-01-01
Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...
Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering
Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady;
2011-01-01
The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...
Dremin, I M
2012-01-01
When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...
Environment scattering in GADRAS.
Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.
2013-09-01
Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Greens Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.
Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen
1986-01-01
Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer excitati......Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...
The double identity of linguistic doubling.
Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered
2016-11-29
Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.
Dremin, I. M.
2013-01-01
Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.
Full profile incoherent scatter analysis at Jicamarca
D. L. Hysell
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Incoherent scatter data from a hybrid long-pulse/double-pulse experiment at Jicamarca are analyzed using a full-profile analysis similar to the one implemented by Holt et al. (1992. In this case, plasma density, electron and ion temperatures, and light ion composition profiles in the topside are estimated simultaneously. Full-profile analysis is crucial at Jicamarca, since the long correlation time of the incoherent scatter signal at 50 MHz invalidates conventional gated analysis. Results for a 24 h interval in April of 2006 are presented, covering altitudes through 1600 km with 10 min time resolution, and compared with results from the NRL ionospheric model SAMI2. The analysis provides the first comprehensive assessment of ionospheric conditions over Jicamarca at sunrise as well as the first 24-h record of helium ion layers. Possible refinements to the experiment and the algorithm are discussed.
Double hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium
Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotskii, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Karibian, V; Giordano, F; Grebenyuk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Lu, S; Ma, B Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Negodaev, M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2006-01-01
First measurement of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering has been measured with the HERMES spectrometer at HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam with deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields has been investigated. Nuclear effects are clearly observed but with substantially smaller magnitude and reduced $A$-dependence compared to previously measured single-hadron multiplicity ratios. The data are in fair agreement with models based on partonic or pre-hadronic energy loss, while they seem to rule out a pure absorptive treatment of the final state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.
Determination of scattering in intraocular lenses by spectrophotometric measurements.
Artigas, José M; Felipe, Adelina; Navea, Amparo; García-Domene, M Carmen; Pons, Álvaro; Mataix, Jorge
2014-12-01
This study presents a method for measuring scattering in explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs). Currently, determining scattering in IOLs is usually performed by Scheimpflug cameras and the results are expressed in the units used by this apparatus. The method we propose uses a spectrophotometer and this makes it possible to measure the total transmission of the IOL by using an integrating sphere; the direct transmission is determined by the double-beam mode. The difference between these two transmissions gives a value of the scattering in percentage values of light lost. In addition, by obtaining the spectral transmission curve, information about the most scattered wavelengths is also obtained. The IOL power introduces errors when directly measured, particularly with high powers. This problem can be overcome if a tailor-made cuvette is used that shortens the distance between the IOL and the condensing lens of the spectrophotometer when the IOL powers are below 24 diopters. We checked the effectiveness of this method by measuring the scattering of three explanted IOLs from cornea donors. This method, however, does not make it possible to ascertain whether the scattering measured is caused by surface light scattering or internal light scattering.
Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP
ZHANG Xi-Peng; JIANG Hong-Bing; TANG Shan-Chun; GONG Qi-Huang
2009-01-01
Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction.
Angular correlations in the double Drell-Yan process
Kasemets, Tomas; Diehl, Markus
2012-10-15
We study the impact of parton correlations on the double Drell-Yan process, i.e. on the production of two electroweak gauge bosons by double parton scattering in a single proton-proton collision. Spin correlations between two partons in a proton are shown to change the overall rate of the process and to induce characteristic angular correlations between the decay leptons of the two gauge bosons.
Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun
2016-03-01
We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment.
The Cambridge Double Star Atlas
MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil
2015-12-01
Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...
Two-loop Bhabha scattering at high energy beyond leading power approximation
Alexander A. Penin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We evaluate the two-loop O(me2/s contribution to the wide-angle high-energy electron–positron scattering in the double-logarithmic approximation. The origin and the general structure of the power-suppressed double logarithmic corrections are discussed in detail.
Kato, Akio
2006-11-14
The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.
Associated W±D (*) production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions
Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Snigirev, A. M.; Zotov, N. P.
2015-06-01
Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of kt-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W±D± configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.
Miller, Erin A; Caggiano, Joseph A; Runkle, Robert C; White, Timothy A; Bevill, Aaron M
2011-03-01
As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beam in the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typical medical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-to-primary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.
Odagiri, Takeshi; Funatsu, Keishou; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Suzuki, Isao H, E-mail: odagiri.t.aa@m.titech.ac.j [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
2009-11-28
The cross sections for the generation of a fluorescence photon pair following photoexcitation of NO, differential with respect to the solid angles of the emission directions of the two photons, have been measured as a function of incident photon energy to investigate superexcited states of NO in the inner-valence range, in particular around the double ionization potential. Superexcited states of NO in the range 25-47 eV have been newly found as resonance peaks in the cross-section curve. We determined that the superexcited states are singly inner-valence excited and multiply excited states of NO. It is remarkable that there exist superexcited states of NO dissociating into neutral fragments even in the range above the double ionization potential at 38.476 eV. A dip in the cross-section curve is observed around 40 eV; the origin is discussed in terms of the decay dynamics of the superexcited states embedded in the double electronic continuum.
A Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer for ultraviolet wavelengths
Gu, Ziyu; van Duijn, Eric-Jan; Ubachs, Wim; 10.1063/1.4721272
2012-01-01
A spectrometer for the measurement of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering line profiles at ultraviolet wavelengths from gas phase molecules has been developed, employing a high-power frequency-stabilized UV laser with narrow bandwidth (2 MHz). The UV light from a frequency-doubled titanium:sapphire laser is further amplified in an enhancement cavity, delivering a 5 Watt UV-beam propagating through the interaction region inside a scattering cell. The design of the RB-scattering cell allows for measurements at gas pressures in the range 0-4 bar and at stably controlled temperatures from -30 to 70 degree Celsius. A scannable Fabry-Perot analyzer with instrument resolution of 232 MHz probes the Rayleigh-Brillouin profiles. Measurements on N2 and SF6 gases demonstrate the high signal-to-noise ratio achievable with the instrument, at the 1% level at the peak amplitude of the scattering profile.
Scatterer localization using a left-handed medium.
Karkashadze, David; Fernández, Juan Pablo; Shubitidze, Fridon
2009-06-01
This paper explores the possibility of using the focusing property of left-handed materials to estimate the location of a visually obscured target. The field scattered by the target and measured on a surface can be considered as incident upon a left-handed half-space and should converge to a point resembling the mirror image of the scatterer's location. The results are obtained using the method of auxiliary sources as adapted to double-negative media. Two-dimensional scattering is considered, either from a single object or from several targets, using pointlike and Gaussian sources of illumination. The method gives reasonable results when the sizes of the scatterers are comparable to the wavelength.
Virtual neutron scattering experiments
Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael
2017-01-01
We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...
Virtual neutron scattering experiments
Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael
2016-01-01
We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...
Invariant Scattering Convolution Networks
Bruna, Joan
2012-01-01
A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation, which is stable to deformations and preserves high frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with non-linear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information which improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explains important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having the same Fourier power spectrum. State of the art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, using a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier.
ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.
2004-07-30
Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern
Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R
2009-12-15
The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.
ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.
2004-07-30
Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern
PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering
Miret-Artés, Salvador
2010-08-01
; all of them were ready for use! We cannot imagine him without his two old-fashioned Mercedes, also in his collection. He also has technical skills in construction and music and always has time for jogging. I would finally say that he is an even-tempered person. In brief, mens sana in corpore sano 1 . Dick is a theorist bound to experimental work, extremely intuitive and very dedicated. In his long stays outside Clemson, he always visited places where experiments were being carried out. He has been, and still is, of great help to experimental PhD students, postdocs or senior scientists in providing valuable advice and suggestions towards new measurements. Plausible interpretations of their results developing theoretical models or always searching for good agreement with experiment are two constants in his daily scientific work. Experimental work is present in most of his 150 papers. One of the main theoretical challenges in this field was to develop a formalism where the plethora of experimental results reported in the literature were accommodated. His transition matrix formalism was also seminal in the field of atom-surface scattering. Elastic and inelastic (single and double phonon) contributions were determined as well as the multiphonon background. This work was preceded by a theory for diffuse inelastic scattering and a posterior contribution for multiphonon scattering, both with V Celli. In a similar vein, a theory of molecule-surface scattering was also derived and, more recently, a theory for direct scattering, trapping and desorption. Very interesting extensions to scattering with molten metal and liquid surfaces have also been carried out. Along with collaborators he has studied energy accommodation and sticking coefficients, providing a better understanding of their meaning. G Armand and Dick proposed the well-known corrugated Morse potential as an interaction potential model providing reliable results of diffraction patterns and selective adsorption
Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)
2014-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)
Inversion assuming weak scattering
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals
Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)
2010-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)
Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic electron-proton scattering
Tomalak, O
2016-01-01
We apply a subtracted dispersion relation (DR) formalism with the aim to improve predictions for the two-photon exchange (TPE) corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering observables at small momentum transfers. We study the formalism on the elastic TPE contribution in comparison with existing data for unpolarized cross sections. We extend the general formalism of TPE to elastic scattering with massive lepton and perform a numerical estimate of the muon-proton scattering at low momentum transfer in view of the upcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE). We study the influence of the double-virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) subtraction function on the unpolarized lepton-proton scattering cross-section. We show that the resulting TPE correction is negligible in the electron-proton scattering and smaller than planned uncertainties of the MUSE experiment for the subtraction functions evaluated in chiral perturbation theory.
Quantum dynamics of a particle interacting with a double barrier
Cacciari, Ilaria [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Lantieri, Marco [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Moretti, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)
2007-10-12
Following a previously developed method, the problem of a particle scattered by a double barrier is studied. Instead of the simple transmission or reflection, the more difficult case of the arrival in the region between the barriers is considered and solved explicitly by using matrix methods.
Robert de Mello Koch
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.
Koch, Robert de Mello
2016-01-01
We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the $su(2|3)$ sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter) and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate) scattering. Both of these $S$-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase) by the $su(2|2)^2$ global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the $S$-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the $su(2)$ sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a uniq...
Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department
2016-07-01
This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.
Small angle neutron scattering
Cousin Fabrice
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of
Microscopic analysis of p^{10}B scattering at the intermediate energies
Dzhazairov-Kahramanov, Albert; Krassovitskiy, Pavel
2016-01-01
The differential cross sections of the p^{10}B scattering at energies of 197, 600 and 1000 MeV have been calculated within the framework of the Glauber theory. The operator of multiple scattering takes into account the contributions of single and double collisions. The contributions from protons scattering on the nucleons of different shells have been estimated in the single-scattering cross-section. The comparison with the experiment at 197 MeV and with DWBA calculation showed the adequate description of cross-sections in the region of the front angles.
Unintegrated double parton distributions
Golec-Biernat, K
2016-01-01
We present the construction of unintegrated double parton distribution functions which include dependence on transverse momenta of partons. We extend the formulation which was used to obtain the single unintegrated parton distributions from the standard, integrated parton distribution functions. Starting from the homogeneous part of the evolution equations for the integrated double parton distributions, we construct the unintegrated double parton distributions as the convolutions of the integrated double distributions and the splitting functions, multiplied by the Sudakov form factors. We show that there exist three domains of external hard scales which require three distinct forms of the unintegrated double distributions. The additional transverse momentum dependence which arises through the Sudakov form factors leads to non-trivial correlations in the parton momenta. We also discuss the non-homogeneous contribution to the unintegrated double parton distributions, which arises due to the splitting of a singl...
Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2013-01-01
Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.
Zhuo CHEN; Zhang Ju LIU; Yun He SHENG
2014-01-01
In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.
Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.
UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE DOUBLE URETER
Kaini
2013-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Double ureter is a result of premature division of t he ureteric bud. The ureters may join in the lower third of their course and open thr ough a common orifice into the bladder. If they open independently into the bladder, the ureter draining the upper pelvis opens into the bladder below the opening of the other ureter. Patie nts with double ureter or double pelvis are more likely to develop urinary infection and calculi .
Electron and pion scattering off nuclei
Buss, O.; Mosel, U. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany); Alvarez-Ruso, L. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Univ. de Valencia-CSIC (Spain)
2007-07-01
We present a treatment of pion and electron scattering off nuclei within the framework of a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model. In this approach we realize a full coupled channel treatment and include medium modifications such as mean-field potentials, Fermi motion and width modifications. We have applied the GiBUU model to the description of the double charge exchange (DCX) reaction of pions with different nuclear targets at incident kinetic energies of 120-180 MeV. The DCX process is highly sensitive to details of the interactions of pions with the nuclear medium and, therefore, represents a major benchmark for any model of pion scattering off nuclei at low and intermediate energies. We discuss the impact of surface effects and the dependence on the nuclear mass number. We have achieved a good quantitative agreement with the extensive data set obtained at LAMPF. Furthermore, we present a description of electron induced reactions, i.e. pion production, off nuclei. We consider the scattering of electrons off the bound nucleons in an impulse approximation and investigate medium modifications to exclusive particle production cross sections and compare our results to available data. (orig.)
Simulation research on scattering characteristics by complex targets
Guo Kunyi; Sheng Xinqing
2007-01-01
A simulation approach based on a full-wave numerical method is presented to study electromagnetic characteristics by complex targets. How to validate simulation results is considered thoroughly under no analytical and measured data, where a double-check criterion is designed for our simulation approach. As an example, the scattering of F-117A is studied by using our simulation approach under all polarizations, different frequency bands,incident and scattering directions, etc., some of which, such as cross-polarization, bistatic RCS, have not been considered in the previous literature.
Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca
2012-05-01
Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.
Double-hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium.
Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Grebeniouk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, J; Lu, S; Ma, B-Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Roelon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2006-04-28
The first measurements of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering within the nuclear medium were made with the HERMES spectrometer at DESY HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam. By comparing data for deuterium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon nuclei, the influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields was investigated. Nuclear effects on the additional hadron are clearly observed, but with little or no difference among nitrogen, krypton, or xenon, and with smaller magnitude than effects seen on previously measured single-hadron multiplicities. The data are compared with models based on partonic energy loss or prehadronic scattering and with a model based on a purely absorptive treatment of the final-state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.
Electron scattering for exotic nuclei
Toshimi Suda
2014-11-01
A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.
Controllable Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene triangular double barrier
Mekkaoui, Miloud; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine
2017-03-01
We study the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts for Dirac fermions in graphene scattered by a triangular double barrier potential. The massless Dirac-like equation was used to describe the scattered fermions by such potential configuration. Our results show that the GH shifts is affected by the geometrical structure of the double barrier. In particular the GH shifts change sign at the transmission zero energies and exhibit enhanced peaks at each bound state associated with the double barrier when the incident angle is less than the critical angle associated with total reflection.
Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces
Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A. W.; Gleeson, M. A.
2013-01-01
Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference non-reactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatter
Low energy + scattering on = nuclei
Swapan Das; Arun K Jain
2003-11-01
The data for the total cross-section of + scattering on various nuclei have been analysed in the Glauber multiple scattering theory. Energy-dependent +-nucleus optical potential is generated using the forward +-nucleon scattering amplitude and the nuclear density distribution. Along with this, the calculated total +-nucleus cross-sections using the effective +-nucleon cross-section inside the nucleus are also presented.
Scattering with partial information
Carney, Daniel; Semenoff, Gordon
2016-01-01
We study relativistic scattering when one only has access to a subset of the particles, using the language of quantum measurement theory. We give an exact, non-perturbative formula for the von Neumann entanglement entropy of an apparatus particle scattered off an arbitrary set of system particles, in either the elastic or inelastic regime, and show how to evaluate it perturbatively. We give general formulas for the late-time expectation values of apparatus observables. Some simple example applications are included: in particular, a protocol to verify preparation of coherent superpositions of spatially localized system states using position-space information in the outgoing apparatus state, at lowest order in perturbation theory in a weak apparatus-system coupling.
Scattering problems in elastodynamics
Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-09-01
In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.
Scattering problems in elastodynamics
Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-01-01
In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.
Protostring Scattering Amplitudes
Thorn, Charles B
2016-01-01
We calculate some tree level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a lightcone worldsheet which supports $s$ integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann worldsheet system with $d=24-s$ transverse coordinate worldsheet fields. The protostring corresponds to $s=24$ and the bosonic string to $s=0$. The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that $s$ is even we calculate the multi-string scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of $s/2$ compactified and $d$ uncompactified bosonic worldsheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then ...
Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics
Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.
2006-01-01
The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.
Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements
Ur Rehman, Mahboob
In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.
Deorientation of PolSAR coherency matrix for volume scattering retrieval
Kumar, Shashi; Garg, R. D.; Kushwaha, S. P. S.
2016-05-01
Polarimetric SAR data has proven its potential to extract scattering information for different features appearing in single resolution cell. Several decomposition modelling approaches have been developed to retrieve scattering information from PolSAR data. During scattering power decomposition based on physical scattering models it becomes very difficult to distinguish volume scattering as a result from randomly oriented vegetation from scattering nature of oblique structures which are responsible for double-bounce and volume scattering , because both are decomposed in same scattering mechanism. The polarization orientation angle (POA) of an electromagnetic wave is one of the most important character which gets changed due to scattering from geometrical structure of topographic slopes, oriented urban area and randomly oriented features like vegetation cover. The shift in POA affects the polarimetric radar signatures. So, for accurate estimation of scattering nature of feature compensation in polarization orientation shift becomes an essential procedure. The prime objective of this work was to investigate the effect of shift in POA in scattering information retrieval and to explore the effect of deorientation on regression between field-estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) and volume scattering. For this study Dudhwa National Park, U.P., India was selected as study area and fully polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data was used to retrieve scattering information from the forest area of Dudhwa National Park. Field data for DBH and tree height was collect for AGB estimation using stratified random sampling. AGB was estimated for 170 plots for different locations of the forest area. Yamaguchi four component decomposition modelling approach was utilized to retrieve surface, double-bounce, helix and volume scattering information. Shift in polarization orientation angle was estimated and deorientation of coherency matrix for compensation of POA shift was performed. Effect of
Vernon, M. F.
1983-07-01
The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.
Vernon, M.F.
1983-07-01
The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.
Modern Electromagnetic Scattering
2013-08-10
Section 4.3) of the cylindrical annulus is properly accounted for, and if the cylindrical void is sufficiently small . We refer to this approximation as...tempered distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 CHAPTER 4 MEASURING THE VOID: THEORETICAL STUDY OF SCATTERING BY A CYLINDRICAL ANNULUS ...and phase of the far-field pattern in the forward direction for a Teflon cylindrical annulus in vacuum, with an outer radius of 10 cm at 100 GHz, is
Bianchi, Marco S; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Santambrogio, Alberto
2011-01-01
We study the correspondence between scattering amplitudes and Wilson loops in three-dimensional Chern-Simons matter theories. In particular, using N=2 superspace formalism, we compute at one loop the whole spectrum of four-point superamplitudes for generic N>=2 supersymmetric theories and find a vanishing result for N=6 ABJ(M) and N=8 BLG models. This restricts the possible range of theories for which Wilson loops/scattering amplitudes duality might work. At two loops, we present the computation of the four-point ABJ scattering amplitude for external chiral superfields. Extending the known result for the ABJM Wilson loop to the ABJ case we find perfect agreement. We also discuss the dual conformal invariance of our results and the relationship between the Feynman diagram computation and unitarity methods. While for the ABJM theory dual conformally invariant integrals exactly reproduce the amplitude, for the ABJ case this happens only up to a residual constant depending on the parity-violating parameter. Final...
Neutron scattering in Australia
Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)
1994-12-31
Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.
Barabash, A S
2011-01-01
The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.
2011-01-01
We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam
Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation
Sheffield, John
1975-01-01
Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge
Double charge exchange at high impact energies
Belkić, Dževad
1994-03-01
In fast ion-atom collisions, double ionization always dominates the two-electron transfer. For this reason, an adequate description of double charge exchange requires proper inclusion of intermediate ionization channels. This is even more important in two- than in one-electron transitions. First-order Born-type perturbation theories ignore throughout these electronic continuum intermediate states and hence provide utterly unreliable high energy cross sections for two-electron capture processes. Therefore, it is essential to use second- and higher-order theories, which include the intermediate ionization continua of the two electrons in an approximate manner. In the present paper, a new second-order theory called the Born distorted wave (BDW) approximation is introduced and implemented in the case of symmetric resonant double electron capture from the ground state of helium by fast alpha particles. A genuine four-body formalism is adopted, in contrast to the conventional independent particle model of atomic scattering theory. The obtained results for the total cross sections are compared with the available experimental data, and satisfactory agreement is recorded. As the incident energy increases, a dramatic improvement is obtained in going from the CB1 to the BDW approximation, since the latter closely follows the measurement, whereas the former overestimates the observed total cross sections by two orders of magnitude. This strongly indicates that the role of continuum intermediate states is decisive, even at those incident energies for which the Thomas double scattering effects are not important. This is in sharp contrast to the case of one-electron transfer atomic reactions.
Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering
S Mazumder; D Sen; A K Patra
2004-07-01
Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering has been extensively pursued for several years now as the pores are often of mesoscopic size and compatible with the length scale accessible by the technique using both neutrons and X-rays as probing radiation. With the availability of ultra small-angle scattering instruments, one can investigate porous materials in the sub-micron length scale. Because of the increased accessible length scale vis-a-vis the multiple scattering effect, conventional data analysis procedures based on single scattering approximation quite often fail. The limitation of conventional data analysis procedures is also pronounced in the case of thick samples and long wavelength of the probing radiation. Effect of multiple scattering is manifested by broadening the scattering profile. Sample thickness for some technologically important materials is often significantly high, as the experimental samples have to replicate all its essential properties in the bulk material. Larger wavelength of the probing radiation is used in some cases to access large length scale and also to minimize the effect of double Bragg reflections.
Scattering and Absorption Properties of Biomaterials for Dental Restorative Applications
Fernandez-Oliveras, A.; Rubiño, M.; Pérez, M. M.
2013-08-01
The physical understanding of the optical properties of dental biomaterials is mandatory for their final success in restorative applications.Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function,the refractive index, and the surface conditions (roughness). We have employed the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method to combine transmittance and reflectance measurements performed using an integrating-sphere setup with the results of the previous scattering-anisotropygoniometric measurements. This has led to the determination of the absorption and the scattering coefficients. The aim was to optically characterize two different dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and one type of zirconia ceramic, and comparatively study them. The experimental procedure was conducted under repeatability conditions of measurement in order to determine the uncertainty associated to the optical properties of the biomaterials. Spectral variations of the refraction index and the scattering anisotropy factor were also considered. The whole experimental procedure fulfilled all the necessary requirements to provide optical-property values with lower associated uncertainties. The effective transport coefficient presented a similar spectral behavior for the two composites but completely different for the zirconia ceramic. The results demonstrated that the scattering anisotropy exerted a clearly distinct impact on the optical properties of the zirconia ceramic compared with those of the dental-resin composites.
Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation
Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.
1980-01-01
The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.
Infrared weak corrections to strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering
Ciafaloni, P
2009-01-01
We evaluate the impact of electroweak corrections of infrared origin on longitudinal strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering, calculating all order resummed expressions at the double log level. As a working example, we consider the Standard model with a heavy Higgs. At energies typical of forthcoming experiments (LHC,ILC,CLIC), the corrections are in the 10-40 % range, the relative sign depending on the initial state considered and on whether or not additional gauge bosons emission is included.
Timelike Compton scattering off the neutron and generalized parton distributions
Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)
2016-02-15
We study the exclusive photoproduction of an electron-positron pair on a neutron target in the Jefferson Lab energy domain. The reaction consists of two processes: the Bethe-Heitler and the Timelike Compton Scattering. The latter process provides potentially access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We calculate all the unpolarized, single- and double-spin observables of the reaction and study their sensitivities to GPDs. (orig.)
Timelike Compton scattering off the proton and generalized parton distributions
Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)
2015-08-15
We study the exclusive photoproduction of a lepton pair off the proton with the aim of studying the proton quark structure via the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) formalism. After deriving the amplitudes of the processes contributing to the γP → P' e{sup +}e{sup -}, the timelike Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler process, we calculate all unpolarized, single- and double- spin beam-target observables in the valence region in terms of GPDs. (orig.)
Bonneau, Philippe
Following a preceding paper showing how the introduction of a t.v.s. topology on quantum groups led to a remarkable unification and rigidification of the different definitions, we adapt here, in the same way, the definition of quantum double. This topological double is dualizable and reflexive (even for infinite dimensional algebras). In a simple case we show, considering the double as the "zero class" of an extension theory, the uniqueness of the double structure as a quasi-Hopf algebra. A la suite d'un précédent article montrant comment l'introduction d'une topologie d'e.v.t. sur les groupes quantiques permet une unification et une rigidification remarquables des différentes définitions, on adapte ici de la même manière la définition du double quantique. Ce double topologique est alors dualisable et reflexif (même pour des algèbres de dimension infinie). Dans un cas simple on montre, en considérant le double comme la "classe zéro" d'une théorie d'extensions, l'unicité de cette structure comme algèbre quasi-Hopf.
Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering
Doria, Luca
2007-10-15
Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)
Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators
Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)
2015-01-31
This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the
An Effective Field Theory for Forward Scattering and Factorization Violation
Rothstein, Ira Z
2016-01-01
Starting with QCD, we derive an effective field theory description for forward scattering and factorization violation as part of the soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET) for high energy scattering. These phenomena are mediated by long distance Glauber gluon exchanges, which are static in time, localized in the longitudinal distance, where $|t| \\ll s$. In hard scattering, Glauber gluons can induce corrections which invalidate factorization. With SCET, Glauber exchange graphs can be calculated explicitly, and are distinct from graphs with soft, collinear, or ultrasoft gluons. We derive a complete basis of operators which describe the leading power effects of Glauber exchange. Key ingredients include regulating light-cone rapidity singularities and subtractions which prevent double counting. Our results include a novel all orders gauge invariant pure glue soft operator which appears between two collinear rapidity sectors. The 1-gluon Feynman rule for the soft operator coincides with the Lipatov vertex, b...
刘次沅; 李建科; 周晓陆
1999-01-01
The ancient record, "During the first year of King Yi, the day dawned twice at Zheng", has provided important clues to early Chinese chronicles. The astronomical conditions and visible area distributions related to such a "double dawn" event are discussed, and the precision and current problems in the calculations of ancient astronomical phenomena are shown. On such a basis, all the solar eclipses from 1000 BC to 840 BC are calculated and their associated "double dawn" features investigated. The conclusion that the "double dawn" was a solar eclipse occurring on April 21st, 899 BC is corfirmed to be the most reasonable.
Edwards, D.F.
1988-09-30
A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees
2016-09-01
random seed and an input parameter file defining the physical characteristics of a tree (e.g., tree and trunk shape, number of branch levels, branch...elements. In most realistic scenarios, the individual scatterers of a trunk are not expected to be shadowed by other scatterers belonging to the same...trunk—in other words, a trunk cannot shadow itself. As such, in calculating the transmissivity matrices for the scatterers of a particular tree trunk
Neutrinoless double beta decay
Kai Zuber
2012-10-01
The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.
Double conjoining vas deferens.
Gravesen, R G
1980-03-01
The importance of careful palpation of the scrotal contents and follow-up semen analysis when performing vasectomies is proved by this case report of a double vas deferens conjoining into a single vas.
Protostring scattering amplitudes
Thorn, Charles B.
2016-11-01
We calculate some tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a light-cone world sheet which supports s integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann world-sheet system with d =24 -s transverse coordinate world-sheet fields. The protostring corresponds to s =24 and the bosonic string to s =0 . The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that s is even we calculate the multistring scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of s /2 compactified and d uncompactified bosonic world-sheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then study in detail some simple special cases. Multistring processes with maximal helicity violation have much simpler amplitudes. We also specialize to general four-string amplitudes and discuss their high energy behavior. Most of these models are not covariant under the full Lorentz group O (d +1 ,1 ). The exceptions are the bosonic string whose Lorentz group is O (25 ,1 ) and the protostring whose Lorentz group is O (1 ,1 ). The models in between only enjoy an O (1 ,1 )×O (d ) spacetime symmetry.
Fermionic NNLO contributions to Bhabha scattering
Actis, S; Gluza, J; Riemann, T
2007-01-01
We derive the two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering from heavy fermions using dispersion relations. The double-box contributions are expressed by three kernel functions. Convoluting the perturbative kernels with fermionic threshold functions or with hadronic data allows to determine numerical results for small electron mass m_e, combined with arbitrary values of the fermion mass m_f in the loop, $m_e^2<
Scattering and coherence in EUVL
Milster, Tomas D.; Beaudry, Neil A.
1998-06-01
We illustrate the importance of considering scattering from the illuminator in extreme UV lithography systems. Our results indicate that a significant amount of amplitude modulation noise is present in the aerial image if scatter is present in a Koehler illuminator. The effect depends on the spatial frequency of the pattern on the mask, the numerical aperture of the projection camera, the coherence factor, and placement of the plane in the illuminator where the scattering occurs.
Model of Light Scattering in Cavitation Area
S. P. Skvortsov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The offered work presents analysis of extinction mechanisms and justification of light scattering model in ultrasonic cavitation area to justify a control method of ultrasonic cavitation through its optical sounding by low-intensity laser radiation and through photo-detector record of last radiation.The analysis of the extinction mechanisms has shown that the most essential mechanism causing a change of the transmission coefficient with time is dispersion on pulsating cavitation bubbles. Other extinction mechanisms lead to the time-constant reduction of last radiation intensity and can be taken into consideration by normalizing a recorded transmission coefficient for a previously measured liquid transmission coefficient when there is no cavitation.The feature of light scattering on the cavitation bubbles is primary dispersion in a forward direction that is connected with great values of bubbles radius from units to hundreds of micrometers. In case of single bubbles, dispersion can be described by Mi's theory, and, as to the cavitation area, it is reasonable to use the theory of V. Tversky for multiple light scattering. Thus, dispersion section, according to the paradox of extinction, can be considered to be equal to doubled geometrical section of a bubble. With increasing bubble radius the transmission coefficient monotonically decreases. So, the law of bubble pulsations and the model of light scattering define the law of changing transmission coefficient.Therefore, the cavitation area with its optical sounding acts as a peculiar opto-acoustic modulator. Thus, the demodulated signal of a photo-detector comprises information on pulsations of bubbles.The paper examines the influence of cavitation area thickness and bubbles concentration on the transmission coefficient. It shows a type of transmission coefficient dependence on the radius of cavitation bubbles.The optical sounding method is attractive because it allows us to obtain data on the
Light scattering by small particles
Hulst, H C van de
1981-01-01
""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties
Born approximation, scattering, and algorithm
Martinez, Alex; Hu, Mengqi; Gu, Haicheng; Qiao, Zhijun
2015-05-01
In the past few decades, there were many imaging algorithms designed in the case of the absence of multiple scattering. Recently, we discussed an algorithm for removing high order scattering components from collected data. This paper is a continuation of our previous work. First, we investigate the current state of multiple scattering in SAR. Then, we revise our method and test it. Given an estimate of our target reflectivity, we compute the multi scattering effects in the target region for various frequencies. Furthermore, we propagate this energy through free space towards our antenna, and remove it from the collected data.
Scattering from isospectral quantum graphs
Band, R; Sawicki, A; Smilansky, U, E-mail: rami.band@weizmann.ac.i, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.p, E-mail: uzy.smilansky@weizmann.ac.i [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2010-10-15
Quantum graphs can be extended to scattering systems when they are connected by leads to infinity. It is shown that for certain extensions, the scattering matrices of isospectral graphs are conjugate to each other and their poles distributions are therefore identical. The scattering matrices are studied using a recently developed isospectral theory (Band et al 2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 175202 and Parzanchevski and Band 2010 J. Geom. Anal. 20 439-71). At the same time, the scattering approach offers a new insight on the mentioned isospectral construction.
Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory
Komech, Alexander
2012-01-01
A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i
Advances in total scattering analysis
Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.
Heterodyne Near-Field Scattering
Brogioli, D; Giglio, M; Giglio, Marzio
2002-01-01
We describe an optical technique based on the statistical analysis of the random intensity distribution due to the interference of the near-field scattered light with the strong transmitted beam. It is shown that, from the study of the two-dimensional power spectrum of the intensity, one derives the scattered intensity as a function of the scattering wave vector. Near-field conditions are specified and discussed. The substantial advantages over traditional scattering technique are pointed out, and is indicated that the technique could be of interest for wave lengths other than visible light.
Zhao, Junlei; Xiao, Fei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong
2017-01-01
Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and intraocular scatter lead to the degradation of image quality on the retina, and consequently deteriorate subjective visual performance. In this article, we modified an adaptive optics double-pass system to combine objective and subjective visual testing capabilities. Employing the modified DP system, we investigated the effects of HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. Contrast sensitivity measurements were performed with HOAs either retained or corrected by adaptive optics, and with scatter either remaining at the natural eye-induced level or further enhanced by a set of three different scatter filters. Contrast sensitivity was found to be worse when HOAs were uncorrected or scatter increased. Quantitative analysis indicated that the joint effect of HOAs and scatter on contrast sensitivity was not a simple summation of each contributing factor, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism between HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. PMID:28736660
Optimization of Scatterer Concentration in High-Gain Scattering Media
ZHU Jiu-Gao; ZHU He-Yuan; SUN Die-Chi; DU Ge-Guo; LI Fu-Ming
2001-01-01
We report the scatterer concentration-dependent behaviour of laser action in high-gain scattering media. Amodified model of a random laser is proposed to explain the experimental results in good agreement. We mayuse this modified model to design and optimize the random laser system. A further detailed model is needed toquantitatively analyse the far-field distribution of random laser action.
ZnSe scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay
Arnaboldi, C; Cremonesi, O; Gironi, L; Pavan, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S
2010-01-01
ZnSe scintillating bolometers are good candidates for future Double Beta Decay searches, because of the 82Se high Q-value and thanks to the possibility of alpha background rejection on the basis of the scintillation signal. In this paper we report the characteristics and the anomalies observed in an extensive study of these devices. Among them, an unexpected high emission from alpha particles, accompanied with an unusual pattern of the light vs. heat scatter plot. The perspectives for the application of this kind of detectors to search for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 82Se are presented.
Weak Polarized Electron Scattering
Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A
2014-01-01
Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.
Surface enhanced Raman scattering
Furtak, Thomas
1982-01-01
In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...
Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J
2007-04-18
This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.
Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)
2016-06-16
Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a ℂP{sup 2} space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n−gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ−algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.
Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.
Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement
2016-08-01
Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.
Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering
Gao, Xuan [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Li, Chengyang [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Burns, Clement [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States)
2016-08-15
Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.
Quantum scattering at low energies
Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik
For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including with , we study the quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using modifiers of the Isozaki--Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the {\\it whole} continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian...
Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering
Kotseroglou, T.
2003-12-19
This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.
Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces
Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A.W.; Gleeson, M.A.
2013-01-01
Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference nonreactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatteri
Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces
Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A.W.; Gleeson, M.A.
2013-01-01
Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N-2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference non-reactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatte
Dynamic measurement of forward scattering
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.
1975-01-01
A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...
Scattering matrices with block symmetries
Życzkowski, Karol
1997-01-01
Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.
Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory
Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph
2016-04-01
We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.
Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory
Boels, Rutger H
2015-01-01
We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.
Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp; Boston, Nicolai Elborough
Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...... should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realisation, effect is achieved) and not as half the time for project execution. The purpose of Project Half Double is to improve Danish industrial competitiveness by radically increasing the pace and impact of the development and innovation...
Scattering matrix theory for stochastic scalar fields.
Korotkova, Olga; Wolf, Emil
2007-05-01
We consider scattering of stochastic scalar fields on deterministic as well as on random media, occupying a finite domain. The scattering is characterized by a generalized scattering matrix which transforms the angular correlation function of the incident field into the angular correlation function of the scattered field. Within the accuracy of the first Born approximation this matrix can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of the scattering potential of the scatterer. Apart from determining the angular distribution of the spectral intensity of the scattered field, the scattering matrix makes it possible also to determine the changes in the state of coherence of the field produced on scattering.
Superradiant scattering of dispersive fields
Richartz, Maurício; Weinfurtner, Silke; Liberati, Stefano
2013-01-01
Motivated by analogue models of classical and quantum field theory in curved spacetimes and their recent experimental realizations, we consider wave scattering processes of dispersive fields exhibiting two extra degrees of freedom. In particular, we investigate how standard superradiant scattering processes are affected by subluminal or superluminal modifications of the dispersion relation. We analyze simple 1-dimensional toy-models based on fourth-order corrections to the standard second order wave equation and show that low-frequency waves impinging on generic scattering potentials can be amplified during the process. In specific cases, by assuming a simple step potential, we determine quantitatively the deviations in the amplification spectrum that arise due to dispersion, and demonstrate that the amplification can be further enhanced due to the presence of extra degrees of freedom. We also consider dispersive scattering processes in which the medium where the scattering takes place is moving with respect ...
Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation.
Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V
2016-03-15
Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single-polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first, to the best of our knowledge, full-polarization DOPC system that records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm-thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase-conjugation fidelity.
Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.
1983-01-01
The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.
Paul Rousseau
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.
Elliott, Steven R
2011-01-01
At least one neutrino has a mass of about 50 meV or larger. However, the absolute mass scale for the neutrino remains unknown. Furthermore, the critical question: Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? is unanswered. Studies of double beta decay offer hope for determining the absolute mass scale. In particular, zero-neutrino double beta decay (\\BBz) can address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of the neutrino, and its mass. A summary of the recent results in \\BBz, and the related technologies will be discussed in the context of the future \\BBz\\ program.
Moroz, P.E.
1997-09-01
A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.
Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe
The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...
Jaffe, Arthur
2016-01-01
Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.
Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-$x$
Koshkarev, Sergey
2016-01-01
In this paper we give estimates for the proton--proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states $J/\\psi$, $\\psi(2S)$, $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of $115$GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy flavor mechanism which is observable for high values of $x_F$, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.
Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-x
Sergey Koshkarev
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give estimates for the proton–proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states J/ψ, ψ(2S, ϒ(1S and ϒ(2S at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of 115 GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism which is observable for high values of xF, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.
Goos-Hanchen like Shifts in Graphene Double Barriers
Jellal, Ahmed; Redouani, Ilham; Zahidi, Youness; Bahlouli, Hocine
2013-01-01
We study the Goos-Hanchen like shifts for Dirac fermions in graphene scattered by double barrier structures. After obtaining the solution for the energy spectrum, we use the boundary conditions to explicitly determine the Goos-Hanchen like shifts and the associated transmission probability. We analyze these two quantities at resonances by studying their {main} characteristics as a function of the energy and electrostatic potential parameters. To check the validity of our computations we recov...
Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-x
Koshkarev, Sergey; Groote, Stefan
2017-02-01
In this paper we give estimates for the proton-proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states J / ψ, ψ (2 S), ϒ (1 S) and ϒ (2 S) at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of 115 GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism which is observable for high values of xF, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.
Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.
2015-07-01
The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation.
Kim, Jungho; Shi, Xianbo; Casa, Diego; Qian, Jun; Huang, XianRong; Gog, Thomas
2016-07-01
Advances in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir L3-edge stands at ∼25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si(844) spherical crystal analyzer. However, spherical analyzers are limited by their intrinsic reflection width. A novel analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to overcome this limitation. For the present design, an energy resolution at or below 10 meV was selected. Recognizing that the angular acceptance of flat crystals is severely limited, a collimating element is essential to achieve the necessary solid-angle acceptance. For this purpose, a laterally graded, parabolic, multilayer Montel mirror was designed for use at the Ir L3-absorption edge. It provides an acceptance larger than 10 mrad, collimating the reflected X-ray beam to smaller than 100 µrad, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The performance of this mirror was studied at beamline 27-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. X-rays from a diamond (111) monochromator illuminated a scattering source of diameter 5 µm, generating an incident beam on the mirror with a well determined divergence of 40 mrad. A flat Si(111) crystal after the mirror served as the divergence analyzer. From X-ray measurements, ray-tracing simulations and optical metrology results, it was established that the Montel mirror satisfied the specifications of angular acceptance and collimation quality necessary for a high-resolution RIXS multi-crystal analyzer system.
1993-01-01
THE Double Nine Festival,which falls on theninth day of the ninth lunar month,is anancient tradition among Han Chinese.TheBook of Changes,a famous classic in ancient China,designates the number 9 as yang(the masculine orpositive principle in nature).Thus Double Nine isknown as Chongyang in Chinese,meaning doubleyang.In The Western Capital Miscellancy,Ge Hong(281-341)of the Eastern Jin Dynasty described onetraditional custom of the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.-A.D.24):″Wearing medicinal comel (Cornusofficinalis),eating double yang cake and drinking chry-santhemum wine on the ninth day of the ninth lunarmonth all help to prolong life.″Therefore the DoubleNine Festival is also celebrated as a festival for the old.People often wear medicinal cornel and climb to ahigh place to drink chrysanthemum wine.The customcomes from a legend:Huan Jing was a student ofnecromancer Fei Changfang in the Eastern Han Dy-nasty (25-220). One day Fei warned Huan that thelatter’s family was in danger of suffering a diaster ont
Chandramouli, V. V. M. S.; Martens, M.; De Melo, W.; Tresser, C. P.
2009-01-01
The period doubling renormalization operator was introduced by Feigenbaum and by Coullet and Tresser in the 1970s to study the asymptotic small-scale geometry of the attractor of one-dimensional systems that are at the transition from simple to chaotic dynamics. This geometry turns out not to depend
Di Nucci, Ezio
2014-01-01
There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...
Multiple scattering expansion with distortion
Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1980-12-01
A multiple scattering description of elastic scattering is formulated in terms of impulsive scatterings from single target nucleons and pairs of target nucleons. In this description, distortion effects on the projectile from the residual medium are also described by multiple scattering in terms of the same single and pair amplitudes. At the level of single scattering, this procedure yields the first order optical potential result of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler. When scattering from both single nucleons and pairs of nucleons is included, the method leads to a one-body integral equation which requires the physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. This input is similar, but not exactly equivalent to that required by the spectator expansion for the optical potential truncated at second order. A principal advantage of the present formulation is that there need be no explicit dependence upon the projection operator Q which projects off the target ground state. This feature introduces a scaling which appears to be a direct extension of the first order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler type of scaling. We follow up suggestions arising in the foregoing to show that the exact optical potential to second order in the spectator expansion can also be cast into a form having no explicit dependence upon Q, and requiring physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Multiple scattering from single nucleons, pairs of nucleons in nucleus. Distortion from residual medium. Optical potential. spectator expansion.
Rahman, M A; Haque, S
2003-01-01
Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles
Kristensson, Gerhard
2016-01-01
The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.
Infrared limit in external field scattering
Herdegen, Andrzej
2012-01-01
Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.
Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2014-01-01
This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.
Double soft limit of the graviton amplitude from the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism
Saha, Arnab Priya
2017-08-01
We present a complete analysis for double soft limit of graviton scattering amplitude using the formalism proposed by Cachazo, He, and Yuan. Our results agree with that obtained via Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in [T. Klose, T. McLoughlin, D. Nandan, J. Plefka, and G. Travaglini, Double-soft limits of gluons and gravitons, J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2015) 135., 10.1007/JHEP07(2015)135]. In addition we find precise relations between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of scattering equations with local and nonlocal terms in the soft factor.
Baranov, S P; Malyshev, M A; Snigirev, A M; Zotov, N P
2015-01-01
Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of $k_T$-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign $W^{\\pm}D^{\\pm}$ configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.
Associated W±D(⁎ production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions
S.P. Baranov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of kt-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W±D± configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.
Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique
Kampes, Bert M
2006-01-01
Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese
Milliman, T. E.; Connelly, J. P.; Heisenberg, J. H.; Hersman, F. W.; Wise, J. E.; Papanicolas, C. N.
1990-06-01
Differential cross sections for electron scattering from 92Mo have been measured for excitation energies less than 5.1 MeV over a range of momentum transfer of 0.5 to 3.1 fm-1. The elastic scattering data are analyzed along with existing electron and muonic atom data to provide an improved description of the ground-state charge distribution. The inelastic scattering data have been analyzed to extract electromagnetic transition densities. These densities are interpreted in terms of the underlying nuclear structure.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.
Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage
A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.
Vector boson scattering at CLIC
Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.
Pulsed Laser Nonlinear Thomson Scattering for General Scattering Geometries
Geoffrey Krafft; A. Doyuran; James Rosenzweig
2005-05-01
In a recent paper it has been shown that single electron Thomson backscatter calculations can be performed including the effects of pulsed high intensity lasers. In this paper we present a more detailed treatment of the problem and present results for more general scattering geometries. In particular, we present new results for 90 degree Thomson scattering. Such geometries have been increasingly studied as X-ray sources of short-pulse radiation. Also, we present a clearer physical basis for these different cases.
Investigation of metallic and ceramic materials by small-angle neutron scattering
Smirnov, YI; Elyutin, NO
2004-01-01
Small-angle neutron scattering measurements on a double-crystal spectrometer with perfect monochromator and analyzer crystals were used to follow microstructural changes in the aluminum alloy VD-17. refractory alloy ZhS-6, and dispersion-hardened zirconia-based ceramics with yttria additions. The me
Laser light scattering basic principles and practice
Chu, Benjamin
1994-01-01
Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.
Conductance of graphene-based double-barrier nanostructures
Setare, M R [Department of Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahani, D, E-mail: Rezakord@ipm.co, E-mail: Dariush110@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-12-22
The effect of a mass gap on the conductance of graphene double-barrier heterojunctions is studied. By obtaining the 2D expression for the electronic transport of the low energy excitations of pure graphene through double-barrier systems, it is found that the conductivity of these structures does not depend on the type of charge carriers in the zones of the electric field. However, a finite induced gap in the graphene spectrum makes conductivity dependent on the energy band index. We also discuss a few controversies concerning double-barrier systems stemming from an improper choice of the scattering angle. Then it is observed that, for some special values of the incident energy and potential's height, graphene junctions behave like left-handed materials, resulting in a maximum value for the conductivity.
Light scattering from acoustic vibrational modes in confined structures
Bandhu, Rudra Shyam
The acoustic vibrational modes and their light scattering intensities in confined structures such as supported films, double layer free-standing membrane and sub-micron sized wires on a free-standing membrane have been studied using Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS). Standing wave type acoustic phonons were recently observed in supported thin films of silicon oxy-nitride. We build upon this finding to study the acoustic modes in thin zinc selenide (ZnSe) films on gallium arsenide (GaAs). The surprising behaviour of the Brillouin intensities of the standing wave modes in ZnSe are explained in terms of interference of the elasto-optic scattering amplitudes from the film and substrate. Numerical calculations of the scattering cross-section, which takes into account ripple and elasto-optic scattering mechanism, agrees well with the experimental data. Light scattering studies of standing wave type modes in free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer on Si3N4 were carried out. In these bilayer structures PMMA is much softer than Si3N 4, a property that leads to confinement of low frequency modes associated with the PMMA layer to within its boundaries. In addition, the flexural and the dilatational modes from the Si3N4 layer are observed and are found to hybridize with the standing wave modes from the PMMA layer. Our study of phonon modes in PMMA wires supported on a free-standing Si3N4 membrane extends our work on free-standing double layer membranes. In recent years there is much interest in the study of phonon modes in nano-scale structures such as wires or dots. Although much theoretical work has been carried out in this direction, no experiments exist that explore the dispersion of the phonon modes in such structures. Brillouin Light scattering is ideally suited for studying phonons in such reduced dimensions and our work represents the first effort in this direction. The spectra reveal modes which are quantized both along the width, as well along the thickness
Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior
Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari
2016-01-01
A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.
Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves
Jakeman, E
2006-01-01
Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...
Scattering theory with path integrals
Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2014-03-15
Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.
Scattering Theory with Path Integrals
Rosenfelder, R
2013-01-01
Starting from well-known expressions for the $T$-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.
Cardona, Manuel
2007-01-01
This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...
Rytov approximation in electron scattering
Krehl, Jonas; Lubk, Axel
2017-06-01
In this work we introduce the Rytov approximation in the scope of high-energy electron scattering with the motivation of developing better linear models for electron scattering. Such linear models play an important role in tomography and similar reconstruction techniques. Conventional linear models, such as the phase grating approximation, have reached their limits in current and foreseeable applications, most importantly in achieving three-dimensional atomic resolution using electron holographic tomography. The Rytov approximation incorporates propagation effects which are the most pressing limitation of conventional models. While predominately used in the weak-scattering regime of light microscopy, we show that the Rytov approximation can give reasonable results in the inherently strong-scattering regime of transmission electron microscopy.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-15
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.
Classical scattering from oscillating targets
Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L
2002-12-30
We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.
Scattering of light by crystals
Hayes, William
2012-01-01
This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.
Integration Rules for Scattering Equations
Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H
2015-01-01
As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any M\\"obius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.
Integration rules for scattering equations
Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.
2015-09-01
As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.
Nanocatalytic resonance scattering spectral analysis
无
2010-01-01
The resonance scattering spectral technique has been established using the synchronous scanning technique on spectrofluorometry.Because of its advantages of simplicity,rapidity and sensitivity,it has been widely applied to analyses of proteins,nucleic acids and inorganic ions.This paper summarizes the application of immunonanogold and aptamer modified nanogold(AptAu) catalytic resonance scattering spectral technique in combination with the work of our group,citing 53 references.
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Hughes, E.
1994-02-01
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.
Euclidean formulation of diffractive scattering
Meggiolaro, E
2005-01-01
After a brief review (in the first part) of some relevant properties of the high-energy parton-parton scattering amplitudes, in the second part we shall discuss the infrared finiteness and some analyticity properties of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, when going from Minkowskian to Euclidean theory, and we shall see how they can be related to the still unsolved problem of the s-dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross-sections.
Kalyanova, Olena
difficulties experienced by scientists when attempting to model DSF thermal and energy performance were examined. In addition, the lack of experimental studies and empirical validation of models was realized, many numerical models have not been empirically validated and most of them require an expert knowledge...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model......Double-Skin Facades (DSF) are gaining popularity that, in fact, appears to be independent from sturdy critics of the concept in the past years. DSF buildings are being built in Europe and worldwide, DSF concept is being taught at schools of architecture and fully glazed office buildings are being...
Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Huang, Chenghui; Wei, Yong; Shen, Hongyuan; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Lingxiong; Chen, Zhenqiang
2009-01-01
.... A 30-mm-length double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO(4) crystal was utilized for efficient self-Raman laser operation by reducing the thermal effects and increasing the interaction length for the stimulated Raman scattering...
Haiyong Zhu; Yanmin Duan; Ge Zhang; Chenghui Huang; Yong Wei; Hongyuan Shen; Yiqun Zheng; Lingxiong Huang; Zhenqiang Chen
2009-01-01
.... A 30-mm-length double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO_4 crystal was utilized for efficient self-Raman laser operation by reducing the thermal effects and increasing the interaction length for the stimulated Raman scattering...
The Double Copy Structure of Soft Gravitons
Vera, Agustin Sabio
2014-01-01
The subleading corrections to factorization theorems for soft bremsstrahlung in nonabelian gauge theories and gravity are investigated. Building on recent results, we write the action of the angular momentum operators on scattering amplitudes as derivatives with respect to the Mandelstam invariants to uncover a double copy structure in the contribution of the soft graviton to the amplitude, both in the leading term and the first correction. Using our approach, we study Gribov's theorem as extended to nonabelian gauge theories and gravity by Lipatov, and find that subleading corrections can be obtained from those to Low's theorem by dropping the terms with derivatives with respect to the center-of-mass energy, which are suppressed at high energies. In this case, the emitted gravitons are not necessarily soft.
Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank
2013-11-27
Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.
1999-01-01
The incidence of mutations in the X-linked gene doublecortin in patients with “double cortex” syndrome (DC; also called subcortical band heterotopia or laminar heterotopia) and familial DC with lissencephaly was investigated in a cohort of 8 pedigrees and 47 sporadic patients with DC examined at the Division of Neurogenics, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, and multiple centers in the US and abroad.
Daijiro Fukuda
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.
Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia
2009-01-01
This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for white light. Obtaining such fringes in a Michelson interferometer is not a trivial task.1 The interferometer is typically illuminated with a monochroma...
Double pendulum contact problem
Špička J.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The work concerns contact problems focused on biomechanical systems modelled by a multibody approach. The example is modelling of impact between a body and an infrastructure. The paper firstly presents algorithm for minimum distance calculation. An analytical approach using a tangential plain perpendicular to an initial one is applied. Contact force generated during impact is compared by three different continuous force models, namely the Hertz’s model, the spring-dashpot model and the non-linear damping model. In order to identify contact parameters of these particular models, the method of numerical optimization is used. Purpose of this method is to find the most corresponding results of numerical simulation to the original experiment. Numerical optimization principle is put upon a bouncing ball example for the purpose of evaluation of desirable contact force parameters. The contact modelling is applied to a double pendulum problem. The equation of motion of the double pendulum system is derived using Lagrange equation of the second kind with multipliers, respecting the contact phenomena. Applications in biomechanical research are hinted at arm gravity motion and a double pendulum impact example.
Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D
2010-01-01
A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section ($\\frac{d^2\\sigma}{dT_\\mu d\\cos\\theta_\\mu}$) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ($\\sigma[E_\
Nonlinear scattering in hard tissue studied with ultrashort laser pulses
Eichler, J. [Technische Fachhochschule Berlin, Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Kim, B.M. [Yonsei Univ., Wonjoo, Kangwon-Do (Korea)
2002-07-01
The back-scattered spectrum of ultrashort laser pulses (800 nm, 0.2 ps) was studied in human dental and other hard tissues in vitro below the ablation threshold. Frequency doubled radiation (SHG), frequency tripled radiation and two-photon fluorescence were detected. The relative yield for these processes was measured for various pulse energies. The dependence of the SHG signal on probe thickness was determined in forward and back scattering geometry. SHG is sensitive to linear polarization of the incident laser radiation. SHG in human teeth was studied in vitro showing larger signals in dentin than in cementum and enamel. In carious areas no SHG signal could be detected. Possible applications of higher harmonic radiation for diagnostics and microscopy are discussed. (orig.)
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.
Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan
2016-05-17
Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon
Scattering in Relativistic Particle Mechanics.
de Bievre, Stephan
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis we study scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. We use our results to analyse gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. We first present a general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics. This permits a model-independent and geometric definition of the notions of asymptotic completeness and of Moller and scattering operators. Subsequent analysis of these concepts divides into two parts. First, we study the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e. those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group. We classify all canonical (symplectic) scattering transformations on the relativistic phase space for two free particles in terms of a single function of the two invariants of the theory. We show how this function is determined by the center of mass time delay and scattering angle and vice versa. The second part of our analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Hence, we turn to two approaches to relativistic particle mechanics: the Hamiltonian constraint models and the manifestly covariant formalism. Using general geometric arguments, we prove "gauge invariance" of the scattering transformation in the Todorov -Komar Hamiltonian constraint model. We conclude that the scattering cross sections of the Todorov-Komar models have the same angular dependence as their non-relativistic counterpart, irrespective of a choice of gauge. This limits the physical relevance of those models. We present a physically non -trivial Hamiltonian constraint model, starting from
DNS: Diffuse scattering neutron time-of-flight spectrometer
Yixi Su
2015-08-01
Full Text Available DNS is a versatile diffuse scattering instrument with polarisation analysis operated by the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, outstation at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ. Compact design, a large double-focusing PG monochromator and a highly efficient supermirror-based polarizer provide a polarized neutron flux of about 107 n cm-2 s-1. DNS is used for the studies of highly frustrated spin systems, strongly correlated electrons, emergent functional materials and soft condensed matter.
Diffusion of water adsorbed in hydrotalcite: neutron scattering Study
Mitra, S [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pramanik, A [Unilever Research India, Bangalore 500 066 (India); Chakrabarty, D [Godrej Sara Lee Limited, Research and Development Centre, Mumbai 400 079 (India); Juranyi, F [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETHZ and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Gautam, S [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mukhopadhyay, R [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)
2007-12-15
Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of ionic lamellar solids with positively charged layers of two kinds of metallic cations and exchangeable hydrated anions. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements are performed in this type of LDH structured hydrated hydrotalcite sample to study the dynamical behaviour of the water in geometric confinement within the layers. Dynamical parameters correspond to the confined water molecules revealed that depending on the amount of excess water present, behaves differently and approaches bulk values at high concentration. Both translational and rotational dynamical parameters showed that at very low concentration of excess water, water molecules are attached to the surfaces and show the confinement effect.
Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential
Ibraheem, Awad A.
2016-12-01
Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.
Introduction to wave scattering, localization, and mesoscopic phenomena
Sheng, Ping
1995-01-01
This book gives readers a coherent picture of waves in disordered media, including multiple scattered waves. The book is intended to be self-contained, with illustrated problems and solutions at the end of each chapter to serve the double purpose of filling out the technical and mathematical details and giving the students exercises if used as a course textbook.The study of wave behavior in disordered media has applications in:Condensed matter physics (semi and superconductor nanostructures and mesoscopic phenomena)Materials science/analytical chemistry (analysis of composite and crystalline structures and properties)Optics and electronics (microelectronic and optoelectronic devices)Geology (seismic exploration of Earths subsurface)
Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter
Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-12-31
The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.
Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering
Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.
2009-05-04
Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.
Ferrer, P.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Heyman, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Castro, G. R.
2013-03-01
A low/high temperature (60-1000K) and pressure (10-10-3x103 mbar) "baby chamber", specially adapted to the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering station, has been designed, developed and installed at the Spanish CRG BM25 SpLine beamline at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The chamber has a cylindrical form with 100 mm of diameter, built on a 360° beryllium nipple of 150 mm height. The UHV equipment and a turbo pump are located on the upper part of the chamber to leave a wide solid angle for exploring reciprocal space. The chamber features 4 CF16 and 5 CF40 ports for electrical feed through and leak valves, ion gun, etc. The heat exchanger is a customized compact LN2 (or LHe) continuous flow cryostat. The sample is mounted on a Mo support on the heat exchanger, which has in the back side a BORALECTRIC® Heater Elements. Experiments of surfaces/interfaces/ multilayer materials, thin films or single crystals in a huge variety of environments can be performed, also in situ studies of growth or evolution of the samples. Data measurement can be collected with a punctual and a bi-dimensional detector, being possible to simultaneously use them.
High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics
Pierce, Allan D
1992-01-01
High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r
A hybrid Scatter/Transform cloaking model
Gad Licht
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new Scatter/Transform cloak is developed that combines the light bending of refraction characteristic of a Transform cloak with the scatter cancellation characteristic of a Scatter cloak. The hybrid cloak incorporates both Transform’s variable index of refraction with modified linear intrusions to maximize the Scatter cloak effect. Scatter/Transform improved the scattering cross-section of cloaking in a 2-dimensional space to 51.7% compared to only 39.6% or 45.1% respectively with either Scatter or Transform alone. Metamaterials developed with characteristics based on the new ST hybrid cloak will exhibit superior cloaking capabilities.
Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures
Chu, Shi-Wei
2016-09-01
Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.
Thomson scattering from laser plasmas
Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A
1999-01-12
Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.
Liu
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.
Double-soft behavior for scalars and gluons from string theory
Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-12-22
We compute the leading double-soft behavior for gluons and for the scalars obtained by dimensional reduction of a higher dimensional pure gauge theory, from the scattering amplitudes of gluons and scalars living in the world-volume of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string. In the case of gluons, we compute both the double-soft behavior when the two soft gluons are contiguous as well as when they are not contiguous. From our results, that are valid in string theory, one can easily get the double-soft limit in gauge field theory by sending the string tension to infinity.
An effective field theory for forward scattering and factorization violation
Rothstein, Ira Z.; Stewart, Iain W.
2016-08-01
Starting with QCD, we derive an effective field theory description for forward scattering and factorization violation as part of the soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET) for high energy scattering. These phenomena are mediated by long distance Glauber gluon exchanges, which are static in time, localized in the longitudinal distance, and act as a kernel for forward scattering where | t| ≪ s. In hard scattering, Glauber gluons can induce corrections which invalidate factorization. With SCET, Glauber exchange graphs can be calculated explicitly, and are distinct from graphs involving soft, collinear, or ultrasoft gluons. We derive a complete basis of operators which describe the leading power effects of Glauber exchange. Key ingredients include regulating light-cone rapidity singularities and subtractions which prevent double counting. Our results include a novel all orders gauge invariant pure glue soft operator which appears between two collinear rapidity sectors. The 1-gluon Feynman rule for the soft operator coincides with the Lipatov vertex, but it also contributes to emissions with ≥ 2 soft gluons. Our Glauber operator basis is derived using tree level and one-loop matching calculations from full QCD to both SCETII and SCETI. The one-loop amplitude's rapidity renormalization involves mixing of color octet operators and yields gluon Reggeization at the amplitude level. The rapidity renormalization group equation for the leading soft and collinear functions in the forward scattering cross section are each given by the BFKL equation. Various properties of Glauber gluon exchange in the context of both forward scattering and hard scattering factorization are described. For example, we derive an explicit rule for when eikonalization is valid, and provide a direct connection to the picture of multiple Wilson lines crossing a shockwave. In hard scattering operators Glauber subtractions for soft and collinear loop diagrams ensure that we are not sensitive to
Kominis, Iannis
2011-03-01
Radical-ion-pair reactions, fundamental in photosynthesis and at the basis of the avian magnetic compass mechanism, have been recently shown to offer a rich playground for applying methods and concepts from quantum measurement/quantum information science. We will demonstrate that radical-ion-pair reactions are almost the exact analog of the optical double slit experiment, i.e. Nature has already engineered biochemical reactions performing the act of quantum interference. We will further elaborate on the non-trivial quantum effects pertaining in these reactions and the recent debate on their fundamental theoretical description that these effects have sparked.
Cheng, Tzu-Yu; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Chen, Kun-Shan; Lee, Jong-Sen; Cui, Yi
2013-01-01
In this paper, a multi-temporal analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (Pol-SAR) data over the sandbank and oyster farm area is presented. Specifically, a four-component scattering model, being able to identify single bounce, double bounce, volume, and helix scattering power contributions, has been employed to retrieve information. Decomposition results of a time series RADARSAT Pol-SAR images acquired over the western Taiwan coast indicate that the coastal tide level plays a key r...
de Nijs, Robin; Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L
2014-01-01
and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: (177)Lu SPECT images of a phantom...... with known activity concentration ratio between the uniform background and filled hollow spheres were acquired for three different collimators: low-energy high resolution (LEHR), low-energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium-energy general purpose (MEGP). Counts were collected in several energy windows......, and scatter correction was performed by applying different methods such as effective scatter source estimation (ESSE), triple-energy and dual-energy window, double-photopeak window and downscatter correction. The intensity ratio between the spheres and the background was measured and corrected for the partial...
Analysis on Vertical Scattering Signatures in Forestry with PolInSAR
Guo, Shenglong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jingjing; Hong, Wen
2014-11-01
We apply accurate topographic phase to the Freeman-Durden decomposition for polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) data. The cross correlation matrix obtained from PolInSAR observations can be decomposed into three scattering mechanisms matrices accounting for the odd-bounce, double-bounce and volume scattering. We estimate the phase based on the Random volume over Ground (RVoG) model, and as the initial input parameter of the numerical method which is used to solve the parameters of decomposition. In addition, the modified volume scattering model introduced by Y. Yamaguchi is applied to the PolInSAR target decomposition in forest areas rather than the pure random volume scattering as proposed by Freeman-Durden to make best fit to the actual measured data. This method can accurately retrieve the magnitude associated with each mechanism and their vertical location along the vertical dimension. We test the algorithms with L- and P- band simulated data.
Anomalous lattice vibrations of monolayer MoS 2 probed by ultraviolet Raman scattering
Liu, Hsiang Lin
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive Raman scattering study of monolayer MoS
Elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections with low-energy light radioactive ion beams.
Guimarães Valdir
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Elastic scattering experiments have being performed with low-energy radioactive ion beams produced by the RIBRAS facility in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Here I present the results for elastic scattering of 6He on several targets and light beams on 12C target. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of experiments were angular distributions for the elastic scattering of beryllium isotopes projectiles, 7Be, 9Be and 10Be, on a light target 12C were obtained. These elastic scattering angular distributions have been analysed in terms of optical model using the double-folding Sao Paulo potential. From this analysis, the total reaction cross section were also deduced and compared to the total reaction cross sections for many other light projectiles on 12C target. The comparison was made in terms of Universal Function reduction method.
Helium atom scattering from surfaces
1992-01-01
High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.
Single-Scattering Optical Tomography
Markel, V A; Markel, Vadim A.; Schotland, John C.
2007-01-01
We describe a novel tomographic imaging modality. The proposed technique utilizes visible or near-infrared light as a tissue probe in the ``mesoscopic'' scattering regime when the tissue layer exhibits sufficiently strong scattering so that its direct visual inspection is not possible, yet transmitted and reflected light are not diffuse. The forward model for light propagation in tissues is based on the scattering-order expansion of the radiative transport equation Green's function. The associated inverse problem is similar to the problem of inverting the Radon transform of x-ray tomography, except that the ray integrals are evaluated not along straight lines but along broken rays. As a result, the method does not require rotating the imaging device around the sample and taking multiple projections and, therefore, can be used in backscattering. An algebraic image reconstruction algorithm is numerically implemented using computer-generated data. An analytic image reconstruction formula analogous to the filtere...
SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS
M.Benhamou
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.
Positron-alkali atom scattering
Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.
1990-01-01
Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.
Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits
Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.
2016-10-01
Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2-4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major
Bousso, Raphael
2013-01-01
The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps ("A=R_B", "ER=EPR") founder when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence...
Singh, A
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The accuracy of the calibration model for the single and double integrating sphere systems are compared for a white light system. A calibration model is created from a matrix of samples with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients...
Pumped shot noise in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures
Zhu, Rui; Lai, Maoli
2011-11-01
Quantum pumping processes are accompanied by considerable quantum noise. Based on the scattering approach, we investigated the pumped shot noise properties in adiabatically modulated graphene-based double-barrier structures. It is found that compared with the Poisson processes, the pumped shot noise is dramatically enhanced where the dc pumped current changes flow direction, which demonstrates the effect of the Klein paradox.
Optical scattering measurement and analysis
Stover, John C
2012-01-01
Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t
Scattering behaviour of Janus particles
Kaya, H
2002-01-01
Recent advances in polymer synthesis has produced so-called Janus micelles: tailor-made copolymer structures in which the blocks constitute separate moieties. We present expressions for the form factors, P(Q), and the radii of gyration, R sub g , of Janus particles with spherical and cylindrical morphology and check their validity by comparison to simulated scattering data, calculated from Monte Carlo generations of the pair-distance distribution function, p(r). The effect of block incompatibilities on the scattering is briefly discussed. (orig.)
New Techniques in Neutron Scattering
Birk, Jonas Okkels
Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...... potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA...
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.
Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging
Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.
Liu, Zhengwen; Liu, Shaopu; Wang, Lei; Peng, Juanjuan; He, Youqiu
2009-09-01
In pH 6.6 Britton-Robinson buffer medium, the CdS quantum dots capped by thioglycolic acid could react with aminoglycoside (AGs) antibiotics such as neomycin sulfate (NEO) and streptomycin sulfate (STP) to form the large aggregates by virtue of electrostatic attraction and the hydrophobic force, which resulted in a great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and resonance non-linear scattering such as second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). The maximum scattering peak was located at 310 nm for RRS, 568 nm for SOS and 390 nm for FDS, respectively. The enhancements of scattering intensity (Δ I) were directly proportional to the concentration of AGs in a certain ranges. A new method for the determination of trace NEO and STP using CdS quantum dots probe was developed. The detection limits (3 σ) were 1.7 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 4.4 ng mL -1 (STP) by RRS method, were 5.2 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 20.9 ng mL -1 (STP) by SOS method and were 4.4 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 25.7 ng mL -1 (STP) by FDS method, respectively. The sensitivity of RRS method was the highest. The optimum conditions and influence factors were investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism was discussed.
Double Field Theory Inspired Cosmology
Wu, Houwen
2014-01-01
Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We find two sets of solutions in double field theory cosmology, respecting or violating the strong (weak) constraint. Both sets of solutions naturally contain the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. This novel feature opens a window for possible resolution of the cosmic amnesia. We also demonstrate that the scale factor duality in the standard string cosmology is nothing but the T-duality in double field theory. The scale dual dilatons in the standard string cosmology is simply the usual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\phi$ and dual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\tilde\\phi$ in double field theory. Furthermore, we identify the "sh...
Double-quarkonium production at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC
Jean-Philippe Lansberg
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We present predictions for double-quarkonium production in the kinematical region relevant for the proposed fixed-target experiment using the LHC beams (dubbed as AFTER@LHC. These include all spin-triplet S-wave charmonium and bottomonium pairs, i.e. ψ(n1S+ψ(n2S, ψ(n1S+ϒ(m1S and ϒ(m1S+ϒ(m2S with n1,n2=1,2 and m1,m2=1,2,3. We calculate the contributions from double-parton scatterings and single-parton scatterings. With an integrated luminosity of 20 fb−1 to be collected at AFTER@LHC, we find that the yields for double-charmonium production are large enough for differential distribution measurements. We discuss some differential distributions for J/ψ+J/ψ production, which can help to study the physics of double-parton and single-parton scatterings in a new energy range and which might also be sensitive to double intrinsic cc¯ coalescence at large negative Feynman x.
Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words
Burns, Jonathan
2011-01-01
A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.
Optical scattering in glass ceramics
Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Verrocchio, P.
2008-01-01
The transparency of glass ceramics with nanocrystals is generally higher than that expected from the theory of Rayleigh scattering. We attribute this ultra-transparency to the spatial correlation of the nanoparticles. The structure factor is calculated for a simple model system, the random sequentia
Quantum scattering at low energies
Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik
2009-01-01
For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...
Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering
2002-01-01
This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).
Light repolarization by scattering media
Sorrentini, Jacques; Soriano, Gabriel; Amra, Claude
2011-01-01
The polarization of a coherent depolarized incident light beam passing through a disordered medium is investigated. The local polarization of the scattered far field and the probability density function are calculated and show an excellent agreement with experiment. It is demonstrated that complex media may confer high degree of polarization (0.75 DOP average) to the incident unpolarized light.
Effective potential for relativistic scattering
Elbistan, Mahmut; Balog, Janos
2016-01-01
We consider quantum inverse scattering with singular potentials and calculate the Sine-Gordon model effective potential in the laboratory and centre-of-mass frames. The effective potentials are frame dependent but closely resemble the zero-momentum potential of the equivalent Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.
Geometric Scattering in Robotic Telemanipulation
Stramigioli, Stefano; Schaft, Arjan van der; Maschke, Bernhard; Melchiorri, Claudio
2002-01-01
In this paper, we study the interconnection of two robots, which are modeled as port-controlled Hamiltonian systems through a transmission line with time delay. There will be no analysis of the time delay, but its presence justifies the use of scattering variables to preserve passivity. The contribu
An Analysis of Scatter Decomposition
1990-01-01
the degree of a scatter d€omposition reduces the commonl processor workload variance. Tlhe ntccesssry assmlptions are that the workload process bc ...5 ot :5 2. 11 P and n be given suck that P divides n evenly, and let A,%t be the P X it ossignmint matriz dscribing the mtodular mapping. Then for
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas
Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1974-01-01
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...
Nuclear matter and electron scattering
Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
1998-06-01
We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)
Quasi-elastic scattering of 6He, 7Be, and 8B nuclei by 12C nuclei
Kovalchuk, V I
2016-01-01
The observed cross sections of quasi-elastic scattering of 6He, 7Be, and 8B nuclei by 12C nuclei are described within the framework of the diffraction nuclear model and the model of nucleus-nucleus scattering in the high-energy approximation with a double folding potential, for intermediate energies of the incident particles. The calculations make use of realistic distributions of nucleon densities and take account of the Coulomb interaction and inelastic scattering with excitation of low-lying collective states of the target.
Colored Flag by Double Refraction.
Reid, Bill
1994-01-01
Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)
LUO Xin-Lian; BAI Hua; ZHAO Lei
2008-01-01
Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, the double degenerate star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple white dwarfs (WDs), there is additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SN Ia in the research of cosmology.
GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.
Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong
2013-01-01
We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t-like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio
2016-01-01
We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.
Roos, TH
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the popular Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) formulation of the Equation of Radiative Transfer (ERT), the 4 pi solid angle range of directions is divided into a finite number of discrete directions or ordinates. This requires that the continuous...
Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR
Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Aamodt, R.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Russell, D.A. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bindslev, H. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
1993-11-01
A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques.
Influence of Temperature on Stimulated Raman Scattering in Single-Mode Silica Fibre
MEN Zhi-Wei; FANG Wen-Hui; SUN Xiu-Ping; LI Zuo-Wei; YI Han-Wei; WANG Zhao-Min; GAO Shu-Qin; LU Guo-Hui
2008-01-01
One piece of single-mode silica fibre is used to study of temperature characteristics of stimulated Raman scattering(SRS), additional peaks (double-humped) are observed at both sides of pump light and 1st-order Stokes light in the experiment. The frequency shift of the double-humped is calculated by stimulated Four-Photon mixing (SFPM)phase matching theory, the result is consistent with the frequency shift of this experiment. Simultaneously, the experimental conditions accord with the theoretical calculation of effective coherence length. We indicate that the double-humped phenomenon is caused by SFPM. The intensity of double-humped is first increased, then decreased and finally disappeared as the temperature increases. This phenomenon has been explained theoretically.
Chelli, Ali
2014-01-01
In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind bend scattering model for vehicle-to- infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double- bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of a curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind bend model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Additionally, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. Moreover, we study the performance of different digital modulations over a sum of singly and doubly scattered (SSDS) channel. Note that the proposed V2I channel model falls under the umbrella of SSDS channels since the transmitted signal undergoes a combination of single-bounce and double-bounce scattering. We study some characteristic quantities of SSDS channels and derive expressions for the average symbol error probability of several modulation schemes over SSDS channels with and without diversity combining. The validity of these analytical expressions is confirmed by computer-based simulations.
Goforth, Matthew; Traverso, Peter; Maurer, David
2013-10-01
To better understand the equilibrium and stability of Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) plasmas, a multipoint Thomson scattering system is under development at Auburn University. Thomson scattering will be performed at 532 nm using a frequency doubled Continuum PL DLS Nd:YAG laser. The Thomson scattered light will be measured using a high throughput HoloSpec f/1.8i imaging spectrograph with in-line interference filter for spectral discrimination of stray laser light. An image intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera employing a Gen III photocathode with quantum efficiency of approximately 50% near the frequency doubled laser line is planned as the detection element for the scattered light. Bench and CTH impurity line emission measurements will be presented quantifying spectrometer and ICCD performance and suitability for scattering measurements over the visible spectral region near 532 nm. This work has been supported by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610 and the Auburn University Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program.
Shirinzadeh, B.; Hillard, M. E.; Blair, A. B.; Exton, R. J.
1991-01-01
Using a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG pulsed laser and a single-intensified CCD camera, Rayleigh scattering measurements have been performed to study the cluster formation in a Mach 6 wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. These studies were conducted both in the free stream and in a model flow field for various flow conditions to gain an understanding of the dependence of the Rayleigh scattering (by clusters) on the local pressures and temperatures in the facility. Using the same laser system, simultaneous measurements of the local temperature have also been performed using the rotational Raman scattering of molecular nitrogen and determined the densities of molecular oxygen and nitrogen by using the vibrational Raman scattering from these species. Quantitative results are presented in detail with emphasis on the applicability of the Rayleigh scattering for obtaining quantitative measurements of molecular densities both in the free stream and in the model flow field.
Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment
Traverso, Peter; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.
2016-10-01
A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The system takes a single point measurement at the magnetic axis to both calibrate the two- color soft x-ray Te system and serve as an additional diagnostic for the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line propagates 8 m to the CTH device mid-plane with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. Thomson scattered light is collected by two adjacent f/2 plano-convex condenser lenses and focused onto a custom fiber bundle. The fiber is then re-bundled and routed to a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 535-565 nm. The system has been designed to measure plasmas with core Te of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. Work supported by USDOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.
HT-7 Multipoint Nd Laser Thomson Scattering Apparatus
无
2001-01-01
A compact, low cost, multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic system for HT-7 superconducting tokamak has been in operation since 1999. Its capability of measuring electron temperatures is in the range of 200 eV to 2 keV at a density of a few times 1012 cm-3, with a spatial resolution of 2.4 cm for 5 spatial points and a temporal resolution of 1 ms～1 s for 8 time points. The main components of the diagnostic system include a 20～25 J Nd:glass laser with 35 ns pulse width (8 pulses per burst), a KDP frequency-doubling unit, spherical mirrors of multipass input optical system, a wide-angle collection objective, a bandpass glass filter for reducing the stray light to zero, a f/2.5 polychromator, a fiberglass collimator, a photomultiplier's box with electronic preamplifier, high gain and high signal/noise ratio, CAMAC data acquisition and so on.The multipass optical system has been successful at increasing the quantity of scattered photons by passing the probing laser beam 10 times through the plasma under investigation. The HT7 Thomson scattering diagnostic has provided successfully the information on two-dimensional electron temperature in the plasma of HT-7 tokamak with LHCD and IBW.
Neutron scattering studies of mixed-valence semiconductors
Mignot, J.M. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alekseev, P.A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-12-31
Neutron scattering experiments on the mixed-valence (MV) compounds SmB{sub 6} are reported. The inelastic magnetic response of SmB{sub 6} at T = 2 K, measured on a double-isotope single crystal,displays a strongly damped peak at 35 meV corresponding to the inter multiplet transition of Sm{sup 2+}. At lower energies ( h.{omega} {approx_equal} 14 meV), a narrow magnetic excitation is observed, with remarkable scattering-vector and temperature dependences of its intensity. This novel feature is discussed in terms of recent theoretical works describing the formation of an anisotropic local bound state in semiconducting MV materials. If the average samarium valence is decreased by substituting La for Sm, a peak is found to appear at high energies. The elastic magnetic form factor of SmB{sub 6} was determined using polarised neutrons and no significant difference is observed in its Q-dependence with respect to that of pure divalent samarium. This surprising behaviour is constant with previous measurements on the gold (high-pressure) phase of SmS. The above results are compared to those already reported for other MV materials. In particular existing information for TmSe is supplemented by recent inelastic scattering measurements carried out on a large stoichiometric single crystal. (author). 44 refs., 7 figs.
Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions
Kvale, T.J.
1992-01-01
This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering,single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H{sup {minus}} is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991.
TONG Rui; WU Hui-Xia; QIU Xue-Qiong; QIAN Shi-Xiong; LIN Yang-Hui; CAI Rui-Fang
2006-01-01
@@ Three soluble polystyrene grafted multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) samples are synthesized, and their optical performance and nonlinear scattering properties are investigated by z-scan method using nanosecond pulses of 532nm from a frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. Analysis of the experimental results shows that other than nonlinear scattering, nonlinear absorption plays a major role in optical limiting performance of these stable and well-dispersed suspensions. These new synthesized materials which can be better dispersed in common organic solvents than MWNT itself can be considered as potential sources for further optical applications.
Sizing of Microparticles from Angular Scattering Ratio
Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza
This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension.......This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension....
Electromagnetic Scattering by Spheres of Topological Insulators
Ge, Lixin; Zi, Jian
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic scattering properties of topological insulator (TI) spheres are systematically studied in this paper. Unconventional backward scattering caused by the topological magneto-electric (TME) effect of TIs are found in both Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes. This enhanced backward scattering can be achieved by introducing an impedance-matched background which can suppress the bulk scattering. For the cross-polarized scattering coefficients, interesting antiresonances are found in the Mie scattering regime, wherein the cross-polarized electromagnetic fields induced by the TME effect are trapped inside TI spheres. In the Rayleigh limit, the quantized TME effect of TIs can be determined by measuring the electric-field components of scattered waves in the far field.
Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering
Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang
2012-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.
Structural characterisation of a layered double hydroxide nanosheet
Funnell, Nicholas P.; Wang, Qiang; Connor, Leigh; Tucker, Matthew G.; O'Hare, Dermot; Goodwin, Andrew L.
2014-06-01
We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves.We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01265h
Hedging Double Barriers with Singles
Sbuelz, A.
2000-01-01
Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges overcom
Properties of double field theory
Penas, Victor Alejandro
2016-01-01
In this thesis we study several aspects of Double Field Theory (DFT). In general, Double Field Theory is subject to the so-called strong constraint. By using the Flux Formulation of DFT, we explore to what extent one can deal with the gauge consistency constraints of DFT without imposing the strong
MODELING AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR DOUBLE MODULATION PHOTO REFLECTANCE EXPERIMENTS
M. Hernández
2004-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an improved method to be used in double modulation photo reflectance experiments, inorder to reduce the influence of parasitic effects in the useful signal. The method uses the inner and outer sectionsof a single chopper disk to modulate the monochromator and the laser beam, eliminating the need of complexelectronic filters, and two additional PIN photodiodes for scattered light compensation. The method has beennumerically simulated using LabVIEW in order to investigate the influence of the modulator finite switching timeand the finite resolution of the digital acquisition system. Results show that a relative error less than 1% can beachieved.
Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media
Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.;
2010-01-01
We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....
Scattering series in mobility problem for suspensions
Makuch, Karol
2012-01-01
The mobility problem for suspension of spherical particles immersed in an arbitrary flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid is considered in the regime of low Reynolds numbers. The scattering series which appears in the mobility problem is simplified. The simplification relies on the reduction of the number of types of single-particle scattering operators appearing in the scattering series. In our formulation there is only one type of single-particle scattering operator.
Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Snigirev, A. M.; Zotov, N. P.
2016-05-01
The production of weak gauge bosons in association with heavy flavored mesons at the LHCb conditions is considered, and a detailed study of the different contributing processes is presented including single and double parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms. We find that the usual DPS factorization formula needs to be corrected for the limited partonic phase space, and that including the relevant corrections reduces discrepancies in the associated Z D production. We conclude finally that double parton scattering dominates the production of same-sign W±D± states, as well as the production of W- bosons associated with B mesons. The latter processes can thus be regarded as new useful DPS indicators.
Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Malyshev, M.A.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics
2015-03-15
Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of k{sub t}-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W{sup ±}D{sup ±} configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.
The Cambridge double star atlas
MacEvoy, Bruce; Mullaney, James; Tirion, Wil; Mullaney, James
2015-01-01
The Cambridge Double Star Atlas is back! It is the first and only atlas of physical double stars that can be viewed with amateur astronomical instruments. Completely rewritten, this new edition explains the latest research into double stars, and looks at the equipment, techniques and opportunities that will enable you to discover, observe and measure them. The target list has been completely revised and extended to 2500 binary or multiple systems. Each system is described with the most recent and accurate data from the authoritative Washington Double Star Catalog, including the HD and SAO numbers that are most useful in our digital age. Hundreds of remarks explain the attributes of local, rapidly changing, often measured or known orbital systems. The color atlas charts by Wil Tirion have been updated to help you easily find and identify the target systems, as well as other deep-sky objects. This is an essential reference for double star observers..
Relativistic effects in model calculations of double parton distribution function
Rinaldi, Matteo
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider double parton distribution functions (dPDFs) which are the main non perturbative ingredients appearing in the double parton scattering cross section formula in hadronic collisions. By using recent calculation of dPDFs by means of constituent quark models within the so called Light-Front approach, we investigate the role of relativistic effects on dPDFs. We find, in particular, that the so called Melosh operators, which allow to properly convert the LF spin into the canonical one and incorporate a proper treatment of boosts, produce sizeable effects on dPDFs. We discuss specific partonic correlations induced by these operators in transverse plane which are relevant to the proton structure and study under which conditions these results are stable against variations in the choice of the proton wave function.
Chatterjee, S; Kasthurirangan, S; Kelkar, A H; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Stia, C R; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in
2009-03-28
We report the energy and angular distribution of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of ejected electrons in collisions of 8 keV projectile electrons with molecular hydrogen. The ejected electrons with energy between 1 eV and 400 eV and ejection angles between 30 deg. and 150 deg. are detected. The measured data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on two-effective centre (TEC) model. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio spectra (H{sub 2} to 2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS spectra as a function of the ejection angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCS over the solid angle as well as ejection energy. We demonstrate that the SDCS and corresponding ratio spectra also preserve the signature of interference.
THz Acoustic Spectroscopy by using Double Quantum Wells and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy
Wei, Fan Jun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lin, Kung-Hsuan
2016-06-01
GaN is a pivotal material for acoustic transducers and acoustic spectroscopy in the THz regime, but its THz phonon properties have not been experimentally and comprehensively studied. In this report, we demonstrate how to use double quantum wells as a THz acoustic transducer for measuring generated acoustic phonons and deriving a broadband acoustic spectrum with continuous frequencies. We experimentally investigated the sub-THz frequency dependence of acoustic attenuation (i.e., phonon mean-free paths) in GaN, in addition to its physical origins such as anharmonic scattering, defect scattering, and boundary scattering. A new upper limit of attenuation caused by anharmonic scattering, which is lower than previously reported values, was obtained. Our results should be noteworthy for THz acoustic spectroscopy and for gaining a fundamental understanding of heat conduction.
Double-clad hollow core photonic crystal fiber for coherent Raman endoscope.
Brustlein, Sophie; Berto, Pascal; Hostein, Richard; Ferrand, Patrick; Billaudeau, Cyrille; Marguet, Didier; Muir, Alistair; Knight, Jonathan; Rigneault, Hervé
2011-06-20
Performing label free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in endoscope imaging is a challenge, with huge potential clinical benefit. To date, this goal has remained inaccessible because of the inherent coherent Raman noise that is generated in the fiber itself. By developing double-clad hollow core photonic crystal fiber, we demonstrate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in an 'endoscope-like' scheme. Both the excitation beams and the collected CARS and SRS signals travel through the same fiber. No CARS and SRS signals are generated within the hollow core fiber even for temporally overlapping pump and Stokes beams, leading to excellent image quality. The CARS and SRS signals generated in the sample are coupled back into a high numerical aperture multimode cladding surrounding the central photonic crystal cladding. We demonstrate this scheme by imaging molecular vibrational bonds of organic crystal deposited on a glass surface.
Classical and quantum scattering in optical systems
Puentes, Graciana
2007-01-01
The central topic of the Thesis concerns light scattering experiments with entangled photons. Specifically, we study the effect of scattering processes on polarization-entanglement of twin-photons. The main idea is that scattering generally couples polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of pho
Elastic Scattering Properties of Ultracold Strontium Atoms
张计才; 朱遵略; 刘玉芳; 孙金锋
2011-01-01
We investigate the elastic scattering properties of strontium atoms at ultracold temperatures.The scattering parameters,such as s-wave scattering lengths,effective ranges and p-wave scattering lengths,are calculated for all stable isotope combinations of Sr atoms by the quantal method and semiclassical method,respectively.Good agreements are obtained.The scattering parameters are very sensitive to small changes of the reduced mass.Due to the repulsive interisotope and intraisotope s-wave scattering length and large elastic cross sections,84Sr-86Srmixture is a good candidate to realize Bose-Bose quantum degenerate atomic gases.%We investigate the elastic scattering properties of strontium atoms at ultracold temperatures. The scattering parameters, such as s-wave scattering lengths, effective ranges and p-wave scattering lengths, are calculated for all stable isotope combinations of Sr atoms by the quantal method and semiclassical method, respectively. Good agreements are obtained. The scattering parameters are very sensitive to small changes of the reduced mass. Due to the repulsive interisotope and intraisotope s-wave scattering length and large elastic cross sections, MSr-s(iSr mixture is a good candidate to realize Bose-Bose quantum degenerate atomic gases.
Quasielastic Neutron Scattering by Superionic Strontium Chloride
Dickens, M. H.; Hutchings, M. T.; Kjems, Jørgen
1978-01-01
The scattering, from powder and single crystal samples, appears only above the superionic transition temperature, 1000K. The integrated intensity is found to be strongly dependent on the direction and magnitude of the scattering vector, Q, (which suggests the scattering is coherent) but does not ...
Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae
Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P
1985-01-01
The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.
Multiple scattering Model in GEANT4
Urbàn, L
2002-01-01
We present a new multiple scattering (MSC) model to simulate the multiple scattering of charged particles in matter. This model does not use the Moliere formalism, it is based on the more complete Lewis theory. The model simulates the scattering of the particle after a given step, computes the path length correction and the lateral displacement as well.
Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment
Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø
1998-01-01
on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...
Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae
Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P
The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.
Scattering characteristics from porous silicon
R. Sabet-Dariani
2000-12-01
Full Text Available Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet. In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.