WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid waste generated

  1. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  2. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  4. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  5. Municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Robe town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasu, Duguma; Faye, Tesfaye; Kiros, Amaha; Balew, Abel

    2018-04-20

    The amount of solid waste generated in developing countries is rising from time to time due to economic growth, change in consumer behavior and lifestyles of people. But it is hard to manage and handle the increase of solid waste with existing waste management infrastructure. Thus, the management system of solid waste is very poor and become a serious problem. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the volume of solid waste generated and investigate factors affecting generation and disposal of wastes in the study area. The result of this study indicated that total waste generated from households was about 97.092kg/day.Furthermore, the study reveals that the solid waste generation rate of the town is 0.261kg/person/day.About 57.5% of solid waste is properly disposed of to landfill site whereas the remaining 42.5% is illegally dumped at the roadsides and open fields. Implication Statement Nowadays, in developing countries there is high concentration of people in urban areas and cause for the generation of enormous concentration of municipal waste in urban areas. Therefore this finding will be important for various policy makers and town planners. It may also serve as a benchmark for the municipal authorities of the town for whom the problem is still invisible and negligible and can push environmental protection authorities to reexamine the implementation of their policies and strategies with regard to the broader issues of human and environmental health condition of town dwellers.

  6. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  7. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiarta, Iwan; Siwar, Chamhuri; Basri, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people (JPM, 2009). With the population growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipal solid waste generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solid waste generation average for any person is 1.2 kilograms a da...

  10. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  11. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abduli

    2015-07-01

    Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one conducted from 2010 to 2014. Relevant officials of the waste recovery in 22 regions of Tehran were approached in order to collect data about municipal solid waste generation through interviewing, filling out questionnaires, conducting field visits from Aradkooh Disposal and Processing Complex and collecting information on disposal and destiny of wastes. Then the data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Total solid waste generation in Tehran from 2010 to 2014 amounted to respectively 3389662, 3399344, 3449338 and 3245157 Metric Tons, categorized into three groups of municipal, companies and townships and hospital wastes. Most of the generated waste produced in Tehran was that of households and commercial (known as municipal waste from 22 Regions of Tehran. Based on the surveys conducted, per capita solid waste generation of 11 regions of Tehran ranged from 550 to 1000 grams and in other 11 ones from 1000 to 1521 grams per capita per day. The lowest and highest waste generation rate belonged respectively to region 13 with 556 grams and region 12 with 1521 grams per capita per day in 2011. Conclusion: Comparing per capita generation of municipal solid waste in different municipal regions in Tehran with maximum acceptable capacity of waste generation indicates the deviation of waste generation of all Tehran regions from the standard acceptable amount. Therefore, not only is it necessary to plan and take strategic measures to reduce Tehran waste generation but also these programs and measures should be specific to each region considering its specifications and solid waste quality and quantity.

  12. Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, A E; Nubi, A T; Adelopo, A O

    2017-09-01

    Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in University of Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using ASTM D5231-92 and Resource Conservation Reservation Authority RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance methods. The recyclable potential of the waste is very high constituting about 75% of the total waste generated. The estimated average daily solid waste generation in Unilag Akoka campus was estimated to be 32.2tons. The solid waste characterization was found to be: polythene bags 24% (7.73tons/day), paper 15% (4.83tons/day), organic matters 15%, (4.83tons/day), plastic 9% (2.90tons/day), inert materials 8% (2.58tons/day), sanitary 7% (2.25tons/day), textile 7% (2.25tons/day), others 6% (1.93tons/day), leather 4% (1.29tons/day) metals 3% (0.97tons/day), glass 2% (0.64tons/day) and e-waste 0% (0.0tons/day). The volume and distribution of polythene bags generated on campus had a positive significant statistical correlation with the distribution of commercial and academic structures on campus. Waste management options to optimize reuse, recycling and reduce waste generation were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Solid Waste Generation, Categories and Disposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... collection service and waste management regulations, respectively; while 28.4% separated their solid wastes at source ...

  14. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval

  15. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  16. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  17. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  19. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Power generation using the solid wastes in Eskisehir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakis, R.; Kurban, M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Non-renewable fossil-fuel energy resources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas cause environmental damage as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. Due to the trend of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern for the future. In order to protect the ecological equilibrium of the natural environment, alternative energy sources must be sought and further developed. In Turkey, hydraulic, solar, and geothermal and biomass (wood, animal and plant wastes and solid wastes), biogas (methane) are potential renewable energy resources. Turkey does not have enough energy resources and is in need of a solution to reduce, re-use or recycle solid wastes. This paper evaluated the amount of solid wastes in Eskisehir, Turkey for producing electricity using the build, operate and transfer (BOT) model. The purpose of the study was to develop an economically useful approach to using wastes while preventing harmful effects on the environment. The paper discussed the burning waste situation in Turkey and other countries and the costs of establishing burning garbage foundations. It was concluded that electricity production from Eskisehir's garbage wastes with benefit the community from both a health angle and economical angle. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Characterization Of Solid Wastes Generated By A Community In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on and organic fertilizers from household wastes could be transferred to the community to create jobs and gener-ate income. Landfills and relocation of refuse dumps far from the community were suggested as alternative disposal methods to ...

  2. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  3. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  4. The situation of generation, treatment and supervision of common industrial solid wastes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shumin

    2018-02-01

    From the point of view of location and sources, an analysis is done for the generation, utilization, treatment and storage of common industrial solid wastes in China. Based on the current situations, suggestions are given to the treatment and supervision polices in China for the utilization of common industrial solid wastes.

  5. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  6. ANALYZING CERTAIN CHRACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN THE PROCES S OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábriel Györgyi T #336;ZSÉR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the regulations of Act XLIII/2000 on Waste Management to implement the strategic objectives and targets in the Act for the prevalence of the basic waste management principles a National Waste Management Plan II will be worked out and then accepted by the Parliament as part of the National Environmental Protection Programme. On the basis of the national plan the administrative bodies of environmental protection in accordance with the regional settlement and d evelopment programmes make a regional waste management project with the inclusion of the regional, local authorities, and other authorities concerned as well as the non governmental organisations for environmental protection. In our research we analyze the correlation between municipal solid waste per capita and urbanisation level. We have conducted similar calculations in the filed of population density and income. The study was carried out on a micro region level. Our analysis can help determine the framework conditions and factors that influence waste generation, and therefore should be taken into consideration when designing waste policies .

  7. Comparative study of municipal solid waste generation and composition in Shiraz city (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Norouzian Baghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exponential growths of population and urbanization, and the development of social economy have resulted in an increase in the amount of MSW generation throughout the world. Objective: The present study aimed to survey qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid waste in Shiraz city and comparative these results with the world scenario of solid wastes generation for improving the sustainable management of solid waste. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in nine municipality regions Shiraz with a total population of approximately 1,549,354 people. Basic data was gathered through Shiraz waste management organization. Then generation (per capita and constituent percent of the solid waste were evaluated based on the sampling and field analyzing from reliable guidelines. Data were analyzed with Stata-13 and Excel statistical software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test used for the normality of variables. Means were compared by Student T test and Mann-Whitney test. Findings: The rate of solid waste generated in the Shiraz city was 222.65 kg per person per year in 2014. Statistical analysis showed that the variables of organic materials, paper and cardboard, glass and metal between developed and developing countries were a significant difference (P0.05. Conclusion: Solid waste per capita in Shiraz city (about 600 g/day was near to the average amount of solid waste generation in Iran and other developing countries. Due to the high content of organic material in municipal solid waste of Shiraz, minimization of these material and separation of dry and wet solid wastes must be noted from the people and municipalities.

  8. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    MA Abduli; M Akbarpour Shirazi; B Omidvar; R Samieifard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid waste reduction is a key and fundamental factor in creating a sustainable society. Tehran Municipality has embarked on a series of positive measures in recent years in different areas of waste management such as source separation, mechanized waste collection, and constructing compost factories. However these measures have not only brought about any reduction in solid waste reduction but have also resulted in their increase. In this article, first we will describe the curre...

  9. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues

  10. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW.

  11. Urban solid waste generation and disposal in Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Bernache, G

    2001-04-01

    The adequate management of municipal solid waste in developing countries is difficult because of the scarcity of studies about their composition. This paper analyses the composition of urban solid waste (USW) in the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Residential and non-residential waste sources were sampled, and a structured interview was made to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied area. Also, to determine the seasonal patterns of solid waste generation and the efficiency level of the collection service, quantification of solid waste deposited in the dumping ground was measured. Our results show that the recorded amount of SW deposited in the municipal dumping-ground is less than the estimated amount of SW generated; for this reason, the former amount is not recommended as an unbiased indicator for planning public waste collection services. It is essential that dumping-grounds are permanently monitored and that the incoming waste be weighed in order to have a more efficient record of USW deposited in the dumping-ground per day; these data are fundamental for developing adequate managing strategies.

  12. Generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourist activities of the Porto de Galinhas - P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant solid waste generation, coupled with the lack of proper management of the waste generated, has been one of the issues of concern and conducting research on the part of scholars in the field. Tourism as an activity that positively impacts and negativity a given location, has emerged as an activity that can generate a lot of waste, especially in periods of high season, considering the increase of people moving to the tourist destinations. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze the generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourism in Porto de Galinhas, PE. We performed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in the form of a case study in Porto de Galinhas, PE. The data collection was done interviews together social actors, as well as non-participant observation during data collection. The results showed that tourism activities in Porto de Galinhas result in a high amount of solid waste, and these are directed to inappropriate places. Although fate presents a combination of recyclable materials, RECYCLE, reuses this not a significant amount, given the proportion of waste generated.

  13. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  14. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  15. The impact of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Victor H Argentino de Morais; Matheus, Dácio R

    2018-01-01

    Social factors have not been sufficiently explored in municipal solid waste management studies. Latin America has produced even fewer studies with this approach; technical and economic investigations have prevailed. We explored the impacts of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in Greater Sao Paulo, which includes 39 municipalities. We investigated the relations between municipal solid waste generation and social factors by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Student's t-test (at p ← 0.01) proved significance, and further regression analysis was performed with significant factors. We considered 10 socioeconomic factors: population, rural population, density, life expectancy, education (secondary, high and undergraduate level), income per capita, inequality and human development. A later multicollinearity analysis resulted in the determination of inequality (r p = 0.625) and income per capita (r p = 0.607) as major drivers. The results showed the relevance of considering social aspects in municipal solid waste management and isolated inequality as an important factor in planning. Inequality must be used as a complementary factor to income, rather than being used exclusively. Inequality may explain differences of waste generation between areas with similar incomes because of consumption patterns. Therefore, unequal realities demand unequal measures to avoid exacerbation, for example, pay-as-you-throw policies instead of uniform fees. Unequal realities also highlight the importance of tiering policies beyond the waste sector, such as sustainable consumption.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  17. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  18. Seasonal analysis of the generation and composition of solid waste: potential use--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Ensenada health officials lack pertinent information on the sustainable management of solid waste, as do health officials from other developing countries. The aims of this research are: (a) to quantify and analyze the household solid wastes generated in the city of Ensenada, Mexico, and (b) to project biogas production and estimate generation of electrical energy. The characterization study was conducted by socioeconomic stratification in two seasonal periods, and the biogas and electrical energy projections were performed using the version 2.0 Mexico Biogas Model. Per capita solid waste generation was 0.779 ± 0.019 kg per person per day within a 98 % confidence interval. Waste composition is composed mainly of food scraps at 36.25 %, followed by paper and cardboard at 21.85 %, plastic at 12.30 %, disposable diapers at 6.26 %, and textiles at 6.28 %. The maximum capacity for power generation is projected to be 1.90 MW in 2019. Waste generated could be used as an intermediate in different processes such as recycling (41.04 %) and energy recovery (46.63 %). The electrical energy that could be obtained using the biogas generated at the Ensenada sanitary landfill would provide roughly 60 % of the energy needed for street lighting.

  19. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from town refuse, there are wastes from agriculturally based industries especially ... depends on careful control of the 3T's (time, temperature and turbulence). ... These activities cause serious public health risks ... The modifications to the old bottle incinerators were developed by carefully assessing the failure modes.

  20. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  1. Generation of transportation fuel from solid municipal waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin

    2010-09-15

    Transportation fuels derived from fossil fuels are subjected to the price fluctuations of the global marketplace, and constitute a major expense in the operation of a vehicle. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these fuels contribute to a range of environmental problems, causing poor air quality and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuels created from domestic sources have been proposed as a solution to these problems, and many fuels are being developed based on biomass and other renewable sources. Natural State Research, Inc. developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel which is produced from waste plastic materials.

  2. Lixiviation of plutonium contaminated solid wastes by aqueous solution of electro-generated reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarande, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    This study concerns the development of the new concept for the decontamination of plutonium bearing solid wastes, based on the lixiviation of the wastes using electro-generated reducing agents. First, a comparative study of the kinetics of the dissolution of pure PuO 2 (prepared by calcination of Pu (IV) oxalate at 450 C) in sulfuric acid media, with different reducing agents, was realized. Qualitatively these reagents can be sorted in three groups: 1 / fast kinetics for Cr(II), V(II) and U(III); 2 / slow kinetics for Ti(III); 3 / very slow kinetics for V(III) and U(VI). In order to contribute to the design of an electrochemical reactor for the generation of the reducing agents usable for the lixiviation of plutonium bearing solid wastes, the study of the diffusion coefficients of both oxidized and reduced forms of different redox couples, at different temperatures, was undertaken. The results of this study also permits, from the knowledge of the diffusional activation energy of the ions, to conclude that the dissolution of pure plutonium dioxide under the action of these reducing agents is not diffusion limited. The feasibility of the plutonium decontamination treatment of synthetic or real solid wastes was then studied at laboratory scale using electro-generated V(II), which is with Cr(II) among the best reagents. The efficiency of the treatment was good, (80 pc Pu solubilisation yield), especially in the case of cellulosic or miscellaneous organic wastes. (author) [fr

  3. Radioactive solid waste management study of generated in the source production laboratory for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Carvalho, Vitória S.; Marques, José R.O.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Baptista, Tatyana S.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Daiane C.B.

    2017-01-01

    A management system for radioactive solid wastes generated during seed production in the Laboratório de Produção de Fontes para Radioterapia (LPFRT) was developed. For this, the volume and the mass of each item of solid wastes generated in Glove box were estimated. It is possible to estimate, per week, how much reject will enter the warehouse, what space it will occupy and also its weight. In the final step of the characterization, the decay calculation is applied to define the time the reject will be stored for later disposal in the collection system. After the characterization process, it is noticed that the rate of volume and radioactivity decreases as the retention time of the rejects increases due to the release of the materials, and also, there is the decay of the radioactivity present in the reservoir. It is also observed that the rate of entry and exit of the wastes is proportional

  4. Models of municipal solid waste generation and collection costs applicable to all municipalities in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Bureecam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and measure the variables which influence municipal solid waste (MSW generation and collection costs in Thai municipality. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a survey conducted in a sample size of 570 municipalities across the country. The results from the MSW generation model indicate that the population density, the household size and the size of municipality are the significant determinant of waste generation. Meanwhile, with regards to the MSW collection cost model, the results showed some existence of positive in the volume of MSW collected, population density, the distance between the center of municipality to the disposal site the hazardous sorting and the size of municipality whereas, there were no evidence of the frequency of collection and the ratio of recycled material to waste generation on cost.

  5. Developments in, and environmental impacts of, electricity generation from municipal solid waste and landfill gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 NFFO allocations for renewable energy generation are reviewed with emphasis on electricity from municipal solid waste (MSW) and landfill gas (LFG) combustion tranches. The implications of materials recovery on the calorific value of MSW are considered, as are the environmental impacts of both MSW and LFG combustion with special reference to air pollutant emissions. The performance and economics of state of the art incineration and LFG power generating plants are examined. It is shown that energy recovery from these wastes can be both cost effective and environmentally desirable. (Author)

  6. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  7. Examining of solid waste generation and community awareness between city center and suburban area in Medan City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, H.; Putri, C. N.; Dalimunthe, R. A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2018-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is still an issue in many cities in Indonesia including Medan. Understanding the waste generation, its characteristic and communities involvement could provide effective solid waste management. This research compares waste generation from people who live in the city center and suburban area. The research also examines the willingness and participation of community about environmental aspect, especially solid waste management. The method of waste generation used Indonesian Nasional Standard 19-3964-1994. The city center generates 0.295 kg/person/day of solid waste and 0.180 kg/person/day for suburbs. The result showed that there are the common amount of waste compositions between the city center and suburban area. The majority waste composition was an organic fraction. Questionnaires were distributed to examine the community awareness. The descriptive statistic used to analyze the data. The result showed that people living in the city center are slightly higher in community awareness than in the suburb. This paper highlights that area of living could give some effect to solid waste generation, waste composition and rate of awareness.

  8. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D.

    2014-10-01

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  9. Leachability of rare earth elements (REEs) from solid wastes generated during chemical processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Pillai, P.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to assess the leachability of REEs from solid wastes generated in monazite processing. Leachability of REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) and Y from PbS-Ba(Ra)SO 4 (Mixed cake) and Effluent Treatment Plant cake (calcium hydroxy apatite) has been studied using rain water as the leachant. Studies indicate that 23 -60 % of the REEs gets leached out from the mixed cake in the first 24 hours. From the ETP cake, the percentage of REEs leached out were negligible. The results provide inputs for hazards evaluation in accidental situations resulting in breach of integrity of the waste storages. (author)

  10. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  11. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  12. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methodological aspects of modeling household solid waste generation in Japan: Evidence from Okayama and Otsu cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Jia, Renfu; Duan, Ruiyang; Gu, Aijun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a quantitative methodology and two empirical case studies in Japan on modeling household solid waste (HSW) generation based on individual consumption expenditure (ICE) and local waste policy effects by using the coupled estimation model systems. Results indicate that ICE on food, miscellaneous commodities and services, as well as education, cultural, and recreation services are mainly associated with the changes of HSW generation and its components in Okayama and Otsu from 1980 to 2014. The effects of waste policy measures were also identified. HSW generation in Okayama will increase from 11.60 million tons (mt) in 1980 to 25.02 mt in 2025, and the corresponding figures are 6.82 mt (in 1980) and 14.00 mt (in 2025) in Otsu. To better manage local HSW, several possible and appropriate implications such as promoting a green lifestyle, extending producer responsibility, intensifying recycling and source separation, generalizing composting, and establishing flexible measures and sustainable policies should be adopted. Results of this study would facilitate consumer management of low waste generation and support an effective HSW policy design in the two case cities. Success could lead to emulation by other Japanese cities seeking to build and maintain a sustainable, eco-friendly society. Moreover, the methodologies of establishing coupled estimation model systems could be extended to China and other global cities.

  14. A Basic Accounting of Variation in Municipal Solid-Waste Generation at the County Level in Texas, 2006: Groundwork for Applying Metabolic-Rift Theory to Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Environmental social scientists debate whether or not modern development reduces society's impact on the biosphere. The empirical research informing the discussion has not yet adequately examined the social determinants of municipal solid-waste (MSW) generation, an increasingly relevant issue, both ecologically and sociologically. A primary…

  15. Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis: case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Atta Nyankson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92. All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste. The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38% followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances. The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 221-235

  16. Effect of phosphate ion on filtration characteristics of solids generated in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of phosphate ion on the filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste was experimentally examined. Addition of phosphate ion into the simulated HLLW induced the formation of phosphate such as zirconium phosphate and phosphomolybdic acid. The filtration rate of zirconium phosphate abruptly dropped in the midst of filtration because of a gel-cake formation on the filter surface. The denitration of the simulated HLLW contained zirconium phosphate improved the filterability of this gelatinous solid. The filtration rates of denitrated HLLW decreased with increase of the phosphate ion concentration, since the solids formed by denitration had irregular particle size and configuration in the simulated HLLW with phosphate ion. To increase the filtration rate of denitrated HLLW, a solid suspension filtration tester was designed. The solid-suspension accelerated the filtration rate only in the simulated HLLW with more than 1500 ppm phosphate ion concentration. Under this condition, the simple agitation can easily suspend the constituent solids of filter cake in the solution and a much higher filtration rate can be obtained because the filter cake is continuously swept from the filter surface by rotation of propellers. (authors)

  17. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of tourism on municipal solid waste generation: the case of Menorca Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu-Sbert, Josep; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Cabeza-Irigoyen, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Tourism can sustain high levels of employment and income, but the sector is a source of environmental and health impacts. One of the most important is the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, there is a lack of studies which quantify how much the tourist population engages in total MSW and separately collected recyclables. The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of the tourist population on MSW, both total and separately collected, for the period 1998-2010, for the Mediterranean island of Menorca (Spain). We use dynamic regressions models, including data for monthly stocks of tourists. The results show that, on average, a 1% increase in the tourist population in Menorca causes an overall MSW increase of 0.282% and one more tourist in Menorca generates 1.31 kg day(-1) (while one more resident generates 1.48 kg day(-1)). This result could be useful to better estimate the seasonal population of different regions, since intrannual fluctuation of MSW is used as a proxy measure of actual population (the sum of residents and tourists). Moreover, an increase of 1% in the tourist population causes an increase of 0.232% in separately collected recyclables and an additional tourist generates 0.160 kg day(-1). One resident selectively collects on average 47.3% more than one tourist. These results can help in the planning of waste infrastructure and waste collection services in tourist areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  20. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; Santana, Daniele Dos Santos; Costa, Simone Soraya Brito; Oliveira, Lenise Diniz; Liduino, Vitor Silva; Servulo, Eliana Flávia Camporese

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize industrial solid wastes generated by a biodiesel production plant in Brazil, as well as to present strategies for the management of these materials. This plant produces every year around 100,000tons of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. The methodology of the study included technical visits, interviews with the operational and environmental management staff as well as analysis of documents, reports and computerized data systems. An approach to reduce the generation of hazardous waste was investigated. It was take into account the amount of raw material that was processed, reduction of landfill disposal, and the maximization of the their recycling and reuse. The study also identified the sources of waste generation and accordingly prepared an evaluation matrix to determine the types of waste with the higher potential for minimization. The most important residue of the process was the filter material impregnated with oil and biodiesel, requiring, therefore, measures for its minimization. The use of these residues in the production of ceramic artefacts (light bricks) was considered to be very promising, since no significant effect on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the artefacts produced was observed. Phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuva sativa (lettuce), Brassica juncea (mustard), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (daisy), Dendranthema grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) and Allium porrum (leek) were carried out. The results clearly show incorporation of the waste material into bricks did not influence relative germination and relative root elongation in comparison to control tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE INTEGRATED STEELWORKS ACTIVITY AND SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara CIOCAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of steel industry is subject to solve major problems arising from industry-nature relationship, strictly targeted on pollution control and protection of natural resources and energy. In this paper we discussed about the management of solid waste generated by an integrated steelwork located near a major urban area and the adopted solutions for the reduction of environmental impact. There are summarized technical solutions that are currently applied and were proposed some solutions that can be applied in accordance with the environmental legislations. The new solutions are proposed for integrated management of solid wastes in accordance with: the exact quantification (quantitative, qualitative and the generation sources of emissions and solid wastes; controlled storage; minimization of the wastes and its harmfulness; transformation of the wastes into valuable by-products used directly by the company in a subsequent process, or by external down-stream user.

  2. Integrated solid waste management: a palliative to existing waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a concept, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a sustainable ... on the perspective of consumers on waste generation, collection and disposal. ... to effective solid waste management in the case study area; non-sorting and ...

  3. Assessing the power generation, pollution control, and overall efficiencies of municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dong-Shang; Yang, Fu-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the productivity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) by addressing the following questions: (1) to what extent should one further increase the production of power generation while maintaining the emission of noxious air at the current level?; (2) To what extent should one further decrease the emission of noxious air while maintaining the production of power generation at the current level?; and (3) To what extent should one increase the production of power generation and decrease the emission of noxious air simultaneously? To effectively address these questions to improve performance, the power generation and pollution control efficiencies are evaluated using TODEA (two-objective data envelopment analysis), as well as the overall efficiency evaluated using Tone's NS-overall model (slacks-based measure with non-separable desirable and undesirable outputs for evaluating overall efficiency). A MSWI case study in Taiwan with the panel data covering the period of 2004-2008 reveals that the power generation and overall efficiencies of build-operate-transfer are more efficient, on average, than those of public-own-operate and build-own-operate. However, the three building and operation types do not significantly differ in pollution control efficiency. - Research highlights: → The MSWIs implemented by private sectors are more effective than that by public sectors. → Policy makers should pay more attention to the reduction of CO during waste incineration. → Three alternatives for improving the performance of MSWIs can be made available.

  4. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, A.; Carlos, M.; Peris, M.; Colomer, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  5. FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helge V.; Møller Andersen, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, Danish waste treatment plants have been obliged to report to the Danish EPA the annual amounts of waste treated. Applying these data, we analyse the development, link amounts of waste to economic and demographic variables, and present a model for the generation and treatment of waste...... in Denmark. Using the model and official projections of the economic development, a baseline projection for the generation and treatment of waste is presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. A review of national municipal solid waste generation assessments in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Greene, Krista L

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in very large quantities (probably between 200 and 400 million tonnes per year) in the USA. MSW is generated at millions of places and there is no one precise, general definition for MSW that is generally applied-despite US Environmental Protection Agency efforts. As an element of both commerce and politics, reporting may be framed towards particular ends. Therefore, the two best known assessments of the quantity of US MSW production differ by approximately 50%. The assessors understand some of the reasons for the differences, but our analysis suggests that there are profound factors, not openly discussed, that affect estimates of waste stream size. Many regulators propose that strict, universal formats be adopted so that there is consistency in waste reporting; we note that this will not change the materials requiring management, only what is counted. Therefore, the most accurate assessments may be those where controllable errors are minimized but which suffer from differing definitions of 'MSW'.

  8. Generation, storage, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste - A case study in the city of Kathmandu, capital of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, R.; Chowdhury, M.A.I.; Hasan, G.M.J.; Karanjit, B.; Shrestha, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) services have consistently failed to keep up with the vast amount of solid waste produced in urban areas. There is not currently an efficient system in place for the management, storage, collection, and transportation of solid waste. Kathmandu City, an important urban center of South Asia, is no exception. In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, solid waste generation is predicted to be 1091 m 3 /d (245 tons/day) and 1155 m 3 /d (260 tons/day) for the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. The majority (89%) of households in Kathmandu Metropolitan City are willing to segregate the organic and non-organic portions of their waste. Overall collection efficiency was 94% in 2003. An increase in waste collection occurred due to private sector involvement, the shutdown of the second transfer station near the airport due to local protest, a lack of funding to maintain trucks/equipment, a huge increase in plastic waste, and the willingness of people to separate their waste into separate bins. Despite a substantial increase in total expenditure, no additional investments were made to the existing development plan to introduce a modern disposal system due to insufficient funding. Due to the lack of a proper lining, raw solid waste from the existing dumping site comes in contact with river water directly, causing severe river contamination and deteriorating the quality of the water

  9. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  10. Application of cascading thermoelectric generator and cooler for waste heat recovery from solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Houcheng; Kong, Wei; Dong, Feifei; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Ni, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cascading thermoelectric devices are proposed to recover waste heat from SOFCs. • A theoretical model is developed to analyze the new hybrid system performance. • Performance parameters for evaluating the hybrid system are specified. • Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system are demonstrated. • Effects of some important parameters on the system performance are discussed. - Abstract: Besides electricity generation, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produce a significant amount of waste heat, which needs to be immediately removed to ensure the normal operation of SOFCs. If the waste heat is recovered through bottoming thermal devices, the global efficiency of SOFCs can be improved. In this study, a new hybrid system mainly consisting of a thermoelectric generator, a thermoelectric cooler and an SOFC is proposed to recover the waste heat from SOFC for performance enhancement. The thermodynamic and electrochemical irreversible losses in each component are fully considered. An analytical relationship between the SOFC operating current density and the thermoelectric devices dimensionless electric current is derived, from which the range of SOFC operating current density that permits the thermoelectric devices to effectively work is determined. The equivalent power output and efficiency for the hybrid system are specified under different operating current density regions. The feasibility and effectiveness are illustrated by comparing the proposed hybrid system with the stand-alone SOFC. It is found that the power density and efficiency of the proposed system allow 2.3% and 4.6% larger than that of the stand-alone SOFC, respectively. Finally, various parametric analyses are performed to discuss the effects of some design and operation parameters on the hybrid system performance.

  11. An empirical model for prediction of household solid waste generation rate - A case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the quantity of household solid waste generation is very much essential for effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW). In actual practice, modelling methods are often found useful for precise prediction of MSW generation rate. In this study, two models have been proposed that established the relationships between the household solid waste generation rate and the socioeconomic parameters, such as household size, total family income, education, occupation and fuel used in the kitchen. Multiple linear regression technique was applied to develop the two models, one for the prediction of biodegradable MSW generation rate and the other for non-biodegradable MSW generation rate for individual households of the city Dhanbad, India. The results of the two models showed that the coefficient of determinations (R 2 ) were 0.782 for biodegradable waste generation rate and 0.676 for non-biodegradable waste generation rate using the selected independent variables. The accuracy tests of the developed models showed convincing results, as the predicted values were very close to the observed values. Validation of the developed models with a new set of data indicated a good fit for actual prediction purpose with predicted R 2 values of 0.76 and 0.64 for biodegradable and non-biodegradable MSW generation rate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  13. Assessing the power generation, pollution control, and overall efficiencies of municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Dong-Shang; Yang, Fu-Chiang [Department of Business Administration, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County, 320 Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper evaluates the productivity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) by addressing the following questions: (1) to what extent should one further increase the production of power generation while maintaining the emission of noxious air at the current level?; (2) To what extent should one further decrease the emission of noxious air while maintaining the production of power generation at the current level?; and (3) To what extent should one increase the production of power generation and decrease the emission of noxious air simultaneously? To effectively address these questions to improve performance, the power generation and pollution control efficiencies are evaluated using TODEA (two-objective data envelopment analysis), as well as the overall efficiency evaluated using Tone's NS-overall model (slacks-based measure with non-separable desirable and undesirable outputs for evaluating overall efficiency). A MSWI case study in Taiwan with the panel data covering the period of 2004-2008 reveals that the power generation and overall efficiencies of build-operate-transfer are more efficient, on average, than those of public-own-operate and build-own-operate. However, the three building and operation types do not significantly differ in pollution control efficiency. (author)

  14. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  15. Municipal solid waste generation rates and its management at Yusmarg forest ecosystem, a tourist resort in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad; Nazir, Rumisa; Ashraf, Samia; Ali, Mudasir; Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out at Yusmarg, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2012 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates per capita and on a daily basis, and assessing the existing MSW system. It was estimated that daily generation of MSW at Yusmarg by tourists, as well as residents, was 107.74 kg; on average, the MSW generated at each site was about 36.48 kg/day. The per capita generation of MSW was highest (0.97 kg/person/day) at site 1 followed by 0.288 kg/person/day at site 2 and 0.201 kg/person/day at site 3, with an average per capita MSW generation rate of 0.484 kg/person/day. Manual segregation of the collected wastes showed that it comprised some recyclable, combustible, compostable and inert materials. Among the different waste categories, 56% of waste was recyclable materials, 29% was compostable wastes, 9% was combustible wastes and 6% was inert materials. The present study infers that MSW management in Yusmarg was inappropriate, and infrastructure, skilled manpower and a proper scientific disposal mechanism is lacking in the area. In order to conserve the forest wealth of the area there is a great need to focus on the solid waste problem of the tourist resort.

  16. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  17. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  18. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using artificial neural network approach enhanced by structural break analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamović, Vladimir M; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a general regression neural network (GRNN) model for the prediction of annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generation at the national level for 44 countries of different size, population and economic development level. Proper modelling of MSW generation is essential for the planning of MSW management system as well as for the simulation of various environmental impact scenarios. The main objective of this work was to examine the potential influence of economy crisis (global or local) on the forecast of MSW generation obtained by the GRNN model. The existence of the so-called structural breaks that occur because of the economic crisis in the studied period (2000-2012) for each country was determined and confirmed using the Chow test and Quandt-Andrews test. Two GRNN models, one which did not take into account the influence of the economic crisis (GRNN) and another one which did (SB-GRNN), were developed. The novelty of the applied method is that it uses broadly available social, economic and demographic indicators and indicators of sustainability, together with GRNN and structural break testing for the prediction of MSW generation at the national level. The obtained results demonstrate that the SB-GRNN model provide more accurate predictions than the model which neglected structural breaks, with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 4.0 % compared to 6.7 % generated by the GRNN model. The proposed model enhanced with structural breaks can be a viable alternative for a more accurate prediction of MSW generation at the national level, especially for developing countries for which a lack of MSW data is notable.

  19. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  20. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  1. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  2. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  4. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  5. Assessment of Power Generation Potential from Municipal Solid Wastes: A Case Study of Hyderabad City, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safar Korai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to estimate the power generation potential through utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW in order to overcome energy crisis, faced by country now a days. The waste-to-energy has proven itself to be an environment friendly solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Representative samples of the MSW were collected from the open dumping sites of solid wastes and analyzed for calorific value by using a Bomb Calorimeter in the laboratory. Net and gross calorific value of mixed MSW were obtained as 6519 & 6749 kcal/kg, respectively. Based upon its calorific value, net power generation was estimated as 1512 kWh per ton of MSW generated. This shows that MSW generated in the study area is more suitable for thermal treatment process. In this regard, different thermal treatment technologies have been compared with respect to various parameters and mass burn incinerator is found suitable for generation of power. This technology for conversion of MSW into power generation would not only be beneficial to meet the power demand but also reduce the environmental pollution to certain extent.

  6. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-01-01

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  7. Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust: characterization and leaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wang, Kunpeng; He, Mengchang; Liu, Ziwei; Yang, Hailin; Li, Sisi

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of solid waste has been produced by the antimony smelting process in the "World Capital of Antimony", Xikuangshan area in China. This study comprehensively investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of the various solid wastes, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid wastes, which included water-quenched slag, arsenic-alkali residue, desulfurized slag and blast furnace dust. These four types of waste were enriched in a variety of heavy metals and metalloids and more specifically with As and Sb levels up to 8.6 × 10⁴ and 3.16×10⁵ mg/kg, respectively, in arsenic-alkali residue. For desulfurized slag and water-quenched slag, the leaching concentration of Sb significantly exceeded the acceptable limits during the leaching tests using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. In addition, As leaching in arsenic-alkali residue was extraordinarily hazardous, being three orders of magnitude higher than the regulatory level of As. According to the results of the extraction tests, all the tested wastes were classified as hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Potential of Power Generation from Biogas. Part II: Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Romero Iván

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to estimate the amount of biogas that could be obtained from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW disposed in a sanitary landfill, by capturing and taking advantage of it to generate electricity which can be consumed by Ciénega Region of Chapala in the state of Michoacán, México. To estimate the biogas captured, the Mexican Model of Biogas version 2.0 was used; capturing MSW for 11 years with a project life of 21 years. For the analysis of power generation an average cost for schedule rate 5-A from the CFE for public service was used. Four possible scenarios were evaluated: optimal, intermediate optimal, intermediate pessimistic and pessimistic; varying characteristics such as adequate handling site, fire presence, coverage, leachate, among others. Each of the scenarios, economically justify the construction of an inter-municipal landfill obtaining substantial long-term economic benefits. (26.5×106 USD, 22.8×106 , 17.9×106 and 11.7×106 respectively, while contributing to climate change mitigation and prevention of diseases.

  9. Energetic potential of the urban solid waste generated in the municipality Los Tanques, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustiola Mavares, Ana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    The large amount of solid waste (MSW) without use, incurred in the evaluation of the potential energy for the use of MSW, specifically organic matter processed in the Municipality's Taques, applying the technique of generation of biogas, in which used for measuring the fluid displacement method. The research is descriptive and explanatory, in the form pure experimental and documentary. Developed in four phases: Determination of MSW, determining the properties of MSW, MSW use and design of the unit for treatment and disposal of MSW. We determined the physicochemical characteristics of MSW, was selected anaerobic digestion technology to treat MSW. For inoculation were selected pig manure, 58.10% of methane in the biogas production in the laboratory also worked with a mixture of MSW, pig and goat manure. We selected a Chinese-type digester with a capacity of 316.024 m3 for the generation of 363.97 m3/day of biogas. Finally resulting in estimated costs for construction digester 263.330BsF. (author)

  10. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  11. The generation characteristics of solid radioactive wastes in the KEPCO nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Soon Hwan; Kang, Duck Won; Kim, Hee Keun

    1991-01-01

    Solid radwastes generation trend and characteristics were discussed for nuclear power plants in KEPCO. Each plant has a specific tendency of solid radwastes generation due to the plant characteristics. The total volume of solid radwastes generated from nine power plants was accumulated in 23,012 drums by the end of 1989. The average annual volume per unit was about 670 drums. The solid radwaste mostly consisted of solidified concentrates and contaminated trash. The contaminated trash has been the major portion of the solid radwastes since 1982. The volume of the contaminated trash was dependent on the availability factor and period of overhaul. Therefore, the contaminated trash was considered to be a prime target for the solid radwastes minimization plan

  12. Evaluation of solid waste generation and management in municipalities of the Lake District in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Teixeira Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lake District (“Região dos Lagos” in the State of Rio de Janeiro does not have a waste inventory or any systemized reliable data related to waste generation. Its municipalities also do not present combined management procedures in order to mitigate the enormous environmental liabilities due to solid waste disposal in inappropriate landfills. This paper aims to estimate and classify solid waste originated in the cities of Armação dos Búzios, Arraial do Cabo, Cabo Frio, and São Pedro da Aldeia, by analyzing socio-economic data and considering local GDP.

  13. Analysis of Indirect Emissions Benefits of Wind, Landfill Gas, and Municipal Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques are introduced to calculate the hourly indirect emissions benefits of three types of green power resources: wind energy, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion, and landfill gas (LFG) combustion. These techniques are applied to each of the U.S. EPA's eGRID subregions i...

  14. A two-stage bio hydrogen process for energy generation from municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo-Benitez, J. a.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply and disposal of solid wastes are two big challenges that great cities face at the present time. Several experts have shown that hydrogen is the fuel of the future, due to their high energy content (three times more than that of the gasoline) and its clean combustion. (Author)

  15. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  17. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  18. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  19. Evaluation of residual activity of solid waste generated in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Ana M.; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Magalhaes, Maisa Haiidamus; Guerrero, Jesus Salvador Perez

    2008-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy was conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radio pharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclides contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes can be adopted instead of the previously assumed 2%. It is suggested that the more conservative average value obtained in the present work for the activity that remains in flasks and syringes, that is, 10% of the initial activity, could be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. (author)

  20. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  4. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Goran B.; Josijević Mladen M.; Jovičić Nebojša M.; Babić Milun J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55%) and carbon dioxide (40-45%) (both GHGs), has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine econo...

  5. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  6. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  7. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  8. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  9. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  10. Effects of the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway on municipal solid waste management generation in Lhasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu-Tong; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is located on the Tibetan Plateau. Accelerated economic development and flourishing tourism resulting from the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) have increased solid waste generation and contamination in recent years. Using data from Lhasa Statistical Yearbooks and previous studies, this study estimates the future population of permanent residents and tourists using the least squares method to extrapolate the population from 2015-2025, and evaluates the effects of the QTR on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Lhasa and estimates future MSW generation. There were approximately 1.35 million tourists in 2008 when the QTR had been operating for 2 years and MSW generation was approximately 470 tons per day. The amount of MSW generated increased dramatically with time after opening the QTR. This study estimates that MSW generation will reach 962 tons per day in 2025. Due to the existence of the QTR, increasing numbers of people are traveling to Lhasa, and tourism has driven the development of the local economy. During the studies, the proportion of MSW produced by tourists increased from 2.99% to 20.06%, and it is estimated that it will increase to 33.49% in 2025. If the current trend continues, Lhasa will face significant challenges from garbage disposal. This study analyzes the current situation of urban garbage treatment in Lhasa, and it suggests several options for improvement to MSW generation, transportation equipment, disposal, and resource recycling.

  11. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  12. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  13. Solid waste management in Khartoum industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsidig, N. O. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness

  14. Comparative analysis of the street generation of inorganic urban solid waste (IUSW) in two neighborhoods of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cadena, C E; Arenas-Huertero, F J; Ramón-Gallegos, E

    2009-03-01

    Inorganic urban solid waste (IUSW) is a serious problem in developing countries, and IUSW in the street that does not have adequate final disposal is responsible for serious environmental effects. The aim of this work was to determine the dynamics of the generation of IUSW in the streets of two neighborhoods of different socioeconomic strata in Mexico City during 5 weeks in 2006. The amount of IUSW was recorded every day from 9:00 to 12:00 h, separated, classified, and registered. It was found that plastic (50%) and paper (44.5%) wastes were found most frequently, whereas, textiles (0.4%) and glass (0.5%) wastes were present less frequently in all samples. The IUSWs without commercial brands were more abundant. Branded plastic wrappers of PepsiCo and Bimbo, as well as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers of Coca Cola, registered the highest values, while Gatorade, Barrilitos, and Peñafiel registered the lowest. The neighborhood with a higher income and more vegetation on sidewalks or in jardinières, which are used to hide solid waste, had more IUSW than the neighborhood with lower income, where IUSW was thrown out directly into the street. The knowledge of the real generation and composition of IUSW will contribute to the prevention of its negative environmental and social impacts, as well as guarantee the efficiency of its sustainable management.

  15. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  16. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  17. Quantity & quality analysis and associated management practices of solid waste generated in the general dentistry offices in the city of Arak, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: As dental solid waste are among the most important environmental pollutants due to its high contents of toxic and hazardous agents, suitable treatment and management of it are of great importance. The objective of this study was to quantity & quality analyses of dental solid waste and associated management practices in the general dentistry offices in the city of Arak. Materials and Methods: 15 samples of solid waste were taken from the 5 selected general dentistry offices, classified into 66 components and 4 fractions, and then the quantity & quality characteristics were evaluated. Management practices of the solid waste were also investigated by using a questionnaire. Results: According to the results, per capita and the average generation rate of each dentistry office were 66.71 g/day-patient and 1340.45 g/day, respectively. Potential infectious, domestic-type, chemical & pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes consisted of 54.25%, 35.14%, 8.19%, and 2.14% of the waste generated, respectively. 10 components including latex gloves, nylon & plastic, saliva & blood-contaminated kleenex, paper & cardboard, used ampoules, saliva ejector tubes, gypsum, food waste, saliva & blood-contaminated dental rolls, and nylon gloves were responsible for more than 80% of the total waste generated, respectively. Conclusion: Each fraction of dental solid waste (toxic, chemical & pharmaceutical, potential infectious and domestic-type wastes should be separately collected and disposed of according to the related criteria.

  18. FFTF radioactive solid waste handling and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport

  19. Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

  20. Storage of long lived solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarde, P.D.; Agarwal, K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gandhi, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Long lived solid waste, generated during the fuel cycle mainly includes high level vitrified waste product, high level cladding hulls and low and intermediate level alpha wastes. These wastes require storage in specially designed engineered facilities before final disposal into deep geological repository. Since high-level vitrified waste contain heat generating radionuclides, the facility for their storage is designed for continuous cooling. High level cladding hulls undergo volume reduction by compaction and will be subsequently stored. (author)

  1. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  2. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  3. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  4. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberini, R., E-mail: rita.gamberini@unimore.it; Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  5. Power generation potential using landfill gas from Ontario municipal solid waste landfills. Appendix B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six landfill sites have been identified in Ontario with potential gas production rates suitable for recovery and use in power plant applications. If 70% of the gas naturally generated from these sites was collected and utilized, ca 88 MW could be produced in 1991 (declining to 74 MW by 2001) from the gas generated. Assuming the current average generation rate of one tonne per capita, an estimated nine million tonnes of municipal refuse is produced annually in Ontario, and landfilling is expected to continue to play a major role. It is suggested that the level of gas generation identified for the year 1991 will be sustainable given that as old landfills are spent, new ones are built. The accuracy of the prediction depends largely on future government policies regarding incineration, the effects of present waste reduction programs, and approval of new landfill sites. Due to the combined costs of the gas collection system, auxiliary equipment, and gas processing system, installed cost of a landfill-gas fired power plant is high relative to that of conventional natural gas-fired plants. For landfills presently without a gas collection system, the high initial capital investment for gas field test programs and for the installation of a collection system is a barrier that deters municipalities from tapping this energy potential. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  7. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford's past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D ampersand D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers

  8. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits.

  9. Management of Port Solid Waste Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Fontana, , Carla Marísia Maccagnan; Fontana, Caio Fernando; Sakurai, Claedson Akio

    2014-01-01

    One of contemporary environmental issues refers to progressive and diverse generation of solid waste in urban areas or specific, and requires solutions because the traditional methods of treatment and disposal are becoming unviable over the years and, consequently, a significant contingent of these wastes presents final destination inappropriate. The diversity of solid waste generated as a result of human activities must have the appropriate allocation to specific ...

  10. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford's Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford

  11. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  13. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. ► Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. ► Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. ► Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. ► GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global

  14. An assessment of radioactivity level in 51Cr-contaminated dry solid waste generated from a research facility for verification of clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Ono, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from research laboratories and other facilities is regulated by the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes etc. (Prevention Law). However, the Prevention Law does not provide the level of clearance or the procedures to follow for compliance monitoring. To assess radioactivity amounts for making decisions about clearance levels, the radioactivity levels in dry solid semi-combustible wastes generated from biomedical research, such as 51 Cr-release assays, were measured and evaluated. Radioactivity of semi-combustible waste was 1.42-6.32% of the initial level. In comparison, records for the past 8 years in the Shikata Laboratory, Department of Radiation Research, Okayama University Advanced Science Research Center, indicated 7% to 90% of the initial radioactivity remained in the waste and was differed widely among researchers. This study determined an accurate radioactivity level in dry solid waste, which could lead to savings in disposal costs. (author)

  15. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  16. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  17. New strategic solid waste management in Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is, today, a very critical issue. In spite of all the attempts in order to recovery and to recycle waste, the dump still remains the more followed solution, while only a small part of solid waste is going to be burnt down. But the rubbish dump isn't, actually, an environmentally sustainable solution. In the last years the waste incineration systems with energy recovery are spreading more over the territory, and if on one hand they allow to recover energy, on the other they also generate waste. So the emergency remains and it has to be faced. Today, the waste incineration system with energy recovery seems to be the best solution for this problem. the following article examinates the main strategic aspects of the solid waste management in Sicily after the General Plan of Waste Management application [it

  18. Estimating solid waste generation by hospitality industry during major festivals: A quantification model based on multiple regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulredha, Muhammad; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Jordan, David; Kot, Patryk; Abdulridha, Ali; Hashim, Khalid

    2018-04-26

    Major-religious festivals hosted in the city of Kerbala, Iraq, annually generate large quantities of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which negatively impacts the environment and human health when poorly managed. The hospitality sector, specifically hotels, is one of the major sources of MSW generated during these festivals. Because it is essential to establish a proper waste management system for such festivals, accurate information regarding MSW generation is required. This study therefore investigated the rate of production of MSW from hotels in Kerbala during major festivals. A field questionnaire survey was conducted with 150 hotels during the Arba'een festival, one of the largest festivals in the world, attended by about 18 million participants, to identify how much MSW is produced and what features of hotels impact on this. Hotel managers responded to questions regarding features of the hotel such as size (Hs), expenditure (Hex), area (Ha) and number of staff (Hst). An on-site audit was also carried out with all participating hotels to estimate the mass of MSW generated from these hotels. The results indicate that MSW produced by hotels varies widely. In general, it was found that each hotel guest produces an estimated 0.89 kg of MSW per day. However, this figure varies according to the hotels' rating. Average rates of MSW production from one and four star hotels were 0.83 and 1.22 kg per guest per day, respectively. Statistically, it was found that the relationship between MSW production and hotel features can be modelled with an R 2 of 0.799, where the influence of hotel feature on MSW production followed the order Hs > Hex > Hst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  20. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  1. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  2. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford's SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford's future solid waste management requirements

  3. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  4. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  5. Estimation of generation and gravimetric composition of solid wastes at Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Maria da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present the estimation of the per capita generation and gravimetric composition of the solid residues of the Center of Sciences and Agri-food technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. These two characteristics are of fundamental importance in the solid waste management process. The methodological procedure was carried out by field survey to identify the number of sectors in the University Campus, as well as the quantification of the daily population that attends the institution. As a result, the daily per capita generation of the Science Center and Environmental Technology was 49.28 g. In relation to the gravimetric composition, it was verified that the organic matter had the highest percentage, representing a total of 66%, followed by 13% of plastics, 9% of paper / cardboard and 8% of composites. It is concluded that the largest part of the total solid waste generated is putrescible organic matter, which was already expected, since solid waste generated in the university campus presents characteristics of household waste.

  6. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  7. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  8. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  10. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  11. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  12. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  14. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of a thermal treatment technology for the generation of electrical energy by municipal solid waste from the zone of Los Santos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza Campos, Kevin; Monge Leiva, Matias

    2014-01-01

    A technical, economic and environmental assessment is realized of a thermal treatment technology. The energetic valorization from municipal solid waste and electric power generation in the zone of Los Santos, Costa Rica, are made by the multicriteria hierarchical analysis methodology. The national and cantonal situation is examined in the integral management of municipal solid waste (GIRS), with emphasis on the cantons from the zone of Los Santos. A comparative analysis is developed among some cantons of Costa Rica that have had GIRS studies, and the zone of Los Santos to know the fraction of municipal solid waste that can be valued energetically and calorific power that present. The similarity in the characterization, composition and physico-chemical properties is determined in the study of residues between the cantons analyzed and the zone of Los Santos. The legislation relating the waste processing is analyzed, according Law 8839 for integral management of waste and laws similar to the implementation of a power generation plant. An analysis is developed for the environmental compliance of thermal treatment technologies, including aspects for control of contaminants. The main technologies of energy valorization from waste are investigated and some real cases of Latin America and the world are exposed. A thermal treatment technology of municipal solid waste is selected through a decision-making methodology to evaluate technical, environmental and economic aspects. Operation requirements and functioning of the devices that conform a power generation plant are described by municipal solid waste of the technology selected. The economic viability of the selected proposal has determined by an economic analysis, to extend on the most influential aspects developing alternative scenarios. The diagnosis of the situation of solid waste in the zone of Los Santos has specified that the cardboard, paper and plastics have been the most adequate for the thermal utilization

  15. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  16. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Nishi, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  18. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  19. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1998-07-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g., cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  20. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  1. Airport solid waste generation and its interfaces with tourism: Hugo Cantergiani Airport’s case, Caxias do Sul-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism phenomenon cannot be separated of transport systems and it needs to be examined in the light of the environmental dimension, in particular the air mode. The aim of this research was to investigate the situation of solid waste generation at Hugo Cantergiani Airport, located in Caxias do Sul-RS. The research, which applied a descriptive and exploratory approach, involved document survey, direct observation and solid waste characterization. The period of the sample was of 18 and a half days, spread over three weeks/months in 2012. The operational movimentation at the airport during the conduct of the research was of 15,543 passengers. At the time of the sample 878.76 kg of waste were weighed of which 606.83 kg were segregated and characterized. In relation to this amount around 70% were derived from services undertaken at the airport site and around 30% came from the aircraft itself. The results revealed that there was a production by passenger at the aircraft of 30g/passenger/trip and at the airport site a per capita production of 40g/person/day. The most representative components were as follows: biological contaminant (29.54%, putrescible organic matter (27.16%, plastic (19.15% and paper and paperboard (14.04%. These types of studies contribute to fill gaps in knowledge related to the gravimetric composition of solid waste in the context of airports, to assess the environmental impacts caused by the generation of such wastes and to provide guidelines for the management plan of solid waste at airports, tourism supporting infrastructures.

  2. The Reduction of Solid Waste Associated with Military Ration Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratto, Jo Ann; Lucciarini, Jeanne; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; D'Souza, Nandika A

    2006-01-01

    ... decrease the amount of solid waste generated by the military. These nanocomposites formulations were melt processed into films and characterized for barrier, mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties...

  3. Verifying the performance of artificial neural network and multiple linear regression in predicting the mean seasonal municipal solid waste generation rate: A case study of Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Karimi-Jashni, Ayoub

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the mass of solid waste generation plays an important role in integrated solid waste management plans. In this study, the performance of two predictive models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was verified to predict mean Seasonal Municipal Solid Waste Generation (SMSWG) rate. The accuracy of the proposed models is illustrated through a case study of 20 cities located in Fars Province, Iran. Four performance measures, MAE, MAPE, RMSE and R were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The MLR, as a conventional model, showed poor prediction performance. On the other hand, the results indicated that the ANN model, as a non-linear model, has a higher predictive accuracy when it comes to prediction of the mean SMSWG rate. As a result, in order to develop a more cost-effective strategy for waste management in the future, the ANN model could be used to predict the mean SMSWG rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico; Proyeccion de generacion de desechos radiactivos solidos, liquidos y fuentes radiactivas gastadas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E. [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Km 5.7 Carretera Almoloya de Juarez, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  5. Batch tests of a microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from spent organic extracts from hydrogenogenic fermentation of organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Martinez, A.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenogenic fermentative processes of organic solid wastes produce spent solids that contain substantial concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids and solvents. The spent solids can be extracted with wastewater to give a stream containing concentrated, degradable organic compounds. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of low-level solid radioactive waste generated by a large hospital and disposed of with ordinary refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, L.; Pedroli, G.; Monciardini, M.; Bianchi, L.; Novario, R.; Beretta, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Lombardy region some hospitals have recently been reported to the local authorities because of the presence of radioactivity in hospital refuse sent to the municipal tips for incineration. On various occasions the refuse collectors coming from the hospitals had to return with their refuse as traces of radioactivity were detected at the entrance to the tips equipped with monitoring systems. Hospitals administering radioactive substances for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes produce radioactive waste mainly in solid and liquid form. This waste is principally present in patient excreta and in contaminated materials. Radioactive waste present in patient excreta is normally disposed of through the sewage system provided that the concentration limits and annual activity stipulated by law are respected. The contaminated materials coming from the departments that carry out radioisotopic investigations and therapy with unsealed sources can be collected separately and sent to a tip after a period of storage to permit radioactive decay. However, part of the radioactive waste escapes all checks and inevitably mixes with normal refuse or with special hospital refuse that is not considered radioactive. This occurs in the case of: 1. excreta from patients who are not hospitalised after a radioisotopic investigation and materials contaminated by the excreta; 2. excreta from hospitalised patients which are eliminated outside the nuclear medicine and radiotherapy departments; 3. contaminated materials produced with unsealed sources in hospital departments other than those of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy; The waste indicated in point 1 is probably the main problem in ecological terms as the patients who are not hospitalised eliminate radioactive excreta into domestic sewage systems and can also contaminate materials that are disposed of with normal household refuse. In this case any solution to the problem would seriously affect diagnostic activities carried out in the

  7. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  8. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system

  9. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  11. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  12. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  14. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  15. Municipal solid waste management: identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, R; Del Buono, D; Lolli, F; Rimini, B

    2013-11-01

    The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents

  17. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  18. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  19. Analysis of technological options for electric energy generation from urban solid wastes; Analise de opcoes tecnologicas para geracao de energia eletrica a partir de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, J.G. de M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: furtado@cepel.br, etserra@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates technologically of the options existents for generation of electric power from the urban solid wastes (USW), based on application of factoring method for estimation of investments based on basic description of the plant, it main equipment and technological complexity, viewing to contribute for determination of better technical and economical form, and the energy using. The results of the effectuated analyses indicates that the most technological complexity of the gasification and thermal plasma, and be encountered on non commercial in great scale as well, make the the option present the greatest index of investment and relative cost, determining the greatest costs of electric power generated through this process.

  20. Training waste generators: The first responder in proper waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with waste effectively requires a ''cradle to grave'' approach to waste management. The first step in that chain of custody is the waste generator. The waste generator plays the key role in the correct identification, packaging, and disposal of waste. The Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed several short training programs for waste generators. This training presents a consistent approach to proper handling of waste within the ORNL waste management system. This training has been developed for generators of solid low-level radioactive waste, hazardous and mixed waste, and transuranic waste. In addition to the above, a Waste Minimization training program has been developed for use by all organizations at ORNL who generate any type of hazardous waste. These training programs represent a combined effort of the training staff and the technical staff to assure that all ORNL staff accept their responsibility for handling all types of radioactive and hazardous wastes correctly from its generation to its disposal. 4 refs

  1. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  2. Treatment of solid non-active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this part of the text-book treatment of solid non-active wastes is described. This part consist of following chapters: (1) Law on wastes; (2) Present situation in waste management; (3) Strategic tendencies of waste management; (4) Incineration (disposal of solid wastes); (5) Disposal; (6) Composting; (7) Treatment of sludge from sewage clarification plant; (8) Biodegradation; (9) Recycling of wastes (assessing of secondary raw materials). Legal aspects of treatment of solid non-active wastes is presented

  3. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  4. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  5. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Point Lepreau Refurbishment Project, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Barnes, J. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  6. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D.; Barnes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  7. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... constant between 50 - 60 % wet weight and therefore holds a potential for bioenergy production. The degradable fraction has positive effects for anaerobic digestion when evaluated to desired parameters of anaerobic digestion plants. Wanted parameters are: 1) high organic content (high volatile solid...

  10. Optimization of inoculum to substrate ratio for bio-energy generation in co-digestion of tannery solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Bala Kameswari, K.; Chitra Kalyanaraman,; Porselvam, S. [Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Environmental Technology Division, Chennai (India); Thanasekaran, K. [Anna University, Centre for Environmental Studies, Chennai (India)

    2012-04-15

    The inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio is an important factor which influences the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different I/S ratios on the performance of co-digestion of fleshings along with mixture of sludge generated during treatment of tannery wastewater was investigated. The parameters studied were biogas generation, volatile solids reduction, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and the stability of the digestion process based on VFA to alkalinity ratio was evaluated for various I/S ratios. Economical significance of I/S ratio as related to the volume of the anaerobic digester and the potential benefit of bio-energy generated are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  13. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  14. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  15. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, ... four models of decentralized solid waste management in low-income urban ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  16. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianjun; Wang Zhishi; Ran Shenghong

    2006-01-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future

  17. Arsenic waste management: a critical review of testing and disposal of arsenic-bearing solid wastes generated during arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Tara M; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2013-10-01

    Water treatment technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater have been extensively studied due to widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources. Central to the successful application of arsenic water treatment systems is the consideration of appropriate disposal methods for arsenic-bearing wastes generated during treatment. However, specific recommendations for arsenic waste disposal are often lacking or mentioned as an area for future research and the proper disposal and stabilization of arsenic-bearing waste remains a barrier to the successful implementation of arsenic removal technologies. This review summarizes current disposal options for arsenic-bearing wastes, including landfilling, stabilization, cow dung mixing, passive aeration, pond disposal, and soil disposal. The findings from studies that simulate these disposal conditions are included and compared to results from shorter, regulatory tests. In many instances, short-term leaching tests do not adequately address the range of conditions encountered in disposal environments. Future research directions are highlighted and include establishing regulatory test conditions that align with actual disposal conditions and evaluating nonlandfill disposal options for developing countries.

  18. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  19. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  20. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  1. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  2. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  3. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on biogas generation yield from organic fraction of municipal solid waste under medium solids concentration circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Ajabshirchi, Yahya; Adl, Mehrdad; Abdi, Reza; Gharibi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic pretreatment improved biogas yields at lower TS content samples. • Time of ultrasonication was significantly effective on maximum biogas yields. • Ultrasonic pretreatment can cause the release of TVFA content before digestion. • Specific energy between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS improved biogas yields. - Abstract: Hydrolysis is the most rate limiting step in almost all anaerobic digestion systems. To tackle long time duration, ultrasonic pretreatment proved that it can effectively improve biogas yield efficiency by effecting on soluble particles. In this study, the effect of three different ultrasonic power densities (0.2 W/mL, 0.4 W/mL and 0.6 W/mL) at three different times (10 min, 20 min and 30 min) on biogas yield of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at three different total solid content (6%, 8% and 10%) were analyzed. Results showed significant (p < 0.01) effect of both sonication density and time of sonication on biogas final yield and biogas yield after 72 h digestion with the 6% TS content. Parameters like specific energy input and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) content were also evaluated to find the best sonication treatments for OFMSW. For lower TS contents (6% and 8%), sonication treatment significantly (p < 0.01) increased TVFA concentration before digesting. It is also proved that specific energy input between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS can effectively increase the biogas yields, especially for 6% TS content, and caused maximum biogas yield produced after 72 h of digestion.

  5. Comparison of various chemical processes for avoidance of generation of radio active solid waste in UO{sub 2} powder production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Babaji, P.; Sairam, S.; Meena, R.; Hemantharao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    The Uranium Di-Oxide (UO{sub 2}) powder production process involves dissolution of yellow cake (uranium concentrate) in commercial grade nitric acid followed by solvent extraction process to obtain nuclear grade Uranyl Nitrate Solution(UNS). The UNS is initially precipitated with ammonia to produce Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) and subsequently converted to UO{sub 2} powder through a series of thermal treatment steps viz. calcination, reduction and stabilization. The Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate (UNR) generated in the purification step above, contains residual uranium, due to which its direct disposal is not permissible. The effluent is therefore neutralized with caustic lye and the resultant slurry is filtered over a pre-coat drum filter. The uranium thus gets fixed in the solid form, Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate Cake (UNRC) and the filtrate is disposed off, after ensuring that it meets the disposal criteria of 1 Bq/gm of solid. The uranium bearing solid waste is packed in 200 litre polythene lined MS drums and transported to uranium mill for further processing. This UNR treatment process is manpower intensive, requires large storage space, and involves material handling work, transportation etc. In order to reduce/eliminate generation of UNRC, several new chemical processes were developed and studied in detail. An attempt is made to compare these different processes and the details are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  7. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  8. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  10. Solid waste management of Jakarta : Indonesia an environmental systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trisyanti, Dini

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management has been one of the critical issues in Jakarta, Indonesia.With enormous amounts of generated waste per day and limited supportinginfrastructure, the city has faced serious threat of environmental deterioration andhealth hazard. It relies on one sanitary landfill only, whose capacity is currently beingexceeded, leading to excessive amounts of solid wastes left untreated in the city. An assessment with a system perspective was carried out, aiming to examine thecomplexity ...

  11. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  12. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  13. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TWunderscoreTRUM)

  14. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, an amount that ... The lessons learned and best (and worst) practices will be compiled, ... development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  15. feasibility study on solid waste management in port harcourt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    generation, storage, segregation, collection, treatment and disposal has been investigated. ... system is still being used instead of the integrated solid waste management system (1SWMS) and that about 75% ..... Master thesis, Submitted to the.

  16. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  17. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  18. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  19. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  1. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  2. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  3. Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    2005-01-01

    SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan [it

  4. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  5. Radioactive solid waste management at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, A.P.; Balu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Radioactive solid waste management programme at BARC, India during 1965-1975 is described in detail. The operational experience, which includes the handling treatment and disposal of these solid wastes is reported alongwith the special problems faced in the case of large volume low hazard potential wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. (K.B.)

  6. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  7. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover...... LCA on solid waste systems....

  8. methane generation potentia generation potential of municipal solid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... environmental effect of its consumption made many ... Solid Waste (MSW) of two landfills serving four local govern landfills ... solid waste management in .... for efficient applicability of MSW incineration .... Collection Systems?

  9. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  10. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  11. Implementation of a multi-variable regression analysis in the assessment of the generation rate and composition of hospital solid waste for the design of a sustainable management system in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Fkhidah, Ismail; Khatib, Jumana I; Kontogianni, Stamatia

    2016-03-01

    Forecasting of hospital solid waste generation is a critical challenge for future planning. The composition and generation rate of hospital solid waste in hospital units was the field where the proposed methodology of the present article was applied in order to validate the results and secure the outcomes of the management plan in national hospitals. A set of three multiple-variable regression models has been derived for estimating the daily total hospital waste, general hospital waste, and total hazardous waste as a function of number of inpatients, number of total patients, and number of beds. The application of several key indicators and validation procedures indicates the high significance and reliability of the developed models in predicting the hospital solid waste of any hospital. Methodology data were drawn from existent scientific literature. Also, useful raw data were retrieved from international organisations and the investigated hospitals' personnel. The primal generation outcomes are compared with other local hospitals and also with hospitals from other countries. The main outcome, which is the developed model results, are presented and analysed thoroughly. The goal is this model to act as leverage in the discussions among governmental authorities on the implementation of a national plan for safe hospital waste management in Palestine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  13. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S. [CSI Resource Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, and geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste management as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Japanese have not defined a specific hierarchical preference for alternative waste management practices, i.e., waste reduction, reuse and recycling, combustion, composting, and landfill disposal. However, in marked contrast to the US approach, the Japanese system relies heavily on waste combustion, with and without energy recovery. {open_quotes}Discards{close_quotes}, as the term is used in this paper, refers to all materials considered used and spent by residential and commercial generators. That which is discarded (whether recyclable or nonrecyclable) by a municipality is referred to as MSW. This paper provides an overview of MSW management practices and private-sector recycling in Japan. Estimates of the total generation of residential and commercial discards and their disposition are also presented. Such an overview of Japanese practices can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of US integrated solid waste management programs. Of the estimated 61.3 to 72.1 million tons of residential and commercial discards generated in Japan during its 1989 fiscal year (April 1, 1989, through March 31, 1990), an estimated 55 to 64 percent was incinerated; 15 to 28 percent was recycled (only 2 to 3 percent through municipal recycling activities); less than 0.1 percent was composted or used as animal feed; and 17 to 20 percent was landfilled. Including ash disposal, 26 to 30 percent, by weight, of the gross discards were landfilled.

  14. Solidification of liquid concentrate and solid waste generated as by-products of the liquid radwaste treatment systems in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid concentrate and solid waste produced in light-water reactors as by-products of liquid radwaste treatment systems consists of five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging (solidification) and waste package handling. This paper will concern itself primarily with the solidification operation, however, the other operations enumerated as well as the types of wastes treated and their origins will be briefly described, especially with regards to their effects on solidification. During solidification, liquid concentrate and solid wastes are incorporated with a solidification agent to form a monolithic, free-standing solid. The basic solidification agent types either currently used in the United States or proposed for use include absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, other polymer systems, and bitumen. The operation, formulations and limitations of these agents as used for radwaste solidification will be discussed. Properties relevant to the evaluation of solidified waste forms will be identified and relative comparisons made for wastes solidified by various processes

  15. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  16. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  17. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  18. Infrastructure Task Force Tribal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe 1) issues to consider when planning and designing community engagement approaches for tribal integrated waste management programs and 2) a proposed approach to improve tribal open dumps data and solid waste projects, and 3) an MOU.

  19. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  20. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  1. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  2. Waste generator services implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999

  3. An economic study for the co-generation of liquid fuel and hydrogen from coal and municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, A.; El-Halwagi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a new process for co-liquefying coal and plastic wastes. This assessment is based on incorporating recent experimental data on plastic/coal liquefaction within a conceptual process framework. A preliminary design was developed for two process configurations. The primary difference between the configurations is the source of hydrogen (coal versus cellulosic waste). The assessment was based on co-liquefying 720 tons per day of plastic waste with an equivalent amount of coal on a weight basis. The plant products include hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Material and energy balances along with plant-wide simulation were conducted for the process. Furthermore, the data on plastic-waste availability, disposal and economics have been compiled. The results from the economic analysis identify profitability criteria for gross profit and thus return on investment based on variable conversion, yield and tipping fee for plastic waste processed. 11 refs., 6 figs

  4. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Jansson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed...... characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements......, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections...

  5. Implementation of a management applied program for solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the Post-irradiated Fuel Examination Facility, the Irradiated Material Examination Facility, the Research Reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A data collection of a solid radioactive waste treatment process of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by treatment process. Data on the actual treatment process that is not limited experiment improve by a document, human traces, saving of material resources and improve with efficiency of tracking about a radioactive waste and a process and give help to radioactive waste material balance and inventory study.

  6. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  7. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city Dhaka Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are increasing with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budge for collection capacity alone does not improve the environmental quality rather increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a compute laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis. (author)

  8. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  9. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  10. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2014-08-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Rao, Hari Ananda; Li, Dong; Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, E.; Boldrin, A.; Jansson, S.; Lundtorp, K.; Fruergaard Astrup, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits

  13. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  14. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Boldrin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Jansson, S. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden); Lundtorp, K. [Babcock and Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg (Sweden); Fruergaard Astrup, T. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits.

  15. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  16. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  17. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  18. Pilot Study of Generation and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in Selected Household in Rural Areas in the South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelczyk Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags, which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%. Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths.

  19. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Boldrin, A; Jansson, S; Lundtorp, K; Fruergaard Astrup, T

    2014-04-15

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Hogland, W

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that

  1. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  2. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  3. Solid Waste Management with Emphasis on Environmental Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navin Kr.; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Shree, Shalini

    2011-12-01

    In this paper focus on Solid waste management. Its comprises of purposeful and systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transport, separations, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste. Awareness of Four R's management & EMS support also for management Solid waste. Basel convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their Disposal usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). it came into force 5 May 1992. According to this "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law"(UNEP).

  4. GIS analysis in the siting of incinerators as a panacea for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste represents a key issue that threatens environmental quality in Kaduna metropolis. One of the most viable options to treat such an issue is to incinerate the collected solid waste, which can reduce the cost of solid waste disposal as well as pollution and generate electricity. Despite the significance of incineration, ...

  5. Savannah River solid radioactive waste forecast, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The 1986 Solid Waste Forecast considers two types of waste: nonretrievable and retrievable (transuranic) waste. The effect of new facilities (DWPF, Naval Fuels, etc.) beginning operation coupled with plant-wide efforts to compact or reduce the volume of waste sent to 643-7G will tend to stabilize the solid waste generation rate over the forecast period (CY 1986--1995). Volume reduction by incineration and compaction, which is expected to increase during the forecast period, could reduce the volume of nonretrievable waste requiring burial by 50%. The volume of transuranic (TRU) waste generated each year is expected to increase to approximately 32,000 ft 3 /yr in 1987 and then decrease and stabilize at 17,000 ft 3 /yr TRU during the forecast period. A program is underway to process and dispose of all retrievably stored TRU waste and newly generated waste over approximately a 16-year period beginning in 1993. This program will reduce the amount of waste that must be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal and process that waste which is not certifiable for the WIPP. 9 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  7. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  8. Integrated Solid Waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain Abdul Kareem Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of waste management requires accurate data on generation and composition of waste which is pivotal for the decisions towards the appropriate waste management system. A five years (2008-2012 study was conducted to evaluate the solid wastes management system in all the six divisions of Basrah district (more than 30 sub-districts. Recent investigations in 2012 resulted information that population of Basrah district has reached 1,018,000 person The quantity of municipal solid waste generated was recorded to be 634 tons per day with MSW generation rates of 0.62 kg per capita per day. Municipal solid waste density was conducted as 192.6 kg/m³ with moisture content of 31.1%. The main components of the MSW were Food wastes represents largest proportion (54.8%, followed by plastic (25.2% and paper (7%. The study results reveal that the MSW stream has the largest proportion of biodegradable and recyclable waste. Therefore, the study recommends to use methods of waste treatment such composting, recycling and incineration in order to reduce the amount of waste that are taken to the landfill.

  9. Rural Solid Waste Management in China: Status, Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe the overall state of Rural Solid Waste Management (RSWM in China in three main areas: waste collection services, waste transportation services and waste disposal services. Given China’s urbanization, industrialization, and the subsequent improvement of household living standards, the amount of solid waste generated in rural China has increased rapidly. Based on primary data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, we find that the proportion of villages with waste collection, waste transportation, and waste disposal services in 2015 is 80%, 55% and 22%, respectively. The differences in shares of villages with these services across provinces are statistically significant. Using descriptive and econometric analyses, the authors show that richer villages are more likely to provide rural solid waste (RSW collection and transportation services. Villages with new (newly elected or appointed village leaders are more likely to supply RSW disposal services. While the majority of villages report that they offer waste collection services (installing waste collection facilities and employing waste collection workers, the vast majority of villages do not transport their waste to treatment plants. Even fewer villages report using centralized disposal methods to dispose of waste, as required by law or regulation. This study represents the first effort to describe the state and determinants of waste management services in rural China in the wake of increased investment in and new policies regarding RSWM released in 2015. Additionally, we provide evidence-based suggestions that might be useful for policy makers interested in improving RSWM in China. These suggestions include increasing investments in waste collection facilities and worker services; encouraging local residents to classify and recycle waste; designing optimal waste transportation networks and routes; and improving on-site waste disposal

  10. Gas Generation from Solids in Aqueous Suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Schatz, T.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of solid particles suspended in solution may change the radiation-induced chemistry of a system in many ways. Catalytic surface effects may manifest themselves through the acceleration or inhibition of various reactions. As importantly, the yield of primary radiolysis products may be affected as the solids absorb a significant fraction of the radiation energy. The latter is the subject of this study. We explore the possibility that absorption of radiation by the solid particles may initiate chemistry in the water. This is a question of fundamental as well as practical significance. On the fundamental side we ask whether electron-hole pairs generated in the solid phase can escape and cross into the aqueous phase and initiate chemical reactions such as gas generation and how this possibility depends on the energy levels of the material and on particle size. From a practical angle, such questions are directly relevant to any heterogeneous system exposed to radiation. High-level waste temporarily stored in underground tanks, low-level waste permanently stored in humid grout, or soil particles migrating in geological formations are but a few examples

  11. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  12. Managing America's solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  13. Solid Waste Management Holistic Decision Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study provides support to the Bank's ability to conduct client dialogue on solid waste management technology selection, and will contribute to client decision-making. The goal of the study was to fully explore the use of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Research Triangle Institute (EPA/RTI) holistic decision model to study alternative solid waste systems in a ...

  14. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  15. Managing America`s solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  16. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  17. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elvie E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Surman, J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kay, R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-08

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  18. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  19. Chrome recycling from leather solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, O.A.; Mohamady, H.S.; El-Sayed, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Leather processing is one of the industrial activities that generate chromium bearing wastes in different forms, one of them is chrome shavings which contributes about 10% of the quantum raw skins /hides, and causes on burning dangerous human hazardous. Hydrolysis processes by different alkalis such as (LiOK KOH, NaOH) have been applied to recover chrome from solid wastes. The extent of hydrolysis was studied as a function of alkalis concentrations, in presence and absence of reducing agents, shaking time and temperature. Hydrolysis process exhibits 99%, 98% and 97%, chrome recovery for LiOH, KOH and NaOH respectively. The recovered chrome has been used in retaining process, examined through visual and mechanical tests of leather samples. The evaluation of the tanning process with recovered chrome gave acceptable results

  20. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  1. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  2. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  3. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  5. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  6. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  9. Radionanalysis in solid waste research and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment of dumping or recycling of solid waste makes part of environmental geochemistry. Radioanalysis provides efficient procedures for the characterization of solid wastes, both granular and as recycled products. Radiotracers are applied to measure the situ values of transport parameters. Activation analysis is used in the determination of trace constituents in solids and leachates. This text summarizes some important applications of radioanalysis in this part of environmental monitoring

  10. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N E; Sion, H C

    2014-01-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined

  11. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  12. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  13. Radioactive solid waste management study of generated in the source production laboratory for brachytherapy; Estudo de gerenciamento dos rejeitos radioativos sólidos gerados no laboratório de produção de fontes para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Nayane K.O., E-mail: nayaneketteryn07@gmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Vitória S.; Marques, José R.O.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Baptista, Tatyana S.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Daiane C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A management system for radioactive solid wastes generated during seed production in the Laboratório de Produção de Fontes para Radioterapia (LPFRT) was developed. For this, the volume and the mass of each item of solid wastes generated in Glove box were estimated. It is possible to estimate, per week, how much reject will enter the warehouse, what space it will occupy and also its weight. In the final step of the characterization, the decay calculation is applied to define the time the reject will be stored for later disposal in the collection system. After the characterization process, it is noticed that the rate of volume and radioactivity decreases as the retention time of the rejects increases due to the release of the materials, and also, there is the decay of the radioactivity present in the reservoir. It is also observed that the rate of entry and exit of the wastes is proportional.

  14. Model for future waste generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov; Stenmarck, Aasa; Ekvall, Tomas

    2010-06-15

    The research presented in this report is part of the effort to estimate future Swedish waste quantities in the research programme Towards Sustainable Waste Management. More specifically, we estimate future waste coefficients that are designed to be fed into EMEC, which describes the Swedish economy in terms of 26 industrial sectors, a public sector, and households. Production in the model of industry and public sector requires input of labour, capital, energy, and other commodities. With waste-intensity coefficients added to each production parameter in each sector, EMEC can calculate the future waste quantities generated in different economic scenarios. To produce the waste-intensity coefficients, we make a survey of the current Swedish waste statistics. For each waste category from each sector we estimate whether the quantity depends primarily on the production in the sector, on the inputs of commodities, on the depreciation of capital goods, or on the size of the workforce in the sector. We calculate current waste-intensity coefficients by dividing the waste quantities by the parameter(s) to which they are assigned. We also present five different scenarios to describe how the waste intensity can develop until the year 2030. As far as possible and when deemed to be relevant, we have set the industrial waste generation to depend on the use of a commodity or an energy carrier. The quantity of spent vehicles and most equipment is set to depend on the depreciation of capital goods. Some wastes have been allocated to the staff, for example household waste from business. The quantities of wastes from households have a similar approach where every waste category is assigned to a combination of 26 different commodities

  15. Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare Babatunde Femi

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This p...

  16. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R.; Mokhtarani, N.; Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years

  17. Melting method for radioactive solid wastes and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Abe, Takashi; Nakayama, Junpei; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Sakamoto, Koichi

    1998-11-17

    Upon melting radioactive solid wastes mixed with radioactive metal wastes and non metal materials such as concrete by cold crucible high frequency induction heating, induction coils are wound around the outer circumference of a copper crucible having a water cooling structure to which radioactive solid wastes are charged. A heating sleeve formed by a material which generates heat by an induction heating function of graphite is disposed to the inside of the crucible at a height not in contact with molten metals in the crucible vertically movably. Radioactive solid wastes are melted collectively by the induction heat of the induction coils and thermal radiation and heat conduction of the heating sleeve heated by the induction heat. With such procedures, non metal materials such as concrete and radioactive metal wastes in a mixed state can be melt collectively continuously highly economically. (T.M.)

  18. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  19. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  20. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  1. HANFORD SITE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT [SEC 1 THRU 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement''. Assumptions and waste volumes used to calculate engineering data are also provided in this document. This chapter provides a brief description of: the Solid Waste Management Program (including a description of waste types and known characteristics of waste covered under the program), the Hanford Site (including a general discussion of the operating areas), and the alternatives analyzed. The Hanford Site Solid Waste Management Program and DOE/EIS-0286 address solid radioactive waste types generated by various activities from both onsite and offsite generators. The Environmental Restoration (ER) waste management activities are not within the scope of DOE/EIS-0286 or this TID. Activities for processing and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) are not within the scope of the Solid Waste Management Program and this TID

  2. An Economic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Toyohashi City, Japan: Evidences from Environmental Kuznets Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Yuzuru; Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Hossain, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    The study of Toyohashi cityfs economic growth and resultant growth in municipal solid waste management were empirically examined by the relation between city economic growth, city expenditure for solid waste management and municipal solid waste. The growth in the economy and the population has increased discharge of municipal solid waste in Toyohashi city. The economic size of the city is identified as a strong explanatory variable. Various kinds of municipal solid waste were generated with ...

  3. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  4. Estimation of construction and demolition waste using waste generation rates in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, V G; Kalidindi, Satyanarayana N

    2017-06-01

    A large amount of construction and demolition waste is being generated owing to rapid urbanisation in Indian cities. A reliable estimate of construction and demolition waste generation is essential to create awareness about this stream of solid waste among the government bodies in India. However, the required data to estimate construction and demolition waste generation in India are unavailable or not explicitly documented. This study proposed an approach to estimate construction and demolition waste generation using waste generation rates and demonstrated it by estimating construction and demolition waste generation in Chennai city. The demolition waste generation rates of primary materials were determined through regression analysis using waste generation data from 45 case studies. Materials, such as wood, electrical wires, doors, windows and reinforcement steel, were found to be salvaged and sold on the secondary market. Concrete and masonry debris were dumped in either landfills or unauthorised places. The total quantity of construction and demolition debris generated in Chennai city in 2013 was estimated to be 1.14 million tonnes. The proportion of masonry debris was found to be 76% of the total quantity of demolition debris. Construction and demolition debris forms about 36% of the total solid waste generated in Chennai city. A gross underestimation of construction and demolition waste generation in some earlier studies in India has also been shown. The methodology proposed could be utilised by government bodies, policymakers and researchers to generate reliable estimates of construction and demolition waste in other developing countries facing similar challenges of limited data availability.

  5. Power from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo dos Reis, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy production potential from urban wastes for several cities in Latin America. Technologies available for transforming wastes into energy are reviewed and the high efficiency and low pollution levels obtained are discussed based on some very successful examples in the developed countries. Several criteria to help plan a plant and choose its location and appropriate size are presented under the framework of environmental and energy constraints. Economic and financial feasibility, barriers to the introduction of new technologies and their transfer to developing countries, and political obstacles created by the lobby that is taking advantage of the present situation are presented. Management of such plants requires that a social communication program be well designed to touch and inform the public about the importance of the plants; it should also emphasize the gains to society. Marketing strategies are presented that will highlight life quality improvement and preservation of the environment to decision makers and the public. A case study for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will be discussed in detail, showing how several levels of decision makers are involved in the preparation of the feasibility study and in raising financial resources both inside and outside the country. The study is for a large plant with a capacity of 1,800 ton/day and the generation of 27 MW of electric power

  6. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECOVERY POTENTIAL: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir, A. Ahsan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 7690 tons of municipal solid waste generated daily at the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet, as estimated in 2005. Sampling was done at different waste generation sources such as residential, commercial, institutional and open areas, in different seasons. The composition of the entire waste stream was about 74.4% organic matter, 9.1% paper, 3.5% plastic, 1.9% textile and wood, 0.8% leather and rubber, 1.5% metal, 0.8% glass and 8% other waste. The per capita generation of municipal solid waste was ranged from 0.325 to 0.485 kg/cap/day while the average rate was 0.387 kg/cap/day as measured in the six major cities. The potential for waste recovery and reduction based on the waste characteristics are evaluated and it is predicted that 21.64 million US$/yr can be earned from recycling and composting of municipal solid waste.

  7. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites

  8. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  9. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  10. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  11. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  12. Integrated waste management - Looking beyond the solid waste horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seadon, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Waste as a management issue has been evident for over four millennia. Disposal of waste to the biosphere has given way to thinking about, and trying to implement, an integrated waste management approach. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) defined 'integrated waste management' as 'a framework of reference for designing and implementing new waste management systems and for analysing and optimising existing systems'. In this paper the concept of integrated waste management as defined by UNEP is considered, along with the parameters that constitute integrated waste management. The examples used are put into four categories: (1) integration within a single medium (solid, aqueous or atmospheric wastes) by considering alternative waste management options (2) multi-media integration (solid, aqueous, atmospheric and energy wastes) by considering waste management options that can be applied to more than one medium (3) tools (regulatory, economic, voluntary and informational) and (4) agents (governmental bodies (local and national), businesses and the community). This evaluation allows guidelines for enhancing success: (1) as experience increases, it is possible to deal with a greater complexity; and (2) integrated waste management requires a holistic approach, which encompasses a life cycle understanding of products and services. This in turn requires different specialisms to be involved in the instigation and analysis of an integrated waste management system. Taken together these advance the path to sustainability

  13. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  14. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... inadequate manpower and welfare, poor provision of health services, negative attitudes, ...

  15. Solid and liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology for the treatment of low - and intermediate-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes is somewhat extensive. Some main guidance on the treatment methods are shown, based on informations contained in technical reports and complementary documents. (author) [pt

  16. Solid Waste Management In Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Tahiri; , A. Maçi; , V. Tahiri; , K. Tahiri

    2016-01-01

    Waste management accordingly from concept and practices that are used in different countries there are differences, particularly between developed and developing countries. Our country takes part in the context of small developing countries where waste management right is almost at the beginning. In order to have better knowledge about waste management in Kosovo is done a research. The research has included the institutions that are responsible for waste management, including central and loca...

  17. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  18. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  19. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  1. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  2. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  3. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies...... the comparison of waste data with various objectives. Analysis revealed that Danish residual household waste constitutes mainly food waste (42 – 45% mass per wet basis). Misplaced recyclable materials in residual waste bins, such as paper, board, glass, metal and plastic, amounted to 20% (mass per wet basis...

  4. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  5. Solid waste disposal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a small and densely populated country, the disposal of solid waste requires strict precautions. Because the landscape is flat and the watertable just under groundlevel, landfilling and dumping must be avoided as much as possible. Incineration of municipal and industrial waste are

  6. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  7. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  8. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Kawser Jamil; Farid Nasir Ani

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  9. Solid Waste Biodegradation Enhancements and the Evaluation of Analytical Methods Used to Predict Waste Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional landfills are built to dispose of the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated each year. A relatively new type of landfill, called a bioreactor landfill, is designed to optimize the biodegradation of the contained waste to stabilized products. Landfills with stabilized waste pose little threat to the environment from ozone depleting gases and groundwater contamination. Limited research has been done to determine the importance of biodegradation enhancement tech...

  10. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  11. Renda e evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil Evolution of income and per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Kátia Tavares Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da geração de resíduos sólidos é a prioridade para o manejo dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil, de acordo com a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Este texto apresenta dados sobre a evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil e em outros países desenvolvidos, bem como os esforços e as dificuldades encontradas por estes últimos para a sua redução ou estabilização. São levantadas hipóteses sobre fatores sociais, econômicos e culturais que interferem no consumo e na consequente geração de resíduos sólidos, visando contribuir com o debate sobre o tema. Em uma primeira análise sobre a evolução da geração per capita dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil verifica-se uma maior propensão ao seu crescimento em função, principalmente, da melhoria da renda da população pobre e fatores culturais como a redução do tamanho das famílias e a entrada da mulher no mercado de trabalho.Reducing solid wastes generation is a priority for solid waste management in Brazil, according to the National Policy of Solid Waste. This paper presents data on trends in per capita solid wastes generation in Brazil, and in other developed countries, as well as the efforts and difficulties to reduce or stabilize that flow. In order to contribute to the debate on the subject, some hypotheses are raised about social, economic and cultural factors that affect consumption and the consequent generation of solid wastes. In a first analysis of the evolution of the per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil, there is a greater propensity for growth due mainly to the improvement in the income of the poor and to cultural factors, such as reduction of the family size and inclusion of women in the labor market.

  12. Hanford's self-assessment of the solid waste forecast process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, J.; Skumanich, M.; Morgan, J.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995 the forecast process used at Hanford to project future solid waste volumes was evaluated. Data on current and future solid waste generation are used by Hanford site planners to determine near-term and long-term planning needs. Generators who plan to ship their waste to Hanford's Solid Waste Program for treatment, storage, and disposal provide volume information on the types of waste that could be potentially generated, waste characteristics, and container types. Generators also provide limited radionuclide data and supporting assumptions. A self-assessment of the forecast process identified many effective working elements, including a well-established and systematic process for data collection, analysis and reporting; sufficient resources to obtain the necessary information; and dedicated support and analytic staff. Several areas for improvement were identified, including the need to improve confidence in the forecast data, integrate forecast data with other site-level and national data calls, enhance the electronic data collection system, and streamline the forecast process

  13. Ecosystem biomass, carbon, and nitrogen five years after restoration with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalating municipal solid waste generation coupled with decreasing landfill space needed for disposal has increased the pressure on military installations to evaluate novel approaches to handle this waste. One approach to alleviating the amount of municipal solid waste being landfilled is the use o...

  14. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams

  15. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Pham Phu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room, garden, and level of restaurant. The differences in waste generation rate of the hotels were proved to be statistically significant. The higher the scale of hotels, the higher the waste generation rate. Moreover, the waste composition of the hotels was identified by 58.5% for biodegradable waste, 25.8% for recyclables and 15.7% for others. The relative differences in the waste composition of the hotels by climate, the features of hotels, and the types of the guest were explained. Whereby, the higher size of the hotels, the higher percentage of biodegradable and less proportion of recyclable waste. Also, this study revealed that the implementation status of waste management practices of the hoteliers initially reaped quite positive achievements with 76% for sorting, 39% for recycling, 29% for reduction, and 0.8% for composting. The rate of waste management practices was proportional to the scale of the hotel. This study provided information on waste management practice of hotel industry and contributed to the overall assessment of municipal solid waste management practices of Hoi An city.

  16. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2004 THRU FY2035 VERSION 2004.1 VOLUME 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to managed by Hanford's Solid Waste Stabilization and Disposition Project from onsite and offsite generators

  17. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  18. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  19. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  20. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  1. Assessment of national waste generation in EU Member States’ efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Petrou, Kleoniki Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Waste generation and management may be considered as either a by-product of economic actions or even used as input to economic activity like energy recovery. Every country produces different amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) and with different composition. This paper deals with the efficiency of 28 EU Member States for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 by employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and by using eight parameters, namely waste generation, employment rate, capital formation, GDP,...

  2. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors

  3. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  4. Integrated models for solid waste management in tourism regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Hashim, Halimaton Saadiah; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  5. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Shamshiry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  6. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Bin Mokhtar, Mazlin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Saadiah Hashim, Halimaton; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island. PMID:21904559

  7. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  8. The construction of solid waste form test and inspection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Jeong Woo; Lee, Jong Youl; Bae, Sang Min

    1988-01-01

    The solid waste form test and inspection facility is a facility to test and inspect the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogenity, mechanical structure, thermal behaviour, water resistance and leachability. Such kinds of characteristics in waste forms are required to meet a certain conditions for long-term storage or for final disposal of wastes. The facility will be used to evaluate safety for the disposal of wastes by test and inspection. At this moment, the efforts to search the most effective management of the radioactive wastes generated from power plants and radioisotope user are being executed by the people related to this field. Therefore, the facility becomes more significant tool because of its guidance of sucessfully converting wastes into forms to give a credit to the safety of waste disposal for managing the radioactive wastes. In addition the overall technical standards for inspecting of waste forms such as the standardized equipment and processes in the facility will be estabilished in the begining of 1990's when the project of waste management will be on the stream. Some of the items of the project have been standardized for the purpose of localization. In future, this facility will be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination apparatus by remote operation techniques. (Author)

  9. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Financial and economic implications of solid waste management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptively, a large proportion of respondents strongly agreed that solid waste management has significant effect on internally generated revenue (IGR) and youth employment in the state. Consistently, the computed Z values laid between -1.96 and 1.96 of their critical values implying the acceptance of the two alternative ...

  11. Characterization and analysis of medical solid waste in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the study of quantum and characterization of medica solid wastes generated by healthcare facilities in Osun State. The work involved administration of a questionnaire and detailed studies conducted on facilities selected on the basis of a combination of purposive and random sampling methods.

  12. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  13. Evaluation of dental solid waste in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabizadeh R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Today, one of the most important environmental issues is dental solid wastes which are of great importance because of the presence of hazardous, toxic and pathogen agents. In this survey, solid waste produced in Hamedan general dental offices is evaluated. "nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive study, from 104 general dental offices in Hamedan , 10 offices were selected in simple random way. From each offices, 3 sample at the end of successive working day (Sunday, Monday and Tuesday were analyzed. Samples were manually sorted into different 74 components and measured by means of laboratory scale. Then, measured components were classified in the basis of characteristic and hazardous potential as well as material type. "nResults: Total annual waste produced in general dental offices in Hamadan is 14662.67 Kg (9315.45>95.0% Confidence Interval>20009.88. Production percentages of infectious, domestic type, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic wastes were 51.93, 38.16, 9.47, 0.44 respectively. Main components of produced dental waste were 14 components that consist of more than 80 percents of total dental solid waste. So, waste reduction, separation and recycling plans in the offices must be concentrated on these main components. "nConclusion: In order to dental waste proper management, it is suggested that in addition to educate dentists for waste reduction, separation and recycling in the offices, each section of dental waste(toxic,chemical and pharmaceutical, infectious and domestic type wastes separately and according to related criteria should be managed.

  14. Scenario Of Solid Waste Management In Hetauda Municipality, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigyan Neupane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to enlighten the solid waste management of Hetauda Municipality in Makwanpur district of an area of 44.5 sq. km. The total human population of the municipality is 84,671 (CBS 2011. Out of 11 wards, 5 wards (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were selected for the present study. In total 50 households, 10 institutions and 10 commercial sectors were selected from studied wards from which samples of different types of wastes were collected, segregated and weighed. Weight was calculated using a digital spring balance and a bag 0.043 m3 was used for the estimation of volume. Organic wastes were found to be dominant in the household (51.73% and commercial sectors (61.70% whereas in institutions, plastic (50.36% and papers (38.19% were prevailing. The findings revealed that per capita 155.4 gm/person/day household waste was generated in Hetauda Municipality. The residents are also aware of the harmful effects of the wastes, and demand an effective solid waste management services. Though they are aware about the sustainable management of wastes, due to erratic collection of wastes, some of them throw the wastes in the open lands - The local people also participate in the awareness campaigns organized by local NGOs and municipal. Solid waste management strategies are timely need for an effective management of anthropogenic wastes. Regular waste collection, improvement of dumping sites and sufficient number of composting plants are recommended in the municipality. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 105-114 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9214

  15. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  16. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available

  17. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  18. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  19. The potential of household solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal District, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Kurniawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid population growth affects the amount of waste generated. Sukomanunggal Subdistrict is the densest area in West Surabaya which has a population of 100,602 inhabitants with a total area of 11.2 km2. The population growth significantly affects the problem of limited land for landfill facilities (final processing sites). According to the prevailing regulations, solid waste management solutions include the solid waste reduction and management. This study aims to determine the potential reduction of household solid waste at the sources. Household solid waste samplings were performed for eight consecutive days. The samples were then analyzed to obtain the generation rate, density, and composition so that the household solid waste reduction potential for the next 20 years could be devised. Results of the analysis showed that the value of waste is 0.27 kg/person/day, while the total household solid waste generation amounted to 27,162.58 kg/day or 187.70 m3/day. Concerning the technical aspects, the current solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has reached 2.1% through the application of waste bank, composting, and scavenging activities at the dumping sites by the garbage collectors. In the year of 2036, the potential reduction of household solid waste in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has been estimated to reach 28.0%.

  20. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  1. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-01-01

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  2. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Tumpa; Goel, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current solid waste management (SWM) practices in Kolkata, India and suggests solutions to some of the major problems. More than 2920 ton/d of solid waste are generated in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area and the budget allocation for 2007-2008 was Rs. 1590 million (US$40 million), which amounts to Rs. 265/cap-y (US$6.7/cap-d) on SWM. This expenditure is insufficient to provide adequate SWM services. Major deficiencies were found in all elements of SWM. Despite 70% of the SWM budget being allocated for collection, collection efficiency is around 60-70% for the registered residents and less than 20% for unregistered residents (slum dwellers). The collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate, thus contributing to the inefficiency of the system. At this time, no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on open land at Dhapa after collection. Lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure) and underestimates of waste generation rates, inadequate management and technical skills, improper bin collection, and route planning are responsible for poor collection and transportation of municipal solid wastes

  3. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  5. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1) A...

  6. Construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Whee; Lee, Kang Moo; Koo, Jun Mo; Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Sung Whan; Bae, Sang Min; Cho, Kang Whon; Sung, Suk Jong

    1989-02-01

    The Solid Waste Form Test Facility (SWFTF) is now construction at DAEDUCK in Korea. In SWFTF, the characteristics of solidified waste products as radiological homogeneity, mechanical and thermal property, water resistance and lechability will be tested and evaluated to meet conditions for long-term storage or final disposal of wastes. The construction of solid waste form test facility has been started with finishing its design of a building and equipments in Sep. 1984, and now building construction is completed. Radioactive gas treatment system, extinguishers, cooling and heating system for the facility, electrical equipments, Master/Slave manipulator, power manipulator, lead glass and C.C.T.V. has also been installed. SWFTF will be established in the beginning of 1990's. At this report, radiation shielding door, nondestructive test of the wall, instrumentation system for the utility supply system and cell lighting system are described. (Author)

  7. Solid municipal waste processing plants: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper performs cost benefit analyses on three solid municipal waste processing alternatives with plants of diverse daily outputs. The different processing schemes include: selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels; selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels and compost; pyrolysis with energy recovery in the form of electric power. The plant daily outputs range from 100 to 300 tonnes for the refuse derived fuel alternatives, and from 200 to 800 tonnes for the pyrolysis/power generation scheme. The cost analyses consider investment periods of fifteen years in duration and interest rates of 5%

  8. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five...... transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data....

  9. HWVP compliance with the Hanford site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromm, R.; Ornelas, J.; Fundingsland, S.; Shah, K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to ensure that the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) will meet solid waste acceptance criteria, a review of the criteria was performed. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the modifications that will be required to bring the HWVP into compliance for secondary waste which will be generated during normal operations of the facility. To accomplish this objective, the current HWVP design was evaluated based on the criteria established. Once the non-compliance areas and potentially non-compliance areas were identified, alternative plant design modifications were proposed. This paper summarizes the results and recommendations of that study

  10. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    S.T. Pham Phu; M.G. Hoang; T. Fujiwara

    2018-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room...

  11. Externalities in solid waste managements: Values, instruments and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis was stimulated by and completed against the backdrop of the unfolding 'waste crisis'. It critically examines whether the crisis is real or whether it merely reflects mis-perceptions. Three principal problems associated with the disposal of solid waste are identified. First, there is increasing concern over the environmental pollution of waste disposal, reflecting not just the increase in actual waste arisings, but also the increased public awareness of environmental pollution. Secondly, there is concern over the financial costs of waste collection and disposal, which can constitute a considerable drain on available public revenues. Lastly, there is the perceived scarcity of suitable land for siting disposal facilities. Although some low-lying, densely populated regions are inappropriate for the sitting of landfills, the scarcity more often reflects political constraints rather than a genuine shortage. This thesis asserts that a non-optimal quantity of waste, together with the concomitant environmental pollution and financial costs of disposal, partly result from government failure. Current practice fails to ensure that the parties generating the waste face a price at the point of disposal and that such a price reflects the full social costs of disposal. A model is presented which argues that the socially optimal configuration of waste management is that where the marginal social costs of each waste treatment method equals those of the others. In an empirical section, the external costs of landfill, incineration, recycling and composting are estimated for the European Union, based on existing studies of damage costs for different pollutants. This is followed by estimations of the financial costs of municipal solid waste management. Combining financial and external cost estimates, a cost-benefit analysis of municipal solid waste management in the European Union is undertaken. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  13. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  14. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  15. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  17. Scenarios for biodegradable solid waste management and energy recovery in the 'A' Ward in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tellnes, Lars Gunnar Furelid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Mumbai is one of the most highly-populated cities in the world and the commercial capital of India. Every day, about 6500 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 2500 tons of construction and demolition waste are generated. The collection efficiency in Mumbai is relatively high for an Indian city, but there is a paucity of space for landfilling.. With the introduction of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000, biodegradable wastes could not be landfilled w...

  18. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  1. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  2. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Quazi H., E-mail: qhbari@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Mahbub Hassan, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Haque, R. [Project Builders Ltd., Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  3. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-01-01

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d −1 solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  4. Method of solidifying radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes satisfactorily and safely with no destruction even under a high pressure atmosphere by preventing the stress concentration by considering the relationships of the elastic module between the solidifying material and radioactive solid wastes. Method: Solidification products of radioactive wastes with safety and securing an aimed safety ratio are produced by conditioning the modules of elasticity of the solidifying material equal to or less than that of the radioactive wastes in a case where the elastic module of radioactive solid wastes to be solidified is smaller than that of the solidifying material (the elastic module of wastes having the minimum elastic module among various wastes). The method of decreasing the elastic module of the solidifying material usable herein includes the use of such a resin having a long distance between cross-linking points of a polymer in the case of plastic solidifying materials, and addition of rubber-like binders in the case of cement or like other inorganic solidifying materials. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  6. Rock solid: the geology of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Elspeth.

    1990-01-01

    With a number of nuclear submarines and power stations due to be decommissioned in the next decade, stores of radioactive waste, and arguments about storage increase. Whatever the direction taken by the nuclear industry in Britain, the legacy of waste remains for the foreseeable future. Geology is at the heart of the safety argument for nuclear wastes. It is claimed that rocks should act as the main safety barrier, protecting present and future generations from radiation. Rock Solid presents a clear, accessible and up to date account of the geological problems involved in building a nuclear waste repository. The author describes the geology of some of the possible UK repository sites (Sellafield, Dounreay, Altnabreac, Billingham), explains how sites are investigated (including computer models), and finally considers the crucial question: 'would geological containment of radioactive waste actually work?'. (author)

  7. Factors determining waste generation in Spanish towns and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, Miriam; Gallardo, Antonio; Ibàñez, Maria Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the generation and composition of municipal solid waste in Spanish towns and cities with more than 5000 inhabitants, which altogether account for 87% of the Spanish population. To do so, the total composition and generation of municipal solid waste fractions were obtained from 135 towns and cities. Homogeneity tests revealed heterogeneity in the proportions of municipal solid waste fractions from one city to another. Statistical analyses identified significant differences in the generation of glass in cities of different sizes and in the generation of all fractions depending on the hydrographic area. Finally, linear regression models and residuals analysis were applied to analyze the effect of different demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic variables on the generation of waste fractions. The conclusions show that more densely populated towns, a hydrographic area, and cities with over 50,000 inhabitants have higher waste generation rates, while certain socioeconomic variables (people/car) decrease that generation. Other socioeconomic variables (foreigners and unemployment) show a positive and null influence on that waste generation, respectively.

  8. Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in closed...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....

  9. Waste Generation Overview Refresher, Course 21464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Refresher (COURSE 21464), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to- grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL.

  10. The Museum of Solid Waste and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This activity geared for grades 5-9 involves students in creating museum stations on eight solid waste and energy topics. While working in groups, students present their station topic to other students who are conducting a "museum tour." In doing so participants are encouraged to enhance their reading, writing, public speaking, and artistic skills…

  11. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  12. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  13. General survey of solid-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  14. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  15. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampton, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures

  16. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  17. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  18. SEM Model Medical Solid Waste Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    In daily activities, hospitals, as one of the important health care unit, generate both medical solid waste and non-medical solid waste. The occurrence of medical solid waste could be from the results of treatment activities, such as, in the treatment room for a hospital inpatient, general clinic, a dental clinic, a mother and child clinic, laboratories and pharmacies. Most of the medical solid waste contains infectious and hazardous materials. Therefore it should be managed properly, otherwise it could be a source of new infectious for the community around the hospital as well as for health workers themselves. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. One of the efforts that need to be done in improving the quality of the environment is to undertake waste management activities, because with proper waste management is the most important in order to achieve an optimal degree of human health. Health development in Indonesian aims to achieve a future in which the Indonesian people live in a healthy environment, its people behave clean and healthy, able to reach quality health services, fair and equitable, so as to have optimal health status, health development paradigm anchored to the healthy. The healthy condition of the individual and society can be influenced by the environment. Poor environmental quality is a cause of various health problems. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. This paper proposes a model for managing the medical solid waste in hospitals in Medan city, in order to create healthy environment around hospitals.

  19. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  20. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  1. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  2. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  3. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  4. Evaluation of Waste-to-Energy Potential of Domestic Solid Wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    waste in the metropolis ends up on illegal waste dumpsites. The aim of this paper was to investigate the waste-to-energy potentials of domestic solid wastes in Benin metropolis, Nigeria using a three-phase study plan - study of current waste management activities, characterization of domestic solid waste and determination ...

  5. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  6. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  7. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  8. Exhumation test with aged radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The deterioration of solid radioactive waste buried in soil is an important consideration when estimating the migration of radionuclides from the burial site, planning procedures for exhuming buried waste, and evaluating hazards caused by intentional or unintentional uncovering of the waste. This report presents observations during the excavation of low-level waste buried for 14 years in the humid environment of the Savannah River Plant. The radiation dose rates that were used to define the limits for low-level beta-gamma wastes were <50 mR/hr from an unshielded package or <50 mR/hr at 10 feet from a truck load. The waste was buried in sandy clay soil trenches more than 20 feet above the water table and covered with soil soon after burial. Rainfall for the area averages 47 inches per year. Because of the higher water permeability in backfilled soil than in undisturbed soil, perched water was sometimes found in the bottom of some trenches. However, the duration and/or extent of perched water is limited so that most waste is not subjected to water-saturated soil. The waste uncovered included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials that deteriorated visibly. Apparently, decades would be required for all cellulose materials to decompose; plastics, rubber, and metals will probably survive indefinitely

  9. characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is produced through human activities and in the last two ... Solid waste samples were collected and analysed from the four major dumpsites in ..... Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133,. Switzerland.

  10. Interface control document between PUREX/UO3 Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    This interface control document (ICD) between PUREX/UO 3 Plant Transition (PPT) and Solid Waste Disposal Division (SWD) establishes at a top level the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. Since the PUREX Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions operate autonomously, it is important that each division has a clear understanding of the other division's expectations regarding these interfaces. This ICD primarily deals with solid wastes generated by the PPT. In addition to delineating functional responsibilities, the ICD includes a baseline description of those wastes that will require management as part of the interface between the divisions. The baseline description of wastes includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities: the primary purpose of this ICD is to ensure defensibility of expected waste stream volumes and Characteristics for future waste management facilities. Waste descriptions must be as complete as-possible to ensure adequate treatment, storage, and disposal capability will exist. The ICD also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the PUREX. Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions. The ICD does not impact or affect the existing processes or procedures for shipping, packaging, or approval for shipping wastes by generators to the Solid Waste Division

  11. Solid waste management in faisalabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, A.; Ali, S.; Khan, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today's world. There is a considerable amount of disposal of waste without proper segregation which has lead to both economic and environment sufferings. It is still practiced in many cities. There is a tremendous amount of loss in terms of environmental degradation, health hazards and economic descend due to direct disposal of waste. It is better to segregate the waste at the initial stages where it is generated, rather than going for a later option which is inconvenient and expensive. There has to be appropriate planning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste situation of the area. This paper would deal with, how Geographical Information System can be used as a decision support tool for planning waste management. A model is designed for the case study area in Pakistan city for the purpose of planning waste management. The suggestions for amendments in the system through GIS based model would reduce the waste management workload to some extent and exhibit remedies for some of the SWM problems in the case study area. The waste management issues are considered to solve some of the present situation problems like proper allocation and relocation of waste bins, check for unsuitability and proximity convenience due to waste bin to the users, proposal of recyclable waste bins for the required areas and future suggestions. The model will be implemented on the Faisalabad city's case study area data for the analysis and results will suggest some modification in the existing system which is expected to reduce the waste management workload to a certain extent. (author)

  12. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Solid Waste Generated in the Water Industry: Case Study of the Water Treatment Stations of the Metropolitan Region of Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Gomes Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to characterize the solid waste, commonly known as sludge, from the water treatment industry. Six main water treatment plants (Alto do Céu, Botafogo, Caixa d'água, Gurjaú, Suape and Tapacurá were selected from the Metropolitan Region of Recife, managed by Companhia Pernambucana de Saneamento. Nine samples were collected in the eleven month period in the discharge of the sludge from the decanters. These samples were characterized physico-chemically, based on the methodology of the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2012. The results indicated average humidity of 93%, average COD around 30 g/L and BOD of 4.5 g/L, indicating sludge of low biodegradability. The average values of total solids were 72 g/L, with 75% corresponding to fixed residues and 25% to volatiles. High concentrations of aluminum (1000 mg/L were observed, due to the use of aluminum sulphate as a coagulant, and iron, around 500 mg/L. This study assists the manager in the decision making of the sustainable management of the sludge, mainly in relation to the final disposal.

  13. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  14. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  15. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Brich, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  16. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Elmira Shamshiry; Behzad Nadi; Mazlin Bin Mokhtar; Ibrahim Komoo; Halimaton Saadiah Hashim; Nadzri Yahaya

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, co...

  17. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  18. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  19. Solid waste management in Linamon, Lanao del Norte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragoso, Glaiza P.; Sapar, Cherine Mae A.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.

    2018-01-01

    In this modern world, Solid Waste Management is very important in maintaining a high quality of life so humans must manage and store waste efficiently and safely. Almost every day each household generates garbage or wastes. People throw things improperly without knowing the consequences. The main objective of the study was to assess the residents' Solid Waste Management. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational attainment, occupation, monthly income, no. of household member; What is the knowledge of the respondents about Natural Environment?; How do respondents disposed garbage from the household?; What is the level of the respondents concern about proper waste management?; What is the willingness of the respondents to participate in proper Solid Waste Management?; What is the attitude of the respondents towards the Solid Waste Management? The said study was conducted at the Municipality of Linamon, which is a 5th class municipality located at the Eastern Gateway to Lanao del Norte, a south western Province of Northern Mindanao in the Philippines. The study was conducted in the 8 barangays of the Municipality of Linamon, namely: Bosque, Larapan, Mago-ong, Napo, Poblacion, Purakan, Robocon, and Samburon. The Municipality has 3 urban barangays and 4 rural barangays. The study revealed that most of the respondents interviewed were housewives. Out of 313 respondents, 67.10 % did not understand the term natural environment, with major issue currently affecting natural environment as "household garbage'. The respondents dispose the yard trimmings and papers through burning. The plastic and glass is disposed through the garbage truck. The metals and damaged home appliances were disposed by selling it to the junk shop. The respondents disposed their garbage into an open container specifically in a sack, collected by garbage trucks. The study also revealed that the respondents were

  20. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced

  1. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  2. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of organic solid waste for reuse: a step towards zero waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, Z.M.; Raja, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of organic solid wastes are being generated from municipal, industrial and agricultural activities. After necessary processing, the organic solid waste can be reused for agriculture not only as a nutrient supplement for plant growth, but also as a conditioner for seedbed soil. Processed organic wastes may improve soil structure and enhance water and nutrient-holding capacity of the soil, as well as increase the microbial activity within the soil, thereby increasing soil fertility. In this study, problems like undesirably high moisture contents and large volumes per unit weight of the processed organic solid wastes have been addressed through pelletization. Physical properties like durability, percent of fines content, and bulk and particle density of the processed and pelletized organic waste have been investigated, and the optimum values for storage, handling and transportation of the pelletized organic waste have been determined. Three different sizes of extruding sieve (4.35, 6.35 and 7.9 mm) and three different waste-mixing ratios (1:1:2, 1:2:2 and 1:3:3) of farmyard waste, wastewater sludge and sugar industry press mud were used respectively for the production of bio-solid pellets. The physical properties of the palletes show that durability increases by increasing the amount of sewage sludge while fines content, bulk density and unit density decrease. The large sieve size has more durability and less fine content. The results showed that the pelletization technique can be efficiently used by the farmers and appears to be a good option for sustainable management and re-use of organic solid wastes. (author)

  4. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The... Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.202 Definition of solid waste. (a) A military munition is not...

  6. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  7. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  8. studies on municipal solid wastes dumping on soil anions, cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and selected soil enzymes activities of Njoku solid waste dumpsite Owerri municipal, Nigeria were investigated. ... wastes) and sometimes commercial wastes collected by a ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.

  9. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  10. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  11. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  12. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  13. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  14. Hanford solid waste management system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Armacost, L.L.; Konynenbelt, H.S.; Wehrman, R.R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes systems analysis and simulation model development for a proposed solid waste management system at a U.S. Department of Energy Site. The proposed system will include a central storage facility, four treatment facilities, and three disposal sites. The material managed by this system will include radioactive, hazardous, and mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide a means of evaluating throughput and capacity requirements for the proposed treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The model is used to evaluate alternative system configurations and the effect on the alternatives of changing waste stream characteristics and receipt schedules. An iterative modeling and analysis approach is used that provides macro-level models early in the project and establishes credibility with the customer. The results from the analyses based on the macro models influence system design decisions and provide information that helps focus subsequent model development. Modeling and simulation of alternative system configurations and operating strategies yield a better understanding of the solid waste system requirements. The model effectively integrates information obtained through systems analysis and waste characterization to provide a consistent basis for system and facility planning

  15. Storage and Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Monitoring and Protection Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    This paper deals with solutions for the problem of final disposal of solid radioactive waste. I. It is first essential to organize a proper system of temporary storage. II. Final Storage In order to organize final storage, it is necessary to fix, according to the activity and form of the waste, the site and the modes of transport to be used within and outside the nuclear centre. The choice of solutions follows from the foregoing essentials. The paper then considers, in turn, final storage, on the ground, in the sub-soil and in the sea. Economic considerations are an important factor in determining the choice of solution. (author)

  16. Low temperature ozone oxidation of solid waste surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, James A.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid waste management presents a significant challenge to human spaceflight and especially, long-term missions beyond Earth orbit. A six-month mission will generate over 300 kg of solid wastes per crewmember that must be dealt with to eliminate the need for storage and prevent it from becoming a biological hazard to the crew. There are several methods for the treatment of wastes that include oxidation via ozone, incineration, microbial oxidation or pyrolysis and physical methods such as microwave drying and compaction. In recent years, a low temperature oxidation process using ozonated water has been developed for the chemical conversion of organic wastes to CO2 and H2O. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate and effectiveness with which ozone oxidized several different waste materials. Increasing the surface area by chopping or shredding the solids into small pieces more than doubled the rate of oxidation. A greater flow of ozone and agitation of the ozonated water system also increased processing rates. Of the materials investigated, plastics have proven the most difficult to oxidize. The processing of plastics above the glass transition temperatures caused the plastics to clump together which reduced the exposed surface area, while processing at lower temperatures reduced surface reaction kinetics.

  17. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  18. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  19. Life cycle assessment applied to nanomaterials in solid waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis

    While the generation of solid waste is globally increasing, much effort is concentrated to minimise the environmental impacts related to their management. With respect to nanoproducts (products containing nanomaterials), a growing amount of ‘nanowaste’ can be expected to enter the waste streams...... on specific waste types and waste management systems, all primarily reflecting situations in economicallydeveloped countries. At the same time, methodological practice was found in many studies not to be compliant with current reference guidance, such as the ISO standards and the ILCD Handbook. Likewise......, thus potentially posing problems on human health, e.g. through occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles. In that setting, through its holistic quantification of environmental impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be a useful decisionsupport tool for managing environmental sustainability...

  20. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY 2001 to FY 2046 Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to maintain an up-to-date Solid Waste Forecast, Fluor Hanford, Inc. requested a midyear update to the FY2001 Solid Waste Forecast collected in June 2000. Below is a list of generators reporting significant changes from the baseline FY2001 forecast, as well as approved generators previously not reporting wastes. The updated data was collected in February 2001. The cumulative effect of the changes in the near term was minor. Included in this update are waste generation maps for onsite facilities. The maps are updated annually and use the baseline forecast as a data reference

  1. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana, E-mail: l.abarca.guerrero@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Ger, E-mail: g.j.maas@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hogland, William, E-mail: william.hogland@lnu.se [School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information

  2. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stakeholders. ► Factors affecting performance waste management systems. ► Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders’ action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems’ failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems

  3. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  4. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles

  5. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Jamil, M.K.; Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R.

    2000-01-01

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 450 0 C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.M.; Sheehan, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. All newly generated CH-TRU solid waste is being transferred to the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) and/or a controlled storage facility. These facilities will store the waste until the certified TRU waste can be sent to the WIPP site and the non-certified TRU waste can be sent to the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. All non-certifiable TRU waste will be segregated and clearly identified

  8. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  9. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub......-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating,comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste...

  10. Design and operation of a low-level solid-waste disposal site at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, K.A.; Wilson, N.E.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Since the mid-1940's, approximately 185000 m 3 of low-level and transuranic radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial. Procedures and facilities have been designed and evaluated in the areas of waste acceptance, treatment and storage, disposal, traffic control, and support systems. The methodologies assuring the proper management and disposal of radioactive solid waste are summarized

  11. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  12. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management

  13. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Solid waste management : a case study of National Refinery Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.H.; Syed, Z.R. [National Refinery Ltd., Karachi (Pakistan); NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to quantify and classify the waste generated at the National Refinery Limited (NRL). This refinery, located in Karachi, Pakistan, produces naphtha, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils and much more. Various units such as crude oil storage, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and others were surveyed to assess the source and nature of the pollution. It was found that the major contributor to air pollution was the sulfur released through the burning of fuel oil during day-to-day operations. It was determined that approximately 2000 metric tons of solid waste were produced each day, along with 0.55 million gallons of waste water. In addition, sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were also released in the atmosphere. The solid waste was composed of municipal waste, sludges from the API and other discarded materials. The authors then proceeded to determine the heavy metals contents in samples obtained from combined sludge dumping areas on the premises. The sludges contained sulfur (0-1.26 wt per cent), lead (0-0.156 wt per cent), iron (0.01-3.4 wt per cent), chromium (0-0.159 per cent), copper (0-0.05 wt per cent), cadmium (0-0.0034 wt per cent), nickel (0-0.168 wt per cent), and manganese (0.0015-0.0776 wt per cent). It was recommended that hazardous and non-hazardous wastes be segregated, that a separate feasibility study be undertaken to determine the best possible course of action to dispose of solid waste, and that government guidelines be established on the same topic. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Development of a master plan for industrial solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zahraie, B.; Kerachian, R.; Mahjouri, N.; Moridi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid industrial growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran has resulted in disposal of about 1750 tons of solid waste per day. Most of these industrial solid wastes including hazardous wastes are disposed without considering environmental issues. This has contributed considerably to the pollution of the environment. This paper introduces a framework in which to develop a master plan for industrial solid waste management. There are usually different criteria for evaluating the existing solid waste pollution loads and how effective the management schemes are. A multiple criteria decision making technique, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process, is used for ranking the industrial units based on their share in solid waste related environmental pollution and determining the share of each unit in total solid waste pollution load. In this framework, a comprehensive set of direct, indirect, and supporting projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control. The proposed framework is applied for industrial solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan in Iran and a databank including GIS based maps of the study area is also developed. The results have shown that the industries located near the capital city of the province, Ahwaz, produce more than 32 percent of the total solid waste pollution load of the province. Application of the methodology also has shown that it can be effectively used for development of the master plan and management of industrial solid wastes

  16. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  17. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  18. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  19. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  20. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  1. Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) data summary, fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1983-06-01

    The Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) information system for radioactive solid waste. This document is a summary of the FY 1982 data and the forecast data for FY 1983 reported by DOE sites. Detailed data are included in the appendices. The SWIMS data base contains data on the solid transuranic and solid low-level waste generated, buried, or stored at DOE sites. The burial and storage data include the period from site initiation through FY 1982

  2. Capacity building in solid waste management in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBean, E. A.; Del Rosso, E.; Schoemaker, H.

    2002-03-01

    To assist in climate change protection and to improve solid waste management practices, a project in being undertaken in Tucuman, Argentina's fifth largest city, with funding from the Climate Change Early Action Fund, the Government of Canada and from Conestoga-Rovers and Associates. The demonstration project covers the wastes for purposes of accelerating landfill gas production, thereby improving options for utilizing landfill gas as an energy source, and providing climate change protection by transforming methane to carbon dioxide, which is substantially less powerful as a global warming gas. Prior to the project, refuse was dumped directly into an uncontrolled dump or the adjacent Sali River, or burnt, releasing noxious gases to the atmosphere. The primary objective of the energy cell project involved the collection of refuse and placement in energy cells. The energy cells are operated as bioreactors to accelerate the generation of landfill gas. The project included placement of a comprehensive bottom liner system, leachate collection, preparation of the refuse, a leachate recirculation system, a gas collection system, and a flexible top membrane liner. The emphasis of the energy cell project is to demonstrate the opportunities available, which could influence the viability of energy recovery and possible greenhouse gas credits. After only a few months of direct learning from the energy cell project, solid waste management in Tucuman has been decisively reversed. There is no longer any uncontrolled dumping and implementation of a modern solid waste management system is well under way.

  3. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  4. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  5. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  6. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California's ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  9. thermal analysis of a small scale solid waste-fired steam boiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Thermal analysis of a small scale solid waste-fired steam generator is presented in this paper. The analysis was based on the chosen design specifications which are operating steam ... include: wind, bio-energy, geothermal, solar thermal,.

  10. Description of solid waste expected from a large commercial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keely, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Both low-level and high-level solid wastes generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are characterized in this paper with respect to source, quantity, content, radioactivity, potential volume reduction, and transuranic content

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  12. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  13. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  14. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe, E-mail: vine@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus [Econet AS, Omøgade 8, 2.sal, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  15. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*10 6 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  16. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  17. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  18. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  19. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita -1 day -1 . Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  20. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Implementation of a plan to charge waste management costs to the facility that generates such waste requires a long-term commitment and consistent administration. The benefit is that generators are provided the incentive to optimize waste management practices if the charges are appropriately applied. This paper summarizes (1) a plan to charge waste generators, (2) the administrative structure of the plan, (3) a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and (4) issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the administration of the solid waste in the Manufacturers Companies of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azofeifa Olivares, R.

    2001-01-01

    The current administration of the solid waste should be evaluated in order to verify the manufacturer companies reuse, recycle and the appropriate management of the c. By means of field investigation, the generation, storage, gathering, treatment, and final disposition of the solid waste of the construction are evaluated in different types of companies. It is concluded that the manufacturer companies in our country do not carry out an appropriate administration of the solid waste.While in the technical specifications or in the bid poster the way they should have the waste is not demanded, they will continue improperly managing the residuals, impacting the environment in an irrational way. The mitigation measures are recommended to the problem of the bad administration of the waste and they think about the necessary limits to implement in the bid posters the appropriate administration of the solid waste. (Author) [es

  4. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  5. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  6. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  7. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  8. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  9. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  10. Bio-extraction of precious metals from urban solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhabrata; Natarajan, Gayathri; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Reduced product lifecycle and increasing demand for electronic devices have resulted in the generation of huge volumes of electronic waste (e-waste). E-wastes contain high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, which have detrimental effects on health and the environment. However, e-wastes also contain significant concentrations of precious metals such as gold, silver and palladium, which can be a major driving force for recycling of urban waste. Cyanogenic bacteria such as Chromobacterium violaceum generate cyanide as a secondary metabolite which mobilizes gold into solution via a soluble gold-cyanide complex. However, compared to conventional technology for metal recovery, this approach is not effective, owing largely to the low concentration of lixiviants produced by the bacteria. To overcome the challenges of bioleaching of gold from e-waste, several strategies were adopted to enhance gold recovery rates. These included (i) pretreatment of e-waste to remove competing metal ions, (ii) mutation to adapt the bacteria to high pH environment, (iii) metabolic engineering to produce higher cyanide lixiviant, and (iv) spent medium leaching with adjusted initial pH. Compared to 7.1 % recovery by the wild type bacteria, these strategies achieved gold recoveries of 11.3%, 22.5%, 30% and 30% respectively at 0.5% w/v pulp density respectively. Bioleached gold was finally mineralized and precipitated as gold nanoparticles using the bacterium Delftia acidovorans. This study demonstrates the potential for enhancement of biocyanide production and gold recovery from electronic waste through different strategies, and extraction of solid gold from bioleached leachate.

  11. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  12. The Construction Solid Waste Minimization Practices among Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ahmad A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of minimization of construction solid waste is to reduce or eliminates the adverse impacts on the environment and to human health. Due to the increase of population that leads to rapid development, there are possibilities of construction solid waste to be increased shortly from the construction works, demolition or renovation works. Materials such as wood, concrete, paint, brick, roofing, tiles, plastic and any other materials would contribute problem involving construction solid waste. Therefore, the proper waste minimization is needed to control the quantity of construction solid waste produced. This paper identifies the type of construction solid waste produced and discusses the waste minimization practice by the contractors at construction sites in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

  13. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  14. 6th international solid wastes congress and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ategrus

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the sixth International Solid Wastes Congress and exhibition held in Madrid the dates June 14-19, 1992, and organized by ISWA. It sumps up 3 volumes dealing with Environmental Aspects, Administrative Aspects, Waste treatment Technologies, Waste Minimization, Land disposal and Hazardous Wastes

  15. Management of radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced in CDTN, the foreseen treatment and the responsibilities of various organs of CDTN involved in radioactive waste management are presented. (C.M.)

  16. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  17. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  18. Municipal solid waste management system: decision support through systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Lúcia Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering The present study intends to show the development of systems analysis model applied to solid waste management system, applied into AMARSUL, a solid waste management system responsible for the management of municipal solid waste produced in Setúbal peninsula, Portugal. The model developed intended to promote sustainable decision making, ...

  19. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  20. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a