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Sample records for solid xe ar

  1. Hg-Xe exciplex formation in mixed Xe/Ar matrices: molecular dynamics and luminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-García, Rolando; Rojas-Lorenzo, Germán; Crépin, Claudine; Ryan, Maryanne; McCaffrey, John G

    2015-03-19

    Luminescence of Hg((3)P1) atoms trapped in mixed Ar/Xe matrices containing a small amount of Xe is reported. Broad emission bands, strongly red-shifted from absorption are recorded which are assigned to strong complexes formed between the excited mercury Hg* and xenon atoms. Molecular dynamics calculations are performed on simulated Xe/Ar samples doped with Hg to follow the behavior of Hg* in the mixed rare gas matrices leading to exciplex formation. The role of Xe atoms in the first solvation shell (SS1) around Hg was investigated in detail, revealing the formation of two kinds of triatomic exciplexes; namely, Xe-Hg*-Xe and Ar-Hg*-Xe. The first species exists only when two xenon atoms are present in SS1 with specific geometries allowing the formation of a linear or quasi-linear exciplex. In the other geometries, or in the presence of only one Xe in SS1, a linear Ar-Hg*-Xe exciplex is formed. The two kinds of exciplexes have different emission bands, the most red-shifted being that involving two Xe atoms, whose emission is very close to that observed in pure Xe matrices. Simulations give a direct access to the analysis of the experimental absorption, emission, and excitation spectra, together with the dynamics of exciplexes formation.

  2. Vapor equilibrium data for the systems Ar--N/sub 2/, Kr--Ar, Kr--N/sub 2/, and Xe--Kr, as well as the liquidus lines of solid xenon and of solid krypton in liquid air component mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastera, S J

    1977-01-15

    The knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of real gas mixtures makes possible a precise design of a low temperature distillation system. The noble gas isotopes Kr and Xe are formed as a result of nuclear fission. They reach the off-gas, where they must be separated by cryogenic methods, among others, in order to reduce radiological contamination of the environment. Consequently, an equilibrium apparatus was constructed inhouse, which worked according to a dynamical measurement method. The following low temperature measurements were performed with this apparatus: (1) to test the apparatus with the Ar--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100 degrees K; (2) with the Kr--Ar system, at temperatures of 115, 116.5, 120, and 125 degrees K; (3) with the Kr--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 100, 105, at 110 degrees K in the N/sub 2/-rich existence range of the liquid phase above the solubility limit, and at temperatures of 115, 120, and 125 degrees K in the entire concentration range. No data at all were previously known about this important system. (4) In the Xe-Kr system, at temperatures of 150, 155, and 160 degrees K, in the Kr-rich liquid existence range above the solubility limit, and at the temperature steps 165, 166, and 170 degrees in the entire concentration range. The consistency of the equilibrium data thus determined was tested with the computer program SYMFIT. These measurements were completed by determining the solubility limits (= liquidus lines) of solid Kr in a liquid Kr--Ar mixture or in a liquid Kr--N/sub 2/ mixture, as well as the solubility limit of solid Xe in a liquid Xe--Kr mixture. The measurement points for the liquidus lines were associated with the respective pressure and respective temperature over the entire concentration range. The experimentally determined data are displayed on tables and graphs. The utilized measurement equipment, with its glass equilibrium cell, is described.

  3. (e, 2e) processes on Ne, Ar and Xe targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K, E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.i [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur-313 601 (India)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to explain the features of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for the (e, 2e) processes on inert targets Ne, Ar and Xe but there are still certain discrepancies in theoretical results and measurements, which require more theoretical efforts to understand the collision dynamics of these targets. We present in this paper the results of our modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculation of TDCS for the ionization of Ne (2p), Ar (3p) and Xe (5p) targets. We modify the standard DWBA formalism by including the correlation-polarization potential (which is function of electron density) and compare our computed results with the available experimental and theoretical data. We observe that the polarization potential is able to improve the agreement with experimental results.

  4. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhniy, I.V.; Grigorashchenko, O.N.; Savchenko, E.V.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally-stimulated emission of exoelectrons and photons from solid Xe pre-irradiated by low-energy electrons were studied. A high sensitivity of thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and thermally-stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) to sample prehistory was demonstrated. It was shown that electron traps in unannealed samples are characterized by much broader distribution of trap levels in comparison with annealed samples and their concentration exceeds in number that in annealed samples. Both phenomena, TSL and TSEE, were found to be triggered by release of electrons from the same kind of traps. The data obtained suggest a competition between two relaxation channels: charge recombination and electron transport terminated by TSL and TSEE. It was found that TSEE predominates at low temperatures while at higher temperatures TSL prevails. An additional relaxation channel, a photon-stimulated exoelectron emission pre-irradiated solid Xe, was revealed

  5. Ar-Xe Laser: The Path to a Robust, All-Electric Shipboard Directed Energy Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apruzese, J. P; Sethian, J. D; Giuliani, J. L; Wolford, M. F

    2008-01-01

    .... The electron beam pumped Ar-Xe laser has been investigated in an ONR-sponsored 6.1 program at NRL. The results of this program are summarized in this Memorandum Report, and indicate that the Ar-Xe laser has strong potential to meet these requirements...

  6. Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in excited states of Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in Ne matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Schwentner, N.

    1979-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation with its intense continuum and its excellent time structure has been exploited for time resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the solid state. By selective excitation of n = 1, n' = 1 and n = 2 exciton states of Xe, Kr and Ar atoms in Ne matrix we were able to identify the emitting states involved. Lifetimes within the cascade of radiative and radiationless relaxation between excited states as well as the radiative lifetimes for transitions to the ground state have been derived from the decay curves. Energy positions and radiative lifetimes of the emitting states correspond quite well with those of the free atoms. Radiative and radiationless relaxation processes take place within the manifold of excited states of the guest atoms. The rate constants for radiationless decay confirm an energy gap law. The order of the radiationless processes reaches in some cases extremely high values. Selection rules for spin and angular momentum are essential to understand the observed radiationless transition rates. (orig.)

  7. I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar dating of silicate from Weekeroo Station and Netschaevo IIE iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Silicate inclusions from two IIE iron meteorites were dated by the I-Xe and 40 Ar- 39 Ar techniques. Weekeroo Station, a 'normal' IIE iron, shows no loss of radiogenic 40 Ar at low temperature, and the well defined 40 Ar- 39 Ar plateau yields an age of 4.54 +- 0.03 Byr. The xenon data define a good I-Xe correlation with an age of + 10.9 +- 0.5 Myr relative to Bjurbole. Despite its relatively young age, Weekeroo Station's ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratio (= 0.84 +- 0.05) lies significantly below the solar value. Netschaevo silicate has a chondritic composition, unlike 'normal' IIE silicate which is more differentiated. Nevertheless Netschaevo gives a 40 Ar- 39 Ar plateau-age of only 3.79 +- 0.03 Byr, with the xenon data failing to define an I-Xe isochron. Only irons from the IAB and IIE groups contain silicate inclusions, but these two groups differ in many other respects, mostly suggesting that IAB meteorites are more primitive. The I-Xe chronology supports this suggestion inasmuch as Weekeroo Station formed well after IAB silicates. The four silicate-bearing IIE irons which have now been dated can be subdivided into distinct pairs: Weekeroo Station and Colomera formed near the beginning of the solar system, while Netschaevo and Kodaikanal both formed only 3.8 Byr ago. A review of other properties of these meteorites generally supports this subdivision. This work underscores the complexity of the history of IIE meteorites; in particular, an adequate model must account for the formation of two IIE irons at 3.8 Byr without disturbing rare gases in Weekeroo Station. All formation models are quite speculative, but the one which seems best to fit the available evidence postulates two parent bodies: the 3.8 Byr old silicate formed on one parent body, all other IIE material resided in a separate body, and subsequent collision(s) mixed the young silicate with IIE metal. (author)

  8. TARGET EXCITATION IN BARE ION XE/AR COLLISIONS STUDIED BY ELECTRON TARGET ION COINCIDENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIJS, G; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We present electron spectra resulting from collisions of bare ions N-15(7+) and C-13(6+) on Ar and the charge state distribution of target ions resulting from C-13(6+)-Xe collisions. From both type of experiments we find evidence that electron capture accompanied by target excitation is an important

  9. Competition between electronic energy transfer and relaxation in Xe doped Ar and Ne matrices studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwentner, N.; Koch, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Thin films of solid Ar and Ne doped with 1% Xe were excited with photons in the energy range from 10 eV to 20 eV in order to measure the energy distribution of the emitted electrons. Binding energies of th host and guest levels are deduced. When host excitons are excited, strong emission of electrons is observed indicating an efficient transfer of the host exciton energy to the Xe guest atoms. The energy of the free excitons is transferred, as can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the photoemitted electrons, rather than the energy of the bound (self-trapped) excitons which are observed in luminescence experiments. Furthermore, there is a striking difference between the Ar and the Ne matrix: In the Ne matrix a fast relaxation from the n = 2 to the n = 1 state was observed and only the energy of the n = 1 exciton is transferred even when higher excitons are excited, in contrast to Ar, where the transferred energy is higher for excitation of the n = 2 excitons than for n = 1. From these observations, time hierarchies for the competition between electronic energy transfer and relaxation are deduced. (orig.) [de

  10. I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar analyses of silicate from the Eagle Station pallasite and the anomalous iron meteorite Enon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Silicate from two unusual iron-rich meteorites were analyzed by the I-Xe and 40 Ar- 39 Ar techniques. Enon, an anomalous iron meteorite with chondritic silicate, shows no loss of radiogenic 40 Ar at low temperature, and gives a plateau age of 4.59 +- 0.03 Ga. Although the Xe data fail to define an I-Xe correlation the inferred Pu/U ratio is more than 2 σ above the chondritic value, and the Pu abundance derived from the concentration of Pu-fission Xe is 6 times greater than the abundance inferred for CI meteorites. These findings for Enon, coupled with data for IAB iron meteorites, suggest that presence of chondritic silicate in an iron-rich meteorite is diagnostic of an old radiometric age with little subsequent thermal disturbance. The Eagle Station pallasite, the most 16 O-rich meteorite known, gives a complex 40 Ar- 39 Ar age pattern which suggests a recent severe thermal disturbance. The absence of excess 129 Xe, and the low trapped Ar and Xe contents, are consistent with this interpretation. The similarity between 40 Ar- 39 Ar data for Eagle Station and for the olivine-rich meteorite Chassigny lends credence to the previous suggestion of a connection between Chassigny and pallasites. (author)

  11. Molecular dynamic simulation of interaction of low-energy Ar and Xe ions with copper clusters at graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornich, G.V.; Lozovskaya, L.I.; Betts, G.; Zaporozhchenko, V.I.; Faupel, F.

    2005-01-01

    One conducted molecular and dynamic simulation of sputtering of isolated clusters consisting of 13, 27 and 195 Cu atoms from the (0001) graphite surface by 200 eV energy Ar and Xe ions. It is shown that the factors of reflection of Ar and Xe ions from copper clusters differ from one another insignificantly, though the energy of the reflected Xe ions is essentially lower than that of Ar ions. The values of the factor of cluster sputtering by Xe ions are higher in contrast to sputtering by Ar ions. One identified two mechanisms of cluster sputtering resulting in the maximum of sputtering intensity at the polar angles near the normal one, and in periodicity of maximums within the azimuth distributions of sputtering intensity with 60 deg period [ru

  12. Low energy electron attachment to SF6 in N2, Ar, and Xe buffer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.R.; Carter, J.G.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The electron attachment rate constants k/sub a/ for SF 6 have been measured in dilute mixtures of SF 6 in high pressure (>1 atm) N 2 , Ar, and Xe buffer gases at room temperature (T≅300 K) over a wide E/N range (electric field strength to gas number density ratio), corresponding to mean electron energies from near thermal electron energies (≅0.04 eV) to ≅4.3 eV. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of space charge distortion, molecular impurities, and changes in the electron energy distribution function on the measured electron attachment rate constant values at the lower E/N values in these mixtures. The present measured thermal electron attachment rate constants in SF 6 /N 2 and SF 6 /Xe gas mixtures are in excellent agreement with recent accurate measurements of these parameters in several SF 6 /buffer gas mixtures. At higher values, the present SF 6 /N 2 measurements are in fair agreement with previous measurements, while no previous measurements using Ar and Xe buffer gases have been published. These measurements have been used in numerical two term, spherical harmonic Boltzmann equation analyses of the electron motion in these gas mixtures to obtain the low energy ( 6 . The present derived electron attachment cross sections are compared with recently measured and derived nondissociative and dissociative electron attachment cross sections for SF 6

  13. A study of capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, N; Gavare, Z; Revalde, G; Skudra, Ja; Veilande, R

    2011-01-01

    Low-pressure capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures are studied. The discharge size is 0.5 mm (500 μm) in radius. According to the literature, such types of plasma sources are classified as microplasmas. The studies include spectrally resolved optical measurements, tomographic reconstructions and numerical simulations using the collisional-radiative model for an Ar-Hg plasma. We discuss the problems of theoretical modelling and experimental diagnostics of microplasma sources. It is shown that the conventional collisional-radiative model, based on the assumption that transportation of atoms in the highly excited states can be neglected, has limitations in modelling a capillary discharge in an Ar-Hg mixture. It is found that diffusion of highly excited mercury atoms to the wall influences the emission properties of the capillary discharge. We have concluded that applications of the emission tomography method to microplasmas require a special analysis in each particular case.

  14. Gain limits of a Thick GEM in high-purity Ne, Ar and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the avalanche charge gain in Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) on the purity of Ne, Ar and Xe filling gases was investigated. The gain, measured with alpha-particles in standard conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature), was found to considerably drop in gases purified by non-evaporable getters. On the other hand, small N2 admixtures to noble gases resulted in high reachable gains. The results are of general relevance in the operation of gas-avalanche detectors in noble gases, particularly that of two-phase cryogenic detectors for rare events.

  15. Formation of (Xe2H)* centers in solid Xe via recombination: nonstationary luminescence and 'internal electron emission'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Uyutov, S.A.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.; Beyer, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of excimers (Xe 2 H) * in solid Xe doped with molecular hydrogen under electron beam is studied using the original two-stage technique of nonstationary (NS) cathodoluminescence (CL) in combination with the current activation spectroscopy method - thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE). Charged species were generated using a high-density electron beam. The species produced were then probed with a low density beam on gradual sample heating. The near UV emission of the (Xe 2 H) * was used to monitor the neutralization process. It is found that the temperature behavior of the NS CL band of (Xe 2 H) * clearly correlates with the yield of TSEE measured after identical pre-irradiation of the sample. The fingerprints of the thermally stimulated detrapping of electrons - 'internal electron emission' in the spectrum of NS CL point to the essential role of neutralization reaction in the stability of the proton solvated by rare-gas atoms.

  16. Stereodynamics of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junwen; Gordon, Sean D. S.; Tanteri, Silvia; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Stereodynamics experiments of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2 leading to Penning and associative ionization have been performed in a crossed molecular beam apparatus. A curved magnetic hexapole was used to state-select and polarize Ne(3P2) atoms which were then oriented in a rotatable magnetic field and crossed with a beam of Ar, Kr, Xe, or N2. The ratio of associative to Penning ionization was recorded as a function of the magnetic field direction for collision energies between 320 cm-1 and 500 cm-1. Reactivities are obtained for individual states that differ only in Ω, the projection of the neon total angular momentum vector on the inter-particle axis. The results are rationalized on the basis of a model involving a long-range and a short-range reaction mechanism. Substantially lower probability for associative ionization was observed for N2, suggesting that predissociation plays a critical role in the overall reaction pathway.

  17. Principle tests of reactor pumped laser of 3He-Ar-Xe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hande; Jin Xingxing; Yang Chengde

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor-pumped laser was demonstrated firstly by using the 3 He(P,n) 3 H reaction to excite a 3 He-Ar-Xe laser. Lasing was observed on the 1.73 μm (5d (3/2) 1 -6p(5/2) 1 transition) in Xe I. The CAEP Pulsed Reactor (CFBR-II) was used as a source of fast neutrons moderated by a 50 mm thick polyethylene sleeve around the laser cell. A laser cell was constructed from K 9 glass tubing 600 mm long and Φ34 mm with each end cut at Brewster's angle (quartz). The laser cell was baked out to 10 -3 Pa prior to filling with research-grade mixture ( 3 He/Ar/Xe = 34.7: 34.7: 0.267 kPa). A dielectric-coated 2 m radius-curvature back mirror (99.7% reflectivity at 1.73 μm) and a flat output coupler (Φ30 mm) were used to form the optical cavity. The cavity optics were placed outside the cell as shown in Fig.3. A schematic of the experimental configuration is shown. Typical laser signals obtained with the Ge detector (-80 degree C) are also shown. Laser output lags the fast neutron pulse by the neutron thermalization time (∼278 μs). The observed light output was shown to be caused by stimulated emission, because the signal disappeared when the reflecting (flat) mirror was covered. This precludes the possibility that the phenomenon was the result of γ-radiation interaction with the detector or the air in the light path. The measured laser energy was 80 times the maximum possible fluorescence energy. The observed wavelength was measured to be 1.73 μm by using glass filters. Laser output duration was approximately 735 μs

  18. SEP-Kr and SEP-Xe in Lunar Ilmenite and the Ar/Kr/Xe Ratio in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1992-07-01

    We analyzed all five noble gases in an ilmenite sample from lunar soil 71501 by closed system stepped etching (CSSE), thus extending our CSSE studies of solar noble gases (Wieler et al., 1986; Benkert et al., 1988) to Kr and Xe. He, Ne, Ar isotopes: We observe the familiar presence of two solar noble gas components: step 1 shows ^4He/^3He = 2250, ^20Ne/^22Ne = 13.8, and ^36Ar/^38Ar=5.46. The first two ratios are essentially identical to modern solar wind values (SWC; Geiss, 1973), indicating an isotopically unfractionated SW noble gas reservoir in lunar ilmenite. The Ne data-points of later steps fall on a straight line and reach the SEP-Ne point (^20Ne/^22Ne = 11.3). The slope of this line indicates mass dependent fractionation between SW-Ne and SEP-Ne. SEP-He (^4He/^3He = 4650 +-100) and SEP-Ar (^36Ar/^38Ar = 4.89+-0.05) are also observed (latter two numbers slightly revised compared to Wieler et al., 1992). Kr, Xe isotopes: Kr in those two steps that release pure SW-Ne is very slightly lighter than atmospheric Kr (^86Kr/^84Kr = 0.3041; see also Wieler et al., 1992). We interpret this to be SW-Kr in soil 71501. Steps containing (isotopically heavier) SEP-Ne likewise release heavier Kr, interpreted accordingly as SEP-Kr (^86Kr/^84Kr = 0.323). Similarly, a light Xe component is released first (SW-Xe, ^136Xe/^132Xe = 0.3003), followed by heavier SEP-Xe (^136Xe/^132Xe = 0.319). The data are consistent with both Kr and Xe in SW and SEP components to be related by mass fractionation. The relation first proposed by Benkert et al. (1988) between a ratio R(m(sub)2,m(sub)1) of two isotopes with masses m(sub)2>m(sub)1 in SW and SEP now holds for all five noble gases: (R(sub)SW-R(sub)SEP)/R(sub)SW = (2+-0.13)*(m(sub)2- m(sub)1)/m(sub)2. Since m(sub)2~m(sub)1, this relation may also be written as: R(sub)SEP/R(sub)SW ~ (m(sub)1/m(sub)2)^2 (Geiss and Bochsler, 1991). Element ratios: ^4He/^36Ar and ^20Ne/^36Ar rise from values several times below SWC to essentially SWC ratios in

  19. Repulsive wall potentials for He-(Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) as inferred from differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitz, D.E.; Larson, J.; Swanson, K.; Wildgoose, C.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained representations of the He-(Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) ground state repulsive walls using model potentials optimized to fit published absolute differential cross section data for 500 and 1500 eV collisions. The HeNe potential, like the He 2 potentials can be fit using the semi-empirical HFD-B form constrained to cross zero at the proper internuclear separation. For the heavier atoms, this approach is unsuccessful and superior fits are obtained using only the purely repulsive V(r) - A EXP [-αr - βr 2 ] term of the HFD-B potential. Comparison of fitted potentials with previous results will be presented

  20. Formation and migration properties of the rare gases He, Ne, Ar, Ke, and Xe in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melius, C.F.; Wilson, W.D.; Bisson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The energies of formation and migration of various rare gas-point defect complexes in an f.c.c. nickel lattice have been calculated for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Formation energies of rare gas atoms at interstitial sites are compared with those in substitutional sites. Binding energies are presented for self-interstitials and vacancies trapped to the various rare gas substitutionals. Migration energies and migration paths are also presented for various rare gas interstitials and substitutionals with and without trapped vacancies and self-interstitials. The migration energies are compared with the breakup energies for the corresponding complexes. It is found that divacancy-rare gas complexes are rather stable and will migrate at relatively low energies compared to other substitutional rare gas migration processes. (author)

  1. Interatomic decay of inner-valence ionized states in ArXe clusters: Relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasshauer, Elke; Pernpointner, Markus; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate interatomic electronic decay processes taking place in mixed argon-xenon clusters upon the inner-valence ionization of an argon center. We demonstrate that both interatomic Coulombic decay and electron-transfer mediated decay (ETMD) are important in larger rare gas clusters as opposed to dimers. Calculated secondary electron spectra are shown to depend strongly on the spin-orbit coupling in the final states of the decay as well as the presence of polarizable environment. It follows from our calculations that ETMD is a pure interface process taking place between the argon-xenon layers. The interplay of all these effects is investigated in order to arrive at a suitable physical model for the decay of inner-valence vacancies taking place in mixed ArXe clusters.

  2. Solid and liquid 129Xe NMR signals enhanced by spin-exchange optical pumping under flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Luo Jun; Sun Xianping; Zeng Xizhi; Liu Maili; Liu Wuyang

    2002-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129 Xe gas was produced by spin-exchange with Cs atom optically pumped with diode laser array in a low field under flow. The nuclear spin polarizations of the solid and liquid 129 Xe frozen from the laser-polarized 129 Xe gas were 2.16% and 1.45% respectively in the SY-80M NMR spectrometer, which corresponded to the enhancements of 6000 and 5000 compared to those without optical pumping under the same conditions. It could provide the base and possibility for quantum computers using laser-enhanced solid and liquid 129 Xe. Polarization loss of transport and state change was also discussed

  3. Electronic Spectroscopy of B Atoms and B2 Molecules Isolated in Para-H2, Normal-D2, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe Matrices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Simon

    2000-01-01

    ...), Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices, and of B2 molecules in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices. The 2s(sup 2)3s((sup 2)S) left arrow 2s(sup 2)2p((sup 2)P) B atom Rydberg absorption suffers large gas-to-matrix blue shifts, increasing...

  4. Variable surface composition and radial interface formation in self-assembled free, mixed Ar/Xe clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchaplyguine, M.; Maartensson, N.; Lundwall, M.; Oehrwall, G.; Feifel, R.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Sorensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate how the self-assembling process of cluster formation in an adiabatic expansion leads to radial segregation and layering as well as to variable surface composition for binary Ar/Xe clusters. The radial structuring can be qualitatively understood from the different interatomic bonding strengths of the two components

  5. Infrared Spectra of Novel NgBeSO2 Complexes (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in Low Temperature Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjie; Liu, Xing; Xu, Bing; Xing, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-03

    The novel noble-gas complexes NgBeSO 2 (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) have been prepared in the laser-evaporated beryllium atom reactions with SO 2 in low-temperature matrixes. Doped with heavier noble gas, the guest (Ar, Kr, Xe) atom can substitute neon to form more stable complex. Infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are used to confirm the band assignment. The dissociation energies are calculated at 0.9, 4.0, 4.7, and 6.0 kcal/mol for NeBeSO 2 , ArBeSO 2 , KrBeSO 2 , and XeBeSO 2 , respectively, at the CCSD(T) level. Quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the Ng-Be bonds in NgBeSO 2 could be formed by the combination of electron-donation and ion-induced dipole interactions. The Wiberg bond index (WBI) values of Ng-Be bonds and LOL (localized orbital locator) profile indicate that the Ng-Be bond exhibits a gradual increase in covalent character along Ne to Xe.

  6. Differential elastic scattering of He* (21S) by Ar, Kr and Xe: Repulsive rainbows and optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.; Gregor, R.W.; Jordan, R.M.; Siska, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Elastic scattering angular distributions of He* (2 1 S) with Ar, Kr, and Xe measured in crossed atomic beams at collision energies from 0.4--2.8 kcal/mole are analyzed using a physically motivated optical potential model. The resulting potentials show some features expected on the basis of the analogous Li--rare gas potentials: monotonically increasing van der Waals well depths epsilon in the sequence Ar, Kr, Xe, and nearly constant well position r/sub m/. However, structure occurs in the repulsive parts of the potentials in the form of a local slope maximum (force minimum) at low positive potential energy, as suggested by other studies. The potential energy at the slope maximum decreases monotonically in the Ar, Kr, Xe sequence, while its position increases monotonically. The slope maximum is manifested in the angular distributions through the appearance of rainbow scattering peaks for Ar and Kr at angles well removed from those at which attractive rainbows are expected, with both repulsive and attractive rainbows evident in the same distribution. The resonance widths are constrained to be simple exponentials. Table I contains all potential parameters derived. Reasonably good agreement is obtained between measured total ionization cross sections and quenching rate constants and those calculated from the optical potentials

  7. Elastic helium scattering studies of ordered overlayers of Ar, Kr, and Xe physisorbed on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.; Cerjan, C.; Light, J.C.; Sibener, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    We describe experiments that measured the angle resolved intensity of He (E/sub i/ = 18 and 66 meV) elastically scattering from the surfaces of rare gas overlayers physisorbed on Ag(111). These studies were done on a layer-by-layer basis for 1, 2, 3, and ∼25 ordered overlayers of Ar, Kr, and Xe. Two types of experiments are described. The first is diffraction, where the scattered He intensity was measured as a function of the detector angle, with the incident polar and azimuthal angles held constant. In the second type of experiment, selective adsorption, we measured the specular intensity as a function of incident angle. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the He--surface potential, to assess the relative contributions that various He--rare gas pair potentials, nonadditive multibody terms, and He--substrate interactions make to the systems studied. The experiments are compared with the results of accurate close-coupling calculations, in order to quantitatively perform these assessments. The comparisons between the selective adsorption data and scattering calculations demonstrate the extreme sensitivity that such measurements have to the He--surface potential. In particular, observable changes in the calculated selective adsorption spectra appear when different He--rare gas potentials are tested, or when various nonadditive terms are included in the potential. The results suggest that further refinements in the He-heavy--rare gas pair potentials may be in order

  8. Relativistic coupled-cluster calculations of 20Ne, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 129Xe: Correlation energies and dipole polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, B. K.; Angom, D.; Latha, K. V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed and systematic study of the correlation energies of inert gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and relativistic coupled-cluster theory. In the relativistic coupled-cluster calculations, we implement perturbative triples and include these in the correlation energy calculations. We then calculate the dipole polarizability of the ground states using perturbed coupled-cluster theory.

  9. Energy-Transfer Kinetics for Xe (6p[1/2]0) Atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liu, Dong; Li, Xueyang; Chu, Junzhi; Guo, Jingwei; Liu, Jinbo; Hu, Shu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-06-11

    The kinetic processes for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He buffer gases were studied. We found that Kr, Ar, and Ne atoms can be used to switch the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) channel from 3408 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s'[1/2] 1 ) to 3680 nm (5d[1/2] 1 -6p[1/2] 1 ), while Xe and He atoms do not show such a phenomenon. This ASE channel switch is mainly ascribed to the fast transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 . On the basis of the rate equations for two-state coupling (energy-transfer processes between the two states are very rapid), the reason why the ASE channel switch effect normally coincides with a double exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s[3/2] 1 ) is explained. The actual situations in Xe, Ar, Ne, and He follow this rule. However, the strictly single exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm and strong ASE channel switch effect simultaneously emerge in Kr. This indicates that the transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 in Kr does not occur via two-state coupling, but via two steps of near-resonance collision through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state (6p[1/2] 0 → 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) → 5d[1/2] 1 ). In addition, we found Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms strongly tend to reach the 6p[3/2] 2 , 6p[3/2] 1 , and 6p[5/2] 2 states through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state in Kr. The 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state plays a very important role in the energy-transfer kinetics for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms. Kr is probably an excellent buffer gas for laser systems based on Xe.

  10. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J.; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H 2 ) 8 crystallizes in a P3 - m1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P3 - m1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H 2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming

  11. Successive composition of two laser channels upon excitation of He-Ar-Xe (2.03 μm) and Ar-Xe (1.73 μm) mixtures by uranium fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikulev, A A; Tsvetkov, V M; Sosnin, P V; Sinyanskii, A A

    2009-01-01

    The operation efficiency of the scheme with successive composition of two laser channels upon excitation of the active medium by uranium-235 fission fragments is studied experimentally and numerically. For the He:Ar:Xe = 380:380:1 mixture (at a pressure of 1 atm and the lasing wavelength λ = 2.03 μm) the maximum lasing power of a double channel (1 kW) is almost twice that of a single channel (540 W). Calculations show that in the case of ideal composition (without losses on mirrors) the lasing power of the double channel can be increased to 1.2 kW. For the Ar:Xe = 380:1 mixture (the pressure is 0.5 atm, λ = 1.73 μm) the maximum lasing power of the double channel (620 W) is slightly above that of the single channel (520 W), which is caused by the losses on aluminum mirrors employed for channel doubling and by a negative effect of optical inhomogeneities. In the case of ideal composition, the lasing power can be increased to 830 W. (lasers)

  12. 129Xe NMR spectroscopy in microporous solids: The effect of bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripmeester, John A.; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    In this contribution we point out a number of factors related to the bulk properties of microporous solids which must be taken into account in order first of all to obtain meaningful 129 Xe NMR spectral data, and secondly to interpret the data properly. This sensitivity to bulk properties is especially important for microporous solids where there is little or no barrier to xenon passage from inside the particle to the interparticle space. We examine the effect of particle size, powder bulk density and particle anisotropy, and also the effect of low thermal conductivity of low density powders

  13. Production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes by proton-induced reactions on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leya, I.; Michel, R.

    2003-01-01

    We measured integral thin target cross sections for the proton-induced production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes from lead from the respective reaction thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. The production of noble gas isotopes in lead by proton-induced reactions is of special importance for design studies of accelerator driven systems and energy amplifiers. In order to minimise the influences of secondary particles on the production of residual nuclides a new Mini-Stack approach was used instead of the well-known stacked-foil techniques for all experiments with proton energies above 200 MeV. With some exceptions our database for the proton-induced production of noble gas isotopes from lead is consistent and nearly complete. In contradistinction to the production of He from Al and Fe, where the cross sections obtained by thin-target irradiation experiments are up to a factor of 2 higher than the NESSI data, both datasets agree for the He production from lead. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of collision-induced radiative deexcitation cross sections for metastable He*(2 1S) interacting with He, Ar, Kr, and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnbostel, C.; Feltgen, R.; Hoffmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiative deexcitation cross section for He * (2 1 S) in collisions with He has been measured in the collision energy range from 40 to 110 meV. The experimental results agree well with quantal distorted-wave calculations of Zygelman and Dalgarno [Phys. Rev. A 38, 1877 (1988)]. The measured radiative quenching cross sections for the systems He * (2 1 S)+Ar,Kr,Xe manifest a scaling law for fixed collision energy with α 2 as the scaling parameter, where α is the static dipole polarizability of the heavier rare gas

  15. Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH4, Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4 in the temperature range 673--973K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Baugchum, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Removal rate constants for CH 3 O by CH 4 , Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 ) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH 3 O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH 4 exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp[(/minus/101070 +- 350)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH 4 and CF 4 , the reaction rate constant for CH 3 O /plus/ CH 4 is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp[(/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs

  16. Threshold collision-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules: a case study of the energetics and dynamics of O2- collisions with Ar and Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahu Akin, F; Ree, Jongbaik; Ervin, Kent M; Kyu Shin, Hyung

    2005-08-08

    The energetics and dynamics of collision-induced dissociation of O2- with Ar and Xe targets are studied experimentally using guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. The cross sections and the collision dynamics are modeled theoretically by classical trajectory calculations. Experimental apparent threshold energies are 2.1 and 1.1 eV in excess of the thermochemical O2- bond dissociation energy for argon and xenon, respectively. Classical trajectory calculations confirm the observed threshold behavior and the dependence of cross sections on the relative kinetic energy. Representative trajectories reveal that the bond dissociation takes place on a short time scale of about 50 fs in strong direct collisions. Collision-induced dissociation is found to be remarkably restricted to the perpendicular approach of ArXe to the molecular axis of O2-, while collinear collisions do not result in dissociation. The higher collisional energy-transfer efficiency of xenon compared with argon is attributed to both mass and polarizability effects.

  17. Threshold collision-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules: A case study of the energetics and dynamics of O2- collisions with Ar and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahu Akin, F.; Ree, Jongbaik; Ervin, Kent M.; Hyung, Kyu Shin

    2005-01-01

    The energetics and dynamics of collision-induced dissociation of O 2 - with Ar and Xe targets are studied experimentally using guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. The cross sections and the collision dynamics are modeled theoretically by classical trajectory calculations. Experimental apparent threshold energies are 2.1 and 1.1 eV in excess of the thermochemical O 2 - bond dissociation energy for argon and xenon, respectively. Classical trajectory calculations confirm the observed threshold behavior and the dependence of cross sections on the relative kinetic energy. Representative trajectories reveal that the bond dissociation takes place on a short time scale of about 50 fs in strong direct collisions. Collision-induced dissociation is found to be remarkably restricted to the perpendicular approach of Ar/Xe to the molecular axis of O 2 - , while collinear collisions do not result in dissociation. The higher collisional energy-transfer efficiency of xenon compared with argon is attributed to both mass and polarizability effects

  18. Theoretical treatment of the spin-orbit coupling in the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Off-diagonal spin-orbit matrix elements are calculated as a function of internuclear distance for the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO using the full microscopic spin-orbit Hamiltonian, including all one- and two-electron integrals, and POL-CI wave functions comparable to those of Dunning and Hay (1977). A good agreement was found when comparing these results in detail with the calculations of Cohen, Wadt and Hay (1979) that utilize an effective one-electron one-center spin-orbit operator. For the rare gas oxide molecules, it is suggested that the numerical results are a more sensitive test of the wave functions (particularly to the extent of charge transfer) than the exact evaluation of all terms in the full spin-orbit operator.

  19. Static electric polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of molecular ions RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Janusz; Antušek, Andrej; Holka, Filip; Sadlej, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations of static electric properties of molecular ions of general formula RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) involving the finite field method and coupled cluster CCSD(T) approach have been done. The relativistic effects were taken into account by Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The numerical stability and reliability of calculated values have been tested using the systematic sequence of Dunning's cc-pVXZ-DK and ANO-RCC-VQZP basis sets. The influence of ZPE and pure vibrational contribution has been discussed. The component αzz has increasing trend in RgH + while the relativistic effect on αzz leads to a small increase of this molecular parameter.

  20. Attenuation curves in concrete of neutrons from 100 to 400 MeV per nucleon He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe and Xe ions on various targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S.; Nakamura, T.; Silari, M. E-mail: marco.silari@cern.ch; Zajacova, Z

    2004-04-01

    Data on transmission of neutrons in concrete generated by heavy ions of intermediate energies (of typically up to 1 GeV per nucleon) are of interest for shielding design of accelerators for use in both the research and in the medical field. The energy distributions of neutrons produced by ions of different species (from He to Xe) striking various targets at energies from 100 to 800 MeV per nucleon were recently measured by Kurosawa et al. in the angular range 0-90 deg. . These spectra were used as input data for Monte Carlo simulations to determine source terms and attenuation lengths in ordinary concrete. The present paper presents calculations for 100 MeV/u helium ions on a Cu target, 100 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 100 MeV/u neon ions on Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u neon ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Ar ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Fe ions on Cu and 400 MeV/u Xe ions on Cu. The results include the contributions of all secondaries. Some of the resulting attenuation curves are best fitted by a double-exponential function rather than the usual single-exponential. The effect of various approximations introduced in the simulations is discussed. A comparison is made with shielding data for protons scaled with the ion mass number. A comparison is also made with a simple analytical model in use at GANIL.

  1. Rotational energy transfer in Na2 (A Σ) colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H2, CH4, and N2: Experiment and fitting laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, T.A.; Smith, N.; Karp, A.W.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of laser-induced fluorescence, we have measured level to level rate constants for rotational energy transfer (RET) in Na 2 colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H 2 , N 2 , and CH 4 . For each target gas we varied the initial rotational quantum number ji-italic over a wide range, typically 4--100, and measured approximately 60 rate constants with an average error of between 6% and 9%. The resulting base of 479 rate constants is used to test several recently proposed fitting laws. The energy corrected sudden scaling law of DePristo et al., when combined with the assumption of a power gap law for the basis rate constants k/sub l/→0, fit with only 3 parameters all of the data for a given target gas with 7%--12% average percentage deviation. Our statistical power gap law worked well and was generally the best law for those data sets with only one value of j/sub i/. The worst fits in all cases considered here were those using the exponential gap law of surprisal theory

  2. Competition between dynamical and statistical particle emissions in 3618Ar + 5828Ni reactions. Search for a critical phenomenon signal in central collisions of 12954Xe + nat50Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear reactions at the Fermi energy range provide a mean of studying nuclei interaction mechanisms, energy dissipation process and deexcitation phenomena. Heavy ion collisions offer an additional window to on the 'nuclear liquid' phase diagram, in particular its 'critical zone'. We study all these points by analysing the 36 18 Ar + 58 28 Ni and the 129 54 Xe + nat 50 Sn reactions, measured with the 4π INDRA detector. We study light particles production properties from 32 MeV/u to 95 MeV/u. Inclusive measurements show that increasing the incident energies leads to a linear increase of the maximum number of Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles, whereas that of Z ≥ 3 increases weakly. The transverse energy of the Z = 1 and Z = 2 corresponds to a constant fraction of the available energy, whereas this of Z ≥ 3 decreases between 30 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u, and then converges. The same trends appear in the 129 54 Xe + nat 50 Sn reactions, between 25 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u. The incident energy is mostly goes into producing more and more light particles. In addition, a more precise study of the reactions, selecting them according to the charge of the detected quasi-projectile residue (QPR). Whatever the incident energy is, the charge of the QPR is associated to the same mean impact parameter, and the production cross sections of QPR of a given charge also superimpose. These observations suggest a geometrical production mechanism of the QP. The transverse mean energy at a fixed parallel velocity reveals another emission source (MR) at an intermediate velocity between the remnants of the projectile (QP) and of the target (QT). The fit of two thermal surface emission (QP and QT) and one thermal volume emission (MR) on dσ/dν z and (E-perpendicular)(ν z ) establishes that the temperature of the QP depends essentially on the impact parameter, not on the incident energy, whereas the apparent temperature of MR increases strongly with the available energy. The MR source

  3. Structural transformation of compressed solid Ar: An x-ray diffraction study to 114 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errandonea, D.; Boehler, R.; Japel, S.; Mezouar, M.; Benedetti, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements on solid Ar up to 114 GPa reveal evidence of a structural phase transformation after stress relaxation by laser heating. Beyond 49.6 GPa, Ar exhibits the coexistence of fcc and hcp phases with an increasing hcp/fcc ratio, similar to the observation made recently on krypton and xenon. From the present results, we estimate the fcc-to-hcp transition to be completed at 300 GPa

  4. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir

    2015-03-19

    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  5. Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Petrov, G. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Petkov, E. E.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of physical phenomena occurring when an intense laser pulse with subpicosecond duration and an intensity of 1018-1019W /cm2 heats an underdense plasma in a supersonic clustered gas jet are studied to determine the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal processes to soft- and hard-x-ray emission from debris-free plasmas. Experiments were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Leopard laser operated with a 15-J, 350-fs pulse and different pulse contrasts (107 or 105). The supersonic linear (elongated) nozzle generated Xe cluster-monomer gas jets as well as jets with Kr-Ar or Xe-Kr-Ar mixtures with densities of 1018-1019cm-3 . Prior to laser heating experiments, all jets were probed with optical interferometry and Rayleigh scattering to measure jet density and cluster distribution parameters. The supersonic linear jet provides the capability to study the anisotropy of x-ray yield from laser plasma and also laser beam self-focusing in plasma, which leads to efficient x-ray generation. Plasma diagnostics included x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras, and spectrometers. Jet signatures of x-ray emission from pure Xe gas, as well as from a mixture with Ar and Kr, was found to be very different. The most intense x-ray emission in the 1-9 KeV spectral region was observed from gas mixtures rather than pure Xe. Also, this x-ray emission was strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of laser beam polarization. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (Non-LTE) models have been implemented to analyze the x-ray spectra to determine the plasma temperature and election density. Evidence of electron beam generation in the supersonic jet plasma was found. The influence of the subpicosecond laser pulse contrast (a ratio between the laser peak intensity and pedestal pulse intensity) on the jets' x-ray emission characteristics is discussed. Surprisingly, it was found that the x-ray yield was not sensitive to the prepulse contrast ratio.

  6. Dynamics of Chemical and Charge Transfer Reactions of Molecular Dications: Part V. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Reactions between CHCl2+ and Ar, Kr and Xe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, Jana; Žabka, Ján; Thissen, R.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 2988-2995 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA AV ČR KJB4040302 Grant - others:Konktakt Barrande(XE) 2002-013-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : charge-transfer * experimental and theoretical study * molecular dications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.959, year: 2003

  7. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xinxi; Huang Yuying; Li Wangchang

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO 2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO 2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  8. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, M.O.; Gonzalez, A.M.; Hallin, R.; Heijkenskjoeld, F.; Nystroem, B.; O'Sullivan, G.; Weber, C.; Waennstroem, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have utilized collision-based spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of Xe V and Xe VI. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 50 keV Xe 5+ and 60 keV Xe 6+ ions impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has been recorded in the 350-6000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. A number of new energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI have been established from lines identified by us. In particular, we have observed and identified transitions from the 5s 2 5p4f (5s 2 4f) configuration of Xe V (Xe VI). The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.)

  9. CDW-EIS calculations for multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by the impact of H{sup +} and He{sup +}, including post-collisional electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montenegro, E C, E-mail: mclaudia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-08-28

    We present theoretical single to quintuple ionization cross sections for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe bombarded by H{sup +} and He{sup +}. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account using recent photoionization data. The present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) and first Born approximation results are compared with the experimental data available in the energy range of 50-10 000 keV amu{sup -1} for H{sup +} on Ne and Ar, and 50-1000 keV amu{sup -1} for the other cases. In general, the combination of the CDW-EIS with the post-collisional branching ratios describes well the multiple ionization data above 300 keV amu{sup -1}, showing a clear tendency to coalesce with the first Born approximation at high energies. The surprising result of this work is the good performance of the first Born approximation which describes rather well the experimental data of double and triple ionization, even in the intermediate energy range (50-300 keV amu{sup -1}), where direct ionization is the dominant contribution.

  10. Electron-Stimulated Desorption of Positive Ions from Methanol Adsorbed on a Solid Ar Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanowa, H.; Hanatani, K.; Gotoh, Y.; Souda, R.

    Electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of positive ions from weakly physisorbed molecules has been investigated. From methanol adsorbed on a solid Ar substrate, the protonated cluster ions of the type H+(CH3OH)n (n = 1 - 4) are emitted, together with the fragment ions such as CHn+ (n = 0 - 3), H3O+, CHO+, CH3O+, etc. The yields of these ions are markedly enhanced at the smallest coverage and decay steeply with increasing coverage. Coulomb explosion between valence holes confined in adsorbed nanoclusters is responsible for the enhanced ion yields. Very few ions except for H+ are emitted from a thick layer as well as nanoclusters adsorbed directly on a metal substrate due to the delocalization of valence holes.

  11. Size-dependent valence change in small Pr, Nd, and Sm clusters isolated in solid Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebcke, M.; Sonntag, B.; Niemann, W.; Rabe, P.

    1986-01-01

    The L/sub III/ absorption thresholds of Pr, Nd, and Sm clusters isolated in solid Ar are marked by prominent white lines. The lines ascribed to divalent and trivalent rare-earth metals are well separated in energy. From the relative intensities of these lines an average valence of the rare-earth atoms in the cluster has been determined. For dimers and trimers the average valence is close to 2, the value for free atoms. For clusters consisting of more than 20 atoms the average valence approaches 3, the value for bulk metals. In between the valence changes abruptly, indicating the existence of a critical cluster size of approximately 5 atoms for Pr and Nd and of 13 atoms for Sm

  12. On applicability of the QsUb(gg)-systematics to the description of cross sections for multinucleon transfer reactions induces by 40Ar, 86Kr, and 136Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanov, E.A.; Lee Gen Soo; Mezentsev, A.N.; Volkov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Relative cross sections have been calculated for the production of gold isotopes with mass numbers of the 190-199 range in the 181 Ta+ 40 Ar, 181 Ta+ 86 Kr and 181 Ta+ 136 Xe systems at laboratory bombarding energies of 290, 550 and 840 MeV, respectively. It was assumed that gold isotopes were produced as a result of multinucleon transfers followed by neutron evaporation. The yield of primary gold isotopes was found using the Qsub(gg)-systematics, whereas the neutron evaporation process was calculated within the framework of the Jackson model. The parameters used in the calculation are the average entrance angular momentum anti l, temperature UPSILON and the nuclear parameter r 0 of exit reaction channels. For realistic values of the parameters indicated a good agreement with the experimental data obtained previously has been achieved. This provides evidence for the applicability of the Qsub(gg)-systematics to the description of multinucleon transfer reactions induced by very heavy ions

  13. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb Atoms and Their Ions in the Electron Energy Range from the Threshold up to 200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Povyshev, V M; Shevelko, V P; Shirkov, G D; Vasina, E G; Vatulin, V V

    2001-01-01

    Single electron-impact ionization cross sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb atoms and their positive ions (i.e. all ionization stages) are presented in the electron energy range from the threshold up to 200 keV. The data-set for the cross sections has been created on the basis of available experimental data and calculations performed by the computer code ATOM. Consistent data for the ionization cross sections have been fitted by seven parameters using the LSM method. The accuracy of the calculated data presented is within a factor of 2 that in many cases is sufficient to solve the plasma kinetics problems. Contributions from excitation-autoionization and resonant-ionization processes as well as ionization of atoms and ions are not considered here. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the well-known Lotz formulae for ionization of neutral atoms and positive ions. The material is illustrated by figures and includes tables of ionization cross sections, binding energies and fitting para...

  14. Mass spectrometric characterizations of ions generated in RF magnetron discharges during sputtering of silver in Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, D.; Novotný, Michal; Musil, Jindřich; Fitl, Přemysl; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2013), s. 593-602 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101271 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : double charge ions * mass spectrometry * noble gas * RF magnetron discharges * silver * single charge ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2013

  15. Ionization energies of Xe2+ and Xe3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutil, R.; Marmet, P.

    1980-01-01

    New electron impact measurements show that the previously accepted energies of ionization of Xe 2+ and Xe 3+ from xenon are erroneous. These energies are determined 33.11 +- 0.04 eV for Xe 2+ and 64.35 +- 0.10 eV for Xe 3+ . New structures are seen by electron impact just above the Xe 2+ threshold. New information is also given on the ionization energies of Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ . (orig.)

  16. Observation of surface excitons in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-04-01

    Evidence is obtained for the excitation of surface excitons in solid Ar, Kr and Xe in optical transmission and reflection experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are located at photon energies ranging from 0.6 eV for Ar to 0.1 eV for Xe below the corresponding bulk excitons excited from the valence bands. Their halfwidths (20-50 MeV) is less than half the values found for the bulk excitons. Some are split by an amount considerably smaller than the spin orbit splitting of the valence bands. (orig.) [de

  17. Evolution of short range order in Ar: Liquid to glass and solid transitions-A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Stanislav; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of the short range order (SRO) as a function of temperature in a Lennard-Jones model liquid with Ar parameters was determined and juxtaposed with thermodynamic and kinetic properties obtained as the liquid was cooled (heated) and transformed between crystalline solid or glassy states and an undercooled liquid. The Lennard-Jones system was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of large supercells (approximately 20000 atoms) rapidly cooled or heated at selected quenching rates and at constant pressure. The liquid to solid transition was identified by discontinuities in the atomic volume and molar enthalpy; the glass transition temperature range was identified from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion. The SRO was studied within the quasi-crystalline model (QCM) framework and compared with the Steinhardt bond order parameters. Within the QCM it was found that the SRO evolves from a bcc-like order in the liquid through a bct-like short range order (c/a=1.2) in the supercooled liquid which persists into the glass and finally to a fcc-like ordering in the crystalline solid. The variation of the SRO that results from the QCM compares well with that obtained with Steinhardt's bond order parameters. The hypothesis of icosahedral order in liquids and glasses is not supported by our results.

  18. Nano-structuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet Ar8+ laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.; Holý, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav; Fořt, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 57-63 ISSN 0263-0346. [International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology/5./. Singapore , 18.04.2011-22.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ablation by EUV radiation * application of Ar8+ laser * nano-patterning by EUV radiation * , nano-structuring by EUV radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UPT-D) Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2012

  19. Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite meteorites and relations to other planetary reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee-Yon; Marti, Kurt; Wacker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the interpretation of xenon that was measured in the Abee meteorite. Reported Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite chondrites (EC's) show some variability, and this makes comparisons to other solar system reservoirs rather difficult. In contrast, we find uniform Xe isotopic abundances in the EC chondrite Abee for a variety of clasts, except for 128 Xe and 129 Xe, the isotopes affected by neutron capture in I and by extinct 129 I. We report averages for the studied clasts which are consistent within error limits with OC-Xe and with the Q-Xe signature. On the other hand, the elemental abundance ratios Ar/Xe are variable between clasts. A strongly reducing environment which is indicated for enstatite meteorites was generally assumed to be consistent with conditions existing in the early inner solar system. Xe isotopic abundances in SNC meteorites from Mars and also those in some terrestrial wells show that distinct isotopic reservoirs coexisted on the same planets. In particular, the Xe isotopic signatures in terrestrial well gases show the presence of a minor distinct component in two of the reported four well gases. These authors suggested that the extra component represents solar Xe, but we show that also a meteoritic xenon reservoir of the Abee-Xe structure is an option. The reported Xe data in Ar-rich (subsolar) EC's show isotopic abundances slightly lighter than those in Abee-Xe, but the relative abundances of Ar, Kr, and Xe indicate only a minor component of elementally unfractionated solar Xe. The elemental ratios suggest rather a different origin for these gases: the loading of solar particles into grain surfaces during exposure at elevated temperatures during accretion of matter in the inner solar system. A model of this type was suggested for the accretion of gases now observed in the atmosphere on Venus. We note that disks of crystalline silicates (including enstatite and olivine) have been observed in T Tauri stars during their early

  20. Nano-Structuring of Solid Surface by EUV Ar8+ Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Prukner, V.; Schmidt, J

    2013-01-01

    Requirement of increased resolution is at present most loudly pronounced in microelectronics, which, following Moore´s law (doubling every two years the transistorcount that can be placed inexpensively on integrated circuit), commands a continuous upgrade of micro-/nano-lithography. Such upgrade indirectly influences processing speed, memory capacity, number and size of pixels in sensors, etc. The submitted paper demonstrates our first attempt for “direct (i.e. ablation) patterning” of PMMA by pulse, high-current, capillary-discharge-pumped Ar 8+ ion laser (λ = 46,9 nm). For focusing a long-focal spherical mirror (R = 2100 mm) covered by 14 double-layer Sc-Si coating was used. The ablated focal spots demonstrate not only that the energy of our laser is sufficient for such experiments, but also that the design of focusing optics must be more sophisticated: severe aberrations have been revealed – an irregular spot shape and strong astigmatism with astigmatic difference as large as 16 mm. Moreover, on the bottom of ablated spots a laserinduced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) has appeared. Finally, a direct patterning of quadratic hole 7,5x7,5 µm, standing in contact with PMMA substrate, has shown a strongly developed 2D diffraction pattern (period in the centre ∼125 nm). In conclusion there will be shown the design of a new (grazing incidence) focusing optics, and a new “nano-patterning” tool – grazing incidence interferometer, which enable to ablate a regular, in advance defined pattern. It is believed that this is the first step to application of this technique not only to nanolithography,but also e.g. to study of electron dynamics in superlattices. (author)

  1. New spectroscopic results in Xe II, Xe III, and Xe IV

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Almandos, Jorge Guillermo; Gallardo, Mario; Garavaglia, Mario J.

    1982-01-01

    New results obtained in spontaneous xenon spectrum employing a conventional pulsed gaseous laser tube as light source, are presented in this work. A total of 626 spectral lines has been ionically assigned as follows: 50 to Xe II spectrum, 103 to Xe III spectrum, arid 222 to Xe IV spectrum. 30 Lines previously assigned to Xe II were reassigned as belonging to Xe III, 94 lines were assigned with some doubts to Xe II-III spectrum and 84 lines to Xe Ill-IV spectrum. Also there were clas...

  2. Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids on the Lower Cache River Watershed, AR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Cache River Watershed (CRW) in Arkansas is part of one of the largest remaining bottomland hardwood forests in the US. Although wetlands are known to improve water quality, the Cache River is listed as impaired due to sedimentation and turbidity. This study measured turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in seven sites of the lower CRW; six sites were located on the Bayou DeView tributary of the Cache River. Turbidity and TSS levels ranged from 1.21 to 896 NTU, and 0.17 to 386.33 mg/L respectively and had an increasing trend over the 3-year study. However, a decreasing trend from upstream to downstream in the Bayou DeView tributary was noted. Sediment loading calculated from high precipitation events and mean TSS values indicate that contributions from the Cache River main channel was approximately 6.6 times greater than contributions from Bayou DeView. Land use surrounding this river channel affects water quality as wetlands provide a filter for sediments in the Bayou DeView channel.

  3. Double beta decay searches of 134Xe, 126Xe and 124Xe with large scale Xe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, N; Thurn, J; Zuber, K

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity for double beta decay studies of 134 Xe and 124 Xe is investigated assuming a potential large scale Xe experiment developed for dark matter searches depleted in 136 Xe. The opportunity for an observation of the 2νββ - decay of 134 Xe is explored for various scenarios. A positive observation should be possible for all calculated nuclear matrix elements. The detection of 2ν ECEC of 124 Xe can be probed in all scenarios covering the theoretical predicted half-life uncertainties and a potential search for 126 Xe is discussed. The sensitivity to β + EC decay of 124 Xe is discussed and a positive observation might be possible, while β + β + decay still remains unobservable. The performed studies take into account solar pp–neutrino interactions, 85 Kr beta decay and remaining 136 Xe double beta decay as background components in the depleted detector. (paper)

  4. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  5. XeBr exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser emission from the recently discovered XeBr exciplex laser was investigated as a function of the partial pressures of Xe and Br 2 . An optical loss process appears to limit high-pressure operation

  6. Shock disturbance of the I-Xe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Swindle, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    Three separate samples of the meteorite Bjurbole were artificially shocked at pressures of 70 kb, 200 kb, and 400 kb. Analysis of xenon released in stepwise heating shows that the I-Xe system of the 400 kb sample is substantially altered by the shock loading, and it is no longer possible to infer an age or trapped xenon composition for that sample. The 200-kb and 70-kb samples display isotopic structures progressively less altered demonstrating the gradations in shock disturbance likely to be found in natural systems. Interpretations of the I-Xe and Ar-40-Ar-39 systems for several naturally shocked meteorites are also presented. New data for Arapahoe do not confirm the previously reported age and trapped xenon composition, demonstrating instead that its I-Xe structure has been strongly disturbed by shock

  7. Primordial Terrestrial Xe from the Viewpoint of CFF-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, A. P.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.; Jessberger, E. K.

    1995-09-01

    We have already reported [7, 23] on the non-linear isotope mass-fractionation of fission Xe by migration of the precursors I, Te, Sn, and Sb and simultaneous fission of heavy nuclei. Xe with anomalous isotopic pattern was found in a number of meteorites and terrestrial materials and was named CFF-Xe (Chemically Fractionated Fission Xe). It is characterized by an up eightfold ^132Xe and ^131Xe excesses coupled with smaller ^134Xe and ^129Xe excesses. The present work is aimed to estimate the role of CFF-Xe in the terrestrial lithosphere and specifically deals with the problem of the isotopic composition of primordial terrestrial Xe. Due to variations of the migration conditions the isotopic structure of CFF-Xe is not well established and is even not reproducible in the same rock [2]. Nevertheless, we have tried to estimate the composition of CFF-Xe by investigating all available isotopic data of Xe of presumable mantle origin. This is Xe in MORB [29, 1, 12] and ocean island glasses [1, 28], in diamonds [17], in volcanic rocks [29, 8, 9, 21], in volcanic glasses from pillow basalts [16, 6], continental igneous rocks [1, 24, 10, 22], carbonatites and granitoids [1] as well as Xe in natural gases [3, 24, 11, 4, 15]. All data are plotted Fig. 1 where we also suggest end members of the observed scattering. Optimized slopes of CFF-lines are shown as well as the position of the initial points which we regard as primordial terrestrial Xe (Xe0). The isotopic composition of CFF-Xe and Xe0 are given in Tab. 1. The abundances of ^124Xe and ^126Xe in mantle derived samples are very uncertain, but since ^128Xe/^130Xe in Xea and Xe0 is very similar we propose the same ^124Xe/^130Xe and ^126Xe/^130Xe ratios for both Xea and Xe0. If so, AVCC-Xe is simply Xe0 with an admixture of L-Xe, and atmospheric xenon Xea consists of Xe0, CFF-Xe and a small amount of fission Xe (92.5%Xe0 + 5.3%CFF-Xe + 2.2%XeF). Thus, a number of old problems in xenology are removed. The hypothetic components U-Xe

  8. Low-lying levels of 129Xe and 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.C.; Irving, A.D.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hall, I.; Martin, D.G.E.; Maynard, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclei 129 Xe and 131 Xe have been studied by Coulomb excitation and by (α, n) reactions on 126 Te and 128 Te. Eleven new levels for 129 Xe and six for 131 Xe and B(E2) transition values for some of the low-lying states are reported. The present Coulomb excitation experiments together with published β-decay work enable some spin-parity assignments and restrictions to be made. The data are broadly consistent with the predictions of the particle-vibrator coupling model, although a thorough comparison requires further spectroscopic measurements and more detailed theoretical calculation. (author)

  9. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Kataoka, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point

  10. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu, E-mail: morishi@chem.ous.ac.jp; Kataoka, Takaaki [Department of Chemistry, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2015-07-21

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point.

  11. Ars disyecta Ars disyecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo la nominación Ars Disyecta se busca exponer el vínculo entre artes visuales, feminismo y metamorfosis. Las prácticas artísticas feministas aquí presentadas se proponen perturbar el espacio metafórico heredado de la diferencia sexual (pensemos, por ejemplo, en las palabras engendramiento, matriz, vida, compenetración o invaginamiento. En este sentido, la nominación Ars disyecta pone en escena un conjunto de prácticas e intervenciones que intentan interrumpir la matriz de la diferencia, desestabilizando lo femenino desde aquellas figuras que se resisten a la lógica de la totalidad y de un tiempo propio. Buscando seguir la huella de un arte disyecto es que interrogaré en este ensayo aquellas autorías feministas que en el arte contemporáneo trafican con las huellas del contagio, la mutación y la alteridad.This article aims to present the relation between visual arts, feminism I and metamorphosis. The feminist artistic practices portrayed in this article attempt to question categories inherited from the metaphor of sexual difference such as engendering, matrix and life. From this perspective, Ars disyecta will establish a set of artistic practices and interventions that intend to interrupt the proper idea of «feminine difference». Following this line of argument, I will discuss in this article a few contemporary feminist works of art that could be defined by words such as contagious, mutation and otherness.

  12. Study on decay of 118Xe and 119Xe by means of mass-separator on-line with a synchrocyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlovich, Eh.E.; Batist, L.Kh.; Blinnikov, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of sup(118, 119)Xe isotopes has been investigated. An experimental device involving a mass-separator operating in line with a synchrocyclotron is briefly outlined. The elements to be investigated were isolated from a proton-irradiated target by the 'on-beam-chemistry' methods and transferred into the mass-separator ion source. The Xe separated ions are transported to detectors in an experimental ha ll. The energies and relative γ ray intensities of 118 Xe → 118 J and of 119 Xe → 119 J decays ar presented. The error of the γ ray energy determination does not exceed 0.6 keV. Obtained are the periods of half-life: for 118 Xe - (3.8+-0.9) min, for 119 Xe - (5.8+-0.3) min. The decay scheme for 119 Xe is made up. The scheme of 119 Xe levels is well inscribed into the general systematics of the J odd isotope levels. On the basis of obtained and known data the spin values are described to the 119 J levels

  13. Xe isotopic constraints on cycling of deep Earth volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern deep Earth volatile budget reflects primordial volatiles delivered during accretion, radiogenic ingrowth of volatile species (e.g., 40Ar produced by 40K decay), outgassing in association with mantle processing, and regassing via subduction. The noble gases are unique volatile tracers in that they are chemically inert, but are thought to be trapped within hydrous alteration phases in downwelling lithologies. Noble gases thus provide a tracer of volatile transport between the deep Earth and surface reservoirs. Constraints on the fluxes of noble gases between deep Earth and surface reservoirs over time can accordingly be used to provide insight into temperature conditions at subduction zones, limits on volatile cycling, and the evolving distribution of major volatile species in terrestrial reservoirs over time. Xe isotope systematics in mantle-derived rocks show that 80-90% of the mantle Xe budget is derived from recycling of atmospheric Xe, indicating that atmospheric Xe is retained in subducting slabs beyond depths of magma generation in subduction zones over Earth history. We present an integrated model of Xe cycling between the mantle and atmosphere in association with mantle processing over Earth history. We test a wide variety of outgassing and regassing rates and take the evolution of the atmospheric Xe isotopic composition [e.g., 1] into account. Models in which the deep Earth transitions from a net outgassing to net regassing regime best satisfy Xe isotopic constraints from mantle-derived rocks [2-6]. [1] Avice et al., 2017; Nature Communications, 8; [2] Mukhopadhyay, 2012, Nature 486, 101-104; [3] Parai et al., 2012, EPSL 359-360, 227-239; [4] Parai and Mukhopadhay, 2015, G-cubed 16, 719-735; [5] Peto et al., 2013, EPSL 369-370, 13-23; [6] Tucker et al., 2012, EPSL 355-356, 244-254.

  14. Anomalous Photoionization in Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Photoionization (PI) cross sections are important components of the opacities that are necessary for the simulation of astrophysical and ICF plasmas. Most of PI cross sections (i) start abruptly at threshold and (ii) decrease as an inverse power (e.g.3^rd) of the photon energy. In the framework of the CRASH project [1] we computed Xe opacities with the STA code [2]. We observed that the PI cross section for the 4d shell has neither of these 2 characteristics. We explain this result as interference between the bound 4d wavefunction (wf), the photon, and the free electron wf. Similar, but less pronounced effects are seen for the 5d and 5p shells. Simplified models of PI not involving the actual wf would not show this effect and would probably be inaccurate.[4pt] [1] Doss, F. W., Drake, R. P., and Kuranz, C. C., High Ener. Dens. Phys. 6, 157-61.[0pt] [2] Busquet, M., Klapisch, M., Bar-Shalom, A., et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 225 (2010).

  15. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-Selective Microporous Metal-Organic Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Plonka, A.M.; Banerjee, D.; Krishna, R.; Schaef, H.T.; Ghose, S.; Thallapally, P.K.; Parise, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid,state adsorbents, but no experimental insights

  16. Understanding and modulating the high-energy properties of noble-gas hydrides from their long-bonding: an NBO/NRT investigation on HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ and HNgCN/NC (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Song, Junjie; Fu, Lei; Tang, Kongshuang; Su, Yue; Chen, Dezhan

    2018-04-18

    The noble-gas hydrides, HNgX (X is an electronegative atom or fragment), represent potential high-energy materials because their two-body decomposition process, HNgX → Ng + HX, is strongly exoergic. Our previous studies have shown that each member of the HNgX (X = halogen atom or CN/NC fragment) molecules is composed of three leading resonance structures: two ω-bonding structures (H-Ng+ :X- and H:- Ng+-X) and one long-bonding structure (H∧X). The last one paints a novel [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding picture. The present study focuses on the relationship between this novel bonding motif and the unusual energetic properties. We chose HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC, with the formula HNgAB (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; AB = CO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC) as the research system. We first investigated the bonding of HNgCO+ and its analogous HNgCS+/OSi+ species using NBO/NRT methods, and quantitatively compared the bonding with that in HNgCN/NC molecules. NBO/NRT results showed that each of the HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ molecules could be better represented as a resonance hybrid of ω-bonding and long-bonding structures, but the long-bonding is much weaker than that in HNgCN/NC molecules. Furthermore, we introduced the long-bonding concept into the rationalization of the high-energy properties, and found a good correlation between the highly exothermic two-body dissociation channel and the long-bond order, bH-A. We also found that the long-bond order is highly tunable for these noble-gas hydrides due to its dependence on the nature of the electronegative AB fragments or the central noble-gas atoms, Ng. On the basis of these results, we could optimize the energetic properties by changing the long-bonding motif of our studied molecules. Overall, this study shows that the long-bonding model provides an easy way to rationalize and modulate the unusual energy properties of noble-gas hydrides, and that it is helpful to predict some noble-gas hydrides as potential energetic materials.

  17. Photoemission from excited states in rare gas solids by combining synchrotronradiation with a laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstorff, S.

    1984-09-01

    A new spectroscopic method has been developed to study excited states in rare gas solids: Excitons and conductionband-states are populated by synchrotron radiation (photon energy hw SR =5 - 30 eV). Subsequently electrons from these bound or conduction band-states are excited above the vacuum level of the solid by a pulsed dye laser (hw L =1.9 - 3.7 eV). This experimental technique was applied to solid Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. (orig./GSCH)

  18. Fundamental Limits to Coherent Scattering and Photon Coalescence from Solid-State Quantum Emitters [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara; Mørk, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    a substantial suppression of detrimental interactions between the source and its phonon environment. Nevertheless, we demonstrate here that this reasoning is incomplete, and phonon interactions continue to play a crucial role in determining solid-state emission characteristics even for very weak excitation. We...... find that the sideband resulting from non-Markovian relaxation of the phonon environment leads to a fundamental limit to the fraction of coherently scattered light and to the visibility of two-photon coalescence at weak driving, both of which are absent for atomic systems or within simpler Markovian...

  19. Energies, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, O.; El Sayed, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths have been calculated for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions among the fine-structure levels of terms belonging to the ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 2 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 4p 3 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 4d, and ([Ar] 3d 10 )4p 4 configurations. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method, taking both correlations within the n=4 complex and the quantum electrodynamic effects into account, have been used in the calculations. The results are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  20. Kinetic analysis of rare gas metastable production and optically pumped Xe lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanov, A. V.; Kochetov, I. V.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Azyazov, V. N.; Heaven, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas lasers use metastable rare gas atoms as the lasing species in mixtures with He or Ar buffer gas. The metastables are generated in a glow discharge, and we report model calculations for the optimal production of Ne*, Ar*, Kr* and Xe*. Discharge efficiency was estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. Laser efficiency, gain and output power of the CW optically pumped Xe laser were assessed as functions of heavier rare gas content, pressure, optical pump intensity and the optical path length. It was found that, for efficient operation the heavier rare gas content has to be of the order of one percent or less, and the total pressure—in the range 0.3-1.5 atm. Output power and specific discharge power increase approximately linearly with pump intensity over the output range from 300-500 W cm-2. Ternary mixtures Xe:Ar:He were found to be the most promising. Total laser efficiency was found to be nearly the same for pumping the 2p8 or 2p9 state, reaching 61%-70% for a pump intensity of ~720 W cm-2 when the Xe fraction was in the range 0.001 ÷ 0.01 and Ar fraction—0.1 ÷ 0.5. However, when the 2p8 state was pumped, the maximum total efficiency occurred at larger pressures than for pumping of the 2p9 state. The discharge power density required to sustain a sufficient Xe* number density was in the range of tens of watts per cubic centimeter for 50% Ar in the mixture.

  1. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  2. Multicollector High Precision Resolution of Primordial Kr and Xe in Mantle CO2 Well Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G.; Ballentine, C.; Cassidy, M.

    2008-12-01

    Noble gas isotopes in magmatic CO2 well gases provide a unique insight into mantle volatile origin and dynamics [1-3]. Previous work has resolved mantle 20Ne/22Ne ratios consistent with a solar wind irradiated meteoritic source for mantle He and Ne [1]. This is distinct from Solar Wind values that might be expected if the primary mechanism of terrestrial mantle volatile acquisition was through the gravitational capture of solar nebula gases [see 4]. Within the CO2 well gases a primordial component has also been resolved in the non- radiogenic Xe isotopic composition [2,3]. Using multicollector mass spectrometry we have observed a 124Xe/130Xe excess of 1.85 percent over air plus/minus 0.17 percent for the least air contaminated samples. At this level of precision we are for the first time able to differentiate between a trapped meteoritic origin (average carbonaceous chondrite or Q Xe) rather than Solar Wind origin as the primordial Xe component. The well gases also contain Kr which, in the least air contaminated sample, have a correlated 86Kr/82Kr excess of 0.55 percent over air plus/minus 0.04 percent. Whilst mass dependent fractionation can theoretically produce correlated excesses in 124Xe-128Xe and 82Kr-86Kr isotopes, no fractionation from air is observed in 38Ar/36Ar [3] and the Kr excesses are in the opposite sense to that of Xe. From 136Xe excesses, Kr fission yield from Pu and U can be calculated and subtracted from the Kr isotopic signature. This fission-corrected signature is most reasonably explained as a primordial component. This is the first time that primordial Kr has ever been resolved in a terrestrial sample. The primordial Kr isotopic signature is distinct from Solar Wind Kr and is consistent with the primordial Kr also originating as a trapped component within meteorites. We are now able to demonstrate that both the light (He and Ne) and Heavy (Kr and Xe) noble gas origin in the terrestrial mantle is consistent with a trapped component during the

  3. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Ludin, Nurin; Tornow, Werner

    2015-05-01

    The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  5. Charge transfer reactions in Xe plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, C. Q.; Garscadden, A.; Ganguly, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Charge transfer reactions of fast Xe ions with hydrocarbons including methane (CH 4 ), ethene (C 2 H 4 ), and propane (C 3 H 8 ) are studied by adding these hydrocarbon gases into a cross flowing Xe plasma expansion. Branching ratios and relative reaction rates for the charge transfers of fast Xe + with each of the three hydrocarbon gases are measured under different rf powers of the inductively coupled Xe discharge. For CH 4 /Xe system, we find that fast Xe + reacts readily with CH 4 generating CH 4 + and CH 3 + in a ratio of 1:0.56, with an estimated rate coefficient of (2.3±0.3)x10 -10 cm 3 /s at 75 W rf power which slowly increases to (2.9±0.3)x10 -10 cm 3 /s at 250 W (error bars reflect only the uncertainties due to the unknown extent of the ion recombination that follows the charge transfer reaction). These observed charge transfer reactions are made possible by the kinetically excited Xe ions produced by free expansion of the plasma. For the C 2 H 4 /Xe system product ions C 2 H 4 + and C 2 H 2 + are observed, and for C 3 H 8 /Xe, C 2 H 4 + and C 2 H 5 + and minor product ions including C 2 H 2 + and C 3 H 7 + are observed

  6. Level structure in 123Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukko, A.; Hattula, J.; Helppi, H.; Knuuttila, O.

    1980-09-01

    The level structure of 123 Xe has been studied with 122 Te( 3 He,2n) and 123 Te( 3 He,3n) reactions using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Band-like level structures based on the unique-parity hsub(11/2) neutron state and different low-j states are observed. The isomeric state proposed earlier is established at 185.4 keV with a half-life of 5.6+-0.3 μs, and a new spin assignment of 7/2 - is proposed for this level. A triaxial-rotor-model calculation has been performed to interprete the negative-parity level system. Because of the 7/2 - state, we do not obtain a consistent description of the negative-parity states with the triaxial rotor model, unlike the heavier odd-A Xe nuclei. On the other hand, the positive-parity level structures are interpreted in terms of the core-quasiparticle model supposing a vibrational core. This indicates different core shapes for the positive- and negative-parity level systems. (author)

  7. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  8. Z/sub 1/ dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum. [H/sup +/,H/sub 2//sup +/,D/sup +/,D/sub 2//sup +/,He/sup +/,B/sup +/,C/sup +/,N/sup +/,N/sub 2//sup +/,O/sup +/,O/sub 2//sup +/,F/sup +/,Ne/sup +/,S/sup +/,Cl/sup +/,Ar/sup +/,Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/, 1. 2-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-07-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields ..gamma.. of clean aluminum under bombardment with H/sup +/, H/sub 2/ /sup +/, D/sup +/, D/sub 2/ /sup +/, He/sup +/, B/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/, N/sub 2/ /sup +/, O/sup +/, O/sub 2/ /sup +/, F/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, S/sup +/, Cl/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields ..gamma../sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured ..gamma.. a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons.

  9. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  10. The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe, XeF2 and XeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe gas, XeF 2 molecule and XeF 4 molecule are calculated by an ab-initio atomic many-body theory. The 4s-peak and the prominent '4p'-peak are predicted well by the present theory. In XeF 2 and XeF 4 the spectral lines observed below the 4d-double ionization threshold are the 4d -2 4f multiplet states strongly perturbed by the interaction with the initial 4p 1/2 -hole state. They are very similar to the spectral lines which emerge with an increase in atomic number (e.g. Ba)

  11. Flow measurements in biological systems using Xe-127 and Xe-133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Xe-133 and Xe-127 are widely used for quantitative evaluation of ventilation in human subjects. Owing to differences in scattering in the biological system as well as differences in the detector response to photons of selected energies, clinical Xe-133 images are much more distorted than the corresponding Xe-127 images. This thesis concerns itself with the evaluation of Xe-133 and Xe-127 as potential tracers for pulmonary function studies. Through the simulation of clinical images it is shown that such smaller abnormalities are able to be detected with Xe-127 than with Xe-133. It is also found that even for poorly ventilated regions, the measured lesion size in the simulated image is comparable to the known lesion size when studied with Xe-127. With Xe-133, however, the measured size of the lesion is smaller than its known size. By fitting the washout portion of the clinical data to a linear sum of two exponentials, a weighted average clearance constant for the tracer - which relates to the reciprocal of the mean flow through the system - can be calculated and used as an index for comparison of the two Xenon isotopes. When an appropriate model is used for data interpretation, more accurate clinical information can be derived from the Xe-127 data. Unlike Xe-133, ventilation study with Xe-127 can be performed immediately after the perfusion study with Tc-99m. Lower radiation dose and longer shelf-life of Xe-127 are added advantages over Xe-133. Various compartmental and non-compartmental models are examined and appropriate technique(s) for clinical data interpretation is(are) recommended

  12. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  13. Symmetric resonance double charge transfer in Kr++ + Kr and Xe++ + Xe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.; Koizumi, T.; Kaneko, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Cross sections of processes Kr ++ + Kr → Ke + Kr ++ and Xe ++ + XeXe + Xe ++ were measured by the injected-ion-drift-tube technique from 0.04 to 20 eV. For both cases, the cross section below 1 eV coincides with the orbiting cross sections with a charge-transfer probability 1/2. Above 1 eV, the energy dependence of the cross sectcion is like that for single charge transfer. Mobilities of Kr ++ and Xe ++ in He are presented also

  14. Asymmetric output profile of Xe Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, F.J.; Rubin, P.L.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    A new set of asymmetric modes was recently revealed in a Xe slab laser with pronounced lens effects originating from gas heating in the discharge. The appearance of these modes is a threshold effect. Their domain of existence in the Xe laser is discussed. It is shown that mode competition can result

  15. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Stephen H; Wehlitz, Ralf; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-06-14

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF2 from Xe 3d(5/2), Xe 3d(3/2), and F 1s subshells in the 660-740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d-ϵf continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF2 cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. Comparisons of the ion products from the atom and molecule following Xe 3d photoionization show that the charge-state distribution of Xe ions is shifted to lower charge states in the molecule along with production of energetic F(+) and F(2+) ions. This suggests that, in decay of a Xe 3d core hole, charge is redistributed to the F ligands and the system dissociates due to Coulomb repulsion. The ion products from excitation of the F 1s-LUMO resonance are different and show strong increases in the yields of Xe(+) and F(+) ions. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies, and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods and agree well with measurements.

  16. Electron temperatures of inductively coupled Cl2-Ar plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, N.C.M.; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Herman, Irving P.

    2002-01-01

    Trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy has been used to measure the electron temperature, T e , in a high-density inductively coupled Cl 2 -Ar plasma at 18 mTorr as function of the 13.56 MHz radio frequency power and Ar fraction. Only the Kr and Xe emission lines were used to determine T e , because of evidence of radiation trapping when the Ar emission lines were also used for larger Ar fractions. At 600 W (10.6 W cm-2), T e increases from ∼4.0±0.5 eV to ∼6.0±2.0 eV as the Ar fraction increases from 1% to 96%. In the H (inductive, bright) mode, T e , for a 'neat' chlorine plasma (including 1% of each He/Ne/Ar/Kr/Xe) increases only slightly from ∼3.8 to 4.0 eV as power increases from 450 to 750 W. This increase is much larger for larger Ar fractions, such as from ∼4.0 to 7.3 eV for 78% Ar. Most of these effects can be understood using the fundamental particle balance equation

  17. Weird muonium diffusion in solid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, V.G.; Kirillov, B.F.; Pirogov, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    Muon and muonium spin rotation and relaxation parameters were studied in liquid and solid xenon. The small diamagnetic fraction (∼ 10%) observed in condensed xenon is believed to be Xeμ + . The muonium hyperfine frequency was measured for the first time in liquid Xe and was found to be in agreement with the vacuum value. A nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the muonium relaxation rate probably indicates that muonium diffusion in solid Xe is of quantum nature. 16 refs., 3 figs

  18. Ab initio effective core potentials including relativistic effects. II. Potential energy curves for Xe2, Xe+2, and Xe*2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermler, W.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Pitzer, K.S.; Winter, N.W.

    1978-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the ground 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of Xe 2 , the first four states of the Xe + 2 ions, and the eight Xe* 2 excimer states corresponding to the addition of a 6ssigma/sub g/ Rydberg electron to these ion cores have been computed using averaged relativistic effective core potentials (AREP) and the self-consistent field approximation for the valence electrons. The calculations were carried out using the LS-coupling scheme with the effects of spin--orbit coupling included in the resulting potential energy curves using an empirical procedure. A comparison of nonrelativistic and averaged relativistic EP's and subsequent molecular calculations indicates that relativistic effects arising from the mass--velocity and Darwin terms are not important for these properties of Xe 2 molecules. Spectroscopic constants for Xe + 2 are in good agreement with all electron CI calculations suggesting that the computed values for Xe* 2 excimers should be reliable. The lifetime for the O/sub u/ + state of the Xe 2 * is computed to be 5.6 nsec which is in the range of the experimentally determined values

  19. Stable Chloro- and Bromoxenate Cage Anions; [X3(XeO3)3]3- and [X4(XeO3)4]4- (X = Cl or Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, James T; Haensch, Veit G; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2017-06-28

    The number of isolable compounds which contain different noble-gas-element bonds is limited for xenon and even more so for krypton. Examples of Xe-Cl bonds are rare, and prior to this work, no Xe-Br bonded compound had been isolated in macroscopic quantities. The syntheses, isolation, and characterization of the first compounds to contain Xe-Br bonds and their chlorine analogues are described in the present work. The reactions of XeO 3 with [N(CH 3 ) 4 ]Br and [N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ]Br have provided two bromoxenate salts, [N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ] 3 [Br 3 (XeO 3 ) 3 ] and [N(CH 3 ) 4 ] 4 [Br 4 (XeO 3 ) 4 ], in which the cage anions have Xe-Br bond lengths that range from 3.0838(3) to 3.3181(8) Å. The isostructural chloroxenate anions (Xe-Cl bond lengths, 2.9316(2) to 3.101(4) Å) were synthesized by analogy with their bromine analogues. The bromo- and chloroxenate salts are stable in the atmosphere at room temperature and were characterized in the solid state by Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and in the gas phase by quantum-chemical calculations. They are the only known examples of cage anions that contain a noble-gas element. The Xe-Br and Xe-Cl bonds are very weakly covalent and can be viewed as σ-hole interactions, similar to those encountered in halogen bonding. However, the halogen atoms in these cases are valence electron lone pair donors, and the σ* Xe-O orbitals are lone pair acceptors.

  20. Determination of 131mXe and 133mXe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; McIntyre, J.I.; Pitts, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133g Xe, and 135g Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse-height spectra of gamma-energy versus beta-energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131m Xe. 133m Xe, and 133g Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (T 1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta-particles from 133g Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133 Cs is being developed. This technique allows separation of the 133g Xe beta spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131m Xe and 133m Xe and uniquely quantifies all three nuclides. (author)

  1. Determination of 131m Xe and 133m Xe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, Paul L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Pitts, W K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131mXe. 133mXe, and 133Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (t1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta particles from 133Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133Cs is being developed. This technique will allow separation of the 133Xe spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131mXe and 133mXe and will uniquely quantify all three nuclides

  2. Syntheses, Raman spectra, and X-ray crystal structures of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [M][OsO(3)F(3)] (M = XeF(5)(+), Xe(2)F(11)(+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2010-04-05

    Stoichiometric amounts of XeF(6) and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity) react at 25-50 degrees C to form salts of the known XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations, namely, [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)], [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)], and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)]. Although XeF(6) is oxophilic toward a number of transition metal and main-group oxides and oxide fluorides, fluoride/oxide metathesis was not observed. The series provides the first examples of noble-gas cations that are stabilized by metal oxide fluoride anions and the first example of a mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) salt. Both [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are orange solids at room temperature. The [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] salt is an orange liquid at room temperature that solidifies at 5-0 degrees C. When the salts are heated at 50 degrees C under 1 atm of N(2) for more than 2 h, significant XeF(6) loss occurs. The X-ray crystal structures (-173 degrees C) show that the salts exist as discrete ion pairs and that the osmium coordination spheres in OsO(3)F(3)(-) and mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) are pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3)-units having facial arrangements of oxygen and fluorine atoms. The mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) anion is comprised of two symmetry-related OsO(3)F(2)-groups that are fluorine-bridged to one another. Ion pairing results from secondary bonding interactions between the fluorine/oxygen atoms of the anions and the xenon atom of the cation, with the Xe...F/O contacts occurring opposite the axial fluorine and from beneath the equatorial XeF(4)-planes of the XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations so as to avoid the free valence electron lone pairs of the xenon atoms. The xenon atoms of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are nine-coordinate and the xenon atom of [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] is eight-coordinate. Quantum-chemical calculations at SVWN and B3LYP levels of theory were used to obtain the gas-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies, and NBO bond orders, valencies, and NPA charges of

  3. Enhancement of molecular NMR signal induced by polarization transfer from laser-polarized 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xianping

    2001-01-01

    There is a large non-equilibrium nuclear polarization and a longer relaxation time in the laser-polarized 129 Xe produced by means of optical pumping and spin exchange. The characteristics of the laser-polarized 129 Xe permit the transfer of the polarization to enhance the atomic nuclear spin in liquid, solid and surface of solid molecules. Therefore, the sensitivity in nuclear magnetic resonance measurements for the molecules is enhanced and applications in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of the polarization transfer between laser-polarized 129 Xe and the atomic nuclei in the molecules, the relative physics and the measurement of some parameters are introduced

  4. arXiv ARS Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, M.; Hernandez, P.; Kekic, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Salvado, J.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-28

    We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to...

  5. Argon defect complexes in low energy Ar irradiated molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, A. van; Buters, W.T.M.; Kolk, G.J. van der; Caspers, L.M.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectrometry has been used to study the defects created in Mo irradiated along the direction with Ar ions ranging in energy from 0.1 to 2 keV. In addition to monitoring the release of the implanted Ar, additional information has been obtained by decoration of the defects with low energy helium and subsequent monitoring of the helium release. The studies show evidence that the Ar can be trapped in both substitutional sites and in a configuration in which the Ar is associated with vacancies (ArVsub(n), n >= 2). Most of the Ar implanted at high energy is released at approx. equal to 1500 K by thermal vacancy assisted diffusion. Argon trapped closer to the surface is released at lower temperatures via at least three different surface related release mechanisms. Additional results are presented on the interaction of self interstitial atoms (introduced by 100 eV Xe bombardment) with the Ar defects. Substitutional Ar is found to convert to interstitial Ar which seems to be mobile at room temperature. The Ar-vacancy complexes are found to be reduced to substitutional Ar. The results of atomistic calculations of the release mechanisms will also be presented. (orig.)

  6. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  7. Electron scattering from 36Ar and 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The argon isotopes, 36 Ar and 40 Ar, have been investigated using electron scattering at the high-resolution Linac facilities of the National Bureau of Standards. Both elastic scattering and scattering to low-lying states have been observed. A high-pressure, low-volume gas target cell was designed and developed for this experiment. The cell features a transmission geometry and has resolution comparable to solid targets. Spectra were obtained at incident beam energies ranging from 65 to 115 MeV at scattering angles of 92.5 0 and 110 0 . Values obtained for the rms charge radii are 3.327 +- 0.015 and 3.393 +- 0.015 fm for 36 Ar and 40 Ar respectively. A sensitive measurement was made of the difference in the two radii yielding a value of Δ r = 0.079 +- 0.006 fm. The inelastic levels observed are the 1.97 (2 + ) and 4.18 MeV (3 - ) levels in 36 Ar, and the 1.46 (2 + ), 2.52 (2 + ), 3.21 (2 + ), and 3.68 MeV (3 - ) levels in 40 Ar. A Tassie model analysis was made of the inelastic transitions in the DWBA approximation and transition strengths of these levels were extracted

  8. Hydrodynamic predictions for 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2018-03-01

    We argue that relativistic hydrodynamics is able to make robust predictions for soft particle production in Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The change of system size from Pb+Pb to Xe+Xe provides a unique opportunity to test the scaling laws inherent to fluid dynamics. Using event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations, we make quantitative predictions for several observables: mean transverse momentum, anisotropic flow coefficients, and their fluctuations. Results are shown as a function of collision centrality.

  9. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  10. Small angle Ar2+ + Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electron capture in Ar 2+ + Ar is studied at low keV energies. Using Ar 2+ + He collisions as a calibration, it is shown that the dominant single electron capture process is endothermic and of the type Ar 2+ ( 3 P) + ArAr + ( 2 P) + Ar + (3s 2 3p 4 nI), with nI primarily being 3d and 4p. Weaker exothermic processes are also found and are due mainly to the existence of long-lived highly-excited states in the incident Ar 2+ beam. The direct scattering and double electron capture processes are also studied. Direct scattering occurs with no target excitation. Differential cross sections are presented for the collision processes. The single electron capture results are interpreted using a simple model in which a strongly attractive intermediate state couples with incident and outgoing channels

  11. 40Ar/36Ar in MORB glasses: Constraints on atmosphere and mantle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda, P.; Staudacher, T.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    Argon isotopic composition measurements of MORB glassy samples from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are performed. There is a very large scatter in the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio, from 980 up to 24,400 for bulk rock analyses, which is mainly due to atmospheric contamination: Using the stepwise heating technique, very high ratios are obtained, from 15,000 up to 25,250 which is the highest 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio ever measured in MORB. We establish a negative correlation between the highest 40 Ar/ 36 Ar results from stepwise heating and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, which is perfectly consistent with a two-layered mantle structure. From both 40 Ar and 129 Xe MORB systematics a model is proposed for the kinetics of degassing: a very early and extensive burst, with a time constant of approx.= 4 My, is followed by a slower process of present day type, with a time constant of approx.= 0.5 Gy. The mean age of the atmosphere is so determined to be around 4.4 Gy. (orig./WB)

  12. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  13. Anisotropic flow in Xe-Xe collisions at 5.44 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; 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Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shirinkin, Sergey; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singh, Randhir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stocco, Diego; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; 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Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vermunt, Luuk; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegrzynek, Adam; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zherebchevskii, Vladimir; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    The first measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{n}$ for mid-rapidity charged particles in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.44$ TeV are presented. Comparing these measurements to those from Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV, $v_{2}$ is found to be suppressed for mid-central collisions at the same centrality, and enhanced for central collisions. The values of $v_{3}$ are generally larger in Xe-Xe than in Pb-Pb at a given centrality. These observations are consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic predictions. When both $v_{2}$ and $v_{3}$ are divided by their corresponding eccentricities for a variety of initial state models, they generally scale with transverse density when comparing Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb, with some deviations observed in central Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions. These results assist in placing strong constraints on both the initial state geometry and medium response for relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of adsorption and diffusion of Xe on bare and Xe covered Pt(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de F.; Jansen, A.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate adsorption probabilities and diffusion coefficients of Xe on Pt(111) and Xe/Pt(111). Experimental trends are reproduced. The adsorption mechanism is found to be the modified Kisliuk model, with the addition of direct and indirect insertion in the

  15. Coulomb states in atoms and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalano, D.M.

    1988-05-01

    In this dissertation, an empirical quantum defect approach to describe the valence excitons of the rare gas solids is developed. These Coulomb states are of s-symmetry and form a hydrogen-like series which converges to the bottom of the lowest conduction band. A non-zero quantum defect is found for all of the excitons of neon, argon and xenon. For these systems, then, there exists, in addition to the screened Coulombic component, a non-Coulombic component to the total exciton binding energy. The Wannier formalism is, therefore, inappropriate for the excitons of Ne, Ar and Xe. From the sign of the quantum defect, the non-Coulombic potential is repulsive for Ne and Ar, attractive for Xe, and nearly zero for Kr. This is opposite to that for the Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms, where the non-Coulombic potential between the electron and the cation is attractive for all of the atoms. The excitons then, are not simply perturbed Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms (i.e., the excitons do not possess atomic parentage). Interatomic term value/band gap energy correlations and reduced term value/reduced band gap correlations were performed. These correlations were exploited to provide further evidence against both the Wannier formalism and the atomic parentage view point. From these correlations, it was also discovered that the non-Coulombic potential varies smoothly across the valence isoelectronic series of solids, and that it becomes more attractive (or less repulsive) in going from neon to xenon. In order to address the atomic parentage controversy, it was necessary to compare the excitons to the low-n Rydberg states of the rare gas atoms. A review of the quantum defect description of the atomic Rydberg states is, therefore, presented. Also, Rydberg term value/ionization energy correlations are discussed and compared with the analogous exciton correlations. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Comparison of air space measurement imaged by CT, small-animal CT, and hyperpolarized Xe MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Aniseh; White, Steven; Santyr, Giles; Cunningham, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Lung disease is the third leading cause of death in the western world. Lung air volume measurements are thought to be early indicators of lung disease and markers in pharmaceutical research. The purpose of this work is to develop a lung phantom for assessing and comparing the quantitative accuracy of hyperpolarized xenon 129 magnetic resonance imaging (HP 129Xe MRI), conventional computed tomography (HRCT), and highresolution small-animal CT (μCT) in measuring lung gas volumes. We developed a lung phantom consisting of solid cellulose acetate spheres (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm diameter) uniformly packed in circulated air or HP 129Xe gas. Air volume is estimated based on simple thresholding algorithm. Truth is calculated from the sphere diameters and validated using μCT. While this phantom is not anthropomorphic, it enables us to directly measure air space volume and compare these imaging methods as a function of sphere diameter for the first time. HP 129Xe MRI requires partial volume analysis to distinguish regions with and without 129Xe gas and results are within %5 of truth but settling of the heavy 129Xe gas complicates this analysis. Conventional CT demonstrated partial-volume artifacts for the 1mm spheres. μCT gives the most accurate air-volume results. Conventional CT and HP 129Xe MRI give similar results although non-uniform densities of 129Xe require more sophisticated algorithms than simple thresholding. The threshold required to give the true air volume in both HRCT and μCT, varies with sphere diameters calling into question the validity of thresholding method.

  17. Excess Gibbs energy for six binary solid solutions of molecularly simple substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, L J; Staveley, L A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method developed in a previous study of Ar + CH/sub 4/ to the evaluation of the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.S/ for solid solutions of two molecularly simple components. The method depends on combining information on the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.L/ for the liquid mixture of the two components with a knowledge of the (T, x) solid-liquid phase diagram. Certain thermal properties o the pure substances are also needed. G /SUP E.S/ has been calculated for binary mixtures of Ar + Kr, Kr + CH/sub 4/, CO + N/sub 2/, Kr + Xe, Ar + N/sub 2/, and Ar + CO. In general, but not always, the solid mixtures are more non-ideal than the liquid mixtures of the same composition at the same temperature. Except for the Kr + CH/sub 4/ system, the ratio r = G /SUP E.S/ /G /SUP E.L/ is larger the richer the solution in the component with the smaller molecules.

  18. Rapid-relocation model for describing high-fluence retention of rare gases implanted in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, K.

    2009-09-01

    It has been known for a long time that the maximum areal density of inert gases that can be retained in solids after ion implantation is significantly lower than expected if sputter erosion were the only limiting factor. The difference can be explained in terms of the idea that the trapped gas atoms migrate towards the surface in a series of detrapping-trapping events so that reemission takes place well before the receding surface has advanced to the original depth of implantation. Here it is shown that the fluence dependent shift and shape of implantation profiles, previously determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), can be reproduced surprisingly well by extending a simple retention model originally developed to account only for the effect of surface recession by sputtering ('sputter approximation'). The additional migration of inert gas atoms is formally included by introducing an effective shift parameter Yeff as the sum of the sputtering yield Y and a relocation efficiency Ψrel. The approach is discussed in detail for 145 keV Xe + implanted in Si at normal incidence. Yeff was found to increase with increasing fluence, to arrive at a maximum equivalent to about twice the sputtering yield. At the surface one needs to account for Xe depletion and the limited depth resolution of RBS. The (high-fluence) effect of implanted Xe on the range distributions is discussed on the basis of SRIM calculations for different definitions of the mean target density, including the case of volume expansion (swelling). To identify a 'range shortening' effect, the implanted gas atoms must be excluded from the definition of the depth scale. The impact-energy dependence of the relocation efficiency was derived from measured stationary Xe concentrations. Above some characteristic energy (˜20 keV for Ar, ˜200 keV for Xe), Y exceeds Ψrel. With decreasing energy, however, Ψrel increases rapidly. Below 2-3 keV more than 90% of the reemission of Ar and Xe is estimated

  19. Half-life of Xe120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Behr, J. A.; Chupp, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hayden, M. E.; Hyland, B.; Nuss-Warren, S. R.; Pearson, M. R.; Schumaker, M. A.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Warner, T.

    2006-08-01

    We have measured the half-life of Xe120 using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector to monitor the 176, 178, and 762 keV γ rays from Xe120 β+ decay. The result, 46±0.6 min, differs significantly from the value 40±1 min reported by Andersson [Ark. Fys. 28, 37 (1964)]. We have also measured the half-lives of Cs120 and I120 to be 60±0.7 s and 82.1±0.6 min, respectively, both of which are consistent with previous measurements.

  20. New experimental stopping power data of 4He, 16O, 40Ar, 48Ca and 84Kr projectiles in different solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaska, W. H.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Perkowski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Malkiewicz, T.; Mutterer, M.; Savelieva, E. O.

    2018-03-01

    New experimental data on energy loss of 4He, 16O, 40Ar, 48Ca and 84Kr ions in thin, self-supporting foils of C, Al, Ni, Ag, Lu, Au, Pb and Th are presented. The measurements, using the TOF-E method, were done in a very broad energy range around the stopping power maximum; typically from 0.1 to 11 MeV/u. When available, the extracted stopping power values are compared with the previously published data. The overall agreement is good although a fair comparison is difficult as the covered energy range is much larger than in previous measurements. The small error bars and a broad coverage allowed us to test the predictions of theoretical codes: PASS, CasP, and semi-empirical programs: SRIM, LET, MSTAR, and the Hubert table predictions. The deviations of PASS predictions from the experimental data do not exceed 20% for all the measured combinations. CasP predictions are within 15% from the data for heavier ions but diverge up to 40% for lighter ions. Semi-empirical approaches, including SRIM, deviate from the experimental data by less than 5% for the regions already covered by previous experiments but err by about 10-20% for the ion/target combinations that were not measured before: Ca in Lu as well as Kr in Lu, Pb, and Th.

  1. Solid electrolytes in thermodynamic investigations. Investigation of oxygen pressure effect in Ar + O2 type mixtures on cell potentials with CaF2 electrolyte and oxide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitskij, V.A.; Narchuk, N.B.; Kashkarova, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental test of the P'sub(Osub(2))=P''sub(Osub(2)) condition (P'sub(Osub(2)) and P''sub(Osub(2)) - oxygen pressure above the first and the second electrodes) necessary for reversible work of the cells is carried out with the (-)O 2 , Pt (CaZrO 3 , 0.18CaOx0.82ZrO 2 )CaF 2 CaF 2 CaHfO 3 , HfO 2 , CaF 2 Pt, O 2 (+) cell as an example. The equilibrium potentials of the given cell are shown to be independent from Psub(Osub(2)) value above both electrodes up to the O 2 pressure equal to approximately 1 Pa at Psub(gen.)=Psub(Osub(2))+Psub(Ar)=10sup(5) Pa. Thermodynamic parameters of the CaO+HfO 2 =CaHfO 3 reaction obtained from the E=f(T) dependence in argon atmosphere under Psub(Osub(2))=1-10sup(2) Pa well agree with analogous values determined for the same cell under Psub(Osub(2)) = 10 5 Pa. Comparison of the results obtained by the e. m. f. method with F - - ion electrolyte both in pure oxygen and in argon atmosphere under low Psub(Osub(2)) with the present literature data testify to perspectives of using the cells of this type under controlled low Psub(Osub(2)) values for thermodynamic investigations

  2. Multifragment emission times in Xe induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bowman, D.R. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Buttazzo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Celano, L. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); D`Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dinius, J.D. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Ferrero, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Fiandri, M.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gelbke, K. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Glasmacher, T. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Handzy, D.O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Horn, D. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Hsi Wenchien [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Huang, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Iori, I. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lisa, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Lynch, W.G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Margagliotti, G.V. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Mastinu, P.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Milazzo, P.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montoya, C.

    1995-02-06

    Multifragment emission is studied in {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Cu reactions. The emission process for central collisions occurs on a time scale of similar 200fm/c at 30MeV/n. Intermediate-mass-fragment yields, velocity correlation functions and emission velocities of Z=6 fragments are compared with predictions of statistical decay models. ((orig.)).

  3. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan......In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known...... to be standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  4. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  5. Spectra of copperlike and zinclike xenon: Xe XXV and Xe XXVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.; Rowan, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized xenon were generated in a tokamak plasma and photographed in the region 60--350 A with a 2.2-m grazing-incidence spectrograph. The 4s 2 --4s4p transitions of Zn-like xenon (Xe XXV) and all the 4l--4(l+1) transitions of Cu-like xenon (Xe XXVI) were measured with estimated uncertainties of +- 0.005 A. These measurements have been combined with previous wavelength measurements of Xe XXVI to determine energy levels. A value for the ionization energy of Xe 25+ of 6 912 400 +- 3000 cm -1 (857.0 +- 0.4 eV) was derived

  6. Excimer lasers utilizing XeF and XeCl molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Yu I; Konovalov, I N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, G A; Ryzhov, V V; Tarasenko, V F; Fedorov, A I; Shemyakina, S B; Yastremskii, A G

    1978-12-01

    The results are given of an experimental and theoretical study of XeF (wavelength approx. 350 nm) and XeCl (wavelength approx. 308 nm) lasers excited by an electron beam, a discharge stabilized by an electron beam, and a rapid discharge. These lasers are representative of ones employing halides of noble gases, which are the most powerful sources of stimulated emission in the uv region. The XeCl laser is shown to have good emission characteristics with various methods of excitation. An analysis of the kinetics of processes in the plasma of lasers utilizing halides of noble gases showed that the main channel for the transfer of the beam's energy to the formation of excimer molecules is the ionic channel. An efficiency of about 2.6 percent and a specific radiant energy of 10 J.l/sup -1/ showed that XeCl* is one of the most effective excimer molecules.

  7. VUV emission spectra from binary rare gas mixtures near the resonance lines of Xe I and Kr I

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Gerasimov, G; Arnesen, A; Hallin, R

    2003-01-01

    Emission spectra of Xe-X (X = He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and of Kr-Y (Y = He, Ne and Ar) mixtures with low concentrations of the heavier gases (0.1-1%) and moderate total pressures (50-200 hPa) have been recorded near each of the two resonance lines of Xe and Kr in DC glow capillary discharges. The recorded intense emissions have narrow spectral profiles with FWHM of about 0.1 nm. The profiles are very similar in shape to profiles of known high resolution absorption spectra recorded at comparable gas pressures. A tentative identification of the emission structures is given, which involves transitions in heteronuclear molecules and quasimolecules between weakly-bound states.

  8. Effects of shock pressure on 40Ar-39Ar radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of shock to the drop in the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio seen at high release temperatures in some neutron-irradiated lunar samples is investigated through measurements of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio in gas samples released by stepwise heating of rock samples previously subjected to shock, either in the laboratory or in nature. Explosives were used to shock solid pieces and powder of a basalt from a diabase dike in Liberia to calculated pressures of 65, 150 and 270 kbar. These, an unshocked sample of the powder, two naturally shocked samples from the Brent impact crater in Canada, one unshocked sample from near the crater, and appropriate monitors were irradiated. Ar from stepwise heating was analyzed. The unshocked basalt shows a good 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar plateau at age 198 +-9 m.y. in agreement with a previous result of 186 +- 2 m.y. The shocked samples contain varying amounts of implanted atmospheric Ar, the isotopes of which have experienced mass fractionation. This effect is small enough in four samples so that the linearity of their graphs of 39 *Ar/ 40 Ar vs 36 Ar/ 40 Ar is evidence of a plateau. The ages of these samples are then 201 +- 10, 205 +- 12 and 201 +-9 m.y. It appears that the shock has had little effect on the 40 Ar- 39 Ar age spectrum, although the release patterns of the 39 *Ar are shifted downward by the order of 200 0 C. Shock implantation of Ar was at lower shock pressure, in the presence of less Ar, and into a less porous material than previously demonstrated. The Brent Crater samples do not all show good plateaus, but do indicate an age of 420 m.y. for the crater event and 795 +- 24 m.y. for the rock formation, in agreement with previous results. None of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar profiles shows a drop at high temperature, but a possible role of shock implantation of Ar is indicated in the production of this effect. Further experiments are suggested. (author)

  9. Ion mobilities in Xe/Ne and other rare-gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, D; Pitchford, L C [Centre de Physique des Plasmas et Applications de Toulouse (CPAT), UMR 5002 CNRS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Phelps, A V [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Urquijo, J de [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Post Office Box 48-3, 62251, 80309-0440 Cuernavaca, Moreno (Mexico); Basurto, E [Departmento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    The ion mobility or drift velocity data important for modeling glow discharges in rare gas mixtures are not generally available, nor are the ion-neutral scattering cross sections needed to calculate these data. In this paper we propose a set of cross sections for Xe{sup +} and Ne{sup +} collisions with Xe and Ne atoms. Ion mobilities at 300 K calculated using this cross section set in a Monte Carlo simulation are reported for reduced field strengths, E/N, up to 1500x10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}, in pure gases and in Xe/Ne mixtures containing 5% and 20% Xe/Ne, which are mixtures of interest for plasma display panels (PDPs). The calculated Xe{sup +} mobilities depend strongly on the mixture composition, but the Ne{sup +} mobility varies only slightly with increasing Xe in the mixture over the range studied here. The mobilities in pure gases compare well with available experimental values, and mobilities in gas mixtures at low E/N compare well with our recent measurements which will be published separately. Results from these calculations of ion mobilities are used to evaluate the predictions of Blanc's law and of the mixture rule proposed by Mason and Hahn [Phys. Rev. A 5, 438 (1972)] for determining the ion mobilities in mixtures from a knowledge of the mobilities in each of the pure gases. The mixture rule of Mason and Hahn is accurate to better than 10% at high field strengths over a wide range of conditions of interest for modeling PDPs. We conclude that a good estimate of ion mobilities at high E/N in Xe/Ne and other binary rare gas mixtures can be obtained using this mixture rule combined with known values of mobilities in parent gases and with the Langevin form for mobility of rare gas ions ion in other gases. This conclusion is supported by results in Ar/Ne mixtures which are also presented here.

  10. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2018-05-03

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288 kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/√E(MeV). The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibration so...

  11. Analysis of 125Xe electron-photon coincidence decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingberg, F.J.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe, and 135 Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125 Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124 Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab's TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style b-c coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125 Xe are also considered for relevance to the CTBT verification mission. (author)

  12. 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.; Masliwec, A.; Kuybida, P.; Hanes, J.A.; Hall, C.M.; Kenyon, W.J.; Spooner, E.T.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered in the customary method of determining the age of mineralization of sulphide ore deposits by analysing silicate material, the sulphide minerals themselves have been examined to see if they contained sufficient potassium and argon for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determination. Initial results indicate that this is the case for pyrite from the Geco ore body in northwestern Ontario, Canada. (U.K.)

  13. Streamer propagation velocity to anode and to cathode in He, Xe, N2 and SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlenko, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    One studied mechanism of ionization propagation in a solid gas associated with propagation of background electrons in heterogenous electric field. The mentioned mechanism does not depend on the sign of field projection on ionization propagation direction. One derived analytical expression for ionization front rate. The mentioned expression conforms well with numerical calculations. Dependence of wave ionization front rate as a function of a field intensity on boundary of streamer for He, Xe, N 2 and SF 6 is tabulated [ru

  14. Rb-129Xe spin-exchange rates due to binary and three-body collisions at high Xe pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D.; Fitzgerald, R.J.; Barton, A.S.; Bogorad, P.; Gatzke, M.; Newbury, N.R.; Saam, B.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the spin relaxation of 129 Xe nuclei due to collisions with Rb atoms at Xe pressures of 245--1817 Torr. Our results can be characterized by two parameters, the Rb- 129 Xe velocity-averaged binary spin-exchange cross section left-angle σv right-angle and a rate γ M that characterizes spin relaxation due to van der Waals molecules. Our results complement earlier studies performed at Xe pressures of about 1 Torr and N 2 pressures of 10--100 Torr. This work is useful for predicting spin-exchange rates between polarized Rb atoms and 129 Xe nuclei

  15. A compact 133Xe gas dispenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Harris, R.

    1977-01-01

    A dispenser for 133 Xe gas is described which is compact and simple to use, allowing the xenon to be dispensed from it shipping ampoule to suitable multi-dose injection vials in a controlled manner and with a high degree of operator safety. The apparatus has no joints and only a single rubber teat, minimizing the risks of adsorption and leakage. A scaled drawing of the dispenser is shown. (U.K.)

  16. Flow effect on {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe evolution behavior in a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianhui; Guo, Chen [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cai, Xiangzhou [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Chenggang; Zou, Chunyan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Jianlong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jingen, E-mail: chenjg@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I evolution law in a molten salt reactor is analytically deduced. • The circulation of fuel salt through the primary loop decreases the concentration of {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe. • {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is independent with the mass flow rate at normal core operating condition. • Increasing the external core volume would raise {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction caused by the flow effect. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs fissile material dissolved in the fluoride salt as fuel which continuously circulates through the primary loop with the flow cycle time being a few tens of seconds. The nuclei evolution law is quite different from that in a solid fuel reactor. In this paper, we analytically deduce the nuclei evolution law of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I which are entrained in the flowing salt, evaluate its concentration changing with the burnup time, and validate the result with the SCALE6. The circulation of fuel salt could decrease the concentration of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I, and the reduction can achieve to around 40% and 50% for {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I respectively at a small power level (e.g., 2 MW) when the core has the same fuel salt volume as that of the outer-loop. Furthermore, it can be found that the reduction is inversely proportional to the core to outer-loop volume ratio, but uncorrelated with the mass flow rate under normal operating condition of a MSR. At low core power scale, the flow effect on {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is apparent, but it is mitigated as the core power scale increases because of the rise of {sup 135}I concentration, which raises its decay to {sup 135}Xe and compensates the loss of {sup 135}Xe due to decay at the outer-loop. The decreased {sup 135}Xe concentration results in a core reactivity increase varying from around 150 pcm to 1000 pcm depending on the core power and core to outer-loop volume ratio.

  17. Depth distribution analysis of martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Chechenin, N.G.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we present results from a depth distribution analysis of the martensitic phase change occurring in Xe implanted single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. Analysis was done by 'in situ' RBS/channeling analysis, X-ray diffraction and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) of the implanted surface. It is found that the martensitic transformation of the surface layer occurs for fluences above 1x10 20 m -2 . The thickness of the transformed layer increases with fluence to ≅ 150 nm at 1x10 21 m -2 , which far exceeds the range plus straggling of the implanted Xe as calculated by the TRIM computer simulation code. Simulations using the MARLOWE code indicate that the thickness of the transformed layer coincides with the range of the small fraction of ions channeled under random implantation conditions. Using cross sectional TEM on the Xe implanted crystals, the depth distribution of gas inclusions and defects can be directly observed. Using X-ray diffraction on implanted single crystals, the solid epitaxial nature of the Xe inclusions, induced prior to the martensitic transformation, was established. The lattice constant obtained from the broad diffraction peak indicates that the pressure in the inclusions is ≅ 5 GPa. (orig./BHO)

  18. Enhanced creation of dispersive monolayer phonons in Xe/Pt(111) by inelastic helium atom scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter

    2007-01-01

    Conditions likely to lead to enhanced inelastic atomic scattering that creates shear horizontal (SH) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) monolayer phonons are identified, specifically examining the inelastic scattering of He-4 atoms by a monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) at incident energies of 2-25 meV. ...

  19. Negligible fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes by molecular diffusion in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyroller, Lina; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Busemann, Henner; Maden, Colin; Baur, Heinrich; Kipfer, Rolf

    2018-06-01

    Molecular diffusion is a key transport process for noble gases in water. Such diffusive transport is often thought to cause a mass-dependent fractionation of noble gas isotopes that is inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of their atomic mass, referred to as the square root relation. Previous studies, challenged the commonly held assumption that the square root relation adequately describes the behaviour of noble gas isotopes diffusing through water. However, the effect of diffusion on noble gas isotopes has only been determined experimentally for He, Ne and Ar to date, whereas the extent of fractionation of Kr and Xe has not been measured. In the present study the fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes diffusing through water immobilised by adding agar was quantified through measuring the respective isotope ratio after diffusing through the immobilised water. No fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes was observed, even using high-precision noble gas analytics. These results complement our current understanding on isotopic fractionation of noble gases diffusing through water. Therefore this complete data set builds a robust basis to describe molecular diffusion of noble gases in water in a physical sound manner which is fundamental to assess the physical aspects of gas dynamics in aquatic systems.

  20. Mean free path of electrons in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwentner, N.

    1976-07-01

    The energy distribution of photoelectrons of solid Ar, Kr and Xe films with thickness between 10 A and 300 A have been measured in the photon energy range 10 eV to 30 eV using the synchrotron radiation of DESY. By varying the photon energy and the film thickness the dependence of the electron-electron scattering length on the electron kinetic energy has been determined. The mean free path for inelastic electron-electron scattering decreases monotonically from values of the order of 1.000 A at the scattering threshold to values between 1 A and 5 A for electron energies 10 eV above threshold. The observed energy dependence can be understood by a simplified bandstructure and a scattering probability described by a product of density of states. The threshold energy for electron-electron scattering lies between twice the energy of the n = 1 excitons and the sum of bandgap and exciton energy. (HK) [de

  1. TEM study of xenon bubbles evolution in Xe-implanted Cu. Bubbles shape, epitaxial orientation and adsorption phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, J.; Cartraud, M.; Garem, H.; Templier, C.; Desoyer, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    TEM is used to perform a study of xenon clusters changes in Xe-implanted Cu. After implantation, xenon is gathered into f.c.c. crystalline precipitates with a lattice parameter value of 0.580 nm. During annealing at 600 0 C large (110) facetted bubbles appear (2r≅35 nm) which contain fluid xenon. When cooling down to 100 K, xenon solidifies on bubbles facets in form of a thin membrane. The epitaxial orientations between solid xenon and copper are the same as adsorbed Xe on Cu(110) [fr

  2. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J., E-mail: kattathu.mathew@srs.gov [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  3. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present

  4. Xenon in the Protoplanetary Disk (PPD-Xe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  5. Beta-gamma counting system for Xe fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A beta-gamma coincidence counting system has been developed for automated analysis of Xe gas samples separated from air. The Xe gas samples are contained in a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell located between two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The X-ray and gamma spectra gated by coincident events in the plastic scintillator cell are recorded for each NaI(Tl) crystal. The characteristic signatures of the 131m Xe, 133g Xe, 133m Xe, and 135g Xe isotopes of interest for nuclear test-ban verification as well as the procedures and results of absolute efficiency measurements are described. A NaI(Tl) crystal with provision for 4 sample cells has been implemented for the system to be deployed in the field. Examples of data on ambient air samples in New York City obtained with the field prototype are presented. (author)

  6. Liquid-Xe detector for contraband detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartsky, D., E-mail: david.vartsky@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Cortesi, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing 48823, MI (United States); Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A.E.; Moleri, L.; Erdal, E.; Bar, D.; Rappaport, M.; Shchemelinin, S. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Caspi, E.N. [Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Breskin, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-07-11

    We describe progress made with a liquid-Xe (LXe) detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier (GPM), for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers. The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3.5 mm for fast neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively. Experimental results obtained using an {sup 241}Am source yielded energy and time resolutions of 11% and 1.2 ns RMS, respectively. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented.

  7. Heat capacity of solid parahydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagatskij, M I; Minchina, I Ya; Manzhelij, V G [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur

    1984-10-01

    A vacuum adiabatic calorimeter has been developed to investigate cryocrystals and their solutions in the range 0.4-300 K. Heat capacity of hydrogen with the orthomodification concentration 5 x 10/sup -3/ at.% between 0.5 and 8 K has been investigated. The limiting Debye temperature at T ..-->.. 0 has been obtained: (THETA/sub 0/=118.5 +- 0.5 K). It has been shown that heat capacity of solid parahydrogen, as that of other cryocrystals with the central interaction and closely packed lattices (/sup 4/He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), low temperatures is given by the universal relation proposed by Barron and Morrison Csub(V) AT/sup 3/(1+..cap alpha../sub 1/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 2/ + ..cap alpha../sub 2/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 4/ ...). The effect of the sample time prehistory on the experimental heat capacity values of hydrogen with g.21 at.% orthomodification has been studied, and the times during which configurational equilibration in this solution is reached have been estimated.

  8. 136 Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Henning O.; Bottenus, Daniel R.; Clayton, Christopher K.; Stephenson, David E.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also, report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  9. Production of pure 133mXe for CTBTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräjärvi, K.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kettunen, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Laitinen, M.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Toivonen, H.; Turunen, J.; Äystö, J.

    2014-01-01

    Underground nuclear weapon detonations release gaseous species into the atmosphere. The most interesting isotopes/isomers from the detection point of view are 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe. We have developed a method that employs high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry at the JYFLTRAP facility, the University of Jyväskylä, to produce pure calibration samples of these isotopes/isomers. Among developments this work required a new mass resolution record of a few parts-per-million. Here the status and future plans of the project are reviewed.

  10. Brain Imaging Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Simrun; Prete, Braedan R J; Wade, Alanna; Hane, Francis T; Albert, Mitchell S

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel iteration of traditional MRI that relies on detecting the spins of 1 H. Since 129 Xe is a gaseous signal source, it can be used for lung imaging. Additionally, 129 Xe dissolves in the blood stream and can therefore be detectable in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In this work, we provide detailed information on the protocols that we have developed to image 129 Xe within the brains of both rodents and human subjects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 133Xe and 135Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Lo Sasso, T.; Lei, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fission product 133 Xe and 135 Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of 133 Xe and 135 Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies. (author)

  12. /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N; Lo Sasso, T; Lei, W [New York Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1980-03-01

    Fission product /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies.

  13. ScattAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Alex Dempster; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    We present an augmented reality (AR) audio application where scattering delay networks efficiently generate and organize a reverberator, based on room geometry scanned by an AR device. The application allows for real-time processing and updating of reflection path geometry. It provides a proof...

  14. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned...... of belief, life, and God as such. Computer Science? Llull was an inspiration for later scientists, most notably Giordano Bruno, Athanasius Kirchner, Agrippa of Nettesheim and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose dissertation De Arte Combinatoria begins with a discussion of Llull’s Ars Magna. Umberto Eco also......-ple of Mallorca have since tried to have Llull canonised as a saint. Ars Magna A few years before his death Llull began to write the most thorough and final version of his Ars Magna, the Ars Generalis Ultima [3]. The books explain the different figures of the Ars, its principles, questions, descriptions...

  15. Structural Search for High Pressure CS2 and Xe-Cl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Niloofar; Tse, John S.

    2018-04-01

    The recent successful implementation of several methodologies for the prediction of crystal structures based on the first-principles electronic structure have ushered in a new area of computational chemistry. In this study, the two most popular methods, namely genetic evolution and particle swarm optimization, were applied to the investigation of stable crystalline polymorphs of solid carbon disulfide and xenon halides at high pressure. It was found that both methods have their own merits. However, there are subtleties that need to be considered for the proper execution of the methods. We found a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure that may be responsible for the superconductivity in CS2. Except for XeCl2, no thermodynamically stable crystalline Xe halides were found under 60 GPa in the halide-rich region of the phase diagram.

  16. Photoionization dynamics of excited Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe atoms near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, V L; Petrov, I D; Schäfer, M; Merkt, F; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H

    2012-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical studies of the threshold photoionization of the heavier rare-gas atoms is presented, with particular emphasis on the autoionization resonances in the spectral region between the lowest two ionization thresholds 2 P 3/2 and 2 P 1/2 , accessed from the ground or excited states. Observed trends in the positions, widths and shapes of the autoionization resonances depending on the atomic number, the principal quantum number n, the orbital angular momentum quantum number ℓ and further quantum numbers specifying the fine- and hyperfine-structure levels are summarized and discussed in the light of ab initio and multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The dependence of the photoionization spectra on the initially prepared neutral state are also discussed, including results on the photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of polarized excited states. The effects of various approximations in the theoretical treatment of photoionization in these systems are analysed. The very large diversity of observed phenomena and the numerous anomalies in spectral structures associated with the threshold ionization of the rare-gas atoms can be described in terms of a limited set of interactions and dynamical processes. Examples are provided illustrating characteristic aspects of the photoionization, and sets of recommended parameters describing the energy-level structure and photoionization dynamics of the rare-gas atoms are presented which were extracted in a critical analysis of the very large body of experimental and theoretical data available on these systems in the literature. (topical review)

  17. The quantitative analysis of silicon carbide surface smoothing by Ar and Xe cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieshkin, A. E.; Kireev, D. S.; Ermakov, Yu. A.; Trifonov, A. S.; Presnov, D. E.; Garshev, A. V.; Anufriev, Yu. V.; Prokhorova, I. G.; Krupenin, V. A.; Chernysh, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The gas cluster ion beam technique was used for the silicon carbide crystal surface smoothing. The effect of processing by two inert cluster ions, argon and xenon, was quantitatively compared. While argon is a standard element for GCIB, results for xenon clusters were not reported yet. Scanning probe microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the analysis of the surface roughness and surface crystal layer quality. The gas cluster ion beam processing results in surface relief smoothing down to average roughness about 1 nm for both elements. It was shown that xenon as the working gas is more effective: sputtering rate for xenon clusters is 2.5 times higher than for argon at the same beam energy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the surface defect layer gives values of 7 ± 2 nm and 8 ± 2 nm for treatment with argon and xenon clusters.

  18. Ar-Xe Laser: The Path to a Robust, All-Electric Shipboard Directed Energy Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apruzese, J. P; Sethian, J. D; Giuliani, J. L; Wolford, M. F

    2008-01-01

    .... However, no HELs have been deployed to date. Until recently, there was no laser that had credible prospects of meeting the Navy's requirements for safety, power, size, beam quality, electrical drive, and atmospheric propagation...

  19. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  20. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  1. Discharge efficiency in high-Xe-content plasma display panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Heusler, G.

    2004-01-01

    We study theoretically the overall output performance and the dominating reaction processes of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation production in high-Xe partial pressures in plasma display panels (PDPs) with Ne-Xe gas mixtures. A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is applied for the

  2. MonitAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop MonitAR, an Augmented Reality (AR) system that provides procedure completion guidance to astronauts. MonitAR will replace guidance from mission...

  3. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions (Xe L-XLVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.; Lawson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions, Xe L-XLVI. For the calculations, a fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Xe L, Xe XLIX, Xe XLVIII, Xe XLVII, and Xe XLVI, respectively, belonging to the n ≤ 3 configurations.

  4. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 122,124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.; Kumar, A.; Iyer, H.; Li, H.; Garg, U.; Ghugre, S. S.; Johnson, T.; Kaczarowski, R.; Kharraja, B.; Naguleswaran, S.; Walpe, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    Lifetimes of the lower-excited states in 122,124Xe are measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reactions 110Pd(16O,4n)122Xe and 110Pd(18O,4n)124Xe at a beam energy of 66 MeV were used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, and 8+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME including the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The lifetime of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the recoil distance method (RDM) measurements but for the 124Xe it does not agree with the RDM measurements but agrees with the Coulomb-excitation experiment. The measured B(E2) values for both the nuclei are compared with the standard algebraic and the multishell models.

  5. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CF4 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Kaja, M. A.; Escada, J.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon with carbon tetrafluoride (Xe-CF4) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm‑1ṡbar‑1), at room temperature. The time-of-arrival spectra revealed one or two peaks depending on the gas relative abundances, which were attributed to CF3+ and to Xe2+ ions. However, for Xe concentrations above 60%, only one peak remains (Xe2+). The reduced mobilities obtained from the peak centroid of the time-of-arrival spectra are presented for Xe concentrations in the 5%-95% range.

  6. Emission characteristics of Xe-RbBr plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The luminescence spectra of the longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures are experimentally studied. Conditions for obtaining strong UV radiation of XeBr* exiplex molecules in the spectral range of 200-425 nm are found. The greatest output of the XeBr* UV radiation is provided at temperature of the gas-discharge tube walls of ~1000 K. The maximum UV emission power of the whole plasma volume is 4.8 W. Formation of XeBr* exciplex molecules in the pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures is discussed.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of the 37Ar and 39Ar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenko, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simultaneous measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar activities, based on the different radiation penetrabilities of these isotopes is described. Two versions are realized. In the first case, a two-section detector is used whose partition partially transmits 39 Ar β-radiation and fully absorbs 37 Ar Auger electrons. A mixture of 37 Ar and 39 Ar is introduced into an internal counter operating at anticoincidences with an external counter. In the second version, a scintillation detector is used as an external counter, while the 37 Ar- 39 Ar mixture is introduced into a gas counter with a thin cathode. The rated detection efficiency of 37 Ar radiation in both versions is 80%. When measurement duration is 500 h, the sensitivity is approximately 10 -14 and 6x10 -15 Ci for 39 Ar and 37 Ar respectively

  8. Possible Odd Parity State in 128Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, L.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1966-07-01

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 ± 0.05, 526.5 ± 0.5, 742.4 ±1.0, 969.0 ± 1.0, and 1136.5 ±2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in 128 Xe at 1579 ± 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 ± 0.3 of the (β - feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0 + level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration

  9. One-electron spectrum of Xe VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.R.; Knystautas, E.J.; Sugar, J.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of Xe VIII has been observed in a theta-pinch discharge. New line identifications were made that determine the energies of the 6s, 7s, 6p, and 5f terms relative to the 5s 2 S ground state and confirm the previously known 5p and 5d terms. An independent system of levels derived from the observed 4f-ng (n = 5,6) transitions was found. Its position relative to the ground state is obtained from a predicted value for the 5g effective quantum number n*. From the ns series (n=5--7) a value for the ionization enegy of 105.91 +- 0.05 eV was derived

  10. The decay of /sup 120/Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, F; Lode, D; Pessara, W; Schrader, H

    1974-01-01

    The decay scheme of 40 min /sup 120/Xe has been investigated using isotopically separated sources produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. A total number of 202 gamma -transitions has been observed in this decay; 188 of them have been placed in a level scheme involving 34 excited states in /sup 120/I. Most of these levels are based on the results of gamma - gamma coincidence experiments with two Ge(Li) detectors. Internal conversion coefficients have been obtained with a Si(Li) detector and a magnetic spectrometer. The half-life of 4 low- lying levels in /sup 120/I has been measured by delayed coincidence techniques. From these measurements, partial half-lives for some transitions have been deduced and are compared with the single- particle estimates. Two E2 transitions are strongly enhanced. (24 refs).

  11. Magnetic dipole strength in 128Xe and 134Xe in the spin-flip resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Bhatia, C.; Gooden, M. Â. E.; Kelley, J. Â. H.; Tonchev, A. Â. P.; Tornow, W.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetic dipole strength in the energy region of the spin-flip resonance is investigated in 128Xe and 134Xe using quasimonoenergetic and linearly polarized γ -ray beams at the High-Intensity γ -Ray Source facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Absorption cross sections were deduced for the magnetic and electric and dipole strength distributions separately for various intervals of excitation energy, including the strength of states in the unresolved quasicontinuum. The magnetic dipole strength distributions show structures resembling a resonance in the spin-flip region around an excitation energy of 8 MeV. The electric dipole strength distributions obtained from the present experiments are in agreement with the ones deduced from an earlier experiment using broad-band bremsstrahlung instead of a quasimonoenergetic beam. The experimental magnetic and electric dipole strength distributions are compared with phenomenological approximations and with predictions of a quasiparticle random phase approximation in a deformed basis.

  12. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  13. Identification of excess 40Ar by the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental heating experiments on igneous plagioclase, biotite, and pyroxene that contain known amounts of excess 40 Ar indicate that saddle-shaped age spectra are diagnostic of excess 40 Ar in igneous minerals as well as in igneous rocks. The minima in the age spectra approach but do not reach the crystallization age. Neither the age spectrum diagram nor the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar isochron diagram reliably reveal the crystallization age in such samples. (Auth.)

  14. Comprehensive sets of 124Xe(n ,γ )125Xe and 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe cross-section data for assessment of inertial-confinement deuterium-tritium fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Ludin, N.; Tornow, W.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the neutron radiative-capture cross section of 124Xe have been performed for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, data for the 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe reaction cross section have been obtained from threshold to 14.8 MeV to cover the entire energy range of interest, while previous data existed only at around 14 MeV. The results of these measurements provide the basis for an alternative and sensitive diagnostic tool for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Here, areal density ρ R (density × radius) of the fuel, burn asymmetry, and fuel-ablator mix are of special interest. The 124Xe(n ,γ )125Xe reaction probes the down-scattered neutrons, while the 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe reaction provides a measure of the 14 MeV direct neutrons.

  15. Biological Studies with Laser-Polarized ^129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Oteiza, E. R.; Wong, G. A.; Walsworth, R. L.; Albert, M. S.; Nascimben, L.; Peled, S.; Sakai, K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1996-05-01

    We have studied several biological systems using laser-polarized ^129Xe. In certain tissues magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inhaled laser-polarized noble gases may provide images superior to those from conventional proton MRI. High resolution laser-polarized ^3He images of air spaces in the human lung were recently obtained by the Princeton/Duke group. However, ^3He is not very soluble in tissue. Therefore, we are using laser polarized ^129Xe (tissue-soluble), with the long term goal of biomedical functional imaging. We have investigated multi-echo and multi-excitation magnetic resonance detection schemes to exploit the highly non-thermal ^129Xe magnetization produced by the laser polarization technique. We have inhalated live rats with laser-polarized ^129Xe gas and measured three distinct ^129Xe tissue resonances that last 20 to 40 sec. As a demonstration, we obtained a laser polarized ^129Xe image of the human oral cavity. Currently we are measuring the polarization lifetime of ^129Xe dissolved in human blood, the biological transporting medium. These studies and other recent developments will be reported.

  16. High-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-08-01

    The ν 0 h9 /2 and ν 0 i13 /2 strength at 137Xe, a single neutron outside the N =82 shell closure, has been determined using the 136Xe(α ,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV. We confirm the recent observation of the second 13 /2+ state and reassess previous data on the 9 /2- states, obtaining spectroscopic factors. These new data provide additional constraints on predictions of the same single-neutron excitations at 133Sn.

  17. Hyperpolarized 129Xe as an NMR probe for functional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear spin polarization of 129 Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude using optical pumping techniques, resulting in a dramatic enhancement of the 129 Xe Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal. The 'hyperpolarized' gas can be used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the void spaces of the lungs after introduction of the gas into the respiratory system. Furthermore, the high solubility of xenon in blood and lipids suggests the use of 129 Xe NMR for studying blood flow, permeability, perfusion and blood volume. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI has the potential of combining the high sensitivity and functional information of radioactive tracer studies with the high spatial and temporal resolution of MRI. The spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 of 129 Xe in blood determines the loss of polarization during transit from the lungs to the tissue of interest. A difference in the relaxation times of xenon in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood could be used as a contrast mechanism in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). In this thesis, the hyperpolarized 129 Xe T 1 in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation, and the relevant relaxation mechanisms are discussed. A new and unexpected finding is that the hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR spectrum in blood is highly sensitive to blood oxygenation. Therefore, hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR provides a powerful means of measuring blood oxygenation quantitatively and non-invasively. The interaction of xenon with hemoglobin is responsible for an oxygen-dependent shift of the 129 Xe NMR resonance of xenon in red blood cells. Injection delivery of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in solution could be a more efficient method of administrating the gas for functional NMR studies. For this purpose, suitable biocompatible carrier media have been studied. In particular, the use of perfluorocarbon emulsions, which are already in use as blood substitutes, as delivery media for hyperpolarized 129 Xe has been investigates

  18. Dielectronic recombination of Xe8+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoding; Fu Yanbiao; Dong Chenzhong; Zhang Yizhao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fully relativistic configuration interaction method, theoretical calculations are carried out for the dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients of Xe 8+ ions in the temperature region from 0.1 to 1 650 eV. The comparison of the DR rate coefficients from 4s, 4p and 4d subshell excitations shows that 4d subshell excitation dominates in the whole temperature region. The contribution from 4p subshell excitation is very important at temperature above 10 eV and the contributions from 4s subshell ex- citation is lower than 7.5% in the whole temperature region. Similarly, the comparison of the DR rate coefficients through △n= 0, I and 2 core excitation shows that the contribution from △n= 2 core excitation can not be neglected, the contributions from n'>15 can also not be neglected. The DR rate coefficients of △n=0, 1 and 2 core excitation and the total DR rate coefficients are fitted with some parameters, which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations values (within 1 % difference)The total DR rate coefficients are greater than radiative recombination (RR) and three-body recombination (TBR) rate coefficients at temperature above 1 eV. Therefore, the DR process can strongly influence the ionization balance of laser produced xenon plasmas. (authors)

  19. Decay of 132Cs and nuclear structure of 132Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.T.F. da; Goldman, I.D.

    1989-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy, coincidence and angular correlation experiments were performed, in an extensive study of 132 Cs decay. The population intensities of states in 132 Ba were measured, some upper limits were determined and the value of the transition to the 4 1 + state of 132 Ba has drastically changed. A new gamma transition of 688 KeV was detected and located in the level scheme of 132 Xe. The angular correlation measurements were performed with a Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometer and helped in choosing the spin value for the 1804 KeV state of 132 Xe. Kumar-Baranger-type calculations were performed for the 132 Xe fairly good results. The resulting potential energy surface for 132 Xe is very different from that of Gneuss and Greiner model, suggesting the need for any quadrupole moment measurement for this nucleus. (author) [pt

  20. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2018-01-01

    The Ars Magna of Ramon Llull must be seen as one of the first attempts to formalise language, thought processes, and creating a basis for rational discussions. It consists of so-called principles, concepts, which are defined and combined through the use of four main figures. Llull's contribution...

  1. In-situ observation of atomic self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuishi, K.; Song, M.; Furuya, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Allen, C. W.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al are observed with in-situ high-resolution electron microscopy. Under electron irradiation, stacking fault type defects are produced in Xe nanocrystals. The defects recover in a layer by layer manner. Detailed analysis of the video reveals that the displacement of Xe atoms in the stacking fault was rather small for the Xe atoms at boundary between Xe and Al, suggesting the possibility of the stacking fault in Xe precipitate originating inside of precipitate, not at the Al/Xe interface

  2. XeCl Excimer Laser with Three- and Four-Component Mixture of Active Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanejko, L.; Pokora, L.

    1998-01-01

    Selected results of investigations of a XeCl excimer laser employing a new type (four-component)of mixture of gases, He-Kr:Xe-HCl, are presented. The mixture includes, instead of Xe, a mixture of not-separated Kr and Xe gases, much less expensive than pure xenon. A comparison of durations and energies of pulses generated in the XeCl excimer laser using three- or four-component gaseous active medium (He-Xe-HCl or He-Kr:Xe-HCl) is made. The investigations have been carried out with the use of a laser system with UV preionization and self sustained pumping discharge. (author)

  3. Search for a permanent Xe-electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the isotope {sup 129}Xe would imply a breakdown of both parity P and time-reversal symmetry T and, through the CPT theorem, a breakdown in CP, the combined symmetries of charge conjugation C and parity P. Our goal is to improve the present experimental limit (d{sub Xe}<3.10{sup -27} ecm) by about three orders of magnitude. The most precise EDM limit on diamagnetic atoms was measured on {sup 199}Hg (d{sub Hg}<3.1.10{sup -29} ecm). To get more stringent limits, we perform a {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock comparison experiment with the detection of free spin precession of gaseous, nuclear polarized {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe samples with a SQUID as magnetic flux detector. The precession of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe nuclear spins are used as an ultra-sensitive probe for non-magnetic spin interactions of type δν∝ d{sub Xe}.E. With our experimental setup at the research center Juelich we are able to observe spin coherence times T{sub 2}{sup *} of several hours for both species. We report on first experimental results achieved within the MIXed-collaboration.

  4. EUV emission from Kr and Xe capillary discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juschkin, L.; Ellwi, S.; Kunze, H-J.; Chuvatin, A.; Zakharov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Kr and Xe plasmas are very intensive emitters in the spectral range of 100-150 A, which is relevant for a number of applications (for example microlithography). We present investigations of the extreme utraviolet (EUV) emission from a slow capillary discharge with Kr and Xe fillings. The emission of Kr ions (Kr VIII to Kr XI) within the range of 70-150 A consists of three bands of lines of about 10 A width with maxima at 116, 103 and 86 A. Xe emission bands of about 15 A width have their maxima at 136 and 115 A (Xe IX to Xe XII). The radiation duration in this spectral range is ∼150 ns for both elements. At the optimum conditions, the Kr emission at 103 A is 2-3 times more intense than the Xe emission at 136 A. The measured spectral energy of Kr radiation is about 0.1 J sr -1 A -1 . Experimental results are compared with numerical modellings of the dynamics and emission of the capillary discharge plasma, which enables the determination of plasma parameters and the future use of the codes as additional instruments for plasma diagnostics. (author)

  5. 40Ar/39Ar studies of deep sea igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidemann, D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to date deep-sea igneous rocks reliably was made using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique. It was determined that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental release technique could not be used to eliminate the effects of excess radiogenic 40 Ar in deep-sea basalts. Excess 40 Ar is released throughout the extraction temperature range and cannot be distinguished from 40 Ar generated by in situ 40 K decay. The problem of the reduction of K-Ar dates associated with sea water alteration of deep-sea igneous rocks could not be resolved using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar technique. Irradiation induced 39 Ar loss and/or redistribution in fine-grained and altered igneous rocks results in age spectra that are artifacts of the experimental procedure and only partly reflect the geologic history of the sample. Therefore, caution must be used in attributing significance to age spectra of fine grained and altered deep-sea igneous rocks. Effects of 39 Ar recoil are not important for either medium-grained (or coarser) deep-sea rocks or glasses because only a small fraction of the 39 Ar recoils to channels of easy diffusion, such as intergranular boundaries or cracks, during the irradiation. (author)

  6. Dynamics and relaxation in confined medium. Application to 129Xe magnetic relaxation in Vycor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Virginie

    1995-01-01

    Porous media morphology and topology drive the exploration of pore space by fluid. So, analysis of transport process, associated with relaxation mechanism, allows indirect study of pore geometry. The purpose of this work is to understand better the relation between geometry and transport. This study involves two parts: a modelization and prediction step is followed by an experimental application of magnetic relaxation. Numerical simulations and analytical models allow to quantify the influence on the solid interface of the dynamical behavior of confined gas in disordered porous media (granular structure and porous network) or in common geometry (cylindrical and lamellar interfaces). The formalism of diffusion propagator is a powerful tool to quantify the influence of the pore geometry on the diffusion of confined gas. The propagator holds all dynamical information on the system; it also predicts the temporal evolution of the autocorrelation functions of the Hamiltonian describing local coupling. In an intermediate time scale, magnetic relaxation shows complex diffusional regime: the autocorrelation functions decrease in a power law with a exponent smaller than d/2 (where d is the Euclidian dimension of the system). This behavior is analogous to dynamic in low-dimensional space, but here arises from surface correlations of the porous media. The long-time behavior of the autocorrelation functions retrieves the asymptotic decrease t -d/2 . Moreover, atypical behavior is observed for the Knudsen diffusion between infinite planes. It turns out that 129 Xe NMR is a appropriate technique to characterize organization and diffusion of gas confined in Vycor. Systematic studies of temperature and pressure effect on the 129 Xe chemical shift allow to specify the Xe/solid interaction. The analysis of the relaxation measurements, thanks to the numerical development, confirms conclusions arising from the study of diffusion propagator. (author) [fr

  7. 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam machining of ultra low thermal expansion glasses for EUVL projection optics: Evaluation of surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, K.; Kamijo, K.; Morijiri, K.; Pahlovy, S.A.; Aikawa, N.; Miyamoto, I.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain surface figure error of 0.15 nm rms and surface roughness (R rms ) of 0.12 nm rms for aspherical substrates in EUVL tools, ion beam figuring may be adopted to final surface figure error correction of aspherical substrates. During figure error correction, machined surface of the substrate becomes rougher than the pre-finished one. Therefore, we investigated the machined depth and ion energy dependences of R rms (measured by an AFM) of substrates machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam, and compared them with the results obtained for Ar + ion beam. Result shows that the R rms s of CLEARCERAM®-Z, Zerodur® and ULE® substrates machined to the depth of 50 nm by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam at the normal ion incidence angle become approximately 0.25, 0.28 and 0.15 nm rms, respectively. Those values are larger than the pre-finished substrates (0.07–0.09 nm rms), but smaller than that (0.60 nm rms for CLEARCERAM®-Z, 0.61 nm rms for Zerodur® and 0.18 nm rms for ULE®) of the substrates machined by Ar + ion beam. Moreover, the R rms s merely increase with increasing ion energy. The R rms s of the ULE® substrate machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam rapidly increase with increasing machined depth, then saturate at machined depth of 10–50 nm. The saturated values of the R rms s are 0.12 and 0.15 nm rms for 3 and 10 keV Xe + ion beam respectively. We suggest that the 3 keV Xe + ion beam machining can be applicable for final shape correction of ULE® substrates for EUVL projection optics in association with considering further ultra smoothing process such as Si deposition or low energy ion beam smoothing.

  8. Modification of the Xe 4d giant resonance by the C60 shell in molecular Xe at C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in photoabsorption of the 4d 10 subshell of a Xe atom in molecular Xe at C 60 , the 4d giant resonance that characterizes the isolated Xe atom is distorted significantly. The reflection of photoelectron waves by the C 60 shell leads to profound oscillations in the photoionization cross section such that the Xe giant resonance is transformed into four strong peaks. Similarly, the angular anisotropy parameters, both dipole and nondipole, are also modified. The method of calculation is based on the approximation of the C 60 shell by an infinitely thin bubble potential that leaves the sum rule for the 4d-electrons almost unaffected, but noticeably modifies the dipole polarizability of the 4d-shell

  9. Double-electron excitation above Xe K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Tochio, T.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Mutaguchi, K.; OhHashi, H.; Shigeoka, N.; Nakata, Y.; Akahama, Y.; Uruga, T.; Emura, Sh.

    2000-01-01

    When X-rays fall on any substance, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, a photoabsorption occurs. Photoabsorption in atoms has been generally treated as a single-electron excitation process. However, the existence of the multi-electron excitation process, where the removal of a core electron by photoabsorption causes excitation of additional electrons in the same atoms, has been known in x-ray absorption spectra for a long time. In x-ray absorption spectra, experimental investigations of the shake processes in inner-shell ionization phenomena have been performed by detecting discontinuities. The shake effect which is a consequence of rearrangement of the atomic electrons, occurs in association with inner-shell excitation and ionization phenomena in x-ray absorption. The shake process has been studied extensively in various gases, because it is usually considered that the measurement of the multi-electron excitation is only possible for monatomic gases or vapors. The x-ray absorption spectra in Kr gas were measured by Ito et al. in order to observe precisely x-ray absorption spectra and to investigate the multi-electron excitation cross sections in Kr as a function of photon energy using synchrotron radiation. However, no suitable measured K x-ray absorption spectra was available to elucidate the shake processes. In the present work, the photoabsorption cross sections in Xe have been precisely measured in order to determine the features on the shake processes resulting from multiple electron excitations as a function of photon energy. Double-electron transitions of [1s4d], [1s4p], [1s4s], and [1s3d] are first detected. (author)

  10. Influences of atom Ar on Ar at C60 + Ar at C60 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiang; Zhou Hongyu; Zhang Fengshou

    2007-01-01

    A semi-emperical molecular dynamics model was developed. The central collisions of C 60 + C 60 and Ar at C 60 + Ar at C 60 at the same incident energy were investigated within this model. The fullerene dimers could be formed by a self-assembly of C 60 fullerene, and the new fullerene structure like 'peanut' could be formed by a self-assembly of Ar at C 60 . It was found that atom Ar had a great effect on the collision of Ar at C 60 + Ar at C 60 . (authors)

  11. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  12. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  13. Temperature and pressure effects on 40Ar-39Ar systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozima, M.; Kaneoka, I.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of thermal and compressional treatment on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics have been investigated on three artificially heated biotite samples (heated for 1 hour at 700 0 C and 860 0 C in air and 700 0 C in vacuum respectively) and uniaxially compressed granite (p=1400 bar) and basalt samples (p=1660 bar). The 40 Ar- 39 Ar results for the disturbed samples are compared with those for undisturbed samples. Except for the vacuum-heating case, the effects of the disturbances may be interpreted as the combined effect of a partial loss of radiogenic 40 Ar from the sample and an incorporation of air Ar into the sample. Common diagnostic effects are (1) reduction of the total fusion age, (2) distortion of the age spectrum and, if the degree of the partial Ar loss is small (3) approximate preservation of the isochron age, and (4) reduction of the intercept value ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) in the isochron plot. The features observed in the age spectra of artificially disturbed samples are rather common in geologically disturbed samples, suggesting that the artificial disturbances simulate the effects of geological disturbances on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics. (Auth.)

  14. Revised analysis of singly ionized xenon, Xe II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.; Persson, W.

    1987-01-01

    We present a revised analysis of the spectrum of singly ionized xenon, Xe II. This spectrum has been reanalyzed on the basis of the wavelength material published by Drs J. C. Boyce and C. J. Humphreys. The latter has kindly placed the original wavelength list covering the wavelength range 10220-390 A at our disposal. We report 161 energy levels which have been identified on the basis of classifications of 950 lines. We report first f and g levels in Xe II. Also a number of g-factors have been determined for the first time and we give in total 75 g-factors. We have carried out least-squares fits to the even configurations and report the resulting parameter values and eigenvector compositions. A least-squares fit to the 5p 4 6p configuration is also reported. The levels have been named in jK and for many levels also in LS coupling. The former is the better coupling scheme for Xe II. We present an analysis of the 5s photoelectron satellite spectrum of Xe based on our calculated eigenvector compositions and calculations of transition probabilities for ground state transitions as well as lifetimes for the 6p levels. The latter are compared to recent experimental measurements. A list of wavelengths for observed laser transitions showing the present classifications and a discussion of the determination of the ionization potential of Xe II concludes the paper. (orig.)

  15. Origin of anomalous Xe-H in nanodiamond stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, K. L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz, Germany and Fachbereich Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften, Universitat Mainz, Mainz (United States); Farouqi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz, Germany and Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hallmann, O. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Pfeiffer, B. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ott, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Univ. of West Hungary, H-9700 Szombathely (Hungary)

    2014-05-09

    Still today, the nucleosynthesis origin of Xe-H in presolar nanodiamonds is far from understood. Historically possible explanations were proposed by a secondary “neutron-burst” process occurring in the He- or C/O-shells of a type-II supernova (SN-II), which are, however, not fully convincing in terms of modern nucleosynthesis conditions. Therefore, we have investigated Xe isotopic abundance features that may be diagnostic for different versions of a classical, primary r-process in high-entropy-wind (HEW) ejecta of core-collapse SN-II. We report here on parameter tests for non-standard r-process variants, by varying electron abundances (Y{sub e}), ranges of entropies (S) and expansion velocities (V{sub exp}) with their correlated neutron-freezeout times (τ(freeze)) and temperatures (T{sub 9}(freeze)). From this study, we conclude that a best fi to the measured Xe-H abundance ratios {sup i}Xe/{sup 136}Xe can be obtained with the high-S “main” component of a “cold” r-process variant.

  16. 37Ar monitoring techniques and on-site inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Rongliang; Chen Yinliang; Li Wei; Wang Hongxia; Hao Fanhua

    2001-01-01

    37 Ar is separated, purified and extracted from air sample with a low temperature gas-solid chromatographic purifying method, prepared into a radioactive measurement source and its radioactivity is measured with a proportional counter. Based on the monitoring result, a judgement can be made if an nuclear explosion event has happened recently in a spectabilis area. A series of element techniques that are associated the monitoring of the trace element 37 Ar have been investigated and developed. Those techniques include leaked gas sampling, 37 Ar separation and purification, 37 Ar radioactivity measurement and the on-site inspection of 37 Ar. An advanced 37 Ar monitoring method has been developed, with which 200 liters of air can be treated in 2 hours with sensitivity of 0.01 Bq/L for 37 Ar radioactivity measurement. A practical 37 Ar On-site Inspection system has been developed. This research work may provide technical and equipment support for the verification protection, verification supervision and CTBT verification

  17. Spectroanalytical investigations on inductively coupled N2/Ar and Ar/Ar high frequency plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, P.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Nickel, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to improve the detection limits of trace elements in corrosion products of metallic materials, the inductively coupled plasma excitation source (ICP) was applied for spectroscopic analysis. Besides optimizing the working conditions for the mentioned materials, the fundamental research clearing the excitation processes in ICP was carried out. Basicly, two plasma systems were investigated: the nitrogen cooled N 2 /Ar- and pure Ar/Ar-plasma. The computed detection limits for 8 chosen elements are between 0.1 and 50 μg ml -1 in both plasmas. The advantage of ion lines was clearly present; in N 2 /Ar-plasma it was larger than in Ar/Ar-plasma. The excitation temperatures measured with help of ArI, FeI and ZnI lines rise with increasing power and decreasing distance from the induction coil. The distribution of Zn excitation temperature in N 2 /Ar-plasma as well as the measured N + 2 rotational and CN vibrational temperatures indicate, that the toroidal structure of Ar/Ar-plasma is not analogue to the N 2 /Ar-plasma. The values of the various excitation temperatures (Ar, Fe, Zn) and the differences between the excitation, vibration, rotation and ionization temperatures (Tsub(i) > Tsub(n) = Tsub(vib) > Tsub(rot)) indicate an absence of thermal equilibrium in the concerned system. (orig.)

  18. Preparation and dosimetry of reactor-produced Xe-125 for ventilation scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, D.; Cordes, H.

    1978-01-01

    Xe-125 is produced in the reactor by the (n, γ)-reaction from Xe-124. The natural abundance of Xe-124, however, is only 0,1 percent. As the costs for Xe-124 enriched Xenon are considerable, natural Xenon is activated in the epithermal energy region. In contrast to the other stable isotopes of Xenon, Xe-124 shows a large resonance cross section in this energy region. The main activation product is Xe-125. In addition, a few nuclides (e.g. Xe-125m, Xe-127m, Xe-137) are produced, which due to their short half lives give no contribution to radiation dose. Radiocontaminants originating from parent-daughter decay (e.g. Cs-135 and Cs-137) are separated by filtration of the gas. I-125 produced by the decay of Xe-125 is removed by filtering of the gas before administration to the patient. Typical yields of a sample capsule are 20 to 30 mCi Xe-125 after irradiation of 4 hours in an epithermal flux of approximately 2.10 -11 s -1 cm -2 . The residual contaminants contributing to the radiation dose are Xe-135 and Xe-129m. Depending on the irradiation time they amount to a few percent of the total activity. Using Xe-125 for lung ventilation studies results in considerable reduction of radiation dose as compared to Xe-133. An additional advantage is the better tissue penetration of Xe-125 (γ-energies at 188 keV (55%) and 243 keV (29%)) permitting the reduction of the dose for a study. The daughter nuclide I-125 generated during the study causes only a few mrem of radiation dose if the thyroid is blocked. Altogether Xe-125 as compared to Xe-133 offers more suitable γ-energies for lung ventilation studies and in addition a reduced radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  19. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  20. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  1. Optical properties of implanted Xe color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Russell; Ke, Li; Martin, Aiden; Wang, Ziyu; Kianinia, Mehran; Green, Ben; Gao, Wei-bo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of color centers in diamond have been the subject of intense research due to their promising applications in quantum photonics. In this work we study the optical properties of Xe related color centers implanted into nitrogen rich (type IIA) and an ultrapure, electronic grade diamond. The Xe defect has two zero phonon lines at ∼794 nm and 811 nm, which can be effectively excited using both green and red excitation, however, its emission in the nitrogen rich diamond is brighter. Near resonant excitation is performed at cryogenic temperatures and luminescence is probed under strong magnetic field. Our results are important towards the understanding of the Xe related defect and other near infrared color centers in diamond.

  2. 129Xe on the outgassing of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the short half-life of its parent ( 129 I, 17 m.y.) and its own chemical inertness, 129 Xe offers unique insight into the problem of the outgassing history of the earth's atmosphere. Because the current atmosphere is different in Xe isotopic patterns than is the interior, the present atmosphere must have been largely outgassed before these patterns finished changing, that is, very early in earth history. Furthermore, there can have been no significant delay in the onset of outgassing; that is, the earth must have been initially hot. Because ancient sedimentary rocks indicate that the atmospheric Xe patterns have not changed substantially for over 3 b.y., models presuming a separate, lower mantle reservoir do not alter these conclusions. Similar conclusions have been reached before but have always carried a heavier burden of debatable assumptions

  3. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  4. Search for the permanent electric dipole moment of 129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Natasha; Chupp, Timothy; Gong, Fei; Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir; Burghoff, Martin; Fan, Isaac; Killian, Wolfgang; Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia; Schabel, Allard; Seifert, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Voigt, Jens; Degenkolb, Skyler; Fierlinger, Peter; Krägeloh, Eva; Lins, Tobias; Marino, Michael; Meinel, Jonas; Niessen, Benjamin; Stuiber, Stefan; Terrano, William; Kuchler, Florian; Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    CP-violation in Beyond-the-Standard-Model physics, necessary to explain the baryon asymmetry, gives rise to permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). EDM measurements of the neutron, electron, paramagnetic and diamagnetic atoms constrain CP-violating parameters. The current limit for the 129Xe EDM is 6 ×10-27 e . cm (95 % CL). The HeXeEDM experiment at FRM-II (Munich Research Reactor) and BMSR-2 (Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room) uses a stable magnetic field in a magnetically shielded room and 3He comagnetometer with potential to improve the limit by two orders of magnitude. Polarized 3He and 129Xe free precession is detected with SQUID magnetometers in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields. Conclusions from recent measurements will be presented.

  5. Xe isotope detection and discrimination using beta spectroscopy with coincident gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, P. L.; Bowyer, T. W.

    1998-02-01

    Beta spectroscopic techniques show promise of significant improvements for a beta-gamma coincidence counter that is part of a system for analyzing Xe automatically separated from air. The previously developed counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe can be enhanced to give additional discrimination between these Xe isotopes by using the plastic scintillation sample cell as a beta spectrometer to resolve the conversion electron peaks. The automated system will be a key factor in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  6. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  7. Negative heat capacities in central Xe+Sn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-02-01

    In this study the fluctuation method is applied to the 32-50 A.MeV Xe + Sn central collisions detected with the INDRA multidetector. This method based on kinetic energy fluctuations allows the authors to provide information on the liquid gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation. In the case of Xe + Sn central reactions a divergence in the total heat capacity is observed. This divergence corresponds to large fluctuations on the detected fragment partitions. A negative heat capacity branch is measured and so tends to confirm the observation of a first order phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. (A.C.)

  8. The partition coefficients of 133Xe between blood and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Karjalainen, P.; Vaeaenaenen, A.; Lahtinen, R.; Alhava, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 133 Xe between blood and haematopoietic bone marrow and homogenised bone have been determined in vitro. The partition coefficient lambda 1 corresponding to haematopoietic marrow was 0.95 ml g -1 while that corresponding to homogenised bone was a function of age, lambda 2 = 3.11 + 0.049(age)(ml g -1 ). These data can be used for calculating regional blood flow in healthy human femur by means of a simple 133 Xe radionuclide method. (author)

  9. Disintegration of C60 by Xe ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, R.; Samoiloff, A.; Hoffman, A.; Uzan-Saguy, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Changes in resistivity of fullerene (C 60 ) films subject to 320 keV Xe ion irradiation are investigated as a function of ion dose. From a comparison of this dependence with similar data on other Xe irradiated C containing insulating materials and with data on C implanted fused quartz, it is concluded that upon ion impact C 60 clusters completely disintegrate. This disintegration releases about 60 C atoms which disperse amongst the remaining intact C 60 spheres giving rise to hopping conductivity between isolated C atoms. 16 refs., 3 figs

  10. Quadrupole photoionization of endohedral Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Deshmukh, P C

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an endohedral confinement on the quadrupole photoionization of atomic Xe is studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). The atom's confinement is modelled by placing atomic Xe at the centre of a C 60 cage represented by an annular potential around it. A new confinement resonance is reported in the 4p quadrupole cross-section along with 'correlation confinement resonances' in 4d, 5s and 5p photoionizations at about 185 eV. The effect of the confinement on the non-dipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter γ is also reported.

  11. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Patra, R. N.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of only one peak for all gas ratios of Xe-CO2, low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV·cm-1·bar-1), low pressures 6-8 Torr (8-10.6 mbar), at room temperature.

  12. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar method, based on the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 40K, is capable of producing ages with precision better than ± 0.1 %. However, accuracy is limited to no better than 1 % mainly due to the relatively large uncertainty in the 40K decay constants. One approach...... worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...... correlated to the Icelandic peralkaline rhyolitic Thorsmörk ignimbrite. We will present preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results on the age of this eruption...

  14. Geochronology and thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.; Harrison, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    This work is a response to the authors' belief that there is a need for a monograph on 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating to provide concise knowledge concerning the application of this method to geological studies. They aim to provide a reasonably comprehensive but by no means exhaustive coverage of the principles and practices of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating, with emphasis on interpretation of results. In attempting to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge, they commonly cite examples from the available literature. They draw rather heavily upon their own work, because they feel comfortable with their own examples. (author)

  15. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C{sub 60} through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S, E-mail: himadri@nwmissouri.edu [Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C{sub 60} over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  16. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C60 through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2011-01-01

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C 60 over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  17. Geological Dating by 40 Ar - 39 Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbert Romero, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The isotope 40 K is radioactive, it decays to 40 Ar stable. The number of 40 Ar atoms produced from 40 K, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The 40 Ar - 39 Ar dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating potassium and argon concentrations in a single measurement of the ratio of argon isotopes. In this work, the irradiation of the sample with fast neutrons in the nuclear reactor was established. 39 Ar is obtained from the induced reaction 39 K (n,p) 39 Ar. Thus the ration of 40 Ar - 39 Ar allows to obtain the date of rocks and minerals. This ratio was measured in a mass spectrometer. If the measurement of argon concentration in the sample is carried out at different increasing temperature values, it is possible to get information of paleotemperatures. The number of atoms 39 Ar is a function of the number 39 K atoms, irradiation time, neutrons flux, its energy E and the capture cross section σ of 39 K. These parameters are calculate indirectly by obtaining the so called 'J value ' by using a standard mineral with known age (HD-BI y Biot-133), this mineral is irradiated together with the unknown age sample. The values of 'J' obtained are in the interval of 2.85 a 3.03 (x 10 - 3)J/h. Rocks from 'Tres Virgenes' were dated by the method described in this work, showing an agreement with previous values of different authors. The age of this rocks are from Cenozoico era, mainly in the miocene period. (Author)

  18. Study of high-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-09-01

    The character of single-neutron excitations outside of N = 82 has been studied using nucleon transfer reactions in terms of the energy centroid of their strength as well as the fragmentation of this strength among the actual states of the nucleus. However, extending the systematic study of the N = 83 isotones to 137Xe has been challenging due to xenon being a gas at room temperature. Though several attempts have been made, a quantitative determination of the spectroscopic factors for the neutron 9/2- and 13/2+ excitations in 137Xe is still lacking. In the present work, we report on a study of the 136Xe(α,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV to probe the l = 5 , 9/2- and l = 6 , 13/2+ single-neutron excitations. The experimental technique and results will be presented discussing them in context of the evolution of these single-neutron excitations and the influence of the tensor interaction on the neutron single-particle states as the proton orbits are filling. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the Australian Research Council Discovery Project 120104176, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities.

  19. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  20. Collective states of even Xe isotopes in IBM+MQRPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A modification of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA with small ground state correlations is suggested. The lowest energy phonon is used as the image of d-boson of the Interacting Boson Model 1 (IBM1 and applied to microscopical calculations of the IBM1 parameters. Results are compared with experimental data for Xe isotopes.

  1. A sensitive zinc-activated 129Xe MRI probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotera, N.; Delacour, L.; Traore, T.; Buisson, D.A.; Taran, F.; Coudert, S.; Rousseau, B.; Tassali, N.; Leonce, E.; Boutin, C.; Berthault, P.; Brotin, T.; Dutasta, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we propose the use of hyper-polarized 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the sensitive detection of Zn 2+ ions. To achieve this goal, the noble gas is encapsulated in dedicated host systems bearing a ligand that chelates the Zn 2+ ions. Cryptophanes, aromatic cage molecules made of cyclotriveratrylene groups, are perfectly suited to this purpose as 1) they can easily be rendered water-soluble, 2) the noble gas has a high affinity for their cavity, 3) when xenon is encapsulated, it takes a specific NMR frequency, and 4) xenon exchange in and out of the cavity insures a continuous refreshment of the Xe-cryptophane environment in hyper-polarization. We constructed a powerful 129 Xe NMR-based sensor of Zn 2+ ions, which enables for the first time measurement of Zn 2+ concentrations as low as 100 nm. This high sensitivity was achieved thanks to a smart 129 Xe MRI sensor, where the binding of the ion to the target is accompanied by a change in NMR parameters. We have also demonstrated the importance of working with enantiopure cryptophane derivatives. (O.M.)

  2. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Gallego, J.; Martinez Fanegas, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs

  3. Irradiation effects of Ar cluster ion beams on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masahiro; Sugahara, Gaku; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, Isao

    1993-01-01

    Gas-cluster ion beams can be applied to new surface modification techniques such as surface cleaning, low damage sputtering and shallow junction formation. The effects of energetic Ar cluster impacts on solid surface were studied for cluster energies of 10-30keV. Irradiation effects were studied by RBS. For Si(111) substrates, irradiated with Ar ≥500 clusters to a dose of 1x10 15 ion/cm 2 at acceleration voltage 15kV, 2x10 14 atoms/cm 2 implanted Ar atoms were detected. In this case, the energy per cluster atom was smaller than 30eV; at this energy, no significant implantation occurs in the case of monomer ions. Ar cluster implantation into Si substrates occurred due to the high energy density irradiation. (author)

  4. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of terrestrial pyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Bryant; Jourdan, Fred

    2018-06-01

    Geochronological techniques such as U/Pb in zircon and baddeleyite and 40Ar/39Ar on a vast range of minerals, including sanidine, plagioclase, and biotite, provide means to date an array of different geologic processes. Many of these minerals, however, are not always present in a given rock, or can be altered by secondary processes (e.g. plagioclase in mafic rocks) limiting our ability to derive an isotopic age. Pyroxene is a primary rock forming mineral for both mafic and ultramafic rocks and is resistant to alteration process but attempts to date this phase with 40Ar/39Ar has been met with little success so far. In this study, we analyzed pyroxene crystals from two different Large Igneous Provinces using a multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer (ARGUS VI) since those machines have been shown to significantly improve analytical precision compared to the previous single-collector instruments. We obtain geologically meaningful and relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging from 184.6 ± 3.9 to 182.4 ± 0.8 Ma (2σ uncertainties of ±1.8-0.4%) and 506.3 ± 3.4 Ma for Tasmanian and Kalkarindji dolerites, respectively. Those data are indistinguishable from new and/or published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase ages showing that 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyroxene is a suitable geochronological tool. Scrutinizing the analytical results of the pyroxene analyses as well as comparing them to the analytical result from plagioclase of the same samples indicate pure pyroxene was dated. Numerical models of argon diffusion in plagioclase and pyroxene support these observations. However, we found that the viability of 40Ar/39Ar dating approach of pyroxene can be affected by irradiation-induced recoil redistribution between thin pyroxene exsolution lamellae and the main pyroxene crystal, hence requiring careful petrographic observations before analysis. Finally, diffusion modeling show that 40Ar/39Ar of pyroxene can be used as a powerful tool to date the formation age of mafic

  5. Eu/RG absorption and excitation spectroscopy in the solid rare gases: state dependence of crystal field splitting and Jahn-Teller coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Owen; McCaffrey, John G

    2011-03-28

    Absorption spectroscopy recorded for annealed samples of matrix-isolated atomic europium reveals a pair of thermally stable sites in Ar and Kr while a single site exists in Xe. Plots of the matrix shifts of the visible s → p bands versus host polarizability, allowed the association of the single site in Xe and the blue sites in Ar and Kr. On the basis of the similar ground state bond lengths expected for the Eu-rare gas (RG) diatomics and the known Na-RG molecules, the blue sites are attributed to Eu occupancy in the smaller tetra-vacancy while the red sites are proposed to arise from hexa-vacancy sites. Both sites are of cubic symmetry, consistent with the pronounced Jahn-Teller structure present on the y(8)P ← a(8)S(7/2) transition for these bands in the three hosts studied. Site-selective excitation spectroscopy has been used to reanalyze complex absorption spectra previously published by Jakob et al. [Phys. Lett. A 57, 67 (1976)] for the near-UV f → d transitions. On the basis that a pair of thermally stable sites exist in solid argon, the occurrence of crystal field splitting has been identified to occur for the J ≥ 5/2 level of the (8)P state when isolated in these two sites with cubic symmetry. From a detailed lineshape analysis, the magnitude of the crystal field splittings on the J = 5/2 level in Ar is found to be 105 and 123 cm(-1) for the red and blue sites, respectively.

  6. Lifetime and spin measurements in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Lifetimes of levels in 40 Ar populated by the 40 Ar(p,p') reaction have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method with a p-γ coincidence technique. A solid argon target was used. The lifetimes determined were (in psec.): 1461 keV level, 1.95 +- 0.15; 2121 keV, >25; 2524 keV, 0.53 +- 0.06; 2893 keV, 4.4 [+2.6,-1.3]; 3208 keV, 0.27. A comprehensive set of branching ratios was also derived and the spins and parities of the 3208 and 4481 keV states were determined to be 2 + and 1 +- respectively. Some of these results suggest that 2 particle -2 hole and 4 particle - 4 hole components are strongly mixed in the low-lying positive parity states in a manner similar to the 2 particle and 4 particle - 2 hole mixing that occurs in 42 Ca. An additional lifetime measurement for the recently discovered high spin state at 3464 keV was carried out using direct electronic timing. The level was excited by the 37 Cl(α,p) reaction and was found to have a lifetime of 1.00 +- 0.03 nsec, which taken together with other evidence indicates that its spin and parity are 6 + . The E2 transition strengths of the 40 Ar 6 + - 4 + - 2 + - 0 + cascade can be simply interpreted in terms of a weak coupling model. (author)

  7. Charged particle suppression in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balek, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of charge particle production in heavy ion collisions, when compared with pp data, provides insight into the properties of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma. The ATLAS detector at the LHC recorded 0.49 nb$^{−1}$ of Pb+Pb collisions and 4.2 pb$^{−1}$ of pp collisions, both at the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV. Recently, ATLAS also recorded 3 $\\mu$b$^{−1}$ of Xe+Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.44$ TeV, which offers a new opportunity to study the system size dependence of the parton energy loss. The large acceptance of the ATLAS detector allows measurements of charged hadron spectra in a wide range of both pseudorapidity and transverse momentum, differentially in collision centrality. The charged hadron spectra measured in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are compared to the analogous spectra measured in pp collisions, and the resulting nuclear modification factors $R_{AA}$ are studied.

  8. Constraints on the timing of the Moon-forming giant impact from MORB Xe isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    As Earth accreted, volatiles were delivered by accreting material and lost by degassing and impact-driven ejection to space. The Moon-forming giant impact initiated the final catastrophic outgassing and bulk volatile ejection event on the early Earth. I-Pu-U-Xe systematics provide a powerful tool to probe degassing of the early Earth. Radiogenic 129Xe was produced by β-decay of the extinct nuclide 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in the first ~90 Myr of Earth history. Fissiogenic 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe were produced in distinct, characteristic proportions by the fission of extinct short-lived 244Pu (t1/2 = 80.0 Myr) and extant long-lived 238U (t1/2 = 4.468 Gyr). Here we present radiogenic and fission Xe data in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge, and discuss them with other mantle-derived samples to shed light on early Earth volatile accretion and loss. Based on the ratio of radiogenic 129Xe to plutogenic 136Xe determined for the MORB source, we calculate an I-Pu-Xe closure age for the upper mantle of ~44-70 Myr after the start of the Solar System. The closure age should correspond to the end of catastrophic mantle outgassing during accretion, and thus constrains the age of the last giant impact (LGI). Our closure age is significantly older than previous Xe closure age determinations of ~100 Myr, and is also older than some direct radiometric ages of lunar crustal samples. In order to explore the effects of accretion timescales, partial early retention of Xe, and degassing associated with long-term mantle processing on Xe closure age, we develop a new model of I-Pu-U-Xe systematics. We find that for LGI's between ~35 and 70 Myr after the start of the Solar System, we are able to satisfy constraints on I-Pu-U-Xe systematics simultaneously without invoking partial retention of Xe prior to the last giant impact. For LGI's after ~80 Myr, partial retention of Xe prior to the LGI is required. Non-zero early retention of Xe is necessary to explain the budgets of primordial

  9. Depth distribution analysis of Martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, E.; Gerritsen, E.; Chechenin, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the implantation of noble gases in metals has been found to induce some exciting phenomena such as formation of inclusions containing solid gas at extremely high pressures. In stainless steels these inclusions are the origin of a stress-induced martensitic fcc → bcc phase...... transformation in the implanted layer. In this work we present results from a depth distribution analysis of the martensitic phase change occurring in Xe implanted single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. Analysis was done by in situ RBS/channeling analysis, X-ray diffraction and cross-section transmission...... electron microscopy (XTEM) of the implanted surface. It is found that the martensitic transformation of the surface layer occurs for fluences above 1 × 1020 m−2. The thickness of the transformed layer increases with fluence to ≈ 150 nm at 1 × 10 21 m−2, which far exceeds the range plus straggling...

  10. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  11. Dependence of wavelength of Xe ion-induced rippled structures on the fluence in the medium ion energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion-beam eroded self-organized nanostructures on semiconductors offer new ways for the fabrication of high density memory and optoelectronic devices. It is known that wavelength and amplitude of noble gas ion-induced rippled structures tune with the ion energy and the fluence depending on the energy range, ion type and substrate. The linear theory by Makeev predicts a linear dependence of the ion energy on the wavelength for low temperatures. For Ar{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +} it was observed by different groups that the wavelength grows with increasing fluence after being constant up to an onset fluence and before saturation. In this coarsening regime power-law or exponential behavior of the wavelength with the fluence was monitored. So far, investigations for Xe ions on silicon surfaces mainly concentrated on energies below 1 keV. We found a linear dependence of both the ion energy and the fluence on the wavelength and amplitude of rippled structures over a wide range of the Xe{sup +} ion energy between 5 and 70 keV. Moreover, we estimated the ratio of wavelength to amplitude to be constant meaning a shape stability when a threshold fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} was exceeded.

  12. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS): ARS300 operations manual, software version 2.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-25

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a nondestructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ARS technique is a fast, safe, and nonintrusive technique that is particularly useful when a large number of objects need to be tested. Any physical object, whether solid, hollow, or fluid filled, has many modes of vibration. These modes of vibration, commonly referred to as the natural resonant modes or resonant frequencies, are determined by the object`s shape, size, and physical properties, such as elastic moduli, speed of sound, and density. If the object is mechanically excited at frequencies corresponding to its characteristic natural vibrational modes, a resonance effect can be observed when small excitation energies produce large amplitude vibrations in the object. At other excitation frequencies, i.e., vibrational response of the object is minimal.

  13. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Giuliani, M.; Lagorio, C.; Padilla, S.; Sarmiento, R.; Reyna Almandos, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters

  14. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, J. M. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work, the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two distinct groups of ions. The nature of the ions depend on the mixture ratio since they are originated by both Xe and CH4. The results here presented were obtained for low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV ṡ cm-1 ṡ bar-1), at low pressure (8 Torr) (10.6 mbar), and at room temperature.

  15. Separation of Kr-Xe system by thermal diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Numata, Kazuyoshi; Matsuda, Yuji; Ouchi, Misao; Naruse, Yuji

    1979-11-01

    Separation experiments of Kr-Xe system were carried out to study the possibility of adapting thermal diffusion method for concentration of krypton in a fuel reprocessing off-gas treatment process. The results are as follows. (1) A batchwise thermal diffusion column of hot tube diameter 21 mm, cold tube diameter 32 mm, effective hight 1000 mm and volume -- 500 CC is the best in separation characteristics and in ease of operation under the different conditions. (2) The overall separation factor increases with increase of the operating temperature in the column with and without reservoir. (3) The optimum operating pressure (about 400 Torr) is independent of the operating conditions such as temperature, reservoir volume and feed gas content. (4) A preliminary design of the Kr-Xe separating plant for a reprocessing plant (1500 ton-U/yr) shows the required number of columns and the total electric power. (author)

  16. Single electron capture in N^+ -(Ne, Kr, Xe) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pedro G.; Castillo, Fermin; Martinez, Horacio

    2001-05-01

    Total cross sections for single electron capture of N^+ ions impinging on Ne, Kr and Xe were measured in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron capture cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in excellent agreement with previous data in the low-energy range. The present data together with previous measurements give a general shape of the whole curve of single electron capture cross sections for the N^+ - Ne system. For the cases of N^+ - (Kr, Xe) systems, semiempirical calculation using the two-state approximation are in very good agreement with present cross sections data. Research supported by DGAPA IN-100392 and CONACyT 32175-E

  17. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gallardom@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Raineri, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: monicar@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Giuliani, M. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Lagorio, C. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Padilla, S. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Sarmiento, R. [Dto. De Fisica, Universidad del Atlantico, A.A 1890 Barranquilla (Colombia); Reyna Almandos, J.G. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: jreyna@ciop.unlp.edu.ar

    2005-10-15

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters.

  18. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Samman, H.; Barci, V.; Gizon, A.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays following the reactions induced by 12 C ions on 115 In, 112 , 117 , 122 Sn and 123 Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia I( 2 ) /sub band/ of 118 , 122 Xe, 123 Cs and 128 , 130 Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia I( 2 )/sub eff/ of 118 Xe and 130 Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques. 13 references

  19. Systematics of triaxial deformation in Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.; Vogel, O.; von Brentano, P.; Gelberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The (β,γ) deformation parameters of even-even Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei have been calculated by using the triaxial rotor model. Deformation parameters calculated, on one hand, from decay properties and, on the other hand, from energies are in good agreement. The smooth dependence of the deformation parameters on Z and N is discussed. The results are compared with those extracted from properties of odd-A nuclei

  20. Solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon carbide: Ion fluence dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, I.-T.; Ishimaru, Manabu; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of radiation damage and impurity concentration on solid phase epitaxial growth of amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) as well as microstructures of recrystallized layer using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystals of 6H-SiC with (0001) orientation were irradiated with 150 keV Xe ions to fluences of 10 15 and 10 16 /cm 2 , followed by annealing at 890 deg. C. Full epitaxial recrystallization took place in a specimen implanted with 10 15 Xe ions, while retardation of recrystallization was observed in a specimen implanted with 10 16 /cm 2 Xe ions. Atomic pair-distribution function analyses and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results suggested that the retardation of recrystallization of the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample is attributed to the difference in amorphous structures between the 10 15 and 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted samples, i.e., more chemically disordered atomistic structure and higher Xe impurity concentration in the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample

  1. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  2. Magnetic dipole strength in {sup 128}Xe and {sup 134}Xe in the spin-flip resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarczyk, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schwengner, R.; Doenau, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bathia, C. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4L8 (Canada); Gooden, M.E.; Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic dipole strength in the energy region of the spin-flip resonance is investigated in {sup 128}Xe and {sup 134}Xe using quasimonoenergetic and linearly polarized γ-ray beams at the High-Intensity γ-Ray Source facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Absorption cross sections were deduced for the magnetic and electric and dipole strength distributions separately for various intervals of excitation energy, including the strength of states in the unresolved quasicontinuum. The magnetic dipole strength distributions show structures resembling a resonance in the spin-flip region around an excitation energy of 8 MeV. The electric dipole strength distributions obtained from the present experiments are in agreement with the ones deduced from an earlier experiment using broad-band bremsstrahlung instead of a quasimonoenergetic beam. The experimental magnetic and electric dipole strength distributions are compared with model predictions.

  3. Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in XeXe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.44~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The differential yields of charged particles having pseudorapidity within $|\\eta|6~\\mathrm{GeV}$. However, the suppression in XeXe events is slightly greater than in PbPb collisions when comparing selections having a similar number of participating nucleons.

  4. The ArDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haranczyk, M; Badertscher, A; Boccone, V; Bourgeois, N; Bueno, A; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chorowski, M; Creus, W; Curioni, A; Daw, E; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Droge, M; Epprecht, L; Haller, C; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lagoda, J; Lazzaro, C; Lightfoot, P; Lozano, J; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Mania, S; Marchionni, A; Mavrokoridis, K; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otiougova, P; Piotrowska, A; Polinski, J; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Ravat, S; Regenfus, C; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Scotto-Lavina, L; Spooner, N; Viant, T; Trawinski, A; Ulbricht, J; Zalewska, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the ArDM project is the development and operation of a one ton double-phase liquid argon detector for direct Dark Matter searches. The detector measures both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from ionizing radiation using two independent readout systems. This paper briefly describes the detector concept and presents preliminary results from the ArDM R&D program, including a 3 l prototype developed to test the charge readout system.

  5. Saturated multikilovolt x-ray amplification with Xe clusters: single-pulse observation of Xe(L) spectral hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Davis, Jack; Song, Xiangyang; Koshman, Yevgeniya; Dai Yang; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Single-pulse measurements of spectral hole burning of Xe(L) 3d → 2p hollow atom transition arrays observed from a self-trapped plasma channel provide new information on the dynamics of saturated amplification in the λ ∼ 2.8-2.9 A region. The spectral hole burning on transitions in the Xe 34+ and Xe 35+ arrays reaches full suppression of the spontaneous emission and presents a corresponding width Δ h-bar ω x ∼ = 60 eV, a value adequate for efficient amplification of multikilovolt x-ray pulses down to a limiting length τ x ∼ 30 as. The depth of the suppression at 2.86 A indicates that the gain-to-loss ratio is ≥10. An independent determination of the x-ray pulse energy from damage produced on the surface of a Ti foil in the far field of the source gives a pulse energy of 20-30 μJ, a range that correlates well with the observation of the spectral hole burning and indicates an overall extraction efficiency of ∼10%. (letter to the editor)

  6. Xe-129 NMR chemical shift in Xe@C-60 calculated at experimental conditions: Essential role of the relativity, dynamics, and explicit solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, P.; Marek, R.; Straka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 22 (2013), s. 1890-1898 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GA13-03978S Grant - others:7th European Community Framework Program(XE) FP7-286154; CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology (European Regional Development)(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Xe-129 NMR * Xe@C-60 * dynamical averaging * explicit solvent * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  7. Effect of high Xe-concentration in a plasma display panel with a SrCaO cold cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae; Uchida, Satoshi; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We present here measurements of high Xe-contents plasma display panel (PDP) with SrCaO cold cathode. Luminous efficacy (η) shows a two-step increase with Xe-concentration in Ne/Xe gas mixture: η drastically increases up to Xe-concentration of 30% (Xe: 30%), and then attains 5 lm/W at the highest Xe-concentration of Xe: 100%. The high performance PDP with Xe: 100% can be operated at low applied voltage between 230 and 377 V due to the high secondary electron emission from the SrCaO cathode. Emission measurements clearly show the change in discharge characteristics at Xe: 30%, where the discharge changes from a Ne/Xe mixture discharge to an almost pure Xe discharge, and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the combination of resonance and excimer radiations to only excimer radiation. Theoretical analysis solving Boltzmann equation for electron demonstrates that increasing Xe-concentration enhances the collision frequency for electron impact excitation directly from ground state to lower levels concerned with the VUV radiation, resulting in a drastic increase in luminous efficacy up to Xe: 30%. Also, one-dimensional fluid simulation of a Ne/Xe dielectric barrier discharge clearly shows that a combination of high secondary electron emission cathode and high Xe-concentration is quite effective for high VUV radiation efficiency because it induces a drastic increase in electron-heating efficiency.

  8. Reevaluation of the Solar Wind 36Ar/38Ar Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Schlutter, D. J.; Rider, P. E.; Pepin, R. O.

    1996-03-01

    The isotopic composition of solar wind (SW) argon is an important parameter in the modeling of the evolution of the terrestrial planet atmospheres. Anders and Grevesse assumed a 36Ar/38Ar ratio for SW of 5.31, essentially equal to that of air. Considerable evidence has since developed which indicates that this ratio is too low. Benkert et al. have reported their best estimate for the recent SW as 5.48 +/- 0.05, determined from measurements of lunar soil 71501. Based on Ar data obtained from surface oxidation of a metal separate from the Weston meteorite and from an uncontrolled etch of lunar sample 67701, reported by our group previously, we consider even this value to be too low. Since values of 5.75 to 5.85 were reported by Black for initial low temperature (fairly high SW 36Ar/38Ar ratio (in the range of ~5.6 to ~5.7), we decided to analyze Kapoeta for its light solar wind gases using the acid-etching techniques developed in our laboratory based on the CSSE procedure of Benkert et al.

  9. Present status of the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer development for neutron EDM measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, M., E-mail: mihara@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Masuda, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kawasaki, S.; Watanabe, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hatanaka, K.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    A {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer designed for the measurement of neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) as precisely as 1 × 10{sup −27}e cm is presented. Highly nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe are introduced into an EDM cell where the {sup 129}Xe spin precession is detected by means of the two-photon transition. The geometric phase effect (GPE) which generates the false nEDM was quantitatively discussed and the systematic error of nEDM from the GPE was estimated considering the buffer-gas suppression due to Xe atomic collisions. Research and development are in progress to construct the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer with a field sensitivity of 0.3 fT. At present, about 70 % nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe atoms have been obtained in a spin exchange opitial pumping cell, that are in the process of being transferred into the EDM cell via a cold trap.

  10. Radiolysis and sputtering of carbon dioxide ice induced by swift Ti, Ni, and Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejía, C. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, C. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, Ph. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Bordalo, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domaracka, A.; Lv, X.Y. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2015-12-15

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is found in several bodies of the solar system, the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects, where it is exposed to cosmic and stellar wind radiation. Here, the chemical and physical modifications induced by heavy ion irradiation of pure solid CO{sub 2} at low temperature (T = 15–30 K) are analyzed. The experiments were performed with Ti (550 MeV) and Xe (630 MeV) ions at the UNILAC of GSI/Darmstadt and with Ni ions (46 and 52 MeV) at IRRSUD of GANIL/Caen. The evolution of the thin CO{sub 2} ice films (deposited on a CsI window) was monitored by mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). The dissociation rate of CO{sub 2}, determined from the fluence dependence of the IR absorption peak intensity, is found to be proportional to the electronic stopping power S{sub e}. We also confirm that the sputtering yield shows a quadric increase with electronic stopping power. Furthermore, the production rates of daughter molecules such as CO, CO{sub 3} and O{sub 3} were found to be linear in S{sub e}.

  11. arXiv Recent results from the strong interactions program of NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Pulawski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE experiment studies hadron production in hadron+hadron, hadron+nucleus and nucleus+nucleus collisions. The strong interactions program has two main purposes: study the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. This aim is pursued by performing a two-dimensional scan of the phase diagram by varying the energy/momentum (13A-158A GeV/c) and the system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Sc, Xe+La) of the collisions. This publication reviews recent results from p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc interactions. Measured particle spectra are discussed and compared to NA49 results from Pb+Pb collisions. The results illustrate the progress towards scanning the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter.

  12. Ar-Ar dating techniques for terrestrial meteorite impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S. P.

    2003-04-01

    The ages of the largest (>100 km) known impacts on Earth are now well characterised. However the ages of many intermediate sized craters (20-100 km) are still poorly known, often the only constraints are stratigraphic - the difference between the target rock age and the age of crater filling sediments. The largest impacts result in significant melt bodies which cool to form igneous rocks and can be dated using conventional radiometric techniques. Smaller impacts give rise to thin bands of melted rock or melt clasts intimately mixed with country rock clasts in breccia deposits, and present much more of a challenge to dating. The Ar-Ar dating technique can address a wide variety of complex and heterogeneous samples associated with meteorite impacts and obtain reasonable ages. Ar-Ar results will be presented from a series of terrestrial meteorite impact craters including Boltysh (65.17±0.64 Ma, Strangways (646±42 Ma), and St Martin (220±32 Ma) and a Late Triassic spherule bed, possibly representing distal deposits from Manicouagan (214±1 Ma) crater. Samples from the Boltysh and Strangways craters demonstrate the importance of rapid cooling upon the retention of old ages in glassy impact rocks. A Late Triassic spherule bed in SW England is cemented by both carbonate and K-feldspar cements allowing Ar-Ar dating of fine grained cement to place a mimimum age upon the age of the associated impact. An age of 214.7±2.5 Ma places the deposit with errors of the age of the Manicouagan impact, raising the possibility that it may represent a distal deposit (the deposit lay around 2000 km away from the site of the Manicouagan crater during the Late Triassic). Finally the limits of the technique will be demonstrated using an attempt to date melt rocks from the St Martin Crater in Canada.

  13. High spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 121,122}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, H [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; [Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Riley, M A; Hanna, F; Mullins, S M; Sharpey-Schafer, J F [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hughes, J R; Fossan, D B; Liang, Y; Ma, R; Xu, N [Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Simpson, J; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Bengtsson, T [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Wyss, R [Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    High-spin states have been populated in {sup 121,122}Xe using the reactions {sup 108}Pd({sup 16}O,3n){sup 121}Xe at 65 MeV and {sup 96}Zr({sup 30}Si,4n/5n){sup 122}Xe/{sup 121}Xe at 135 MeV. Coincident {gamma} rays following the neutron evaporation were detected by six Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and the TESSA3 array respectively. The level structure of {sup 121}Xe and {sup 122}Xe has been extended up to 47/2 {Dirac_h} and 32 {Dirac_h} respectively. In {sup 121}Xe a coupled band was found feeding the 19/2{sup -} level. In {sup 122}Xe several decays are suggested to be a sequence of stretched E2 quadrupole transitions connecting states of positive parity. While in {sup 121}Xe this phenomenon was not observed, at high spin a phase transition from prolate collective rotation to oblate single particle excitation was detected in {sup 122}Xe. For the new, probably positive parity side band in{sup 122}Xe a four quasi-neutron or a two quasi-proton configuration of h{sub 11/2} quasi-nucleons might be considered. The positive parity high spin structure in {sup 122}Xe contains three I{sup {pi}} = 22{sup +} states of different character. This is predicted by TRS (total Routhian surface) calculations, which identify these states as two shapes with predominantly prolate collective characteristic and the third as an oblate single particle configuration. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  15. Feldspar 40Ar/39Ar dating of ICDP PALEOVAN cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Jonathan Franz; Sudo, Masafumi; Stockhecke, Mona; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Volcaniclastic fall deposits in ICDP drilling cores from Lake Van, Turkey, contain sodium-rich sanidine and calcium-rich anorthoclase, which both comprise a variety of textural zoning and inclusions. An age model records the lake's history and is based on climate-stratigraphic correlations, tephrostratigraphy, paleomagnetics, and earlier 40Ar/39Ar analyses (Stockhecke et al., 2014b). Results from total fusion and stepwise heating 40Ar/39Ar analyses presented in this study allow for the comparison of radiometric constraints from texturally diversified feldspar and the multi-proxy lacustrine age model and vice versa. This study has investigated several grain-size fractions of feldspar from 13 volcaniclastic units. The feldspars show textural features that are visible in cathodoluminescence (CL) or back-scattered electron (BSE) images and can be subdivided into three dominant zoning-types: (1) compositional zoning, (2) round pseudo-oscillatory zoning and (3) resorbed and patchy zoning (Ginibre et al., 2004). Round pseudo-oscillatory zoning records a sensitive alternation of Fe and Ca that also reflects resorption processes. This is only visible in CL images. Compositional zoning reflects anticorrelated anorthite and orthoclase contents and is visible in BSE. Eleven inverse isochron ages from total fusion and three from stepwise heating analyses fit the age model. Four experiments resulted in older inverse isochron ages that do not concur with the model within 2σ uncertainties and that deviate from 1 ka to 17 ka minimum. C- and R-type zoning are interpreted as representing growth in magma chamber cupolas, as wall mushes, or in narrow conduits. Persistent compositions of PO-type crystals and abundant surfaces recording dissolution features correspond to formation within a magma chamber. C-type zoning and R-type zoning have revealed an irregular incorporation of melt and fluid inclusions. These two types of zoning in feldspar are interpreted as preferentially

  16. Actinide production in 136Xe bombardments of 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from 136 Xe bombardments of 249 Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these 136 Xe + 249 Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the 136 Xe + 248 Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of excess energy on the primary radical cations of bifunctional carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alkynes was simulated by matrix isolation method using rare gas matrices with various ionization potentials. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. It was shown that the radical cations of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 and CH 3 COCOCH 3 ) dissociated effectively yielding · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T≤16 K. In addition to isolated methyl radicals, the radical pairs consisting of two methyl radicals separated by two CO molecules were detected in the case of diacetyl. The probability of fragmentation decreases with the decreasing excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. In general, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to “hot” ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R--C≡CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R=–C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R=–CH 3 . The mechanisms of “hot” reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. - Highlights: ► Radiolysis of bifunctional organic compounds and alkynes. ► Dependence of “hot” fragmentation probability from molecular structure. ► Ions of bifunctional compounds are less stable than those of monofunctional ones. ► Alkynes are rather stable to “hot” fragmentation.

  18. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  19. Project for detecting the double beta decay of 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tawara, H.

    1992-01-01

    For detecting the nuclear double beta decay of 136 Xe, a liquid-xenon positive-ion collector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer are under development for detecting the decay product 136 Ba. Two sets of lasers are used with the mass spectrometer. An Nd-YAG laser is used for sampling 136 Ba from the surface of the positive-ion collector electrode, and a dye laser pumped by an Nd-YAG laser is used for the selective ionization of 136 Ba. The principle of measurements as well as the experimental apparatus and procedures are described in detail, together with our future plans. (orig.)

  20. 133Xe labelling of acrylate for catheter embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endert, G.; Penzel, E.; Ritter, H.; Schumann, E.

    1983-01-01

    A method for radio-nucleide labelling of histo-acryl/lipiodol with 133 Xe gas is described. The method consists of disolving the gas in lipiodol under sterile conditions. After embolisation and angiography, the localisation of the embolising material can be determined by means of a scintillation camera. The labelling method was used in 15 patients. In all patients the position of the embolising material, as demonstrated by scintigraphy, corresponded with the radiological findings. It was not possible to demonstrate escape of the material by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  1. Cryptophane-Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    normal adult tissue, but as the name implies, this low affinity folate carrier is specific for the physiological form of reduced folic acid, 5- methyl ...yield. Finally, 3 was treated with 1.5 equiv of 6 and N- methyl -1,5,9-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]-decene (MTBD) in dry DMSO to give the folate recognition moiety...Cryptophane- Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR Najat S. Khan, Brittany A. Riggle, Garry K. Seward, Yubin Bai, and Ivan J. Dmochowski* Department of

  2. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas - surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  3. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  4. XeF pump laser. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The goal of this program was to demonstrate operation of an XeF laser of adequate energy, efficiency and beam quality at high repetition rates. The specific design goals were: PRF greater than or equal to 10 kHz, energy output greater than or equal to 50 mJ/pulse, efficiency greater than or equal to 0.3%, and beam divergence angle less than or equal to 20x diffraction limited. In the following sections of this report we will discuss how these goals have been met

  5. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/targe...t/Ar.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/...kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Kidney.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  6. The permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron and atomic 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recently the Seattle group has measured the permanent edm of atomic 129 Xe to be d /sub Xe/ = (-0.3 + or - 1.1) x 10 -26 cm. This measurement provides an improvement by a factor of 10 4 over the best previous measurement of an atomic edm. The edm of Xe is most sensitive to a T-violating electron-nucleon interaction, but can also be generated by an intrinsic electron edm or an edm of the Xe nucleus. In the second half of this presentation, each of these mechanisms will be briefly discussed and a description of the experiment will be given

  7. 128Xe Lifetime Measurement Using the Coulex-Plunger Technique in Inverse Kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Dewald, A.; Rother, W.; Ilie, G.; Jones, P.; Rakhila, P.; Greenlees, P.; Grahn, T.; Julin, R.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    The lifetimes of the lowest collective yrast and non-yrast states in 128 Xe were measured in a Coulomb excitation experiment using the recoil distance method (RDM) in inverse kinematics. Hereby, the Cologne plunger apparatus was employed together with the JUROGAM spectrometer. Excited states in 128 Xe were populated using a 128 Xe beam impinging on a nat Fe target with E( 128 Xe)≅525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of an array of solar cells placed at forward angles. Recoil-gated γ-spectra were measured at different plunger distances

  8. 128Xe Lifetime Measurement Using the Coulex-Plunger Technique in Inverse Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Dewald, A.; Rother, W.; Ilie, G.; Jones, P.; Rakhila, P.; Greenlees, P.; Grahn, T.; Julin, R.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    The lifetimes of the lowest collective yrast and non-yrast states in 128Xe were measured in a Coulomb excitation experiment using the recoil distance method (RDM) in inverse kinematics. Hereby, the Cologne plunger apparatus was employed together with the JUROGAM spectrometer. Excited states in 128Xe were populated using a 128Xe beam impinging on a natFe target with E(128Xe)~525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of an array of solar cells placed at forward angles. Recoil-gated γ-spectra were measured at different plunger distances.

  9. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keunhong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Netirojjanakul, Chawita [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Munch, Henrik K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, Jinny [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Francis, Matthew B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2016-07-25

    Targeted, selective, and highly sensitive 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors have been synthesized using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST 129Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of Xe bubble nucleation in nanocrystalline UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Emily; René Corrales, L.; Desai, Tapan; Devanathan, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulated the interactions of defects and fission gas with grain boundaries in nuclear fuel. ► We observed the formation of Xe bubble nuclei that are difficult to observe experimentally. ► The bubble nuclei form by vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe atoms. ► We also observed the initial stages of grain boundary motion. ► The study offers insights to the design of nuclear fuel to control fission gas release. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamical interactions between vacancy defects, fission gas atoms (Xe), and grain boundaries in a model of polycrystalline UO 2 nuclear fuel with average grain diameter of about 20 nm. We followed the mobility and aggregation of Xe atoms in the vacancy-saturated model compound for up to 2 ns. During this time we observed the aggregation of Xe atoms into nuclei, which are possible precursors to Xe bubbles. The nucleation was driven by the migration of Xe atoms via vacancy-assisted diffusion. The Xe clusters aggregate faster than grain boundary diffusion rates and are smaller than experimentally observed bubbles. As the system evolves towards equilibrium, the Xe atom cluster growth slows down significantly, and the lattice relaxes around the cluster. These simulations provide insights into fundamental physical processes that are inaccessible to experiment.

  11. Echo-planar MR imaging of dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe. Potential for M angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of hyperpolarized 129 Xe for fast MR angiography (MRA) was evaluated using the echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique. Material and Methods: Hyperpolarized Xe gas was dissolved in ethanol; a carrier agent with high solubility for Xe (Ostwald solubility coefficient 2.5) and long relaxation times. The dissolved Xe was injected as a bolus into a flow phantom where the mean flow velocity was 15 cm/s. Ultrafast EPI images with 44 ms scan time were acquired of the flowing bolus and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were measured. Results: The relaxation times of hyperpolarized Xe in ethanol were measured to T1=160±11 s and T2 ≅ 20 s. The resulting images of the flowing liquid were of reasonable quality and had an SNR of about 70. Conclusion: Based on the SNR of the obtained Xe EPI images; it was estimated that rapid in vivo MRA with 129 Xe may be feasible; provided that an efficient; biologically acceptable carrier for Xe can be found and polarization levels of more than 25% can be achieved in isotopically enriched 129 Xe

  12. XeCl Excimer Laser For Micro - Machining Of Materials: Preliminary Theoretical And Experimental Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik; Stefanski, Miroslaw; Ujda, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary investigations, both theoretical and experimental, of XeC1 excimer laser pumped by transverse electric discharge with UU preionization. The medium was a mixture of gases He-Xe-HC1. A theoretical model of the XeC1 laser was worked out and a lot of laser parameters calculations were done. In the same time an excimer laser operating on the mixture He-Xe-HC1 was started, the generation of laser radiation was of energy about 20mJ.

  13. Demonstration of a CW diode-pumped Ar metastable laser operating at 4  W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Heaven, M C; Moran, P J; Pitz, G A; Guild, E M; Sanderson, C R; Hokr, B

    2017-11-15

    Optically pumped rare gas lasers are being investigated as potential high-energy, high beam quality systems. The lasing medium consists of rare gas atoms (Rg=Ne, Ar, Kr, or Xe) that have been electric discharge excited to the metastable np 5 (n+1)s P3 2 state. Following optical excitation, helium (He) at pressures of 200-1000 Torr is used as the energy transfer agent to create a population inversion. The primary technical difficulty for this scheme is the discharge production of sufficient Rg* metastables in the presence of >200  Torr of He. In this Letter, we describe a pulsed discharge that yields >10 13   cm -3 Ar* in the presence of He at total pressures up to 750 Torr. Using this discharge, a diode-pumped Ar* laser providing 4.1 W has been demonstrated.

  14. Alignment and orientation of Ar+ in He+-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudry, B.W.; Yenen, O.; Jaecks, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the alignment and orientation parameters of the 2 F 7/2 0 and 2 F 5/2 0 states of Ar + formed in the two-electron process; He + +Ar→He(1s 2 )+Ar + (3p 4 4p'). These have been measured at a collision energy of 0.25 keV/amu and for scattering angles ranging from 0.94 to 3.75 . First, by comparing the orientation prameter for the Ar + [(3p 4 [ 1 D]4p' 2 F 7/2 0 ] and the Ar + [(3p 4 [ 1 D]4p' 2 F 5/2 0 ] states, we have experimentally determined the importance of the spin-dependent interactions for the present collision system, by testing the Percival-Seaton hypothesis of spin independence. If the Percival-Seaton hypothesis holds for this system, the orientation parameter should be J-independent. Secondly, the magnitude of the orientation prameter can be interpreted as resulting from the collective circulation of the unexcited 3p 4 electrons and the excited 4p electron. The direction of this collective circulation is compared to the propensity rule for colliding di-atom systems. (orig.)

  15. Ar-39/Ar-40 systematics of Allende inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ); Bence, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A laser microprobe was used to measure the Ar isotopic contents of individual mineral grains in four neutron-irradiated Allende samples: two coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions, one fine-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusion, and one sample with matrix and miscellaneous chondrules. The following K-Ar ages (G.y.) were obtained after degassing low Ar retentive sites by preheating the samples for one hour at 675 C: matrix, 3.5 + or - 0.2 three miscellaneous chondrules, 4.4 + or - 0.1, 4.0 + or - 0.1, and 4.4 + or - 0.1 and the fine-grained inclusion, 4.5 + or - 0.2. The minerals in the coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions have ubiquitous chlorine, less than 10 ppm K and apparent ages ranging upwards from 4.6 G.y. to well over 10 G.y. Possible explanations for these apparent ages are atmospheric contamination, the decay of K-40 prior to the formation of the solar system, and the trapping of radiogenic Ar-40 lost by the matrix

  16. Determination of Ar metastable atom densities in Ar and Ar/H2 inductively coupled low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox-Lyon, N; Knoll, A J; Oehrlein, G S; Franek, J; Demidov, V; Koepke, M; Godyak, V

    2013-01-01

    Ar metastable atoms are important energy carriers and surface interacting species in low-temperature plasmas that are difficult to quantify. Ar metastable atom densities (N Ar,m ) in inductively coupled Ar and Ar/H 2 plasmas were obtained using a model combining electrical probe measurements of electron density (N e ) and temperature (T e ), with analysis of spectrally resolved Ar plasma optical emission based on 3p → 1s optical emission ratios of the 419.8 nm line to the 420.1 nm line. We present the variation of N Ar,m as the Ar pressure and the addition of H 2 to Ar are changed comparatively to recent adsorption spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  17. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) with 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tadaki; Masumura, Michio; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Hideyuki.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of CO 2 inhalation on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) were examined with 133 Xe inhalation method (Novo Inhalation Cerebrograph) on 9 normal peoples and 20 patients. Nine normal peoples were divided into 3 groups consisting of each 3 peoples, namely young age group, middle age group, and old age group. Each increased CBF (%) by CO 2 inhalation was 40 -- 44 in young age group, 36 -- 37 in middle age group, and 35 -- 36 in old age group in the blood flow of the first compartment (F 1 ), and 27 -- 28 in young age group, 30 -- 31 in middle age group and 23 -- 24 in old age group in the initial slope index (ISI). Each CO 2 reactivity factor (RF) was 5.5 -- 5.8 in young age group, 3.8 -- 4.0 in middle age group and 3.3 in old age group in F 1 , and 3.1 -- 3.2 in young age group, 2.0 -- 3.3 in middle age group, and 1.2 -- 1.3 in old age group in ISI. Twenty patients consisted of 15 patients of occlusive cerebrovascular disease, 2 patients of head injury, 2 patients of normal pressure hydrocephalus and one patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage. RF was abnormally lower than normal value in 5 patients in F 1 , but in 7 in ISI. Clinical benefits of CBF study during CO 2 inhalation with 133 Xe inhalation method were discussed. (author)

  18. ONC201 Targets AR and AR-V7 Signaling, Reduces PSA, and Synergizes with Everolimus in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti R; Ross, Brian C; Ralff, Marie D; Makhov, Petr B; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-05-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in prostate cancer progression, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay clinical treatment regimen for patients with advanced disease. Unfortunately, most prostate cancers eventually become androgen-independent and resistant to ADT with patients progressing to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Constitutively activated AR variants (AR-V) have emerged as mediators of resistance to AR-targeted therapy and the progression of mCRPC, and they represent an important therapeutic target. Out of at least 15 AR-Vs described thus far, AR-V7 is the most abundant, and its expression correlates with ADT resistance. ONC201/TIC10 is the founding member of the imipridone class of small molecules and has shown anticancer activity in a broad range of tumor types. ONC201 is currently being tested in phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors, including mCRPC, and hematologic malignancies. There has been promising activity observed in patients in early clinical testing. This study demonstrates preclinical single-agent efficacy of ONC201 using in vitro and in vivo models of prostate cancer. ONC201 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in both castration-resistant and -sensitive prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that ONC201 downregulates the expression of key drivers of prostate cancer such as AR-V7 and downstream target genes including the clinically used biomarker PSA (KLK3). Finally, the data also provide a preclinical rationale for combination of ONC201 with approved therapeutics for prostate cancer such as enzalutamide, everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), or docetaxel. Implications: The preclinical efficacy of ONC201 as a single agent or in combination, in hormone-sensitive or castration-resistant prostate cancer, suggests the potential for immediate clinical translation. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 754-66. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer

  19. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedein, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Kandil, M.K.; Kadad, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L 1 , L 2,3 , M 1 , M 2,3 and M 4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe 7+ , Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ and Xe 1 0 + ions, and the charged X 8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L 1 shell ionization is found to be Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ ions, while the charged Xe 8+ ions predominate at L 2,3 hole states. The charged Xe 6+ , Xe 7+ and Xe 8+ ions mainly yield from 3s 1/2 and 3p 1/2 , 3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d 3/2 , 5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Standardization of 40Ar-39Ar dating facility at KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Singh, M.P.; Vijan, A.R.; Bansal, M.; Prabhu, B.N.; Misra, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the pursuit of acquiring state of the art technology, efforts were being made for last more than two years to establish 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating facility at KDMIPE. The 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique is an analytical conversion of the conventional K-Ar dating method. In this method, the sample to be dated is first irradiated in a nuclear reactor to transform a portion of 39 K to 39 Ar by the fast neutron reaction i.e. 39 K(n, p) 39 Ar. After irradiation, the sample is placed in an ultra-high vacuum system and the argon extracted from it by fusion is purified and analyzed isotopically in a mass spectrometer. The relative abundances of 40 Ar, 39 Ar, 37 Ar and 36 Ar are measured. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K is determined, where 40 Ar is the radiogenic argon, and 39 Ar K is the 39 Ar produced from 39 K during the irradiation. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K ratio is proportional to the 40 Ar/ 40 K ratio in the sample and, therefore, is proportional to age

  1. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  2. ARS-Media for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel is an ion solution calculator that uses Microsoft Excel to generate recipes of salts for complex ion mixtures specified by the user. Generating salt combinations (recipes) that result in pre-specified target ion values is a linear programming problem. Thus, the recipes are genera...

  3. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  4. Kinetics of Ar isotopes during neutron irradiation: 39Ar loss from minerals as a source of error in 40Ar/39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.C.; Lippolt, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loss of 39 Ar from minerals in the course of neutron activation for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating is studied by directly measuring the loss rates in vacuum-sealed ampoules. Biotite shows 39 Ar losses between 0.1% and 16%. These losses are predominantly due to diffusion processes from K-poor alteration-phase intergrowths in the biotites at the elevated temperatures during the irradiation. Estimates for the irradiation temperatures range from 150 0 to 180 0 C. Direct 39 Ar recoil loss from biotite seems to be minor compared to difussion loss of recoil-implanted 39 Ar. Precise 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of biotites therefore requires the measurement of the 39 Ar losses during irradiation. Glauconite loses not only neutron-induced Ar isotopes ( 39 Ar: 20-22%, 37 Ar: 17-19%) but also radiogenic 40 Ar(∼9%). Slight 39 Ar losses are also observed for light micas (0.2% and 0.35%), hornblendes (0.1%) and sanidines (200 and 700 ppm). 25 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. Influence of residual Ar+ in Ar cluster ion beam for DLC film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Teruyuki; Miyauchi, Kazuya; Toyoda, Noriaki; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tokumi; Tsubakino, Harushige; Matsuo, Jiro; Matsui, Shinji; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influences of residual Ar monomer ion (Ar + ) on sp 2 content and hardness of diamond like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar cluster ion beam assisted deposition, Ar cluster ion, Ar + and their mixed ions (Ar cluster ion and Ar + ) bombardments were performed during evaporation of C 60 . From near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements, lower sp 2 content in the carbon films was obtained with Ar cluster ion bombardment than that with Ar + and mixed ion. Furthermore higher hardness and smooth surface were shown with Ar cluster ion bombardments. Therefore it was important to reduce Ar + in Ar cluster ion beams to obtain hard DLC films with flat surface

  6. Closing in on parton energy loss with charged particle spectra in Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    For comparison, a pp reference at the collision energy of 5.44 TeV is obtained by interpolating between existing pp measurements at 5.02 and 7 TeV.  The nuclear modification factor in Xe-Xe collisions is compared to Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV, showing remarkable similarity at pT > 10 GeV/c. The comparison of the measured nuclear mod...

  7. Level structures of 119Xe, 121Xe excited in (12C,3nγ) reactions and analysis of the hsub(11/2) bands in the IBF model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci, V.; Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.

    1982-02-01

    Levels in 119 Xe, 121 Xe excited by the reactions 110 Cd, 112 Cd( 12 C,3nγ) 119 Xe, 121 Xe have been studied by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques. Several bands have been observed: hsub(11/2) and gsub(7/2) in 119 Xe, 121 Xe, a decoupled one in 121 Xe. A new level structure in 119 Xe found for the first time is assigned as the gsub(9/2) band generated by one hole in the gsub(9/2) neutron shell. The connections between these bands have been fixed in both nuclei. A detailed analysis is made for the hsub(11/2) level structure. An interpretation is given in terms of the interacting boson-fermion model where hsub(11/2), fsub(7/2) and hsub(9/2) fermion configurations are included

  8. A comparison between the irradiation damage response of spinel and zirconia due to Xe ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Wetteland, C.J.; Baker, N.P.; Yu Ning; Devanathan, R.; Nastasi, M.; Bordes, N.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe 2+ ion irradiation to high dose at cryogenic temperature (120 K), the Young's modulus of irradiated spinel falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the un-irradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe 2+ doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behave differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe 2+ ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe 2+ ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is consistent with point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe 2+ ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase. (orig.)

  9. Kr and Xe isotopes from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and 250Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1980-01-01

    Relative yields of Kr and Xe isotopes from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 250 Cf have been determined mass spectrometrically. The yields are as follows: 83 Kr/ 84 Kr/ 85 Kr/ 86 Kr = 0.223/0.458/0.596/ identical 1.00 and 0.306/0.582/0.793/ identical 1.00; 131 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 136 Xe = 0.486/0.819/1.075 identical 1.00 and 0.343/0.506/0.851/ identical 1.00 from 248 Cm and 250 Cf, respectively. The Xe yields from 248 Cm agree with an earlier determination by Leich et al. Neither of these yield patterns matches that of fissiogenic Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites and hence 248 Cm and 250 Cf are ruled out as progenitors of the meteoritic Kr and Xe. In general, none of the spontaneously fissioning nuclides of actinide elements can be identified as a possible progenitor. Even the mixtures of actinides, including a combination of 248 Cm and 250 Cm, are unsuitable. The origin of anomalous Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites must then be traced either to the spontaneous fission of a superheavy element or to peculiarities in specific nucleosynthetic reactions. (orig.)

  10. Predictions for multiplicities and flow harmonics in 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K.

    2018-03-01

    We present the event-by-event next-to-leading-order perturbative-QCD + saturation + viscous hydrodynamics (EKRT) model predictions for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |η |≤0.5 , and for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron flow harmonics vn{2 } obtained from two-particle cumulants, in √{sN N}=5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Our prediction for the 0-5 % central charged multiplicity is d Nch/d η =1218 ±46 . We also predict vn{2 } in Xe+Xe collisions to increase more slowly from central towards peripheral collisions than those in a Pb+Pb system. We find that at 10 ,⋯,50 % centralities v2{2 } is smaller and v3{2 } is larger than in the Pb+Pb system while v4{2 } is of the same magnitude in both systems. We also find that the ratio of flow harmonics in Xe+Xe collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions shows a slight sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the shear-viscosity-to-entropy ratio. As we discuss here, the new nuclear mass-number systematics especially in the flow harmonics serves as a welcome further constraint for describing the space-time evolution of a heavy-ion system and for determining the shear viscosity and other transport properties of strongly interacting matter.

  11. Variable energy positron beam study of Xe-implanted uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djourelov, Nikolay; Marchand, Benoît; Marinov, Hristo; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Pipon, Yves; Nédélec, Patrick; Toulhoat, Nelly; Sillou, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-line combined with a slow positron beam was used to measure the momentum density distribution of annihilating pair in a set of sintered UO 2 samples. The influence of surface polishing, of implantation with 800-keV 136 Xe 2+ at fluences of 1 × 10 15 and 1 × 10 16 Xe cm −2 , and of annealing were studied by following the changes of the momentum distribution shape by means of S and W parameters. The program used for this purpose was VEPFIT. At the two fluences in the stoichiometric as-implanted UO 2 , formation of Xe bubbles was not detected. The post-implantation annealing and over-stoichiometry in the as-implanted sample caused Xe precipitation and formation of Xe bubbles.

  12. Luminescent Characteristics of a Pulsed Discharge Plasma in Xe-KBr Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Zhmenyak, Y. V.

    2018-03-01

    A mixture of xenon with a nontoxic halogen carrier Xe-KBr is used to create a plasma radiation source at the 282-nm transition of the XeBr* molecule excited by a high-voltage pulsed-periodic discharge. The luminescence spectra of the plasma of a longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in the Xe-KBr mixture at low pressures are studied experimentally. The most intense UV bands of exciplex XeBr* molecules are recorded in the spectral range of 250-350 nm. The spectral, temporal, and energetic characteristics of the radiation source are presented, as well as the dependence of the XeBr* exciplex molecule formation efficiency on the discharge excitation conditions. The optimal conditions for the excitation of UV radiation in the pulsed-periodic discharge plasma are determined.

  13. Programming A Molecular Relay for Ultrasensitive Biodetection through 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfei [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Roose, Benjamin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Philbin, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Doman, Jordan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Dmochowski, Ivan J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA

    2015-12-21

    We reported a supramolecular strategy for detecting specific proteins in complex media by using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. A cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])-based molecular relay was programmed for three sequential equilibrium conditions by designing a two-faced guest (TFG) that initially binds CB[6] and blocks the CB[6]–Xe interaction. Moreover, the protein analyte recruits the TFG and frees CB[6] for Xe binding. TFGs containing CB[6]- and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-binding domains were synthesized in one or two steps. X-ray crystallography confirmed TFG binding to Zn2+ in the deep CAII active-site cleft, which precludes simultaneous CB[6] binding. The molecular relay was reprogrammed to detect avidin by using a different TFG. Finally, Xe binding by CB[6] was detected in buffer and in E. coli cultures expressing CAII through ultrasensitive 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  15. High pressure microwave discharge for electrodeless Xe-lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, J.; Kando, M.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the investigation into the high pressure Xe microwave discharge in bent tubes, sustained by electromagnetic surface wave. The research was aimed to help with the design of a new generation of high intensity light sources with generally more complex shapes than those commonly used. The results show that the electromagnetic surface wave can effectively sustain discharge in tubes with various bending radii within the large pressure range. The curved shapes of discharge tubes improve the cooling of the lamp which is one of the major technological difficulties. It was shown that under relatively lower powers and higher gas pressures (100 Torr) the discharge exhibits a streamer-like filamentation and the branching of filaments. The phenomena of the effective sustaining of the discharge by surface wave propagation along curved plasma columns will be investigated in more detail by measurements of the profiles of surface wave electric and magnetic field intensities. (author)

  16. Search for positive parity bands in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Sun, X.; Zhou, X.; Lei, X.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, H.; Pan, Q.; Guo, Y.; Chen, X.; Luo, Y.; Wen, S.; Yuan, G.; Yang, C.; Luo, W.; Chen, Y.S.; Xing, Z.; Chen, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Excited states of 117 Xe were populated via the reaction 28 Si+ 92 Mo at 100-120MeV. More than 40 new γ-transitions and three new positive parity bands have been observed by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. The previously known νh 11/2 bands were confirmed, and the νg 7/2 favored band was extended up to 47/2 + in which two bandcrossings have been observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44MeV, respectively. The band structures have been discussed by means of TRS and CSM calculations. A newly observed rotational band consisting of five γ-transitions has been considered as the πh 11/2 band of 117 Cs. ((orig.))

  17. Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.D.

    1991-11-01

    In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136 Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Assessment of pulmonary ventilation patterns by nonradioactive Xe enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Harima, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akitomo; Hasegawa, Takeo

    1984-01-01

    To assess the patterns of regional pulmonary ventilation in conjunction with pulmonary blood flow, pulmonary Xe enhanced CT was performed in 26 patients with interstitial disorders including 3 with chest irradiation and 23 with old myocardial infarction and in 2 control patients. Washout time was short and its patterns were not influenced by an increased or decreased blood flow in the control group. In the group with chest irradiation, a decreased blood flow and slight disturbance were seen in the affected lung, while an increased blood flow and a slightly increased resistance of the pulmonary periphery were suspected in the opposite lung. Furthermore, a prolonged washout and relative reduction of the washout seemed to be reflective of the interstitial degeneration and decreased blood flow, respectively. In the group with old myocardial infarction, the prolongation of washout became marked because of a decreased blood flow caused by venous congestion. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Contribution to scintigraphic study of pulmonary ventilation using 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyron, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique of regional lung function study, using 133 Xe, is described (instrumentation, procedure, results). A gamma-camera is used for this investigation, its main advantages are as follows. The picture is smaller than the one produced by a scanner, but is obtained more quickly. The gamma-camera equipped with a data processing unit is able to visualize areas of interest and to provide quantitative informations. Two parameters are studied. The first one is Xenon washout speed expressed in (ml/mn/cm 3 ) which gives an exact value of pulmonary ventilation. The latter is retention. This parameter is of interest because retention is more easy to evaluate than washout speed, and is able to quantify what is suggested by scintigraphic pictures. The technique has proven to be valuable in differentiating chronic bronchitis from post-bronchitic emphysema [fr

  20. Observation of high spin states in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Yuan, G.J.; Li, G.S.; Yang, C.X.; Luo, W.D.; Chen, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    High spin states of 117 Xe have been investigated by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the reaction 92 Mo( 28 Si, 2pn) at beam energies of 100 to 120 MeV. The previously known νh 11/2 bands are confirmed and the νg 7/2 favored-signature band is extended up to 47/2 + , in which two band crossings are observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44 MeV, respectively. Two new positive-parity bands have been established, one of which is most likely the νg 7/2 unfavored-signature band. A new transition cascade with irregular level spacings is also observed. (orig.)

  1. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  2. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S G [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  3. Noninvasive 133Xe inhalation method for cerebral blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shigeharu; Kobatake, Keitaro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Recent development of the 133 Xe inhalation technique has made it possible to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Recording of the head curves from the frontal and temporal areas during inhalation of 133 Xe, however, is contaminated by the artifact from the air passages. A method based on Fourier transforms was reported to be able to eliminate air passage artifact (APA) effectively. However, it was pointed out that such an algorithm does not give a complete correction if the artifact seen by the head detectors differs in shape from that recorded from the airways at the mouth, which may happen when there is a slow isotope convection in the nasal and sinus cavities. The purpose of this study was to compare the CBF values calculated by the Fourier method with those by the conventional method of Obrist (VM method). Mean hemispheric gray matter flow (F 1 ) calculated by the VM method in 11 subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with various neurological diseases, was 69.2±13.2 mg/100 g brain/ min, whereas F 1 calculated by the Fourier method in the same subjects was 64.4±13.5, indicating that APA can be effectively eliminated by the Fourier method. The F 1 values calculated by the Fourier method from the frontal and temporal regions were relatively high, and closer to the F 1 values calculated by the VM method. The size of the APA was large in these regions. It was concluded that the deformed APA contaminated the results in these regions, and could not be eliminated effectively by the Fourier method. It is suggested that the shape of the head curve and the size of APA should be carefully examined to ensure that CBF data are reliable. (author)

  4. 40Ar-39Ar stepheating studies of clay concentrates from Irish orebodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    40 Ar- 39 Ar step heating analyses of clay concentrates from the Gortdrum and Tynagh orebodies (Ireland) previously dated by conventional K-Ar, indicate major losses of 39 Ar (32 to 45%) and rad. 40 Ar (25 to 35%) during the irradiation. The proportion of rad. 40 Ar loss, unlike that of 39 Ar, increases with J-value. The difference between 39 Ar and rad. 40 Ar proportion losses is related to the mineralogy and grain intimacy. These also affect the stepwise release patterns - the Gortdrum concentrates yield age spectra very consistent with 39 Ar recoil predictions, whereas the Tynagh concentrates in which the grains are intimately intergrown, show no clear evidence for 39 Ar recoil depletion in the K-rich phases. The difference is resolvable if illite argon release is not a simple volume diffusion type process under vacuum conditions. (author)

  5. HDR-Aggregate Read Service (ARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ARS is a SOAP web service exposed over HTTPS that provides an aggregated (report) view of HTH Survey, DMP and Census data stored in the HDR DB. ARS is deployed in...

  6. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  7. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  8. Photoionization study of HgAr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, S.H.; Brom, J.M. Jr.; Tzeng, W.; Ng, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency data for HgAr + have been obtained in the region of 680--1240 A. The ionization energy of HgAr was determined to be 10.217 +- 0.012 eV. This value allows the calculation of the dissociation energy of HgAr + to be 0.228 +- 0.017 eV. The relative probabilities for the formation of HgAr + via the reactions Ar* x Hg or Hg* x Ar→ HgAr + +e - with Ar* and Hg* prepared in high Rydberg states in the energy range of 10.22--15.79 eV were estimated. Although the radii for the 3d and 5s Rydberg ortitals of Ar have similar values, the probabilities for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* in the 5s[3/2] 0 1 and 5s'[1/2] 0 1 Rydberg states are substantially greater than those when the Ar* excited atoms are in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 , 3s[3/2] 0 1 , and 3d'[3/2] 0 1 Rydberg levels. The ratio for the cross sections for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* formed in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 and 4d[1/2] 0 1 states, as well as that with Ar* prepared in the 5d[1/2] 0 1 and 6d[1/2] 0 1 states, were found to be consistent with the predictions of the previous impact parameter calculations

  9. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1979-01-01

    Silicate and troilite (FeS) from IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurbole: - 3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, + 1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns. Troilite samples were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 Myr; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te gave an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 Myr. Thus, low-melting troilite predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate; meteorites with older silicates have greater Ni contents. No model easily accounts for this result as well as other properties of IAB irons; nevertheless, these results, taken at face value, favour a nebular formation model. The great age of troilite from Mundrabilla suggests that this troilite formed in a different nebular region from the silicate and metal, and was later mechanically mixed with these other phases. The correlation between the trace elements in the metal and the I-Xe ages of the silicate provides one of the first known instances in which another well-defined meteoritic property correlates with I-Xe ages. In addition, almost all the 129 Xe in Mundrabilla silicate (etched in acid) was correlated with 128 Xe. These two results further support the validity of the I-Xe dating method. (author)

  10. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbank, William

    2016-01-01

    this project, we are substantially closer to demonstrating ''barium tagging'', i.e., detection of single daughter "1"3"6Ba atoms from "1"3"6Xe double beta decay. Milestones achieved include obtaining spectra of small numbers of Ba atoms and cryoprobe advances toward trapping single "1"3"6Ba atoms in solid xenon and probe extraction for detection. One of the other benefits to society is the training of six Ph.D. students in a variety of state-of-the-art technologies, half under primary support of this grant and half with partial support, with four finishing their Ph.D. degrees and two well on their way.

  11. Neutron Inelastic Scattering on 134Xe at En = 5 - 8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Mary; Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, Megha

    2017-09-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) studies are both the best way to determine the Majorana nature of the neutrino and determine its effective mass. The two main experiments searching for 0 νββ -decay of 136Xe (Q value = 2457.8 keV) are Kamland-Zen and EXO-200. Though both experiments have enriched 136Xe targets, these targets still contain significant quantities of 134Xe. Recently, a new nuclear level was discovered in 134Xe that decays to the ground state emitting a 2485.7 keV gamma ray. The γ-ray production cross section for this branch was found to be on the order of 10 mb for incident neutron energies of 2.5-4.5 MeV. Here, we have extended the investigation of this level to higher incident neutron energies, and further explore the potential neutron-induced backgrounds on both 134Xe and 136Xe for extended neutron energies. We will report our preliminary results for neutron inelastic scattering on 134Xe in applications to 0 νββ decay searches. NSF PHY-1614348, DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  12. Evaluation of reactivity and Xe behavior during daily load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yasunori; Araki, Tsuneyasu; Yamamoto, Fumiaki

    1992-01-01

    A boiling water reactor (BWR) has an excellent load following capability provided by a core flow control, which is used for changing a reactor power level and for compensating the subsequent Xe concentration change. The core characteristics during load following operations are investigated in detail, using our reactor core simulator. Comparisons of changes of the Doppler reactivity, the void reactivity and the Xe reactivity during transients are performed. Also the features of Xe transient during load following operations are shown. It has been shown that the core flow change required to compensate the Xe reactivity change produces much greater change of the void reactivity than that required for power level changes, and that the resulting local power change in the lower part of the core is greater than that in the upper part, because the Xe concentration change in the lower part is hardly compensated by the core flow control. Also the effects of power level changes, cycle patterns, and initial concentration of Xe and I on the Xe transient behavior have been investigated. (author)

  13. Centrality determination using the Glauber model in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This document describes the methods used by the ALICE Collaboration for determining the centrality of Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV at the LHC within the Glauber model. The half-density radius $R$ and the diffusivity $a$ describing the Xe-129 nucleus with a 2-parameter Fermi distribution have been derived from a recent electron scattering measurement for the Xe-132 nucleus. The deformation parameter $\\beta$ has been derived by an interpolation between measured deformation parameters for the even-$A$ Xe isotopes. The inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross-section at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV has been estimated by interpolation of pp data at different center-of-mass energies. The particle multiplicity per nucleon-nucleon collision has been parameterized by a negative binomial distribution (NBD) and a number of independently emitting sources (ancestors) given by a linear combination of $N_{\\rm part}$ and $N_{\\rm coll}$. The NBD parameters $\\mu$ and $k$ and the ancestor parameter $f$ are then...

  14. Xe-133 recuperation by adsorption in active carbon impregnated with PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Marques, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Since the Mo-99 Fission Project has the aim to produce Xe-133 from gases generated in the alkaline dissolution of Al-U plates irradiated with thermal neutrons and, considering the importance of this radioisotope from the nuclear medicine point of view, studies to improve and optimize the Xe-133 recuperation were continued. Experiences were made on 'static' equilibrium employing high purity xenon and for the 'dynamic' case, Xe-133 mixed with a carrier and nitrogen as gas carrier; in this case, a 44% and a 34% increase in the capacity of xenon adsorption relaxed with activated carbon without being impregnated and impregnated with AgF, were respectively achieved. (Author) [es

  15. Nuclear Structure of 124Xe Studied with β+/EC-Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.

    The nuclear structure of 124Xe was investigated using γ-ray spectroscopy following the β+/EC-decay of 124Cs. A very high-statistics data set was collected and γγ coincidence data was analyzed, greatly adding to the 124Xe level scheme. A new decay branch from the high-spin isomer of 124Cs was observed as well as weak E2 transitions into excited 0+ states in 124Xe. B(E2) transition strengths of such low-spin transitions are very important in determining collective properties, which are currently poorly characterized in the region of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes.

  16. Analysis of XeC1 Emission in a Hollow Cathode Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    excited homopolar molecule, e.g., Xe2 , Hg2 The term exciplex refers to an electronically excited heteropolar complex, e.g., KrF , XeOH , XeCl , which...frequently overlooked and both homopolar and heteropolar systems are commonly referred to as excimers, Excimers are formed by the interaction between two...mode and a non-scanning mode. Scanning is performed using a 1 rpm motor and produces plots of in- tensity versus wavelength. The non-scanning mode is

  17. Gain measurements of the Ca-Xe charge exchange system. [for UV lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, C. J.; Chubb, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Charge-exchange-pumped Ca(+) was studied for possible positive laser gain at 370.6 and 315.9 nm using an Xe MPD arc as the Xe(+) source. The present paper describes the MPD arc, the calcium injection system, the diagnostics for gain, and spontaneous emission measurements and results. No positive gain measurements were observed. A small Xe-Ca charge exchange cross section compared to He-metal laser systems charge exchange cross sections is the most probable reason why the result was negative.

  18. Trampoline motions in Xe-graphite(0 0 0 1) surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Hashinokuchi, Michihiro; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Shobatake, Kosuke

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated Xe scattering from the graphite(0 0 0 1) surface at hyperthermal incident energies using a molecular beam-surface scattering technique and molecular dynamics simulations. For all incident conditions, the incident Xe atom conserves the momentum parallel to the surface and loses approximately 80% of the normal incident energy. The weak interlayer potential of graphite disperses the deformation over the wide range of a graphene sheet. The dynamic corrugation induced by the collision is smooth even at hyperthermal incident energy; the graphene sheet moves like a trampoline net and the Xe atom like a trampoliner.

  19. Chemical activity of noble gases Kr and Xe and its impact on fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that most of the insoluble inert gas atoms Xe and Kr produced during fissioning are retained in the fuel irradiated at a temperature lower than the threshold. Experimental data imply that we can assume that after irradiation exposure in excess of 10 18 fissions/cm 3 the single gas atom diffusion can be disregarded in description of fission gas behaviour. It is assumed that the vicinity of the fission fragment trajectory is the place of intensive irradiation induced chemical interaction of the fission gas products with UO 2 . Significant part of fission gas product is thus expected to be chemically bound in the matrix of UO 2 . Experiments with mixture of noble gases, coupled with theoretical calculations, provide strong evidence for direct bonds between Ar, Kr, or Xe atoms and the U atom of the CUO molecule. Because of its positive charge, the UO 2 2+ ion, which is isoelectronic with CUO, should form even stronger bonds with noble gas atoms, which could lead to a growing number of complexes that contain direct noble gas - to - actinide bonds. Considering the huge amount of gas immobilised in the UO 2 fuel the solution process and in consequence the re-solution process of rare gases is to be replaced by the chemical bonding process. This explains the fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO 2 fuel. (author)

  20. The SFMOMA AR Game Jam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brin, Sarah; Gangsei, Erica

    2018-01-01

    In the Summer of 2016, Pokémon Go precipitated a surge of new play experiences in museums. Cultural heritage institutions across disciplines were confronted with the sudden ubiquity of augmented reality (AR). Some museums enthusiastically integrated Pokémon into their programs, while some grapple......, and Rebecca Edwards. “Night at the Museum: The 2016 Getty/USC Game Jam.” Blog. The Getty Iris, March 31, 2016. http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/a-night-at-themuseum-the-2016-gettyusc-game-jam/....

  1. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrazenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elucidation of high-energy reaction pathways in the condensed phase is an important issue for basic understanding of the radiation stability of complex organic molecules. As was shown previously, organic radical cations (RC) may undergo fragmentation or rearrangement in solid matrices due to excess energy. The probability of this process depends on both ionization potential (IP) of the molecule and molecular structure. In the present work we have studied the role of 'hot' ionic reaction channels for RC of some bifunctional compounds and alkynes. The effect of excess energy was simulated by matrix isolation method as described in detail earlier. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. In the present work it was shown that the RC of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 , CH 3 CO(CH 2 ) n COCH 3 , n 0/2) dissociated efficiently producing · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T ≤ 16 K. The probability of fragmentation decreases with decrease of excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. It is worth noting that acetone RC does not show fragmentation under these conditions. Thus, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to 'hot' ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype carbonyl compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R-C ≡ CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R = -C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R = -CH 3 . It means that the presence of triple bond stabilizes the molecular skeleton of linear alkynes toward 'hot' fragmentation, similarly as it was shown for alkenes. The mechanisms of 'hot' reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 09-03-00848a).

  2. The Gotthard experiment on 136Xe ββ decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, F.; Busto, J.; Farine, J.; Gabathuler, K.; Gervasio, G.; Henrikson, H.; Joergens, V.; Lou, K.; Luescher, R.; Paic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Gotthard experiment measuring the double beta decay of 136 Xe is now running with an improved version of the TPC. The whole charge readout system has been redesigned in order to reduce the radioactive background. Signal-to-noise ratio is further enhanced by the tracking capability that allows to select events with two electron tracks emerging from the same point, and reject with high efficiency those background components such as internal β and α radioactivity, Compton electrons, and cosmic rays. After the first 2200 hours of data taking, a reduction of the count rate has been observed. The most recent 90% C.L. half life limits for the different ββ modes are: 4 x 10 23 yr, corresponding to a Majorana mass of 1.9-2.5 eV, for the neutrinoless channel; 1.1 x 10 22 yr for the majoron, and 4.6 x 10 20 yr for the 2ν channel. (K.A.)

  3. Application of 133Xe encephalography in lack blood diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiyuan; Guo Huiying

    1993-01-01

    The determination of local blood flow in brain gray matter (rCBF) using the type CGEM 2000 133 Xe encephalography is a reliable indication for judging the degree of lack blood disease. For all the inspected patients the scalp analogy localization is used. 28 probes are applied to some regions of the forehead, the vertex, the temporal folium and the occipital folium. The localization is accurate and repeatable. The result of rCBF determination is similar to XCT, but its range is rather wider than XCT. Therefore, the rCBF determination in clinic diagnosis is reliable and can give the rCBF value qualitatively. It can be used not only for diagnosing the decease in brain, but also for the predication before apoplexy, especially for vertigo disease to be inspected. For the vertigo disease of middle age and old man, the first consideration should be the decreasing of rCBF value. For the inspection of thrombus of neck artery system, it can reflect the real range of pathological changes correctly. The method is superior to XCT for treatment planning, estimating the results, supervising the effect treatment, and the diagnosis of acute cerebral embolism. In China, the morbidity rate, the sickness rate, the disability rate and recurrent rate of cerebrovascular disease are very high, especially for the old man. Satisfactory results for 1010 cases altogether are obtained by using type CGEM 2000 cerebral angiography technique for the screening

  4. Effect of Xe ion (167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC implanted with Kr and Xe at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlatshwayo, T T; Kuhudzai, R J; Njoroge, E G; Malherbe, J B; O’Connell, J H; Skuratov, V A; Msimanga, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of swift heavy ion (Xe 167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC individually implanted with 360 keV Kr and Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 2  ×  10 16 cm −2 and 1  ×  10 16 cm −2 respectively, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Implanted specimens were each irradiated with 167 MeV Xe +26 ions to a fluence of 8.3  ×  10 14 cm −2 at room temperature. It was observed that implantation of 360 keV Kr and Xe ions individually at room temperature amorphized the SiC from the surface up to a depth of 186 and 219 nm respectively. Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation reduced the amorphous layer by about 27 nm and 30 nm for the Kr and Xe samples respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the amorphous layer was accompanied by the appearance of randomly oriented nanocrystals in the former amorphous layers after SHI irradiation in both samples. Previously, no similar nanocrystals were observed after SHI irradiations at electron stopping powers of 33 keV nm −1 and 20 keV nm −1 to fluences below 10 14 cm −2 . Therefore, our results suggest a fluence threshold for the formation of nanocrystals in the initial amorphous SiC after SHI irradiation. Raman results also indicated some annealing of radiation damage after swift heavy ion irradiation and the subsequent formation of small SiC crystals in the amorphous layers. No diffusion of implanted Kr and Xe was observed after swift heavy ion irradiation. (paper)

  5. Improving the efficiency of a fluorescent Xe dielectric barrier light source using short pulse excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G; Richter, P; Maros, I; Balazs, L

    2008-01-01

    Operation of a Xe dielectric barrier discharge lamp producing 147-172 nm VUV radiation is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Xe gas pressure varies between 100 and 300 mbar, and the glass body of the lamp is coated with LAP (green) phosphor to convert radiation into the visible part of the spectrum. Simulation results predict improved discharge efficiencies reaching 67% when excited by a fast rise-time, short pulse (∼200 ns) driving waveform. In this case most power deposited into the plasma efficiently produces Xe 2 * excimers, while other energy dissipation processes (ion heating, e-Xe elastic collision) are kept at a low rate. Simulation and experimental results are compared in terms of discharge efficacy and show good agreement. A lamp efficacy value as high as 80 lm W -1 is demonstrated experimentally

  6. Probing the porosity of cocrystallized MCM-49/ZSM-35 zeolites by hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Weiping; Xie, Sujuan; Xu, Longya; Han, Xiuwen; Bao, Xinhe

    2008-01-31

    One- and two-dimensional 129Xe NMR spectroscopy has been employed to study the porosity of cocrystallized MCM-49/ZSM-35 zeolites under the continuous flow of hyperpolarized xenon gas. It is found by variable-temperature experiments that Xe atoms can be adsorbed in different domains of MCM-49/ZSM-35 cocrystallized zeolites and the mechanically mixed counterparts. The exchange of Xe atoms in different types of pores is very fast at ambient temperatures. Even at very low temperature two-dimensional exchange spectra (EXSY) show that Xe atoms still undergo much faster exchange between MCM-49 and ZSM-35 analogues in the cocrystallized zeolites than in the mechanical mixture. This demonstrates that the MCM-49 and ZSM-35 analogues in cocrystallized zeolites may be stacked much closer than in the physical mixture, and some parts of intergrowth may be formed due to the partially similar basic structure of MCM-49 and ZSM-35.

  7. Theoretical Study of the NMR Chemical Shift of Xe in Supercritical Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacerda Junior, Evanildo Gomes; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate the level of theory necessary for reproducing the non-linear variation of the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift with the density of Xe in supercritical conditions. In detail we study how the 129Xe chemical shift depends under these conditions...... on electron correlation, relativistic and many-body effects. The latter are included using a sequential-QM/MM methodology, in which a classical MD simulation is performed first and the chemical shift is then obtained as an average of quantum calculations of 250 MD snapshots conformations carried out for Xen...... this approach we obtain very good agreement with the experimental data, showing that the chemical shift of 129Xe in supercritical conditions is very well described by cluster calculations at the HF level, with small contributions from relativistic and electron correlation effects....

  8. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) Membranes for Kr/Xe Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that a prototypical type of metal organic framework, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), in membrane form, can effectively separate Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. The best membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with average Kr permeances as high as 1.5 × 10-8 ± 0.2 mol/m2 s Pa and average separation selectivities of 14.2 ± 1.9 for molar feed compositions corresponding to Kr/Xe ratio encountered typically in air. Molecular sieving, competitive adsorption, and differences in diffusivities were identified as the prevailing separation mechanisms. These membranes potentially represent a less-energy-intensive alternative to cryogenic distillation, which is the benchmark technology used to separate this challenging gas mixture. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of any metal organic membrane composition displaying separation ability for Kr/Xe gas mixtures.

  9. Nuclear spin relaxation due to chemical shift anisotropy of gas-phase 129Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2011-08-14

    Nuclear spin relaxation provides detailed dynamical information on molecular systems and materials. Here, first-principles modeling of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation time for the prototypic monoatomic (129)Xe gas is carried out, both complementing and predicting the results of NMR measurements. Our approach is based on molecular dynamics simulations combined with pre-parametrized ab initio binary nuclear shielding tensors, an "NMR force field". By using the Redfield relaxation formalism, the simulated CSA time correlation functions lead to spectral density functions that, for the first time, quantitatively determine the experimental spin-lattice relaxation times T(1). The quality requirements on both the Xe-Xe interaction potential and binary shielding tensor are investigated in the context of CSA T(1). Persistent dimers Xe(2) are found to be responsible for the CSA relaxation mechanism in the low-density limit of the gas, completely in line with the earlier experimental findings.

  10. The effects of retrograde reactions and of diffusion on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allaz, Julien; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metamorphic reactions occurring during decompression were explored to understand their influence on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas. Monometamorphic metasediments from the Lepontine Alps (Switzerland) were studied. Collected samples reached lower amphibolite facies during the Barrovian....... XRD-data indicated that some mineral separates prepared for Ar-Ar stepwise heating analysis were monomineralic, whereas others were composed of two white micas (muscovite with paragonite or margarite), or biotite and chlorite. In monomineralic samples 37Ar/39Ar and 38Ar/39Ar (proportional to Ca....../K and Cl/K ratios) did not change and the resulting ages can be interpreted unambiguously. In mineral separates containing two white micas, Ca/K and Cl/K ratios were variable, reflecting non-simultaneous laboratory degassing of the two heterochemical Ar-reservoirs. These ratios were used to identify each...

  11. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  12. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    The IAB iron meteorites may be related to the chondrites; siderophile elements in the metal matrix have chondritic abundances, and the abundant silicate inclusions are chondritic both in mineralogy and in chemical composition. Silicate and troilite (FeS) and IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurboele; the monitor error (+-2.5 m.y.) is not included]: -3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, +1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)/sub trapped/ ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns: intermediate-temperature points defined good correlations but higher-temperature (greater than or equal to 1400 0 C) points lay above (extra 129 Xe) these lines. The two correlations have different slopes, so it cannot be assigned a definite I-Xe age to Pitts silicate. Troilite samples from Mundrabilla and Pitts were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 m.y.; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 m.y. Thus, surprisingly, low-melting troilite substantially predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate (referred to henceforth as the metal-silicate correlation). After exploring possible relationships between the I-Xe ages and other properties of the IAB group, it was concluded that the metal-silicate correlation, the old Mundrabilla troilite, and other results favor a nebular formation model (e.g. Wasson, 1970a)

  13. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Late Cretaceous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the wider European GTS Next project, I propose new constraints on the ages of the Late Cretaceous, derived from a multitude of geochronological techniques, and successful stratigraphic interpretations from Canada and Japan. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, we propose a new constraint on the age of the K/Pg boundary in the Red Deer River section (Alberta, Canada). We were able to cyclo-stratigraphically tune sediments in a non-marine, fluvial environment utilising high-resolution proxy records suggesting a 11-12 precession related cyclicity. Assuming the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method is inter-calibrated with the cyclo-stratigraphy, the apparent age for C29r suggests that the K/Pg boundary falls between eccentricity maxima and minima, yielding an age of the C29r between 65.89 ± 0.08 and 66.30 ± 0.08 Ma. Assuming that the bundle containing the coal horizon represents a precession cycle, the K/Pg boundary is within the analytical uncertainty of the youngest zircon population achieving a revised age for the K/Pg boundary as 65.75 ± 0.06 Ma. The Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary is preserved in the sedimentary succession of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and has been placed 8 m below Coal nr. 10. Cyclo-stratigraphic studies show that the formation of these depositional sequences (alternations) of all scales are influenced directly by sea-level changes due to precession but more dominated by eccentricity cycles proved in the cyclo-stratigraphic framework and is mainly controlled by sand horizons, which have been related by auto-cyclicity in a dynamic sedimentary setting. Our work shows that the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin coincides with 2.5 eccentricity cycles above the youngest zircon age population at the bottom of the section and 4.9 Myr before the Cretaceous - Palaeogene boundary (K/Pg), and thus corresponds to an absolute age of 70.65 ± 0.09 Ma producing an 1.4 Myr younger age than recent published ages

  14. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  15. Xe-133 accumulation in fatty liver: hepatic uptake and washout correlated with pulmonary and mesenteric retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Xe-133 uptake in patients with fatty livers is described and compared with uptake and retention in lungs, blood and mesenteric fat and with normal hepatic uptake. In the absence of obstructive lung disease or excessive obesity, Xe-133 uptake and retention is a valuable means of screening patients for the presence of fatty liver. Although non-specific for the etiology of fatty liver, the test is an effective and non-invasive method of detection which merits further application. (author)

  16. Damage evolution in Xe-ion irradiated rutile (TiO2) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Sickafus, K.E.; Evans, C.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Rutile (TiO 2 ) single crystals with (110) orientation were irradiated with 360 keV Xe 2+ ions at 300 K to fluences ranging from 2 x 10 19 to 1 x 10 20 Xe/m 2 . Irradiated samples were analyzed using: (1) Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with ion channeling analysis (RBS/C); and (2) cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Upon irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , the sample thickness penetrated by the implanted ions was observed to consist of three distinct layers: (1) a defect-free layer at the surface (thickness about 12 nm) exhibiting good crystallinity; (2) a second layer with a low density of relatively large-sized defects; and (3) a third layer consisting of a high concentration of small defects. After the fluence was increased to 7 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , a buried amorphous layer was visible by XTEM. The thickness of the amorphous layer was found to increase with increasing Xe ion fluence. The location of this buried amorphous layer was found to coincide with the measured peak in the Xe concentration (measured by RBS/C), rather than with the theoretical maximum in the displacement damage profile. This observation suggests the implanted Xe ions may serve as nucleation sites for the amorphization transformation. The total thickness of the damaged microstructure due to ion irradiation was always found to be much greater than the projected range of the Xe ions. This is likely due to point defect migration under the high stresses induced by ion implantation

  17. Investigation of impurity-helium solid phase decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltnev, R.E.; Gordon, E.B.; Krushinskaya, I.N.; Martynenko, M.V.; Pel'menev, A.A.; Popov, E.A.; Khmelenko, V.V.; Shestakov, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The element composition of the impurity-helium solid phase (IHSP), grown by injecting helium gas jet, involving Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms and N 2 molecules, into superfluid helium, has been studied. The measured stoichiometric ratios, S = N H e / N I m, are well over the values expected from the model of frozen together monolayer helium clusters. The theoretical possibility for the freezing of two layers helium clusters is justified in the context of the model of IHSP helium subsystem, filled the space between rigid impurity centers. The process of decomposition of impurity-helium (IH)-samples taken out of liquid helium in the temperature range 1,5 - 12 K and the pressure range 10-500 Torr has been studied. It is found that there are two stages of samples decomposition: a slow stage characterized by sample self cooling and a fast one accompanied by heat release. These results suggest, that the IHSP consists of two types of helium - weakly bound and strongly bound helium - that can be assigned to the second and the first coordination helium spheres, respectively, formed around heavy impurity particles. A tendency for enhancement of IHSP thermo stability with increasing the impurity mass is observed. Increase of helium vapor pressure above the sample causes the improvement of IH sample stability. Upon destruction of IH samples, containing nitrogen atoms, a thermoluminescence induced by atom recombination has been detected in the temperature region 3-4,5 K. This suggests that numerous chemical reactions may be realized in solidified helium

  18. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-07-15

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium–10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) method is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the MD simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe [1] is employed. Initial gas bubbles with a low Xe concentration (underpressured) are generated in a body-centered cubic (bcc) U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atoms are sequentially added into the bubbles one by one, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that an overpressured gas bubble emits partial dislocations with a Burgers vector along the <111> direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Meanwhile, dislocation loop punch out was not observed. The overpressured bubble also induces an anisotropic stress field. A tensile stress was found along <110> directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in bcc U10Mo fuels.

  19. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  20. Imaging Human Brain Perfusion with Inhaled Hyperpolarized 129Xe MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhwesha R; Stewart, Neil J; Griffiths, Paul D; Norquay, Graham; Wild, Jim M

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of directly imaging perfusion of human brain tissue by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized xenon 129 ( 129 Xe). Materials and Methods In vivo imaging with 129 Xe was performed in three healthy participants. The combination of a high-yield spin-exchange optical pumping 129 Xe polarizer, custom-built radiofrequency coils, and an optimized gradient-echo MR imaging protocol was used to achieve signal sensitivity sufficient to directly image hyperpolarized 129 Xe dissolved in the human brain. Conventional T1-weighted proton (hydrogen 1 [ 1 H]) images and perfusion images by using arterial spin labeling were obtained for comparison. Results Images of 129 Xe uptake were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 31 ± 9 and demonstrated structural similarities to the gray matter distribution on conventional T1-weighted 1 H images and to perfusion images from arterial spin labeling. Conclusion Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MR imaging is an injection-free means of imaging the perfusion of cerebral tissue. The proposed method images the uptake of inhaled xenon gas to the extravascular brain tissue compartment across the intact blood-brain barrier. This level of sensitivity is not readily available with contemporary MR imaging methods. © RSNA, 2017.

  1. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-07-01

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) method is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the MD simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe [1] is employed. Initial gas bubbles with a low Xe concentration (underpressured) are generated in a body-centered cubic (bcc) U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atoms are sequentially added into the bubbles one by one, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that an overpressured gas bubble emits partial dislocations with a Burgers vector along the direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Meanwhile, dislocation loop punch out was not observed. The overpressured bubble also induces an anisotropic stress field. A tensile stress was found along directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in bcc U10Mo fuels.

  2. A method for determining leakage of 133Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J.R.; Borak, T.B.; Pellicciarini, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed a method for determining the leakage of 133 Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials that are supplied for medical examinations. Twenty vials each originally containing 370 MPq of 133 Xe and 20 vials each originally containing 740 MBq 133 Xe were measured daily for 26 d. Retention of 133 Xe within the vial was modeled as a first order process with a constant rate coefficient, λ T . The value of λ T was estimated for each vial using a regression analysis. The leakage rate, λ L , was then determined assuming that λ L = λ L + λ r where λ r represents the physical decay of 133 Xe. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using uncertainties in the estimates of each vial to obtain the mean and tails of the distribution for the average leakage rate, bar λ L . the average leakage rate for the complete sample of vials was 0.00007 d -1 with an upper, one-sided, 95% confidence limit of 0.0011 d -1 . Uncertainties in the published values of λ r for 133 Xe made a significant contribution to the uncertainties of the leakage rate for this sample of vials. The methods described can be applied to other situations where leakage of radioactive materials may be of concern

  3. Triaxial superdeformation in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ideguchi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states in 40 Ar have been studied using the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low-energy states were calculated by the parity and angular momentum projection and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Basis wave functions were obtained by the energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β, while other quantities such as triaxiality γ were optimized by the energy variation. By the GCM calculation, an SD band was obtained just above the ground-state band. The SD band involves a K π =2 + side band due to the triaxiality. The calculated electric quadrupole transition strengths of the SD band reproduce the experimental values appropriately. Triaxiality is significant for understanding low-lying states.

  4. arXiv Probing Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, E.J.; Dev, P.S.B.; Drewes, M.; Fong, C.S.; Garbrecht, B.; Hambye, T.; Harz, J.; Hernández, P.; Kim, C.S.; Molinaro, E.; Nardi, E.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Zamora-Saa, J.

    2018-02-28

    The focus of this chapter lies on the possible experimental tests of leptogenesis scenarios. We consider both leptogenesis generated from oscillations, as well as leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. As the Akhmedov-Rubakov-Smirnov (ARS) mechanism allows for heavy neutrinos in the GeV range, this opens up a plethora of possible experimental tests, e.g. at neutrino oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay, and direct searches for neutral heavy leptons at future facilities. In contrast, testing leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays is a quite difficult task. We comment on the necessary conditions for having successful leptogenesis at the TeV-scale. We further discuss possible realizations and their model specific testability in extended seesaw models, models with extended gauge sectors, and supersymmetric leptogenesis. Not being able to test high-scale leptogenesis directly, we present a way to falsify such scenarios by focusing on their washout processes. This is discussed specific...

  5. Dating method with /sup 39/Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loosli, H H [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.

    1983-04-01

    The principles of a dating method based on the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotope /sup 39/Ar are given. Technical requirements such as background and standard gas samples and gas proportional counting systems are described. With samples extracted from Greenland ice it can be demonstrated that /sup 39/Ar ages agree with ages obtained by other methods. First results on ocean water samples show that with this isotope valuable information on ocean mixing and circulation can be expected. /sup 39/Ar results on groundwater samples disagree for some aquifers with conventional /sup 14/C ages; possible explanations are discussed, especially underground production of /sup 39/Ar.

  6. GPS-Based AR Games Development Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Alvin Raditya Santoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of new technologies in a game is not a new thing. One example is the application of Augmented Reality (AR technology in game. Many people do not know the application of AR technology in game, although the application of this technology is able to produce a game with unique gameplay. In addition, since AR game is GPS-based, it offers new gaming experience, that is, playing outdoors in which the real world becomes the game arena. This advantage gives the AR technology a huge potential to be developed into a game

  7. 37Ar based neutron source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, D.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Yants, V.Eh.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Wildenhain, P.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.

    2001-01-01

    The methodology of the creation of a compact neutrino source based on the 37 Ar isotope as well as the technique of calibration of an iodine detector of solar neutrinos is described. An important overall expected result is the creation of a prototype of the source with the intensity up to 400 kCi, delivery of this source to the Baksan neutrino observatory and the test calibration of the single module of the iodine detector. Simulation shows that at least 45-70 127 Xe atoms will be detected in the irradiation of ∼40 tons of methylene iodide by the source leading to ∼19% of the error on the measured production rate. This result should be considered as a test of the developed technology and will verify overall technical readiness for the creation of a full scale neutrino source and the full scale calibration of the iodine detector

  8. Inclusive J/$\\psi$ production in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhatt, Himani; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Dani, Sanskruti; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; 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    2018-01-01

    Inclusive J/$\\psi$ production is studied in Xe-Xe interactions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV, using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The J/$\\psi$ meson is reconstructed via its decay into a muon pair, in the centre-of-mass rapidity interval 2.5 < y < 4 and down to zero transverse momentum. In this Letter, the nuclear modification factors $R_{AA}$ for inclusive J/$\\psi$, measured in the centrality range 0-90% as well as in the centrality intervals 0-20% and 20-90% are presented. The $R_{AA}$ values are compared to previously published results for Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and to the calculation of a transport model. A good agreement is found between Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb results as well as between data and the model.

  9. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code; Analisis de la Evolucion Isotopica del Xe-135 y Sm-149. Programa Xesamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Gallego, J; Martinez Fanegas, R

    1977-07-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. 39Ar/Ar measurements using ultra-low background proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Jeter; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco M.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Day, Anthony R.; Humble, Paul H.; Mace, Emily K.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-dating groundwater and seawater using the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is an important tool to understand water mass-flow rates and mean residence time. Low-background proportional counters developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory use mixtures of argon and methane as counting gas. We demonstrate sensitivity to 39 Ar by comparing geological (ancient) argon recovered from a carbon dioxide gas well and commercial argon. The demonstrated sensitivity to the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is sufficient to date water masses as old as 1000 years. - Highlights: • 39 Ar/Ar age dating is important for understanding environmental water migration. • Ultra low background proportional counters have been developed. • 39 Ar is detected in atmospheric argon at a rate of 70.3 counts per day. The demonstrated background is 166 counts per day. • Age dating is possible for water with underground residence time of up to 1000 years.

  11. 40Ar-39Ar method for age estimation: principles, technique and application in orogenic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmejer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of the K-Ar method for age estimation by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar recently developed is described. This method doesn't require direct analysis of potassium, its content is calculated as a function of 39 Ar, which is formed from 39 K under neutron activation. Errors resulted from interactions between potassium and calcium nuclei with neutrons are considered. The attention is paid to the technique of gradual heating, used in 40 Ar- 39 Ar method, and of obtaining age spectrum. Aplicabilities of isochronous diagram is discussed for the case of presence of excessive argon in a sample. Examples of 40 Ar- 39 Ar method application for dating events in orogenic regions are presented

  12. First-principles calibration of 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and complete extraction of 40Ar* from sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Kuiper, K.; Mark, D.; Postma, O.; Villa, I. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology relies on comparing argon isotopic data for unknowns to those for knowns. Mineral standards used as neutron fluence monitors must be dated by the K-Ar method (or at least referenced to a mineral of known K-Ar age). The commonly used age of 28.02 ± 0.28 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) (Renne et al., 1998) is based upon measurements of radiogenic 40Ar in GA1550 biotite (McDougall and Roksandic, 1974), but underlying full data were not published (these measurements were never intended for use as an international standard), so uncertainties are difficult to assess. Recent developments by Kuiper et al. (2008) and Renne et al. (2010) are limited by their reliance on the accuracy of other systems. Modern technology should allow for more precise and accurate calibration of primary K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar standards. From the ideal gas law, the number of moles of 40Ar in a system can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature. Thus we have designed and are proceeding to build a pipette system to introduce well-determined amounts of 40Ar into noble gas extraction lines and mass spectrometers. This system relies on components with calibrations traceable to SI unit prototypes, including a diaphragm pressure gauge (MKS Instruments), thermocouples, and a “slug” of an accurately determined volume to be inserted into the reservoir for volume determinations of the reservoir and pipette. The system will be renewable, with a lifetime of ca. 1 month for gas in the reservoir, and portable, to permit interlaboratory calibrations. The quantitative extraction of 40Ar* from the mineral standard is of highest importance; for sanidine standards this is complicated by high melt viscosity during heating. Experiments adding basaltic “zero age glass” (ZAG) to decrease melt viscosity are underway. This has previously been explored by McDowell (1983) with a resistance furnace, but has not been quantitatively addressed with laser heating

  13. Influence of ''inert'' diluent gases on the rate of carbon gasification. [Effect of N/sub 2/, Ar, or He diluent on reaction with O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, P.L. Jr.; Pentz, L.; Biederman, D.L.; Vastola, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of diluent gases on gasification rates of the C--O/sub 2/ and C--CO/sub 2/ reactions has been studied. At equal starting pressures of reactant and diluent, rates for both reactions are: N/sub 2/ > Ar > He. For the C--CO/sub 2/ reaction, the presence of a diluent results in higher gasification rates than when no diluent is present in the order: Xe > N/sub 2/ > Ar. Possible reasons for the diluent effects are discussed.

  14. Use of 129 Xe NMR to characterize inhomogeneous solids: a 129 Xe NMR study of the miscibility of EPDM rubber and atactic polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, David R.; Silva, Naira M. da; Stejskal, E.O.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    1997-01-01

    One of the goals of polymer blending is the creation of miscible blends. The ability to assess accurately the degree of miscibility thus is of great value to the polymer scientist. The traditional methods of determining phase separation include: DSC, DMA, crystallography, microscopy and NMR relaxation measurements in the rotating frame These methods are usually simple and rapid but each technique is not suitable for all samples and each has a lower limit below which they cannot detect small degrees of phase separation. In this presentation we demonstrate a non-destructive and simple technique that can provide miscibility/phase separation information about rubbery and amorphous polymers and polymer blends. (author)

  15. Neutron scattering study of 36 Ar monolayer films adsorbed on graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taub, H.; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Kjems, Jørgen

    1977-01-01

    Diffraction of neutrons from 36 Ar monolayers adsorbed on graphite basal planes indicates that an ordered, two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice is formed at low temperature. The lattice constant is found to be slightly larger than that of the bulk 3D solid but significantly smaller than that o...

  16. Study of the spallation reactions 136Xe + p and 136Xe + 12C at 1 GeV per nucleon at the GSI facility (Darmstadt, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbinet, T.

    2011-11-01

    The collision of 136 Xe with a proton and with 12 C at 1 GeV per nucleon of projectile kinetic energy in the center of mass has been studied in inverse kinematics using the SPALADIN experimental setup at the GSI facility. This manuscript describes the analysis of these collisions realized in spring 2009. The detection in coincidence of the final state fragments (projectile residues, neutrons and light charged fragments) with a large geometrical efficiency is provided by the inverse kinematics combined with a large aperture dipole magnet and large detectors. Such a coincidence, measured on an event basis, allows selecting, in a model independent way, the pre-fragment, the excited nuclear system formed after the intranuclear cascade as a function of its excitation energy. Hence, we were able to study the evolution of the pre-fragment deexcitation mechanism (evaporation of light particles, asymmetric binary decay, multiple fragmentation..) as a function of its excitation energy. The data of the 136 Xe + p reaction have been compared mainly to three deexcitation models (SMM, GEMINI++ and ABLA07) coupled to the intranuclear cascade code INCL4. Despite the relatively good and global agreement between these models and our data, significant discrepancies appeared concerning in particular the production of intermediate mass fragments (IMF). Comparison between the 136 Xe + 12 C and the 136 Xe + p data exhibits an important similarity in the deexcitation of the pre-fragments. This suggests that the nuclear cascade leads, for both targets, to similar pre-fragment types in the range of excitation energy (0 to 4 MeV per nucleon) common to both reactions. Higher excitation energies, reached only in the 136 Xe + 12 C reaction, show a qualitative difference in the deexcitation of the pre-fragment, with much higher multiplicities of IMF per event, increasing with the excitation energy. (author)

  17. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  18. AR4VI: AR as an Accessibility Tool for People with Visual Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, James M.; Miele, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Although AR technology has been largely dominated by visual media, a number of AR tools using both visual and auditory feedback have been developed specifically to assist people with low vision or blindness – an application domain that we term Augmented Reality for Visual Impairment (AR4VI). We describe two AR4VI tools developed at Smith-Kettlewell, as well as a number of pre-existing examples. We emphasize that AR4VI is a powerful tool with the potential to remove or significantly reduce a r...

  19. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.

    1981-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88 = 0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff. (author)

  20. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Ian

    1981-11-12

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88±0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff.

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of Ar2(+) and Ar3(+) excited by 527 nm photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, V; Picard, Y J; Barat, M; Fayeton, J A; Lucas, B; Béroff, K

    2009-05-21

    The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(2)(+) and Ar(3)(+) clusters has been investigated at a 527 nm wavelength (2.35 eV) using a setup that allows simultaneous detection of the ionic and neutral fragments in a coincidence experiment. Measurement of positions and times of flight enables in principle a complete description of the fragmentation dynamics. The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(3)(+) clusters is similar to that of Ar(2)(+) with, in addition, the ejection of a third fragment that can be neutral or ionized via a resonant electron capture. This is attributed to the triangular geometry of the Ar(3)(+) ion.

  2. Single electron capture by state-prepared Ar2+ projectiles in Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, J.; Huber, B.A.

    1985-03-01

    Electron capture by state-selected Ar 2+ projectiles in Ar has been studied at low collision energies ( 2+ ions are measured explaining existing discrepancies of partial and total cross sections in the Ar 2+ /Ar collision system. Although highly excited metastable ions ( 5 D 4 0 , 3 F 4 0 ) represent a minor contamination of a non-prepared Ar 2+ beam (proportional1%), their contributions are found to dominate the capture process due to cross section values larger than 10 -15 cm 2 . (orig.)

  3. 3 to 15 keV Ar+ induced Auger electron emission from Si and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, J.; Kaus, G.

    1977-01-01

    Ar + induced Auger electrons from Si and Ar were investigated at bombardment energies between 3-15 keV and target currents of a few μA. The Auger electron yields were compared with secondary ion yields of Si and Ar by simultaneous SIMS-AES measurements. In the ion induced Auger spectra of Si five Auger peaks and in the Ar spectra three Auger peaks were observed. The ion induced Auger electron yield of Si and Ar were found to be strongly dependent upon the primary ion energy. 'Bulk like' and 'atomic like' Auger transitions of ion induced Auger electrons of Si were observed. (orig.) [de

  4. Exploring new Xe-129 chemical shift ranges in HXeY compounds: hydrogen more relativistic than xenon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lantto, P.; Standara, Stanislav; Riedel, S.; Vaara, J.; Straka, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 31 (2012), s. 10944-10952 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; 7th European Framework Program(XE) 230955; CEITEC(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 129Xe NMR * novel Xe compounds * relativistic effects * rare-gas * ab-initio * NMR properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  5. Study of the portal blood flow by gamma-scintigraphy in rectal administration of 133Xe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, Yu.P.; Dmitrievnkov, B.N.; Andronov, S.V.; Alferov, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Data on 133 Xe running through the liver during the administration of its solutions rectally (intraintestinally) and directly into the system of the portal vein (into one of the mesenteric veins) have been correlated in experiment on 12 rabbits. Good correlation of the mean of 133 Xe (passing has been shown for both methods of the portal blood flow study). A possibility to study the hepatic blood flow on the basis of clinical results using rectal administration of 133 Xe solution is discussed. The authors discuss the mechanism of 133 Xe penetration from the solution into the blood through the rectal wall

  6. Noble gas bond and the behaviour of XeO3 under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunju; Wang, Xianlong; Botana, Jorge; Miao, Maosheng

    2017-10-18

    Over the past few decades, the concept of hydrogen bonds, in which hydrogen is electrophilic, has been extended to halogen bonds, chalcogen bonds and pnicogen bonds. Herein, we show that such a non-covalent bonding also exists in noble gas compounds. Using first principles calculations, we illustrate the OXe-O bond in molecular crystal XeO 3 and its effect on the behavior of this compound under pressure. Our calculations show that the covalent Xe-O bond lengths were elongated with increasing pressure and correspondingly the Xe-O stretching vibration frequencies were red shifted, which is similar to the change of H-bonds under pressure. The OXe-O bond and related hopping of O between neighboring Xe sites also correspond to the structural changes in the XeO 3 compounds at about 2 GPa. Our study extends the concept of hydrogen bonding to include all p-block elements and show a new bonding type for Noble gas elements in which it acts as an electrophilic species.

  7. Nuclear structure studies in highly neutron-deficient (114,116)Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraaf, James Hendrick

    Lifetimes of nuclear states in 114Xe and 116Xe were measured for the first time; these nuclei represent the most neutron-deficient isotopes of xenon for which lifetimes have now been measured. The fusion-evaporation reactions 58Ni(60Ni, 2p)116Xe at 223 MeV beam energy and 58Ni(58Ni, 2p)114Xe at 215 MeV beam energy were used. Lifetimes were measured using the Recoil Distance Method (RDM) with the 8π gamma-ray spectrometer at Chalk River Laboratories. The new measurements of the B(E2;2+/to 0+) strength in these nuclei, coupled with the recent measurements for heavier xenon isotopes, are well described within the framework of the O(6) symmetry limit of the Interacting Boson Approximation. The octupole nature of the negative parity side-band was also studied, and the lifetime measurements indicate a change from a K/approx 3 structure in heavier xenon isotopes to a K/approx 0,/ 1 structure in 114Xe.

  8. Investigation of 124Xe nuclear structure with the 8Pi spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, Allison; Garrett, P.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Diaz Varela, A.; Hadinia, B.; Bianco, L.; Wong, J.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Laffoley, A.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svennson, C. E.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.; Andreoiu, C.; Starosta, K.; Cross, D.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-10-01

    The 124Xe nucleus has been thought to obey O(6) symmetry but a recent Coulomb excitation study has found that while O(5) may be preserved, O(6) appears to be badly broken. To further characterize the structure of this nucleus, a beta-decay experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. A beam of radioactive 124Cs at a rate of 9.8 × 107 ions/s was implanted at the center of the 8Pi spectrometer where it underwent β + /EC decay into stable 124Xe. High-statistics gamma-gamma coincidence measurements have been analyzed to add to the level scheme of 124Xe, which has been extended considerably. The high statistics data set has revealed a new decay branch from a 124Cs high-spin isomer as well as several very-weak transitions between low-spin states in 124Xe. Branching ratios and B(E2) transition strengths have been calculated for the updated level scheme. The results will be important in determining collective properties and nuclear structure of the 124Xe.

  9. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-06-29

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  10. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B → X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  11. Searches for Lorentz violation in {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock comparison experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmendinger, F. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Burghoff, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Heil, W., E-mail: wheil@uni-mainz.de; Karpuk, S. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kilian, W.; Knappe-Grueneberg, S.; Mueller, W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Schmidt, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Seifert, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Sobolev, Yu [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Trahms, L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Tullney, K. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    We discuss the design and performance of a very sensitive low-field magnetometer based on the detection of free spin precession of gaseous, nuclear polarized {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe samples with a SQUID as magnetic flux detector. Characteristic spin precession times T{sub 2}{sup Asterisk-Operator} of up to 115 h were measured in low magnetic fields (about 1 {mu}T) and in the regime of motional narrowing. With the detection of the free precession of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe nuclear spins (clock comparison), the device can be used as ultra-sensitive probe for non-magnetic spin interactions, since the magnetic dipole interaction (Zeeman-term) drops out in the weighted frequency difference, i.e., {Delta}{omega} = {omega}{sub He} - {gamma}{sub He}/{gamma}{sub Xe}{center_dot}{omega}{sub Xe}. We report on searches for Lorentz violating signatures by monitoring the Larmor frequencies of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin samples as the laboratory reference frame rotates with respect to distant stars (sidereal modulation).

  12. Multiple photoionization from 3p excitation of Kr and 4p excitation of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayaishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    The photoionization cross sections for multiply charged ions produced by 3p excitation of Kr and 4p excitation of Xe have been obtained by means of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and synchrotron radiation. It is found that the main formation of doubly to quadruply charged ions in both Kr and Xe is caused from the each initial p-hole state through a Coster-Kronig transition followed by Auger of double Auger processes. The formation of singly charged ions in these excitation energy regions is caused by direct photoionization from outermost shell electrons in both Kr and Xe. Triply charged ions are prominently produced among the multiply charged ions. The quadruple photoionization cross sections show clearly the structures due to the Rydberg series, 3p -1 nl of Kr and 4p -1 nl of Xe. Their main structures were assigned to the 3p -1 nd series in Kr and the 4p -1 nd series in Xe. (orig.)

  13. Resistivity and morphology of TiSi2 formed on Xe+-implanted polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, H.; Phillips, J.R.; Mayer, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Xe ion irradiation of polycrystalline silicon before Ti deposition is found to affect subsequent silicide formation. Silicide films were prepared by implanting 60, 100, or 240 keV Xe + ions into 500-nm-thick undoped polycrystalline silicon before depositing Ti and annealing in vacuum. Preimplantation altered the subsequent silicide resistivity, x-ray diffraction patterns, and morphology as compared to films prepared on unimplanted polycrystalline Si substrates. We found that minimal TiSi 2 resistivities were achieved at lower temperatures with preimplantation, indicating that the Xe-implanted substrate promotes a lower temperature transition from the metastable C49 phase to the low-resistivity equilibrium C54 phase of TiSi 2 . X-ray diffraction results confirmed the lower temperature formation of the C54 phase with preimplantation. Low-temperature annealing (650 degree C, 30 min) of 6x10 16 cm -2 , 240 keV Xe + -implanted samples yielded low-resistivity (∼22 μΩ cm) silicide films, while simultaneously annealed samples without preimplantation had resistivity five times higher. Lower doses were effective at lower implant energies, with low resistivity achieved after 725 degree C, 30 min annealing for 2x10 15 cm -2 , 60 keV Xe + preimplantation

  14. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    + ions in gaseous xenon. Through this project, we are substantially closer to demonstrating “barium tagging”, i.e., detection of single daughter 136Ba atoms from 136Xe double beta decay. Milestones achieved include obtaining spectra of small numbers of Ba atoms and cryoprobe advances toward trapping single 136Ba atoms in solid xenon and probe extraction for detection. One of the other benefits to society is the training of six Ph.D. students in a variety of state-of-the-art technologies, half under primary support of this grant and half with partial support, with four finishing their Ph.D. degrees and two well on their way.

  15. 37Ar and 39Ar in meteorites and the spatial cosmic ray gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusser, G.; Schaeffer, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced 37 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 35 days), and 39 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 269 years) in the Fe-Ni phase of meteorites have been studied in connection with their implications for the radial gradient of cosmic ray particles. For the chondrite, Canon City, which fell on October 27, 1973, 20.1 +- 1.5 dpm/kg FeNi of 37 Ar and 22.5 +- 1.4 dpm/kg FeNi of 39 Ar was found. Usually, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar ratio is used to deduce a spatial gradient. However, 37 Ar data reported in the literature are inconsistent. They fluctuate much more than could be accounted for by different orbits and the anticipated correlation with the cosmic ray neutron registrations is rather weak. Consequently, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar-derived gradient has a low confidence level. On the other hand, 39 Ar activities group close to a mean value of 22.5 dpm/kg FeNi and appear to be almost independent of the different meteoroid orbits. A comparison of measured 39 Ar activities in meteorites with those calculated for orbits obtained from fireball data shows that a gradient of 10%/Au or less is reconcilable with the experimental findings. The average gradient (E > 200 MeV) during the last 500 years was probably not much larger than that measured presently by the Pioneer 10 and 11, and Helios spacecrafts. (Auth.)

  16. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  17. Evidence of interatomic Coulombic decay in ArKr after Ar 2p Auger decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y; Saito, N; Suzuki, I H; Fukuzawa, H; Liu, X-J; Sakai, K; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K; Iwayama, H; Nagaya, K; Yao, M; Kreidi, K; Schoeffler, M; Jahnke, T; Schoessler, S; Doerner, R; Weber, T; Harries, J; Tamenori, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have identified interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) processes in the ArKr dimer following Ar 2p Auger decay, using momentum-resolved electron-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy and simultaneously determining the kinetic energy of the ICD electron and the KER between Ar 2+ and Kr + . We find that the spin-conserved ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 1 D and 3 P, respectively, ionizing the Kr atom, are significantly stronger than the spin-flip ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 3 P and 1 D, respectively

  18. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on the Owyhee basalt of the Columbia plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, R.J.; York, D.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating analyses have been performed on 11 samples of basalt from sites near Owyhee Reservoir of southeastern Oregon, U.S.A. These rocks were extruded during the great flood basalt episode of the Pacific Northwest. The whole-rock points are highly correlated on a plot of 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar, corresponding to a common age of the samples of 14.3+-0.3 m.y. Inspite of this, individual 'plateau' plots of the age versus fraction of 39 Ar released do not give good plateaux. These age spectra exhibit to varying degrees a common structure in which lower age values are found at higher temperatures. This pattern may result from a closed-system redistribution of the argon isotopes. The usefulness of grinding the basalts in removing a loosely held atmospheric argon component is confirmed. (Auth.)

  19. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  20. Radiation stability of nanocrystalline ZrN coatings irradiated with high energy Xe and Bi ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Sokhatsky, A.S.; Uglov, V.V.; Zlotski, S.V.; Van Vuuren, A.J.; Neethling, Jan; O'Connell, J.

    2011-01-01

    Swift Xe and Bi ion irradiation effects in nanocrystalline ZrN coatings as a function of ion fluence are reported. Zirconium nitride films of different thickness (0.1, 3, 10 and 20 micrometers) synthesized by vacuum arc-vapour deposition in nanocrystalline state (average size of crystallites is ∼4 nm) were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe and 695 MeV Bi ions to fluences in the range 3x10 12 ÷2.6x10 15 cm -2 (Xe) and 10 12 x10 13 cm -2 (Bi) and studied using XRD and TEM techniques. No evidence of amorphization due to high level ionizing energy losses has been found. The measurements of lattice parameter have revealed nonmonotonic dependence of the stress level in irradiated samples on ion fluence. (authors)

  1. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  2. Positron annihilation and 129Xe NMR studies of free volume in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Bunsow; Eguchi, Taro; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Nobuo; Ito, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    The existence and the average size of free volume in bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide)(PPO), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied by positron annihilation and 129 Xe NMR measurements. The 129 Xe NMR chemical shifts for xenon adsorbed in the polymers indicated that the average pore size of the free volume increased in the following order: PC, LDPE, PPO, and PTFE. This order of the pore size of the free volume agrees well with that estimated from the longest lifetime (τ 3 ) of ortho-positronium formed in the polymers. The unique correlation that δ -1 ∝ r is established between the 129 Xe NMR chemical shift (δ) and the pore size (r), which is deduced from the positron annihilation measurements.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements using noninvasive 133Xe clearance method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Koji; Kagawa, Yukihide; Morozumi, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Manami; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    The noninvasive 133-Xe clearance method of estimating rCBF has been widely used in adult clinical studies. It is safe, noninvasive and reproducible, and has provided valuable insight into adult cerebrovascular pathophysiology. However, in children, this technique has not been used to measure rCBF for some fundamental problems. This study was performed to clarify these fundamental problems for applications of noninvasive 133-Xe clearance technique to children. The results showed that three fundamental problems concerning; (1) volume of dead spaces in airway circuits of the system, (2) increasing of look-through phenomenon and (3) correction methods for recirculated 133-Xe and airway artifacts to estimate rCBF are important for applications to children. These problems should be improved to measure as correct rCBF in children as in adults. (author)

  4. Search for 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay with the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EXO collaboration is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136 Xe. Such observation would determine an absolute mass scale for the neutrinos, establish their Majorana nature, and uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The EXO-200 detector is a single phase liquid xenon ultra low background TPC (Time Projection Chamber), with an active mass of 110 kg of 80.6% enriched xenon in the isotope 136. The detector is currently operating at the WIPP site and has been collecting data with enriched xenon since May 2011. The data collected give a lower limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 136 Xe: T > 1.6*10 25 years at 90% C.L. The same data give a lower limit for the 2 neutrinos double beta decay of 136 Xe: T > 2.23*10 21 years that agrees with experimental values found in the literature

  5. He 3 -Xe 129 Comagnetometery using Rb 87 Detection and Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limes, M. E.; Sheng, D.; Romalis, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a He 3 -Xe 129 comagnetometer using Rb 87 atoms for noble-gas spin polarization and detection. We use a train of Rb 87 π pulses and σ+/σ- optical pumping to realize a finite-field Rb magnetometer with suppression of spin-exchange relaxation. We suppress frequency shifts from polarized Rb by measuring the He 3 and Xe 129 spin precession frequencies in the dark, while applying π pulses along two directions to depolarize Rb atoms. The plane of the π pulses is rotated to suppress the Bloch-Siegert shifts for the nuclear spins. We measure the ratio of He 3 to Xe 129 spin precession frequencies with sufficient absolute accuracy to resolve Earth's rotation without changing the orientation of the comagnetometer. A frequency resolution of 7 nHz is achieved after integration for 8 h without evidence of significant drift.

  6. GeoGebra and eXe Learning: applicability in the teaching of Physics and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Maria Mussoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, education in the field of sciences is still characterized by excessive attention to repetitive exercises at the expense of understanding and visualizing the concepts of mathematical and physical phenomena. This article will show the potential of the software GeoGebra to build content and / or activities in Physics and Mathematics usable in isolation or engaged in other activities, such as eXe Learning. For this we constructed two activities: a mathematical content - Application of successive derivatives, and a content of physics - Application of uniform rectilinear motion. These contents were built in eXe Learning, and the graphics was built in GeoGebra and imported into the eXe by Java Applet. The content was done with the exported SCORM to Moodle, it is within this framework that the student will study the movement and display of graphic content.

  7. On mechanism of Ar(3p54p) states excitation in low-energy Ar-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurskov, S Y; Kashuba, A S

    2009-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study of Ar(3p 5 4p) states excitation in binary low-energy Ar-Ar collisions. The results of the experimental investigation of excitation cross sections of Ar I 4p'[l/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 2 and 4p[3/2] 2 levels in the collision energy range from threshold up to 500 eV (cm) and degree of polarization for 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p'[l/2] 1 and 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p[3/2] 2 transitions in this energy range are represented.

  8. Comparison of 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT and thin-section CT in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2001-01-01

    We assessed 133 Xe gas dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by comparing washout axial images with thin-section CT (TSCT) in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-three patients were studied. All patients were diagnosed as having pulmonary emphysema on the basis of TSCT. We compared TSCT of upper, middle and lower lung fields with 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT axial images at the corresponding levels during the 3 to 4 minutes of washout phase. If the degree of 133 Xe gas retention or TSCT finding of ventral and dorsal parts was not the same, the images were divided into two parts. A total of 174 lesions in 23 cases were examined, but 3 lesions having no retention of 133 Xe gas at equilibrium phase were excluded. The results showed that: there were 37 lesions (21.6%) with equivalent severity on both images; there were 42 lesions (24.5%) with more severity on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT than on TSCT; and there were 92 lesions (53.8%) with more severity on TSCT than on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT. The severity on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT and TSCT was not always compatible. One of the reasons for the variable 133 Xe gas retention even when the lesion had the same severity on TSCT, may be bronchial stricture which cannot be seen on TSCT. By comparison of axial images of 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT with CT images, we could recognize the areas of 133 Xe gas retention in detail. Results suggest that 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT can be useful to identify ventilation impairment in pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  9. Structure of intruder band in "1"1"9"-"1"2"9Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.P.; Chakraborty, S.; Tiwary, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    Xe isotopes in A∼130 mass region are known for their variety of structural phenomena, such as, unexpected signature splitting, signature inversion, γ-vibration etc. These phenomena are associated to axialy asymmetric shape. The triaxial shape in Xe nuclei are expected to originate due to the availability of prolate driving low-Ω πh_1_1_/_2 orbital and oblate driving high-Ω νh11/2 orbital near Fermi surface. The observed experimental E (4"+)/E (2"+) value (∼2.5) also support the γ-soft nature of these nuclei. Interestingly, both proton and neutron alignments have been observed in νh_1_1_/_2 band in "1"1"9"-"1"2"5Xe and neutron alignment dominates. In "1"2"9Xe, proton alignment reported to dominate. It is also supported by TPRM calculations, although, there are no significant change in the neutron orbitals. Whether this change in the alignment is occurred at N=75 or 73 is not known. Therefore, it is interesting to understand the status of the neutron and proton alignment in "1"2"7Xe, which are not studied well. Hence, in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of "1"2"7Xe was carried out using "1"2"2Sn("9Be, 4nγ) fusion-evaporation reaction at 48 MeV using INGA facility at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Details of the analysis and results will be discussed during the conference. (author)

  10. Double optimization of Xe(L) amplifier power scaling at λ ∼ 2.9 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Song, Xiangyang; Zhang Ping; McCorkindale, John C; Khan, Shahab F; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Zhao Ji; Dai Yang; Rhodes, Charles K

    2007-01-01

    The spectral and spatial characteristics of the Xe(L) amplifier at λ ∼ 2.9 A determine an optimum for the scaling of the peak power with channel length. The Xe 31+ and Xe 32+ (3d → 2p) transition arrays represent two identical spectral optima for amplification, a property stemming from the extremum of spectral components (3245) characteristic of their electron configurations. Adroit matching of the spatial distribution of the intensity characteristic of the propagating 248 nm pulse dynamically generating the self-trapped plasma channel with the intensity required to excite selectively and efficiently the Xe 31+ and Xe 32+ arrays can also simultaneously maximize the spatial volume of the excitation. The net outcome of this double maximization is an amplifying channel for the optimal transitions that possesses high gain (∼100 cm -1 ), low losses ( -1 cm -1 ) and a diameter of 15-20 μm, a size sufficient to produce an x-ray pulse energy of ∼50-100 mJ from a channel having an average xenon density of ∼10 20 cm -3 and a length of 1 cm. Since previous studies have experimentally demonstrated the ability to produce a saturated bandwidth of ∼60 eV, a magnitude sufficient to support a pulse duration of ∼30 as, peak powers P x >> 1 PW are clearly within the scaling limits of the Xe(L) system. The corresponding peak brightness scaling limit is accordingly bounded from below by P x /λ 2 ≅ 10 30 W cm -2 sr -1 . (fast track communication)

  11. Ars Baltica-verkoston puheenjohtajuus Suomeen Risto Ruohoselle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1990. a. loodud võrgustiku Ars Baltica sekretariaat (Ars Baltica Contact Point & Communication Center) tuleb Kielist Tallinnasse Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi kuni aastani 2002 (Suur-Karja 23). Ars Baltica (ühendus)

  12. Measurement of electron drift velocities in the mixture of Xe and He for a new high-pressure Xe gamma-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Dmitrenko, V V

    2003-01-01

    Drift velocities of electrons in a mixture of Xe (20 atm)-He (3 atm) were measured using a cylindrical high-pressure xenon chamber. The drift velocities were found to be greater than 3x10 sup 5 cm/s above the reduced electric field of 2.0x10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 V centre dot cm sup 2 at room temperature, which are close to those in Xe-H sub 2 (0.3%). The mixture of He gas into high-pressure xenon improved the resolving time of detectors because it increased the electron drift velocities. This implies that a high-pressure xenon chamber mixed with sup 3 He instead of He gas operates as a gamma-ray detector sensitive to thermal neutrons. (author)

  13. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe – CsCl mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boichenko, A M; Klenovskii, M S

    2015-01-01

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity. (active media)

  14. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe - CsCl mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, A. M.; Klenovskii, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity.

  15. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe – CsCl mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boichenko, A M [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klenovskii, M S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity. (active media)

  16. A flavor of 40Ar-39Ar geochronology research at lIT Bombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kanchan

    2017-01-01

    Geochronology based on radiogenic isotopes has become an invaluable tool in earth sciences. Several radioactive parent-daughter systems of varying half-lives such as Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar have been traditionally used by researchers for determining the timing of geological and planetary processes. 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating, a variant of the K-Ar system, is a well-established and versatile method of determining the eruptive ages of volcanic rocks and the ∼150-500° C thermal histories of a variety of more slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks. In the 40 Ar- 39 Ar method the sample is irradiated by fast neutrons in a nuclear reactor to convert some of 39 K into 39 Ar. The fixed natural ratio 39 K/ 40 K provides estimate for the parent 40 K by measuring 39 Ar. In order to know the conversion factor of 39 K to 39 Ar and to take care of other nuclear interfering reactions a sample of known K-Ar age is irradiated along with the unknown. The age of the unknown is then derived by comparison with the monitor sample of known age

  17. Ar-40/Ar-39 Studies of Martian Meteorite RBT 04262 and Terrestrial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Nagao, K.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2014-01-01

    Park et al. recently presented an Ar-40/Ar-39 dating study of maskelynite separated from the Martian meteorite RBT 04262. Here we report an additional study of Ar-40/Ar-39 patterns for smaller samples, each consisting of only a few maskelynite grains. Considered as a material for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, the shock-produced glass maskelynite has both an important strength (relatively high K concentration compared to other mineral phases) and some potentially problematic weaknesses. At Rutgers, we have been analyzing small grains consisting of a single phase to explore local effects that might be averaged and remain hidden in larger samples. Thus, to assess the homogeneity of the RBT maskelynite and for comparison with the results of, we analyzed six approx. 30 microgram samples of the same maskelynite separate they studied. Furthermore, because most Ar-40/Ar-39 are calculated relative to the age of a standard, we present new Ar-40/Ar-39 age data for six standards. Among the most widely used standards are sanidine from Fish Canyon (FCs) and various hornblendes (hb3gr, MMhb-1, NL- 25), which are taken as primary standards because their ages have been determined by independent, direct measurements of K and A-40.

  18. Measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy of charged particle production in Xe+Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=5.44~TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This note describes the measurement of flow harmonics $v_2$--$v_5$ in Xe+Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=5.44~TeV performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using multi-particle correlations involving 2, 4 and 6 particles and the Scalar Product technique. Measurements of the centrality and $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence of the $v_n$ are presented. Comparisons of the measured $v_n$ to previous measurements for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=5.02~TeV are also presented. The Xe+Xe $v_n$ are observed to be larger than the Pb+Pb $v_n$ for $n$=2,3 and $4$ in the most central events, but with decreasing centrality or increasing harmonic order $n$, the Xe+Xe $v_n$ become smaller than the Pb+Pb $v_n$. The Xe+Xe and Pb+Pb comparisons are also shown as a function of the mean number of participants $\\langle N_\\text{part} \\rangle$, and the 4-particle cumulants for higher-order harmonics -- $v_3\\{4\\}$ and $v_4\\{4\\}$ -- are found to scale better with $\\langle N_\\text{p...

  19. Rearrangement of valence neutrons in the neutrinoless double-β decay of 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwec, S. V.; Kay, B. P.; Cocolios, T. E.; Entwisle, J. P.; Freeman, S. J.; Gaffney, L. P.; Guimarães, V.; Hammache, F.; McKee, P. P.; Parr, E.; Portail, C.; Schiffer, J. P.; de Séréville, N.; Sharp, D. K.; Smith, J. F.; Stefan, I.

    2016-11-01

    A quantitative description of the change in ground-state neutron occupancies between 136Xe and 136Ba, the initial and final state in the neutrinoless double-β decay of 136Xe, has been extracted from precision measurements of the cross sections of single-neutron-adding and -removing reactions. Comparisons are made to recent theoretical calculations of the same properties using various nuclear-structure models. These are the same calculations used to determine the magnitude of the nuclear matrix elements for the process, which at present disagree with each other by factors of 2 or 3. The experimental neutron occupancies show some disagreement with the theoretical calculations.

  20. New limit on rate of 2ν ββ decay of 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminov, V.V.; Lobashev, V.M.; Novikov, V.M.; Ovchinnikov, B.M.; Pomansky, A.A.; Pritychenko, B.V.

    1991-01-01

    A significant background suppression was achieved in a new step of measurements in the Baksan underground laboratory 136 Xe ββ experiment, using a high-pressure gridded ionization chamber. In order to reduce outer γ-ray background, the chamber was placed inside the passive shielding consisting of 15 cm of lead and of 10 cm of copper. Half-life limit of 2.7x10 20 yrs is obtained for 2ν ββ mode of 136 Xe. (R.P.) 12 refs., 2 figs

  1. Multifragmentation in 30 MeV/u [sup 129]Xe induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, N. (INFN, Bari (Italy)); Bowman, D.R. (Chalk River Lab. (Canada)); Brambilla, S. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Milan (Italy)); Bruno, M. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy)); Buttazzo, P. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy)); Celano, L. (INFN, Bari (Italy)); Chiodini, S. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Milan (Italy)); D' Agostino, M. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy)); Dinius, J.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.); Ferrero, A. (Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Milan (Italy)); Gelbke, K. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.); Glasmacher, T. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.); Gramegna, F. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali, Legnaro (Italy)); Handzy, D.O. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.); Horn, D. (Chalk River Lab. (Canad

    1994-01-01

    Multifragmentation processes in the 30 MeV/u [sup 129]Xe + [sup nat]Cu and [sup 129]Xe + [sup 197]Au reactions were studied with a low threshold, high-granularity 4[pi] detection system. Fragment velocity distributions have been measured at forward angles as a function of the total charged particle multiplicity. While a two-source pattern is observed for the peripheral collisions, no evidence of a dinuclear emission pattern is found for the most central collisions. Kinematical observables, such as fragment relative velocity, relative angle and reduced velocity correlation functions indicate a fast timescale of the multifragmentation process in these reactions. (orig.)

  2. Experimental studies of self-suppression of vacuum ultraviolet generation in Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judish, J.P.; Allman, S.L.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-11-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet light in the range 116 nm to 117 nm was produced by using a two-photon resonant four-wave mixing scheme in Xe. The buildup of coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonant transition employed in the generation of the vacuum ultraviolet, with resulting limitations imposed on the achievable vacuum ultraviolet intensity was investigated. Under certain predicted conditions, increases in the intensity of one of the pumping beams, ∼1500 nm infrared, or tuning this beam towards resonance with the 5p 5 7s(3/2) 1 level of Xe led, not to increases, but decreases in the vacuum ultraviolet generated. 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Angular distribution of Xe 5s→epsilonp photoelectrons: Disagreement between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlman, A.; Carlson, T.A.; Krause, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    The angular asymmetry parameter β for the Xe 5s→epsilonp photoelectrons has been studied with use of synchrotron radiation (hν = 28--65 eV). The present results show that the relativistic random-phase approximation theory does not satisfactorily describe the Xe 5s photoionization process close to the Cooper minimum and thus require a renewed theoretical approach. The 5s partial photoionization cross section was obtained over the same photon region and the results agree with experimental values found in the literature

  4. Probing zeolite internal structures using very low temperature 129Xe NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouriau, A.; Crawford, S.N.; Earl, W.L.; Pietrass, T.; Weber, W.A.; Panjabi, G.; Gates, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, probing pore structure with 129 Xe NMR has received a bad reputation. This is due to the fact that the method is more complex than was originally suggested so the data is somewhat difficult to interpret. The authors find that the use of a wide temperature range (40--350 K) allows them to interpret 129 Xe chemical shifts in terms of van der Waals attraction between the xenon atom and oxygen in zeolite walls. Using rather simple models from the literature, they can extract useful pore size information as well as the van der Waals potential energy

  5. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe with EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, Wolfhart

    2015-02-19

    Several properties of neutrinos, such as their absolute mass, their possible Majorana nature or the mechanisms that lead to small neutrino masses, are still unknown. The EXO-200 experiment is trying to answer some of these questions by searching for the hypothetical neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope {sup 136}Xe. This thesis describes an analysis of two years of detector data, which yields a lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe of 1.1 x 10{sup 25} years.

  6. Recent improvements of a mobile polarizer system for {sup 129}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Vanessa; Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Bluemler, Peter; Repetto, Maricel; Niederlaender, Benjamin; Braun, Manuel; Fuchs, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Muennemann, Kerstin; Spiess, Hans [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Mainz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    (HP){sup 129}Xe has numerous applications both in fundamental physics like nuclear spin clocks and in medical research, e.g. in lung MRI. We report on a compact mobile {sup 129}Xe polarizer built in order to achieve high polarization degrees operating in counter flow. The optical pumping scheme is optimized in terms of magnetic field homogeneity, rubidium saturation, freeze-thaw method, gas-transport and its storage in special vessels with low wall relaxation. This talk will cover different aspects of HP gas production, manipulation and minimization of losses due to relaxation.

  7. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtaeva, S. V., E-mail: s_avtaeva@mail.ru [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan); Sosnin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Saghi, B. [Mohamed Boudiaf University of Sciences and Technology, Department of Electronics (Algeria); Panarin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Rahmani, B. [Mohamed Boudiaf University of Sciences and Technology, Department of Electronics (Algeria)

    2013-09-15

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures at pressures of 240–250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.01–1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.1–5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe*{sub 2}(172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01–0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe*{sub 2} molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl{sub 2} concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4–0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl{sub 2} concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl{sub 2} molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl{sub 2} molecules

  8. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Sosnin, E. A.; Saghi, B.; Panarin, V. A.; Rahmani, B.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl 2 mixtures at pressures of 240–250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl 2 concentrations in the range of 0.01–1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl 2 concentrations in the range of 0.1–5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe* 2 (172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01–0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe* 2 molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl 2 concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4–0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl 2 mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl 2 concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl 2 molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules. The total energy deposited in the discharge

  9. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Sosnin, E. A.; Saghi, B.; Panarin, V. A.; Rahmani, B.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl2 mixtures at pressures of 240-250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl2 concentrations in the range of 0.01-1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl2 concentrations in the range of 0.1-5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe*2(172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01-0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe*2 molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl2 concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4-0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl2 mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl2 concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl2 molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl2 molecules. The total energy deposited in the discharge rises with increasing

  10. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, N.; /SLAC; Aharmim, B.; /Laurentian U.; Auger, M.; /Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; /Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barry, K.; Bartoszek, L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Beauchamp, E.; /Laurentian U.; Belov, V.; /Moscow, ITEP; Benitez-Medina, C.; /Colorado State U.; Breidenbach, M.; /SLAC; Burenkov, A.; /Moscow, ITEP; Cleveland, B.; /Laurentian U.; Conley, R.; Conti, E.; /SLAC; Cook, J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Cook, S.; /Colorado State U.; Coppens, A.; /Carleton U.; Counts, I.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Craddock, W.; /SLAC; Daniels, T.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Moscow, ITEP /Maryland U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /Maryland U. /Moscow, ITEP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Bern U. /SLAC /Bern U. /Carleton U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Carleton U. /Maryland U. /Colorado State U. /SLAC /Carleton U. /SLAC /Alabama U. /SLAC /Moscow, ITEP /Indiana U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Moscow, ITEP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Seoul U. /Carleton U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2012-09-14

    We report the observation of two-neutrino double-beta decay in {sup 136}Xe with T{sub 1/2} = 2.11 {+-} 0.04(stat) {+-} 0.21(syst) x 10{sup 21} yr. This second-order process, predicted by the standard model, has been observed for several nuclei but not for {sup 136}Xe. The observed decay rate provides new input to matrix element calculations and to the search for the more interesting neutrinoless double-beta decay, the most sensitive probe for the existence of Majorana particles and the measurement of the neutrino mass scale.

  11. Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.

  12. Development of a hyperpolarized 129Xe system on 3T for the rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Hayashi, Takuya

    2004-01-01

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with 129 Xe has gained much attention as a diagnostic methodology because of its affinity for lipids and possible polarization. The quantitative estimation of net detectability and stability of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in the dissolved phase in vivo is valuable to the development of clinical applications. The goal of this study was to develop a stable hyperpolarized 129 Xe experimental 3T system to statistically analyze the dissolved-phase 129 Xe signal in the rat lungs. The polarization of 129 Xe with buffer gases at the optical pumping cell was measured under adiabatic fast passage against the temperature of an oven and laser absorption at the cell. The gases were insuffiated into the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=15, 400-550 g) through an endotracheal tube under spontaneous respiration. Frequency-selective spectroscopy was performed for the gas phase and dissolved phase. We analyzed the 129 Xe signal in the dissolved phase to measure the chemical shift, T 2 * , delay and its ratio in a rat lungs on 3T. The polarizer was able to produce polarized gas (1.1±0.47%, 120 cm 3 ) hundreds of times with the laser absorption ratio (25%) kept constant at the cell. The optimal buffer gas ratio of 25-50% rendered the maximum signal in the dissolved phase. Two dominant peaks of 211.8±0.9 and 201.1±0.6 ppm were observed with a delay of 0.4±0.9 and 0.9±1.0 s from the gas phase spectra. The ratios of their average signal to that of the gas phase were 5.6±5.2% and 4.4±4.7%, respectively. The T 2 * of the air space in the lungs was 2.5±0.5 ms, which was 3.8 times shorter than that in a syringe. We developed a hyperpolarized 129 Xe experimental system using a 3T MRI scanner that yields sufficient volume and polarization and quantitatively analyzed the dissolved-phase 129 Xe signal in the rat lungs. (author)

  13. A novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope with closed-loop Faraday modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Qin, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Dong, Haifeng

    2013-08-01

    We report a novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) with closed-loop Faraday modulation method. This ASG requires approximately 30 min to start-up and 110 °C to operate. A closed-loop Faraday modulation method for measurement of the optical rotation was used in this ASG. This method uses an additional Faraday modulator to suppress the laser intensity fluctuation and Faraday modulator thermal induced fluctuation. We theoretically and experimentally validate this method in the Cs-(129)Xe ASG and achieved a bias stability of approximately 3.25 °∕h.

  14. Influence of Selected Parameters of XeCl Excimer Laser System on Characteristics of Radiation Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokora, L.; Iwanejko, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present the dependences of energy and duration of radiation pulses as well as efficiency of XeCl laser on selected parameters of the laser system such as: C 2 capacitance, the separating inductance, L S , the distance between electrodes in laser's chamber, d K and also the supply voltage, U 0 , composition, and pressure of the active-medium mixture of gases. Results of numerical computations relate to a three-component mixture of gases, He-Xe-HCl, of the active medium of the excimer laser. (author)

  15. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-10-01

    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  16. Ars ornata / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    V rahvusvaheline ehtekunsti konverents 'Ars ornata Europeana' juuni lõpus Stockholmis. New Yorgis elava kuraatori Charon Kranseni ja prantsuse ehtekunstniku Christophe Burger' juhitud vestlusringidest. 1997. a. Pariisis loodud International Craft Design Association'ist (ICDA).

  17. ARS 01 Helsingi Kiasmas / Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virki, Tarmo

    2001-01-01

    Helsingis Kiasmas avatud rahvusvahelisest kunstinäitusest ARS 01 alapealkirjaga "Avanevaid perspektiive", kus esines oma töödega ka Marko Mäetamm. Näituse raames toimuvast Santiago Sierra kunstiprojektist kodututega

  18. Vector analyzing power and cross section for the reactions 40Ar(d(pol),p)41Ar and 40Ar(d(pol),t)39Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Darden, S.E.; Yoh, W.A.; Berners, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of vector analyzing power and cross section for the reactions 40 Ar(d,p) 41 Ar and 40 Ar(d,t) 39 Ar have been measured at an incident deuteron energy of 14.83 MeV. The bound-state data in the (d,p) reaction and the (d,t) data are compared to DWBA calculations. The data for the neutron-unbound states are analyzed in the framework of the DWBA using (i) a form factor for weakly bound neutron and (ii) a resonance form factor, following the approach of Vincent and Fortune. The j-dependence of the (d,p) vector analyzing power permits definite spin-parity assignments to be made for 19 neutron-bound and 4 neutron unbound states in 41 Ar with excitation energy up to 6.57 MeV. Tentative Jsup(π) assignments have been made for 3 states. The l-value for the 5.62 MeV states has been determined. Data for the observed unbound states are found to be equally well reproduced by the type (i) calculations as by the type (ii) calculations. The (d,t) vector cnalyzing power data show definite J-dependence although not as strongly as in the (d,p) reaction. For relatively weakly excited states a pre-knowledge of the l-value of the transition is desirable for an unambiguous spin assignment. In general, the J-dependence in the (d,t) vector analyzing power can be utilized for definitive Jsup(π) assignments. On this basis, Jsub(π) values have been assigned for seven states in 39 Ar with excitation energies up to 4.47MeV excitation. Possible spin values for three other states are suggested. Spectroscopic factors fo the states in 41 Ar and 39 Ar have been extracted and are in fair agreement with those obtained by other workers. (Auth.)

  19. Jumps in binomial AR(1) processes

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß , Christian H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We consider the binomial AR(1) model for serially dependent processes of binomial counts. After a review of its definition and known properties, we investigate marginal and serial properties of jumps in such processes. Based on these results, we propose the jumps control chart for monitoring a binomial AR(1) process. We show how to evaluate the performance of this control chart and give design recommendations. correspondance: Tel.: +49 931 31 84968; ...

  20. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were...

  1. AR4VI: AR as an Accessibility Tool for People with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, James M; Miele, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Although AR technology has been largely dominated by visual media, a number of AR tools using both visual and auditory feedback have been developed specifically to assist people with low vision or blindness - an application domain that we term Augmented Reality for Visual Impairment (AR4VI). We describe two AR4VI tools developed at Smith-Kettlewell, as well as a number of pre-existing examples. We emphasize that AR4VI is a powerful tool with the potential to remove or significantly reduce a range of accessibility barriers. Rather than being restricted to use by people with visual impairments, AR4VI is a compelling universal design approach offering benefits for mainstream applications as well.

  2. Fabrication of nanopores in multi-layered silicon-based membranes using focused electron beam induced etching with XeF_2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bandalo, Vedran; Sökmen, Ünsal; Tornow, Marc; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    The emergent technology of using nanopores for stochastic sensing of biomolecules introduces a demand for the development of simple fabrication methodologies of nanopores in solid state membranes. This process becomes particularly challenging when membranes of composite layer architecture are involved. To overcome this challenge we have employed a focused electron beam induced chemical etching process. We present here the fabrication of nanopores in silicon-on-insulator based membranes in a single step process. In this process, chemical etching of the membrane materials by XeF_2 gas is locally accelerated by an electron beam, resulting in local etching, with a top membrane oxide layer preventing delocalized etching of the silicon underneath. Nanopores with a funnel or conical, 3-dimensional (3D) shape can be fabricated, depending on the duration of exposure to XeF_2, and their diameter is dominated by the time of exposure to the electron beam. The demonstrated ability to form high-aspect ratio nanopores in comparably thick, multi-layered silicon based membranes allows for an easy integration into current silicon process technology and hence is attractive for implementation in biosensing lab-on-chip fabrication technologies. (author)

  3. Cluster formation restricts dynamic nuclear polarization of xenon in solid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Pourfathi, M.; Kara, H.

    2012-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 1.5 K and 5 T, Xe-129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a homogeneous xenon/1-propanol/trityl-radical solid mixture exhibit a single peak, broadened by H-1 neighbors. A second peak appears upon annealing for several hours at 125 K. Its...

  4. Multiperturber effects in the Faraday spectrum of Rb atoms immersed in a high-density Xe gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdman, J. P.; Blok, F. J.; Kristensen, M.; Schrama, C. A.

    1996-02-01

    We have measured the D1 and D2 Faraday spectrum and absorption spectrum of Rb atoms immersed in high-density Xe buffer gas in the range nXe=0.8-4.5×1020 cm-3. We find that the shape of the Faraday spectrum obeys the Becquerel relation over this whole density range; however the relative strength of the Faraday effect compared to absorption changes rather abruptly near nXe=1×1020 cm-3. This is ascribed to the onset of a many-body nature (overlapping collisions) of the Rb:Xe line broadening; the number of perturbers within the Weisskopf sphere is unity at nXe~1×1020 cm-3.

  5. The effects of acid treatment and sample preparation on 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Practitioners of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology regularly use dilute acids (typically 5-10% hydrofluoric acid (HF)) to clean mineral grains prior to irradiation (in the case of 40Ar/39Ar), and analysis (e.g. Evernden and Curtis, 1965; Dalrymple, 1967). This treatment has been shown to reduce contamination from atmospheric Ar, which consists largely of 40Ar and thus must be differentiated from radiogenic 40Ar* (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Acid treatments can also remove fine grained material attached to mineral grains, such as glass shards or devitrified glass, which can affect analyses and is difficult to remove by other means (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Such treatments were originally examined for their efficacy in reducing atmospheric argon contamination (Dalrymple, 1967) but were not assessed for the possibility of leaching Ar* or K differentially, which would affect both K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Indeed, Evernden and Curtis (1965) state that they are simply removing the "outer portions of the crystals" and apparently do not account for the potential for leaching of 40Ar* or K from the mass of their host mineral. Moreover, the capabilities of the K-Ar system in the 1960s was limited to a precision of ca. 3-4% on samples of 1-3 Ma (Cox and Dalrymple, 1967). Effects of smaller magnitude could not have been detected at the time. As the developments of the 40Ar/39Ar system and modern mass spectrometer technology have allowed for precision to approach 0.1%, the potential effects of acid treatment during sample preparation warrant revisiting. Additionally, the use of Calgon for sample disintegration has not previously been quantitatively assessed but is used extensively in some laboratories. Here we present a series of experiments from co-irradiated Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) and Mes-4 (Kuiper et al., 2008). FCs is used as the mineral standard following standard procedures. Mes-4 splits were treated with H2O (10 minutes, ultrasonic), Calgon (10%, overnight at 50

  6. Age measurements of potassium-bearing sulfide minerals by the 40Ar/39Ar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Lanphere, M.A.; Erd, R.C.; Blake, M.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined for sulfide minerals for the first time. The occurrence of adequate amounts of potassium-bearing sulfides with ideal compositions K 3 Fe 10 S 14 (approximately 10 wt.% K) and KFe 2 S 3 (approximately 16 wt.% K) in samples from a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak, California, prompted an attempt to date these materials. K 3 Fe 10 S 14 , a massive mineral with conchoidal fracture, gives an age of 29.4 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), indistinguishable from the 28.3 +- 0.4 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and 30.2 +- 1.0 m.y. (conventional K-Ar) ages obtained for associated phlogopite (8.7 wt.% K). KFe 2 S 3 , a bladed, fibrous sulfide, gives a younger age, 26.5 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), presumably owing to Ar loss. (Auth.)

  7. Geochronology and thermochronology by the sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Harrison, T.M. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    This work is a response to the authors' belief that there is a need for a monograph on {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating to provide concise knowledge concerning the application of this method to geological studies. They aim to provide a reasonably comprehensive but by no means exhaustive coverage of the principles and practices of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating, with emphasis on interpretation of results. In attempting to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge, they commonly cite examples from the available literature. They draw rather heavily upon their own work, because they feel comfortable with their own examples. (author).

  8. 40Ar/39Ar age and thermal history of the Kirin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; McDougall, I.; Tetley, N.; Harrison, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Kirin meteorite, a large (> 2800 kg) H5 chondrite, fell in Kirin Province, China in 1976. A sample from each of the two largest fragments (K-1. K-2) yield 40 Ar/ 39 Ar total fusion ages of 3.63 +- 0.02 b.y. and 2.78 +- 0.02 b.y. respectively. 40 Ar/ 40 Ar age spectra show typical diffusional argon loss profiles. Maximum apparent ages of 4.36 b.y. (K-1) and approx. 4.0 b.y. (K-2) are interpreted as possible minimum estimates for the age of crystallization of the parent body. (orig./ME)

  9. Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2 ω, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Cooper, M. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Moschella, J. J.; Schmidt-Petersen, M. T.; Butcher, C. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Andrews, S. D.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The study of laser-generated debris-free x-ray sources in an underdense plasma produced in a high-density linear gas-puff jet was carried out at the LLNL Titan laser (2 ω, 45 J, sub-ps) with an intensity in the 10 um focal spot of 7 x 1019 W/cm2. A linear nozzle with a fast valve was used for the generation of a clusters/gas jet. X-ray diagnostics for the spectral region of 0.7 - 9 keV include: two spectrometers and pinhole cameras, and 3 groups of fast filtered detectors. Electron beams were measured with the EPPS magnetic spectrometer (>1 MeV) and Faraday cups (>72 keV). Spectralon/spectrometer devices were also used to measure absorption of laser radiation in the jets. New results were obtained on: anisotropic generation of x-rays (laser to x-ray conversion coefficient was >1%) and characteristics of laser-generated electron beams; evolution of x-ray generation with the location of the laser focus in a cluster-gas jet, and observations of a strong x-ray flash in some focusing regimes. Non-LTE kinetic modeling was used to estimate plasma parameters. UNR work supported by the DTRA Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Chemical degradation of selected Zn-based corrosion products induced by C{sub 60} cluster, Ar cluster and Ar{sup +} ion sputtering in the focus of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, R., E-mail: roland.steinberger@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Sicking, J., E-mail: jens.sicking@bayer.com [Bayer AG, Engineering & Technology, Applied Physics, Chempark Building E 41, 51368 Leverkusen (Germany); Weise, J., E-mail: juliane.weise@physik.tu-freiberg.de [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Duchoslav, J., E-mail: jiri.duchoslav@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Greunz, T., E-mail: theresia.greunz@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Meyer, D.C., E-mail: Dirk-Carl.Meyer@physik.tu-freiberg.de [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stifter, D., E-mail: david.stifter@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • XPS investigations for various sputter concepts on Zn-based corrosions products. • Direct comparison of induced chemical damage for ion and cluster sputtering. • Azimuthal rotation or heavy projectile bombardment was not found to be beneficial. • Ar cluster etching is rated as unsuitable for surface cleaning or depth profiling. • C{sub 60} and Ar{sup +} are applicable for sputtering when degradation is carefully considered. - Abstract: Monoatomic ion sputtering is a common concept for surface sensitive analysis methods to clean surfaces prior investigation or to obtain information from deeper regions. However, severe damage of the materials – linked to preferential sputtering, ion implantation, atomic mixing and in worst case chemical degradation – can affect the validity of the analysis. Hence, the impact of C{sub 60} cluster etching, furthermore, of Ar{sup +} ion bombardment with and without azimuthal sample rotation and also the application of heavy projectiles (Xe{sup +} ions) was investigated to find a concept, which is less destructive or with less critical influence on the chemical nature of the investigated materials. In this work the focus is set on hydrozincite and zinc oxide, two common corrosion products of Zn-based coatings. As a main point, all the obtained results from (i) Ar{sup +} ion, (ii) Ar cluster, and (iii) C{sub 60} cluster etching on the degradation kinetics of hydrozincite were compared with respect to the reached sputter depth. In addition, the sputter rate of all three methods was experimentally determined for ZnO. In total, fully non-destructive conditions could not be found, but valuable knowledge on the type and rate of degradation, which is essential to choose the most suited sputter concept.

  11. Electric discharge effects on a XeCl pumped S2 heat-pipe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, K.; Greenberg, K.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that an electrical discharge can dissociate the higher-order sulfur molecules S(3-8) into dimers S2 and thus create the proper environment for efficient conversion of XeCl radiation at 308 nm to the blue-green. The use of a heat-pipe configuration greatly alleviates the technological problems.

  12. Radiopharmacology of inhaled 133Xe in skeletal sites containing deposits of Gaucher cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.; McKusick, K.A.; Doppelt, S.H.; Barton, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is a lysomal storage disease in which cells of the reticuloendothelial system accumulate the lipid glucocerebroside. It is characterized by slowly progressive visceral and osseous involvement. One of the latter manifestations includes lipid infiltration of bone marrow. We monitored the rate of the inhaled 133 Xe uptake and wash-out over diseased and normal metaphyseal and epiphyseal areas of the knee. Twenty-two patients (15 adults, 7 children) with various degrees of previously diagnosed Gaucher's disease were positioned supine under a γ-camera interfaced to a computer system. All patients rebreathed 133 Xe gas from a closed system for 10 min followed by 14 min of wash-out. Digitized images of the lung, liver, spleen, bony sites and soft tissue were obtained at 1 min intervals during the wash-in and wash-out phases. Counts for each ROI were normalized per 100 pixels and plotted as a function (time). Maximum uptake was also calculated by relating the counts/ROI/100 pixels to the 10 min integrated lung count during equilibrium (the administered ''dose''). There was essentially no 133 Xe uptake in liver and spleen involved with Gaucher's disease. Monophasic uptake and biphasic wash-out curves were observed in the limited investigative population. Gaucher deposits released the 133 Xe at a greater rate relative to soft tissue. (Author)

  13. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-C2H6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, J. M. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon (Xe) with ethane (C2H6) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 Td to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm-1ṡ bar-1), at room temperature. The time of arrival spectra revealed two peaks throughout the entire range studied which were attributed to ion species with 3-carbons (C3H5+, C3H6+ C3H8+ and C3H9+) and with 4-carbons (C4H7+, C4H9+ and C4H10+). Besides these, and for Xe concentrations above 70%, a bump starts to appear at the right side of the main peak for reduced electric fields higher than 20 Td, which was attributed to the resonant charge transfer of C2H6+ to C2H6 that affects the mobility of its ion products (C3H8+ and C3H9+). The time of arrival spectra for Xe concentrations of 20%, 50%, 70% and 90% are presented, together with the reduced mobilities as a function of the Xe concentration calculated from the peaks observed for the low reduced electric fields and pressures studied.

  14. Radiopharmacology of inhaled [sup 133]Xe in skeletal sites containing deposits of Gaucher cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); McKusick, K.A.; Doppelt, S.H. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Barton, N.W. (National Insts. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Gaucher's disease is a lysomal storage disease in which cells of the reticuloendothelial system accumulate the lipid glucocerebroside. It is characterized by slowly progressive visceral and osseous involvement. One of the latter manifestations includes lipid infiltration of bone marrow. We monitored the rate of the inhaled [sup 133]Xe uptake and wash-out over diseased and normal metaphyseal and epiphyseal areas of the knee. Twenty-two patients (15 adults, 7 children) with various degrees of previously diagnosed Gaucher's disease were positioned supine under a [gamma]-camera interfaced to a computer system. All patients rebreathed [sup 133]Xe gas from a closed system for 10 min followed by 14 min of wash-out. Digitized images of the lung, liver, spleen, bony sites and soft tissue were obtained at 1 min intervals during the wash-in and wash-out phases. Counts for each ROI were normalized per 100 pixels and plotted as a function (time). Maximum uptake was also calculated by relating the counts/ROI/100 pixels to the 10 min integrated lung count during equilibrium (the administered ''dose''). There was essentially no [sup 133]Xe uptake in liver and spleen involved with Gaucher's disease. Monophasic uptake and biphasic wash-out curves were observed in the limited investigative population. Gaucher deposits released the [sup 133]Xe at a greater rate relative to soft tissue. (Author).

  15. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and Fe55 pulse height measurements using monitor detectors.

  16. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  17. Enhanced electrical conductivity in Xe ion irradiated CNT based transparent conducting electrode on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Satyavir; Garg, Priyanka; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of MWCNT-based hybrid electrode films with improved electrical conductivity after Xe ion irradiation is reported. A multilayer hybrid structure of Ag-MWCNT layer embedded in between two ZnO layers was fabricated and evaluated, pre and post 100 keV Xe ion irradiation, for their performance as Transparent Conducting Electrode in terms of their optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits highly c-axis oriented ZnO films with a small variation in lattice parameters with an increase in ion fluence. There is no significant change in the surface roughness of these films. Raman spectra were used to confirm the presence of CNT. The pristine multilayer films exhibit an average transmittance of ˜70% in the entire visible region and the transmittance increases with Xe ion fluence. A significant enhancement in electrical conductivity post-Xe ion irradiation viz from 1.14 × 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 (pristine) to 7.04 × 103 Ω-1 cm-1 is seen which is due to the high connectivity in the top layer with Ag-CNT hybrid layer facilitating the smooth transfer of electrons.

  18. XeCl laser treatment of polyethersulfone membrane in the air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panah, A Hashemi; Mollabashi, M; Pazokian, H; Barzin, J

    2015-01-01

    XeCl laser irradiation of Polyethersulfone membranes in air and water were done. The irradiated surface were modified chemically or morphologically depends on the laser parameters and the mediums in which irradiation is done. The results in improving the surface hydrophilicity and biocompatibility for the biological applications were compared

  19. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Lilburn, David M. L.; Stupic, Karl F.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp 129Xe or hp 83Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp 129Xe handling, while 83Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The 83Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of 129Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated 129Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs.

  20. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Lilburn, David M.L.; Stupic, Karl F.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp 129Xe or hp 83Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp 129Xe handling, while 83Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The 83Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of 129Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated 129Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs. PMID:24135800

  1. Influence of a low-frequency magnetic field on the 133Xe clearance of the gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroehmann, F.; Strangfeld, D.; Conradi, E.

    1985-01-01

    In 14 patients with disturbances of the arterial blood supply the influence of a 50 Hz changing magnetic field of 24 mT on the microcirculation of the musculature was tested by means of 133 Xe clearance. An influence of the magnetic field could not be proved. (author)

  2. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes for the photofission of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrskij, Y P; Mishinskij, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szoelloes, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A = 87- 93) and Xe (A 148-143) for the photofission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu, which were measured using Bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of the capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged...

  3. Independent Yields of Kr and Xe Isotopes for the Photofission of Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Maslova, N Yu; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szöllös, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A=87-93) and Xe (A=148-143) for the photofission of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{244}Pu, which were measured using bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma-spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged charge distribution are determined. The pe...

  4. Dramatic nondipole effects in low-energy photoionization: Experimental and theoretical study of Xe 5s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmers, O.; Lindle, D.W.; Baker, J.; Hudson, A.; Lotrakul, M.; Tran, I.C.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W.C.; Wolska, A.; Yu, S.W.; Kanter, E.P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S.H.; Wehlitz, R.; Rolles, D.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Cheng, K.T.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Johnson, W.R.; Manson, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    The Xe 5s nondipole photoelectron parameter γ is obtained experimentally and theoretically from threshold to ∼200 eV photon energy. Significant nondipole effects are seen even in the threshold region of this valence shell photoionization. In addition, contrary to previous understanding, clear evidence of interchannel coupling among quadrupole photoionization channels is found

  5. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic ... the stress can increase the lifetime of the switches and ..... work. References. [1] Ying-Tung Chen, Kris Naessens, Roel Bates, Yunn-Shiuan.

  6. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes in the photofission of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangrsky, Yu.P.; Zhemenik, V.I.; Maslova, N.Yu.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Szoelloes, O.

    2003-01-01

    The yields of Kr (A = 87-93) and Xe (A = 138-143) primary fission fragments produced in 232 Th, 238 U, and 244 Pu photofission upon the scission of a target nucleus and neutron emission were measured in an experiment with bremsstrahlung from electrons accelerated to 25 MeV by a microtron, and the results of these measurements are presented. The experimental procedure used involved the transportation of fragments that escaped from the target by a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at liquid-nitrogen temperature. The fragments of all other elements were retained with a filter at the capillary inlet. The isotopes of Kr and Xe were identified by the γ spectra of their daughter products. The mass-number distributions of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes are obtained and compared with similar data on fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the shifts of the fragment charges with respect to the undistorted charge distribution are determined. Prospects for using photofission fragments in studying the structure of highly neutron-rich nuclei are discussed

  7. Evaluation of cutaneous blood flow responses by 133Xe washout and a laser-Doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhart, M.; Kristensen, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for noninvasive measurement of cutaneous blood flow is laser-Doppler flowmetry. The technique is based on the fact that laser light is back-scattered from the moving red blood cells, with Doppler-shifted frequencies; these impulses lead to photodetectors and are converted to flow signals. In this work we used a new system with a low noise level. Comparison was made between this technique and the atraumatic epicutaneous 133 Xe technique for measurement of cutaneous blood flow during reactive hyperemia and orthostatic pressure changes. The laser-Doppler flowmeter seems to measure blood flow in capillaries as well as in arteriovenous anastomoses, while the 133 Xe method probably measures only capillary flow. A calibration of the laser-Doppler method against the 133 Xe method would appear to be impossible in skin areas where arteriovenous anastomoses are present. The changes in blood flow during reactive hyperemia, orthostatic pressure changes, and venous stasis were found to be parallel as measured by the two methods in skin areas without shunt vessels. The laser-Doppler flowmeter would appear to be a useful supplement to the 133Xe washout method in cutaneous vascular physiology, but it is important to keep in mind that different parameters may be measured

  8. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, A.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Blume, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bucher, D.; Busch, O.; Ramirez, A.C.A. Castillo; Catanescu, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Daues, H.; Devismes, A.; Emschermann, D.; Fateev, O.; Garabatos, C.; Herrmann, N.; Ivanov, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Petrovici, M.; Reygers, K.; Sann, H.; Santo, R.; Schicker, R.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Simon, R.S.; Smykov, L.; Soltveit, H.K.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Tsiledakis, G.; Vulpescu, B.; Wessels, J.P.; Windelband, B.; Winkelmann, O.; Xu, C.; Zaudtke, O.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Yurevich, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO 2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF 6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and 55 Fe pulse height measurements using monitor detectors

  9. Molecular dynamics study of the coverage dependence of Xe desorption from Pt(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mol. dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions are used to calc. temp.-programmed desorption spectra of Xe/Pt(111). The activation barrier is overcome by using the compensating Hamiltonian method. Monte Carlo simulations are used to correct for the finite size of the simulated system. A

  10. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea...

  11. On the doubly ionized states of Ar2 and their intra- and interatomic decay to Ar23+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Spas D.; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Tarantelli, Francesco; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2008-01-01

    Potential energy curves of the Auger state Ar + (2p -1 )-Ar, the different one- and two-site dicationic states Ar 2 ++ (with energies in the range of 32-77 eV), and the lowest two-site tricationic states Ar ++ -Ar + (with energies in the range of 64-76 eV) computed using elaborated ab initio methods are reported. The accessible relaxation channels of the electronic states of Ar ++ -Ar populated by Auger decay are studied. In particular, we study in detail the interatomic Coulombic decay following the population of one-site satellite states of Ar ++ (3s -1 3p -1 )-Ar recently observed experimentally. Other relaxation pathways of Ar ++ -Ar, including radiative charge transfer, nuclear dynamics through curve crossing, and intra-atomic decay processes are also investigated

  12. Cluster-surface collisions: Characteristics of Xe55- and C20 - Si[111] surface bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the cluster-surface collision processes. Two types of clusters, Xe 55 and C 20 are used as case studies of materials with very different properties. In studies of Xe 55 - Si[111] surface bombardment, two initial velocities, 5.0 and 10.0 km/s (normal to the surface) are chosen to investigate the dynamical consequences of the initial energy or velocity in the cluster-surface impact. A transition in the speed of kinetic energy propagation, from subsonic velocities to supersonic velocities, is observed. Energy transfer, from cluster translational motion to the substrate, occurs at an extremely fast rate that increases as the incident velocity increases. Local melting and amorphous layer formation in the surfaces are found via energetic analysis of individual silicon atoms. For C 20 , the initial velocity ranges from 10 to 100 km/s. The clusters are damaged immediately upon impact. Similar to Xe 55 , increase in the potential energy is larger than the increase in internal kinetic energy. However, the patterns of energy distribution are different for the two types of clusters. The energy transfer from the carbon clusters to Si(111) surface is found to be slower than that found in the Xe clusters. Fragmentation of the carbon cluster occurs when the initial velocity is greater than 30 km/s. At 10 km/s, the clusters show recrystallization at later times. The average penetration depth displays a nonlinear dependence on the initial velocity. Disturbance in the surface caused by C 20 is discussed and compared to the damage caused by Xe 55 . Energetics, structures, and dynamics of these systems are fully analyzed and characterized. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Classical treatment of Li2++Ar and He2++Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, A; Illescas, Clara; Pons, B

    2015-01-01

    Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are carried out for Li 2+ +Ar and He 2+ +Ar collisions, motivated by recent experiments on these systems. Cross sections for electron capture, projectile electron loss and target multiple ionization processes are evaluated and compared to the experimental values in the 75-500 keV/amy impact energy range. (paper)

  14. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  15. AR copy number and AR signaling-directed therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Samanta; Conteduca, Vincenza; Lolli, Cristian; Testoni, Sara; Casadio, Valentina; Zaccheroni, Andrea; Rossi, Lorena; Burgio, Salvatore Luca; Menna, Cecilia; Schepisi, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2017-11-22

    Adaptive upregulation of androgen receptor (AR) is the most common event involved in the progression from hormone sensitive to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR signaling remains the main target of new AR signalling-directed therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide in CRPC patients. In this review, we discuss general mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies, with a focus on the role of AR copy number (CN). We reported methods and clinical applications of AR CN evaluation in tissue and liquid biopsy, thus to have a complete information regarding its role as predictive and prognostic biomarker. Outcomes of CRPC patients are reported to be highly variable as consequence of tumor heterogeneity. AR CN could contribute to patient selection and tumor monitoring in CRPC treated with new anti-cancer treatment as abiraterone and enzalutamide. Further studies to investigate AR CN effect to these agents and its potential combination with other prognostic or predictive clinical factors are necessary in the context of harmonized clinical trial design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Support for the Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    al. (2008) determined an astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age of 28.201 0.046 Ma (2), relative to the indirect astronomically tuned Moroccan Melilla Basin Messâdit section. Here, we provide independent verification for the Kuiper, et al. (2008) FCs age using sanidines extracted from the A1 tephra...

  17. Baicalein suppresses the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated prostate cancer progression via inhibiting the AR N-C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Defeng; Chen, Qiulu; Liu, Yalin; Wen, Xingqiao

    2017-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Androgen deprivation therapy with antiandrogens to reduce androgen biosynthesis or prevent androgens from binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth. However, most of ADT may eventually fail with development of the castration resistance after 12-24 months. Here we found that a natural product baicalein can effectively suppress the PCa progression via targeting the androgen-induced AR transactivation with little effect to AR protein expression. PCa cells including LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, C4-2, PC-3, and DU145, were treated with baicalein and luciferase assay was used to evaluate their effect on the AR transactivation. Cell growth and IC 50 were determined by MTT assay after 48 hrs treatment. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA levels of AR target genes including PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1. Western blot was used to determine AR and PSA protein expression. The natural product of baicalein can selectively inhibit AR transactivation with little effect on the other nuclear receptors, including ERα, and GR. At a low concentration, 2.5 μM of baicalein effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, and has little effect on AR-negative PCa cells. Mechanism dissection suggest that baicalein can suppress AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive LNCaP cells and castration resistant CWR22Rv1 cells, that may involve the inhibiting the AR N/C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction. Baicalein may be developed as an effective anti-AR therapy via its ability to inhibit AR transactivation and AR-mediated PCa cell growth.

  18. Neutron-induced Backgrounds in 134Xe for Large-Scale Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Nina; Kidd, Mary; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    136Xe is used in large neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decay experiments, such as KamLAND- Zen and EXO 200. Though highly purified, 136Xe still contains a significant amount of 134Xe. Recently, a new nuclear energy level was found in 134Xe. If 134Xe decays from this proposed excited state, it will emit a 2485.7 keV gamma ray. Because this energy lies near the region of interest of 136Xe νββ decay experiments (Q value 2457.8 keV), it could make a significant contribution to the background. A purified gaseous sample of 134Xe will be irradiated with neutrons of an incident energy of 4.0 MeV at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and monitored with high-purity germanium detectors. The spectra obtained from these detectors will be analyzed for the presence of the 2581 keV gamma ray. We will report on the status of this experiment. Future plans include expanding this measurement to higher initial neutron energies. Tennesse Tech University CISE Grant program.

  19. Ar-41 measurements and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, J.J.; Rodriguez, M.; Ugarte, R.; Vigile, R.S.; Boutet, L.I.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    During the early phase of an emergency is necessary to confirm the release of radioactivity predictions made by the operator of the nuclear plant. In this context, it has begun measuring Ar-41 in the vicinity of a research reactor. Since the Ar-41 is produced in the reactor, it has been studied as a good way to validate the air dispersion model used in nuclear emergencies and to develop a method to improve the characterization of the release. For this latter purpose a pilot experiment was conducted to determine computational and experimental methods, the flux of 1.29 MeV of Ar-41 and compared to evaluate the accuracy of the assessments made. This paper describes meteorological forecasting systems used in the experiment, the estimate of the stability class and the concentration of nuclides using a calculation code developed by the ARN, as well as the methodology and equipment used for measurement in the field. (authors) [es

  20. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  1. Etching microscopic defects in polycarbonate due to high dose ArF or KrF laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu- Alisina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ]. E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Katoozi, M. [National Radiation Protection Department, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani, Z. [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, A. [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The ArF or KrF excimer laser exposure on the polycarbonate (PC) with corresponding doses higher than {phi}{sub th}5.2J/cm{sup 2}, at 32mJ/cm{sup 2} fluence per pulse and 5Hz pulse repetition rate (PRR), induces regular defects leading to self assembled defect structure following electrochemical etching (ECE). We have observed the conical-like structure for {phi}>{phi}{sub th}, whereas the polymer experiences hardening effect due to crosslinking when {phi}<{phi}{sub th}. Subsequently, conical-like, structure turns into track-like pits developing under ECE multiple treeing. Self assembled defect structure may be seen by naked eye as white spots, despite SEM illustrates a type of periodic pit formation-morphology. The exact explanation of the effect is not well understood yet. It looks like alpha tracks in the polymer surface, however the PC pieces were simply treated by excimer lasers at high doses, and they have not been exposed to the nuclear particles afterwards. We could not observe those effects at 308nm (XeCl laser) or longer wavelengths at 351nm (XeF laser) where UV photoablation does not occur. It indicates that UV ablation establishes surface degradation at shorter wavelengths, leading to laser micro etching. The mean track (defect) density is about one order of magnitude greater than the normal alpha tracks. Increasing UV doses, polymer undergoes a plateau, corresponding to etched defect saturation on PC.

  2. Etching microscopic defects in polycarbonate due to high dose ArF or KrF laser exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaleh, B.; Parvin, P.; Katoozi, M.; Zamani, Z.; Zare, A.

    2005-01-01

    The ArF or KrF excimer laser exposure on the polycarbonate (PC) with corresponding doses higher than φ th 5.2J/cm 2 , at 32mJ/cm 2 fluence per pulse and 5Hz pulse repetition rate (PRR), induces regular defects leading to self assembled defect structure following electrochemical etching (ECE). We have observed the conical-like structure for φ>φ th , whereas the polymer experiences hardening effect due to crosslinking when φ th . Subsequently, conical-like, structure turns into track-like pits developing under ECE multiple treeing. Self assembled defect structure may be seen by naked eye as white spots, despite SEM illustrates a type of periodic pit formation-morphology. The exact explanation of the effect is not well understood yet. It looks like alpha tracks in the polymer surface, however the PC pieces were simply treated by excimer lasers at high doses, and they have not been exposed to the nuclear particles afterwards. We could not observe those effects at 308nm (XeCl laser) or longer wavelengths at 351nm (XeF laser) where UV photoablation does not occur. It indicates that UV ablation establishes surface degradation at shorter wavelengths, leading to laser micro etching. The mean track (defect) density is about one order of magnitude greater than the normal alpha tracks. Increasing UV doses, polymer undergoes a plateau, corresponding to etched defect saturation on PC

  3. Reference Electrodes Based on Solid Amalgams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2004), s. 238-241 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : solid amalgam * reference electrode * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  4. Average energy expended per ion pair, exciton enhanced ionization (Jesse effect), electron drift velocity, average electron energy and scintillation in rare gas liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hitachi, A.; Hoshi, Y.; Masuda, K.; Hamada, T.

    1977-01-01

    Precise measurements of W-values, the average energy expended per electron-hole pair in liquid Ar and Xe, were made by the electron-pulse method, and that in liquid Kr by the steady conduction current method. The results showed that the W-values were clearly smaller than those in gaseous Ar, Xe and Kr as predicted by Doke. The results can be explained by the conduction bands which exist in these rare gas liquids as well as in the solid state. The enhanced ionization yield was observed for Xe-doped liquid Ar, and it was attributed to the ionizing excitation transfer process from Ar excitons to doped Xe. This is very similar to the Jesse effect in the gas phase. The saturated value of the enhanced ionization was in good agreement with the theoretical value, and it provides strong evidence for the existence of the exciton states in liquid Ar. Fano factors in liquid Ar, Kr, Xe and Xe-doped liquid Ar have been estimated from the Fano Formula, and they were smaller than those in the gas phase. The drift velocity of electrons in liquid Ar, liquid Ar-gas mixtures and liquid Xe have been measured with gridded ionization chambers. The average electron energy in liquid Ar has been measured. The electron-induced scintillations of liquid Xe and Ar have been studied. (Kato, T.)

  5. AR(p) -based detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.

    2018-07-01

    Autoregressive models are commonly used for modeling time-series from nature, economics and finance. This work explored simple autoregressive AR(p) models to remove long-term trends in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Crude oil prices and bitcoin exchange rate were considered, with the former corresponding to a mature market and the latter to an emergent market. Results showed that AR(p) -based DFA performs similar to traditional DFA. However, the former DFA provides information on stability of long-term trends, which is valuable for understanding and quantifying the dynamics of complex time series from financial systems.

  6. Production of 125I from amorphous films of Si doped with 124Xe and evaluation of its potential use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Viana, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the simulation of a new material that can be used in the brachytherapy treatment. The material consists of xenon-incorporated amorphous silicon (Xe@a-Si). The irradiated 124 Xe atoms of the samples are converted into 125 Xe, according to the reaction: 124 Xe (n,γ) 125 Xe that, in turn, decays to the radioisotope 125 I. A set of simulations performed using the MCNP5 code, shows that, in principle, the material proposed can be used in the seed of brachytherapy in the clinical treatment. (author)

  7. Single-pulse characteristics of the Xe(L) amplifier on the Xe35+ (3d→2p) transition array at λ ≅ 2.86 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Song Xiangyang; Zhang Ping; McCorkindale, John C; Khan, Shahab F; De Jonghe, Richard; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Zhao, Ji; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2006-01-01

    The triple comparison of (1) single-pulse spectral data, recorded with a CCD-equipped von Hamos spectrometer both axially and transversely; (2) axially measured time-integrated spectra registered on a film and (3) single-pulse x-ray images of the morphology of the self-trapped plasma channel, recorded simultaneously with the single-pulse spectra, establishes several leading characteristics of the saturated amplification observed on the Xe 35+ transition array at λ ≅ 2.86 A. The chief findings are (α) absolute positive correlation of amplification with the formation of a plasma channel, (β) a perfect spectral match of the amplified transitions in the comparison of axially recorded single-pulse and time-integrated film data and (γ) exact spectral correspondence of both the axially registered single-pulse and time-integrated film data with single-pulse transversely measured spectra exhibiting deep spectral hole burning at the position of the Xe 35+ array. (letter to the editor)

  8. Electron impact ionization of Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrance, P.; Rachafi, S.; Jureta, J.; Meyer, F.; Chantrenne, S.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute electron impact ionization cross-sections have been measured for the Neon-like Ar 8+ in the energy range from below the threshold for the metastable state to 2500 eV. No contribution of metastable states is observed. The results are well reproduced by the Distorted Wave Born Approximation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  9. 75 FR 7637 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12031 and 12032] Arkansas Disaster AR-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 02/10/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  10. 76 FR 42155 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12680 and 12681] Arkansas Disaster AR-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4000-DR), dated 07...

  11. 75 FR 7636 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12034 and 12035] Arkansas Disaster AR-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-- 1872--DR), dated...

  12. 76 FR 42154 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12678 and 12679] Arkansas Disaster AR-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4000-DR), dated 07/08/2011. Incident: Severe...

  13. 75 FR 30872 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12196 and 12197] Arkansas Disaster AR-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 05/26/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes and...

  14. 78 FR 39821 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13637 and 13638] Arkansas Disaster AR-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4124-DR), dated 06...

  15. 76 FR 27140 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12562 and 12563] Arkansas Disaster AR-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 1975-DR), dated 05...

  16. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13473 and 13474] Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4100-DR), dated 01...

  17. 76 FR 27139 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12560 and 12561] Arkansas Disaster AR-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated 05/02/2011. Incident: Severe...

  18. "ARS 01", perspektiivide avamine / Helen Kivisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisoo, Helen

    2001-01-01

    30. IX 2001-20. I 2002 Kiasmas kuuendat korda toimuvast rahvusvahelisest näitusest "ARS", kus Eestist osaleb Marko Mäetamm. Kuraatorid Tuula Arkio, Maaretta Jaukkuri, Patrik Nyberg, Jari-Pekka Vanhala. Teemaks "kolmas ruum". Näituse kajastamisest.

  19. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  20. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found. (authors)

  1. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly

  2. The electronic spectrum of CUONg(4) (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): New insights in the interaction of the CUO molecule with noble gas matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecmer, P.; van Lingen, H.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic spectrum of the CUO molecule was investigated with the IHFSCC-SD (intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster with singles and doubles) method and with TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) employing the PBE and PBE0 exchange-correlation functionals. The importance

  3. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valérie

    2012-01-14

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found.

  4. A compilation of {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39} and K-Ar ages: report 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, P A [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Twenty-three {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar age determinations (including two potassium-argon analyses) carried out by the Geological Survey of Canada are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in outline. An index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. A compilation of 40Ar-39 and K-Ar ages: report 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.A.; Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-three 40 Ar- 39 Ar age determinations (including two potassium-argon analyses) carried out by the Geological Survey of Canada are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in outline. An index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mière, Arnaud; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters , intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between ICARE, IPSL and OMP data centers and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. ChArMEx data, either produced or used by the project, are documented and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The website offers the usual but user-friendly functionalities: data catalog, user registration procedure, search tool to select and access data... The metadata (data description) are standardized, and comply with international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignement procedure allows to automatically register the datasets, in order to make them easier to access, cite, reuse and verify. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 120 datasets, including more than 80 in situ datasets (2012, 2013 and 2014 summer campaigns, background monitoring station of Ersa...), 25 model output sets (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios...), a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean... Many in situ datasets

  7. Plunger lifetime measurements in {sup 128}Xe using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rother, Wolfram; Dewald, Alfred; Ilie, Gabriela; Pissulla, Thomas; Melon, Barbara; Jolie, Jan; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Zell, Karl-Oskar [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Julin, Rauno; Jones, Peter; Greenless, Paul; Rahkila, Panu; Scholey, Cath [JYFL, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Konstantinopoulos, T. [INP, N.C.S.R. ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Grahn, Tuomas [JYFL, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]|[Oliver Lodge Lab., University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Balabanski, Dimiter [INRNE, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    We report on an experiment using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics in combination with the plunger technique for measuring lifetimes of excited states of the projectile. Aside from the investigation of E(2) features in {sup 128}Xe, the aim was to explore the special features of such experiments which are also suited to be used with radioactive beams. The measurement was performed at the JYFL with the Koeln coincidence plunger device and the JuroGam spectrometer using a {sup 128}Xe beam impinging on a {sup nat}Fe target at a beam energy of 525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of 32 solar cells placed at extrem forward angles. Recoil-gated {gamma}-singles and {gamma}{gamma}-coincidences were measured at different target-degrader distances. Details of the experiment and first results are presented.

  8. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  9. Cerebral blood flow studied by 133Xe inhalation technique in parkinsonism: loss of hyperfrontal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, A.; Gueell, A.; Fabre, N.; Dupui, P.; Victor, G.; Geraud, G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (grey matter flow) in parkinsonism requires further investigation. The noninvasive method of 133 Xe inhalation permits study of larger numbers of subjects than previously used invasive techniques such as the intracarotid 133 Xe injection method. Measurements were made in this laboratory in 30 subjects having Parkinson's disease. Mean hemispheric blood flow (F1) values were 70.4 +/- 9.3 ml/100 g/min, compared to 76.3 for a group of age-matched normal subjects, which is a decrease of -7.8%. The most striking difference was the loss of the hyperfrontal distribution in parkinsonism. The prefrontal F1 values were only 1.8% greater than the hemisphere grey matter flow, compared with 8.5% in controls of a similar age group

  10. Development of a correction factor for Xe-133 vials for use with a dose calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gels, G.L.; Piltingsrud, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    Manufacturers of dose calibrators who give calibration settings for various radionuclies sometimes do not specify the type of radionuclide container the calibration is for. The container, moreover, may not be of the same type as those a user might purchase. When these factors are not considered, the activity administered to the patient may be significantly different from that intended. An experiment is described in which calibration factors are determined for measurement of Xe-133 activity in vials in a dose calibrator. This was accomplished by transferring the Xe-133 from the commercial vials to standard NBS calibration ampules. Based on ten such transfers, the resulting correction factor for the dose calibrator was 1.22

  11. Ground-state and pairing-vibrational bands with equal quadrupole collectivity in 124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear structure of 124Xe has been investigated via measurements of the β+/EC decay of 124Cs with the 8 π γ -ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The data collected have enabled branching ratio measurements of weak, low-energy transitions from highly excited states, and the 2+→0+ in-band transitions have been observed. Combining these results with those from a previous Coulomb excitation study, B (E 2 ;23+→02+) =78 (13 ) W.u. and B (E 2 ;24+→03+) =53 (12 ) W.u. were determined. The 03+ state, in particular, is interpreted as the main fragment of the proton-pairing vibrational band identified in a previous 122Te (3He,n )124Xe measurement, and has quadrupole collectivity equal to, within uncertainty, that of the ground-state band.

  12. Nondipole effects in the photoionization of Xe 4d: Evidence for quadrupole satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmers, O.; Guillemin, R.; Wolska, A.; Lindle, D.W.; Rolles, D.; Cheng, K.T.; Johnson, W.R.; Zhou, H.L.; Manson, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We measured the nondipole parameters for the spin-orbit depletes Xe 4d 5/2 and Xe 4d 3/2 over a photonenergy range from 100 eV to 250 eV at beamline 8.0.1.3 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Significant nondipole effects are found at relatively low energies as a result of Cooper minima in dipole channels and interchannel coupling in quadrupole channels. Most importantly, sharp disagreement between experiment and theory, when otherwise excellent agreement was expected, has provided the first evidence of satellite two-electron quadrupole photoionization transitions, along with their crucial importance for a quantitatively accurate theory

  13. Observation of elastic scattering effects on photoelectron angular distributions in free Xe clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Gisselbrecht, M; Lundwall, M; Feifel, R; Rander, T; Schulz, J; Marinho, R R T; Lindgren, A; Sorensen, S L; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O

    2003-01-01

    We report an observation of substantial deviations in the photoelectron angular distribution for photoionization of atoms in free Xe clusters compared to the case of photoionization of free atoms. The cross section, however, seems not to vary between the cluster and free atoms. This observation was made in the vicinity of the Xe 4d Cooper minimum, where the atomic angular distribution is known to vary dramatically. The angular distribution of electrons emitted from atoms in the clusters is more isotropic than that of free atoms over the entire kinetic energy range studied. Furthermore, the angular distribution is more isotropic for atoms in the interior of the clusters than for atoms at the surface. We attribute this deviation to elastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectrons. We have investigated two average cluster sizes, ≥ 4000 and 1000 and found no significant differences between these two cases

  14. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A66

  15. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  16. Radiopharmacology of inhaled 133Xe in skeletal sites containing deposits of Gaucher cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.; Mckusick, K.A.; Doppelt, S.H.; Barton, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is a lysosomal storage disease in which cells of the reticuloendothelial system accumulate the lipid gluococerebroside. It is characterized by slowly progressive visceral and osseous involvement. One of the latter manifestations includes lipid infiltration of bone marrow. The authors monitored the rate of inhaled 133 Xe uptake and wash-out over diseased and normal metaphyseal and epiphyseal areas of the knee. (author)

  17. TEM study of damage recovery in SiC by swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); O’Connell, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Sohatsky, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Neethling, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The microstructure of 4H–SiC samples subsequently irradiated with low energy He (10 keV), Ti (220 keV) and high energy (167 MeV) Xe ions has been studied using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that xenon ions with fluences above 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} restore crystallinity in a heavily damaged partially amorphous zone. No, or negligible damage recovery is observed in fully amorphized layers of silicon carbide.

  18. TEM study of damage recovery in SiC by swift Xe ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; O’Connell, J.; Sohatsky, A.S.; Neethling, J.

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of 4H–SiC samples subsequently irradiated with low energy He (10 keV), Ti (220 keV) and high energy (167 MeV) Xe ions has been studied using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that xenon ions with fluences above 10 13 cm −2 restore crystallinity in a heavily damaged partially amorphous zone. No, or negligible damage recovery is observed in fully amorphized layers of silicon carbide

  19. Electromagnetic E2 Transition Probabilities in 120Xe And 118Te - N=66 Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.A.; Efimov, A.D.; Podsvirova, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    Lifetimes of the yrast states in 120 Xe and the ground state band below and above band crossing in 118 Te have been measured by DSAM in the 111 Cd( 12 C, 3n) reaction and by DSAM and RDM in the 109 Ag( 13 C, p3n) reaction, respectively. The experimental data are compared with calculation done in the framework of the IBM1 model in the 0(6) and SU(5) limits. (author)

  20. Improved evaluation of the coronary collateral circulation measuring the regional blood flow with 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, N.; Strangfeld, D.; Romaniuk, P.; Heublein, B.

    1988-01-01

    In 40 patients with angina pectoris catheter diagnostic measurements of the myocardial flow were carried out after intracoronary application of 133 Xe at rest and after oral application of Curantyl in order to obtain a better evaluation of coronary collaterals. The results show relations between angiographically detected coronary collaterals and the reduced coronary reserve. A quantitative measurement of collaterals from the angiogram facilitates a more precise evaluation of the relation between coronary sclerosis and myocardial flow. (author)