WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid waste composition

  1. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  2. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies...... the comparison of waste data with various objectives. Analysis revealed that Danish residual household waste constitutes mainly food waste (42 – 45% mass per wet basis). Misplaced recyclable materials in residual waste bins, such as paper, board, glass, metal and plastic, amounted to 20% (mass per wet basis...

  3. characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is produced through human activities and in the last two ... Solid waste samples were collected and analysed from the four major dumpsites in ..... Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133,. Switzerland.

  4. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidarakos, E.; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands

  5. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  6. Composition, production rate and characterization of Greek dental solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalidis, Alexandros; Topalidis, Antonios; Voudrias, Evangelos A; Iosifidis, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the composition, characterization and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW). This information is important to design and cost management systems for DSW, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 141 kg of DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of four working weeks. The waste was separated in 19 sub fractions, which were classified in 2 major categories, according to Greek regulations: Domestic-type waste comprising 8% and hazardous waste comprising 92% by weight of total DSW. The latter was further classified in infectious waste, toxic waste and mixed type waste (infectious and toxic together), accounting for 88.5%, 3.5% and 0.03% of total DSW by weight, respectively. The overall unit production rates (mean ± standard error of the mean) were 381 ± 15 g/practice/d and 53.3 ± 1.4 g/patient/d for total DSW, 337 ± 14 g/practice/d and 46.6 ± 1.2 g/patient/d for total infectious DSW, 13.4 ± 0.7 g/practice/d and 2.1 ± 0.1 g/patient/d for total toxic DSW and 30.4 ± 2.5 g/practice/d and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/patient/d for domestic-type waste. Daily DSW production was correlated with daily number of patients and regression correlations were produced. DSW was subject to laboratory characterization in terms of bulk density, calorific value, moisture, ash and volatile solids content. Measured calorific values were compared to predictions from empirical models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  8. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  9. Composite analysis for solid waste storage area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    The composite analysis (CA) provides an estimate of the potential cumulative impacts to a hypothetical future member of the public from the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) disposal operations and all of the other sources of radioactive material in the ground on the ORR that may interact with contamination originating in SWSA 6.The projected annual dose to hypothetical future member of the public from all contributing sources is compared to the primary dose limit of 100 mrem per year and a dose constraint of 30 mrem per year. Consistent with the CA guidance, dose estimates for the first 1000 years after disposal are emphasized for comparison with the primary dose limit and dose constraint.The current land use plan for the ORR is being revised, and may include a reduction in the land currently controlled by DOE on the ORR. The possibility of changes in the land use boundary is considered in the CA as part of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, the interpretation of results, and the conclusions

  10. Abundance, composition and distribution of solid wastes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 2013 at 68 stations in six depth strata using the bottom trawl swept area method. ... (42%), longlines and hooks (7%), plastic bags (4%), floats (2%), and clothing (1%). ... solid waste pollution is not at present a major problem in Lake Victoria.

  11. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  12. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe, E-mail: vine@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus [Econet AS, Omøgade 8, 2.sal, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  13. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub......-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating,comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste...

  14. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  17. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-11-01

    Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Alexandros; Giannakis, Georgios; Lymperis, Constantinos

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the elemental content (C, N, H, S, O), the organic matter content and the calorific value of various organic components that are commonly found in the municipal solid waste stream were measured. The objective of this work was to develop an empirical equation to describe the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its elemental composition. The MSW components were grouped into paper wastes, food wastes, yard wastes and plastics. Sample sizes ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 kg. In addition to the above individual components, commingled municipal solid wastes were sampled from a bio-drying facility located in Crete (sample sizes ranged from 8 to 15 kg) and were analyzed for the same parameters. Based on the results of this work, an improved empirical model was developed that revealed that carbon, hydrogen and oxygen were the only statistically significant predictors of calorific value. Total organic carbon was statistically similar to total carbon for most materials in this work. The carbon to organic matter ratio of 26 municipal solid waste substrates and of 18 organic composts varied from 0.40 to 0.99. An approximate chemical empirical formula calculated for the organic fraction of commingled municipal solid wastes was C(32)NH(55)O(16). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid Waste Composition Study at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sani, M. S. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Solid waste management is recognised as one of the most challenging issues confronted by both the developed and developing countries. The problems rise due to growing population in current years which results in increased generation of waste with various compositions. The aim of this study was to determine the waste compositions at Taman Universiti. Taman Universiti is a mix residential and commercial area which a preferred residential location amongst students and lecturers due to its proximate location to UTHM main campus. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted according to Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data was collected and recorded The result showed that the average generation rate of household waste at Taman Universiti was 0.16kg/person/day and the moisture content was approximately ranging from 61%-68%. Household wastes collected were categorized and it consisted of food and organic, paper, rigid plastics, plastics film, baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, garden waste and leather. The proportion of each wastes were approximately 64.67%, 9.36%, 9.22%, 5.33%, 3.51%, 2.53%, 1.37%, 1.05%, 0.84%, 0.85%, 0.80%, 0.27%, and 0.23%, respectively. Results from the analyses indicated that the food and organic waste are the major composition of household waste at Taman Universiti followed by the paper, rigid plastics, and plastic film. Meanwhile, the proportion of baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, and garden decreasing accordingly. In addition, leather was recognized as the least category that contributed to the household waste.

  20. Structural Composite Construction Materials Manufactured from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-20

    alternatives. One company uses the wastes from leg cutouts in disposable diaper manufacture as a supply stream. Another is turning used carpet into plastic...sheathing type applications. While it offers a number of desirable properties, fiberglass suffers from degradation from solar exposure and embrittlement

  1. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  3. Solid waste composition analysis and recycling evaluation: Zaatari Syrian Refugees Camp, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidan, Motasem N; Drais, Ammar Abu; Al-Manaseer, Ehab

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream characterization and composition analysis to allow for an accurate estimation of its recycling potential and for effective management of the entire system. Recycling provides employment and a livelihood for vulnerable social groups such as refugees. The aim of this paper is to determine the composition of MSW in Zaatari Syrian Refugee Camp, where approximately 430,000 Syrian refugees have passed through the camp. The representative waste samples and analysis included household waste and commercial waste produced by the refugees in the selected districts in Zaatari. The waste sampling was performed in 2015 over two seasons to ensure that the seasonal fluctuations in the composition of the waste stream are taken into consideration. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the categories and subcategories. The organic waste represents the main waste category with 53% of the total MSW, while plastics, textile, and paper and cardboard are 12.85%, 10.22% and 9%, respectively. Moreover, the MSW composition percentage in Zaatari Camp is similar to that in municipalities in Jordan with slight disparity. The potential recyclable materials market has been investigated in this study. Plastics and paper and cardboard have significant potential to be separated and collected for recycling purposes. Financial revenues of potential recyclables have been analyzed based on local prices. Recycling model in the camp is also proposed based on the present study findings. Consequently, these results should be taken as a baseline for all Syrian refugees camps in the Middle East, as well as, in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal analysis of the generation and composition of solid waste: potential use--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Ensenada health officials lack pertinent information on the sustainable management of solid waste, as do health officials from other developing countries. The aims of this research are: (a) to quantify and analyze the household solid wastes generated in the city of Ensenada, Mexico, and (b) to project biogas production and estimate generation of electrical energy. The characterization study was conducted by socioeconomic stratification in two seasonal periods, and the biogas and electrical energy projections were performed using the version 2.0 Mexico Biogas Model. Per capita solid waste generation was 0.779 ± 0.019 kg per person per day within a 98 % confidence interval. Waste composition is composed mainly of food scraps at 36.25 %, followed by paper and cardboard at 21.85 %, plastic at 12.30 %, disposable diapers at 6.26 %, and textiles at 6.28 %. The maximum capacity for power generation is projected to be 1.90 MW in 2019. Waste generated could be used as an intermediate in different processes such as recycling (41.04 %) and energy recovery (46.63 %). The electrical energy that could be obtained using the biogas generated at the Ensenada sanitary landfill would provide roughly 60 % of the energy needed for street lighting.

  5. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  6. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis: case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Atta Nyankson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92. All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste. The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38% followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances. The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 221-235

  8. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, A.; Carlos, M.; Peris, M.; Colomer, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  9. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  10. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  11. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  12. Comparative study of municipal solid waste generation and composition in Shiraz city (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Norouzian Baghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exponential growths of population and urbanization, and the development of social economy have resulted in an increase in the amount of MSW generation throughout the world. Objective: The present study aimed to survey qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid waste in Shiraz city and comparative these results with the world scenario of solid wastes generation for improving the sustainable management of solid waste. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in nine municipality regions Shiraz with a total population of approximately 1,549,354 people. Basic data was gathered through Shiraz waste management organization. Then generation (per capita and constituent percent of the solid waste were evaluated based on the sampling and field analyzing from reliable guidelines. Data were analyzed with Stata-13 and Excel statistical software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test used for the normality of variables. Means were compared by Student T test and Mann-Whitney test. Findings: The rate of solid waste generated in the Shiraz city was 222.65 kg per person per year in 2014. Statistical analysis showed that the variables of organic materials, paper and cardboard, glass and metal between developed and developing countries were a significant difference (P0.05. Conclusion: Solid waste per capita in Shiraz city (about 600 g/day was near to the average amount of solid waste generation in Iran and other developing countries. Due to the high content of organic material in municipal solid waste of Shiraz, minimization of these material and separation of dry and wet solid wastes must be noted from the people and municipalities.

  13. Composition of Solid Waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a Mountain Region Undergoing Rapid Urbanization in Northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the generation and composition of waste in rural areas worldwide. The present study analyzed the composition of solid waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a rural mountain region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is presently experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization due to tourism development. The solid wastes here are generated by the municipality collecting waste from residential, commercial, institutional and recreational areas, the military from a training camp and a few non-governmental private companies from their camps and hotels. The whole load from each of the three sources was manually segregated each month from June 2013 – May 2014. The results indicated that plastic is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the municipality and accounts for 26.7%, followed by paper (17.9% and then food (14.4%. Food is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the military and private companies and accounts for 36.5% and 45.5% respectively. Management issues associated with solid waste are briefly considered. The study concluded that the municipality should implement an improved system for the collection of plastic waste and initiate a system for recycling it; the military and private companies should reduce the quantities of food waste by improved planning and management of the catering services.

  14. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-01-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 deg. C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively

  15. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and elemental analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, S.M., E-mail: simon.eldridge@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar, NSW 2477 (Australia); Chen, C.R. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Xu, Z.H. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Nelson, P.N. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870 (Australia); Boyd, S.E. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Meszaros, I. [Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Chan, K.Y. [Graduate School of Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state {sup 13}C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.

  16. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, S.M.; Chen, C.R.; Xu, Z.H.; Nelson, P.N.; Boyd, S.E.; Meszaros, I.; Chan, K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state 13 C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes

  17. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-07

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w(d) deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery.

  18. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  20. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  1. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  2. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Composition, Production Rate and Management of Dental Solid Waste in 2017 in Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Momeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of toxic and pathogenic agents in the dental waste products has made it to be classified as “hazardous waste.” Objective: To assess dental waste production rate and composition and approaches used to manage these waste products in 2017 in Birjand, Iran. Methods: 48 dental clinics were evaluated in two months of 2017. Sampling was performed from each clinic 3 times a week. Samples were manually divided into 5 categories of chemical-pharmaceutical, infectious, semi-household, sharp and cutting materials, and toxic waste products, and weighed. A checklist containing 25 questions was used to evaluate the aspects of waste management in dental clinics. Results: The total amount of waste products generated in dental clinics was 7848.02 kg/ year in which semi-household waste had the highest quantity (4263.411 kg/year and toxic waste had the lowest quantity (9.275 kg/year. Components with the highest amounts in dentistry waste products were nylon gloves (16.7%, paper and cardboard (13.4%, latex gloves (10.8%, and pharmaceuticals (10.2%. Waste separation was restricted to sharp and cutting waste. More than half (57% of dental units were equipped with amalgam filter. Fixing solutions were directly discharged to sewage in 48.6% of clinics. There was no program to reduce waste generation in 54% of the clinics. Autoclave was the main tool for sterilizing dental instruments. Conclusion: This study showed a remarkable share of recyclable materials in the composition of dental waste and lack of special approach to manage waste in dental clinics. It is necessary to plan for minimizing generation of, separating, and recycling waste at source.

  4. Composition, Production Rate and Management of Dental Solid Waste in 2017 in Birjand, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Habibe; Tabatabaei Fard, Seyyedeh Fatemeh; Arefinejad, Aliye; Afzali, Afsane; Talebi, Farkhonde; Rahmanpour Salmani, Elham

    2018-01-01

    The presence of toxic and pathogenic agents in the dental waste products has made it to be classified as "hazardous waste." To assess dental waste production rate and composition and approaches used to manage these waste products in 2017 in Birjand, Iran. 48 dental clinics were evaluated in two months of 2017. Sampling was performed from each clinic 3 times a week. Samples were manually divided into 5 categories of chemical-pharmaceutical, infectious, semi-household, sharp and cutting materials, and toxic waste products, and weighed. A checklist containing 25 questions was used to evaluate the aspects of waste management in dental clinics. The total amount of waste products generated in dental clinics was 7848.02 kg/ year in which semi-household waste had the highest quantity (4263.411 kg/year) and toxic waste had the lowest quantity (9.275 kg/year). Components with the highest amounts in dentistry waste products were nylon gloves (16.7%), paper and cardboard (13.4%), latex gloves (10.8%), and pharmaceuticals (10.2%). Waste separation was restricted to sharp and cutting waste. More than half (57%) of dental units were equipped with amalgam filter. Fixing solutions were directly discharged to sewage in 48.6% of clinics. There was no program to reduce waste generation in 54% of the clinics. Autoclave was the main tool for sterilizing dental instruments. This study showed a remarkable share of recyclable materials in the composition of dental waste and lack of special approach to manage waste in dental clinics. It is necessary to plan for minimizing generation of, separating, and recycling waste at source.

  5. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -derived food waste amounted to 2.21 ± 3.12% with a confidence interval of (−4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson’s correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste...... and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data......, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients....

  6. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  8. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources ? crop residue, wood, and solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A. P.; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-01-01

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combusti...

  9. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  10. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  11. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  12. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horttanainen, M.; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose

  13. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  14. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  15. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  16. Evaluation of Stability Parameters in In-Vessel Compositing of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a reliable technology for production of stabilized organic matter that is suitable for agriculture, but this process should be carefully monitored with appropriate indices. Quality of compost is important from maturity and stability viewpoint, but in most compost factories proper attention is not paid to it. This study was designed to evaluate the stability indices in municipal solid waste composting, for selecting the best index in quality monitoring of the wastes. Processed and shredded municipal solid waste from Isfahan compost plant was used as raw material in an in-vessel composting process. A cylindrical reactor with 1 m height and 50 cm diameter made of Pyrex glass was designed. Air was supplied at a specifically flow rate 0.2 L/min.kg to maintain aerobic condition. NH4+/ NO3 ratio, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DA, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP or Eh and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR were used as stability indices. These parameters were measured during 40 days of composting process. Changes in these parameters during this period were surveyed and analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out to choose best of them. Results showed that among the indices, SOUR can show the different stages of microbial decomposition and a numerical value for compost stability also SOUR value less than 2 mg O2/gVS.h can show the full stability of compost.

  17. Analysis of physical composition and heavy metals pollution of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. B.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Bai, X. J.

    2018-03-01

    By using on-site sampling and physical-chemical analysis, the physical composition and the contents of heavy metals in Beijing MSW were researched. The result showed that the main components of MSW in Beijing are mainly kitchen waste, the average content of kitchen waste are more than 60% and 50% in summer and in winter, respectively. The pollution of Cu, Hg and Cr are all more serious for MSW in Haidian and Dongcheng district. The heavy metal pollution of MSW in summer is higher than that in winter in Beijing. Seasonal impacts should be taken into consideration when dealing with MSW. The content of heavy metals in MSW exceeded the background value of soil in Haidian and Dongcheng districts. In order to reduce heavy metal pollution, the MSW should be separated collection and treated.

  18. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  19. Modified fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongbo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Ying; Ren, Tingyan; Pan, Lang; Fang, Ping; Chen, Dingsheng; Cen, Chaoping

    2017-08-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration was modified by hydrothermal treatment and used as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides. The prepared catalyst showed good activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. A NO conversion of 93% could be achieved at 300 °C under a GHSV of 32857 h-1. With the help of characterizations including XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR, it was found that hydrothermal treatment brought a large surface area and abundant mesoporous to the modified fly ash, and Mn-Ce composite oxides were highly dispersed on the surface of the support. These physical and chemical properties were the intrinsic reasons for the good SCR activity. This work transformed fly ash into high value-added products, providing a new approach to the resource utilization and pollution control of fly ash.

  20. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  1. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  3. Estimation of generation and gravimetric composition of solid wastes at Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Maria da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present the estimation of the per capita generation and gravimetric composition of the solid residues of the Center of Sciences and Agri-food technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. These two characteristics are of fundamental importance in the solid waste management process. The methodological procedure was carried out by field survey to identify the number of sectors in the University Campus, as well as the quantification of the daily population that attends the institution. As a result, the daily per capita generation of the Science Center and Environmental Technology was 49.28 g. In relation to the gravimetric composition, it was verified that the organic matter had the highest percentage, representing a total of 66%, followed by 13% of plastics, 9% of paper / cardboard and 8% of composites. It is concluded that the largest part of the total solid waste generated is putrescible organic matter, which was already expected, since solid waste generated in the university campus presents characteristics of household waste.

  4. Chemical durability of slag produced by thermal plasma melting of low-level miscellaneous solid wastes. Effects of slag composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Yasui, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    Low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes are generated from commercial operation of nuclear power plants and will be generated from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in future. Static leaching tests were carried out in deionized water of 10degC on slag obtained by thermal plasma melting of simulating materials of the miscellaneous solids wastes with surrogate elements of radionuclides. It is found that logarithm of normalized elemental mass loss from the slag is proportional to the basicity represented by mole fractions of main structural oxides of the slag, such as SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, FeO and MgO. The range of static leaching rates from the slag is determined based on the above results and the basicity range of the miscellaneous solid wastes. Then we compared the leaching rates form the slag and from high level waste glasses. On these grounds, we concluded that the slag obtained by thermal plasma melting of miscellaneous solid wastes can stabilize radio-nuclides in it by no means inferior to the high level waste glasses. (author)

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  6. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  8. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources - crop residue, wood, and solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A P; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Weijun

    2017-07-11

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles. Interestingly, particles from hardwood (pear wood and bamboo) and softwood (cypress and pine wood) combustion were mainly soot and OM in the flaming phase, respectively. The combustion of foam boxes, rubber tires, and plastic bottles/bags in the flaming phase released large amounts of soot internally mixed with a small amount of OM, whereas the combustion of printed circuit boards and copper-core cables emitted large amounts of OM with Br-rich inclusions. In addition, the printed circuit board combustion released toxic metals containing Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. The results are important to document properties of primary particles from combustion sources, which can be used to trace the sources of ambient particles and to know their potential impacts in human health and radiative forcing in the air.

  9. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  10. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tomikawa, Hiroki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Separation of Pb and Zn from Fe and Cu in ash-melting of municipal solid waste. ► Molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in fly ash affected the metal-separation efficiency. ► The low molar ratio and a non-oxidative atmosphere were better for the separation. - Abstract: In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  13. Regression models of ultimate methane yields of fruits and vegetable solid wastes, sorghum and napiergrass on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaseelan, V.N. [PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (India). Department of Zoology

    2007-04-15

    Several fractions of fruits and vegetable solid wastes (FVSW), sorghum and napiergrass were analyzed for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total soluble carbohydrate, extractable protein, acid-detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose and ash contents. Their ultimate methane yields (B{sub o}) were determined using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. A series of simple and multiple regression models relating the B{sub o} to the various substrate constituents were generated and evaluated using computer statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of simple regression analyses revealed that, only weak relationship existed between the individual components such as carbohydrate, protein, ADF, lignin and cellulose versus B{sub o}. A regression of B{sub o} versus combination of two variables as a single independent variable such as carbohydrate/ADF and carbohydrate + protein/ADF also showed that the relationship is not strong. Thus it does not appear possible to relate the B{sub o} of FVSW, sorghum and napiergrass with single compositional characteristics. The results of multiple regression analyses showed promise and the relationship appeared to be good. When ADF and lignin/ADF were used as independent variables, the percentage of variation accounted for by the model is low for FVSW (r{sup 2}=0.665) and sorghum and napiergrass (r{sup 2}=0.746). Addition of nitrogen, ash and total soluble carbohydrate data to the model had a significantly higher effect on prediction of B{sub o} of these wastes with the r{sup 2} values ranging from 0.9 to 0.99. More than 90% of variation in B{sub o} of FVSW could be accounted for by the models when the variables carbohydrate, lignin, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r{sup 2}=0.904), carbohydrate, ADF, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r{sup 2}=0.90) and carbohydrate/ADF, lignin/ADF, lignin and ash (r{sup 2}=0.901) were used. All the models have

  14. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  15. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1998-07-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g., cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  16. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  17. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, Naeem, E-mail: naeem.saqib@oru.se; Bäckström, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.backstrom@oru.se

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  19. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  2. Integrated solid waste management: a palliative to existing waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a concept, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a sustainable ... on the perspective of consumers on waste generation, collection and disposal. ... to effective solid waste management in the case study area; non-sorting and ...

  3. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  5. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  6. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... constant between 50 - 60 % wet weight and therefore holds a potential for bioenergy production. The degradable fraction has positive effects for anaerobic digestion when evaluated to desired parameters of anaerobic digestion plants. Wanted parameters are: 1) high organic content (high volatile solid...

  8. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  9. Treatment of solid non-active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this part of the text-book treatment of solid non-active wastes is described. This part consist of following chapters: (1) Law on wastes; (2) Present situation in waste management; (3) Strategic tendencies of waste management; (4) Incineration (disposal of solid wastes); (5) Disposal; (6) Composting; (7) Treatment of sludge from sewage clarification plant; (8) Biodegradation; (9) Recycling of wastes (assessing of secondary raw materials). Legal aspects of treatment of solid non-active wastes is presented

  10. Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using Al2O3-NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes synthesized from solid waste coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Ji, Jiayou; Wang, Shulin; Xu, Chenxi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Man

    2018-09-01

    Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated via hydrothermal synthesis by using industrial solid waste coal fly ash and porous Al 2 O 3 hollow fiber supports. The as-synthesized Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hollow fiber membranes were used to remove lead ions (Pb(II), 50 mg L -1 ) from synthetic wastewater with a removal efficiency of 99.9% at 0.1 MPa after 12 h of filtration. This study showed that the Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes (the pore size of the membrane was about 0.41 nm in diameter) synthesized from coal fly ash could be efficiently used for treating low concentration Pb(II) wastewater. It recycled solid waste coal fly ash not only to solve its environment problems, but also can produce high-value Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes for separation application in treating wastewater containing Pb(II). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  12. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  14. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  15. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system

  16. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  17. Conversion of Waste into Wealth: A Study in Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, T.; Sridevi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of solid waste has been the talk of the day. An attempt has been made to dispose of the solid waste Jatropha (Kattamanakku). Aerobic composting method was employed. Properly treated solid wastes of different composition were mixed with slurries of cowdung and physicochemical parameters were measured after 30 and 60 days of composting. It was observed that percentages of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium increased as time elapsed. Water holding capacity, ...

  18. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  19. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  20. Composite waste analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.; Bonner, C.A.; Malcom, J.E.; Camp, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) of radioactive waste forms an integral component of nuclear materials accountability programs and waste characterization acceptance criterion. However, waste measurements are often complicated by unknown isotopic compositions and the potential for concealment of special nuclear materials in a manner that is transparent to gamma-ray measurement instruments. To overcome these complications, a new NDA measurement system has been developed to assay special nuclear material in both transuranic and low level waste from the same measurement platform. The system incorporates a NaI detector and customized commercial software routines to measure small quantities of radioactive material in low level waste. Transuranic waste analysis is performed with a coaxial HPGE detector and uses upgraded PC-based segmented gamma scanner software to assay containers up to 55 gal. in volume. Gamma-Ray isotopics analysis of both waste forms is also performed with this detector. Finally, a small neutron counter using specialized software is attached to the measurement platform to satisfy safeguards concerns related to nuclear materials that are not sensed by the gamma-ray instruments. This report describes important features and capabilities of the system and presents a series of test measurements that are to be performed to define system parameters

  1. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  2. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  3. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  4. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  5. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  6. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  7. Solid waste management in Khartoum industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsidig, N. O. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness

  8. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  10. FFTF radioactive solid waste handling and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport

  11. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  12. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  13. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  14. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  15. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  16. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  18. Radioactive solid waste management at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, A.P.; Balu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Radioactive solid waste management programme at BARC, India during 1965-1975 is described in detail. The operational experience, which includes the handling treatment and disposal of these solid wastes is reported alongwith the special problems faced in the case of large volume low hazard potential wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. (K.B.)

  19. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  20. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  1. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover...... LCA on solid waste systems....

  2. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  3. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  4. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  5. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  6. Infrastructure Task Force Tribal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe 1) issues to consider when planning and designing community engagement approaches for tribal integrated waste management programs and 2) a proposed approach to improve tribal open dumps data and solid waste projects, and 3) an MOU.

  7. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  8. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  10. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  11. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  12. Characterization and application of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and waste granite powder in alkali activated slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Yuan, B.; Yu, Q. L.; Brouwers, H. J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using two solid wastes in alkali activated slag composites as construction and building materials is evaluated. One waste is the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, and the other one is fine granite powder from aggregate manufacturing. These two

  13. Composição gravimétrica de resíduos sólidos aterrados Gravimetric composition of solid waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Mattei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A composição gravimétrica de um aterro de resíduos sólidos (RS é uma informação básica para o monitoramento e avaliação de projetos ambientais. A obtenção dessa informação é dificultada pela inexistência de procedimentos padrões de amostragem, pela heterogeneidade dos RS e pela forma de disposição desses resíduos ou tipo de aterro, entre outros fatores. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar se há diferença entre a composição gravimétrica de materiais aterrados em um lixão e em um aterro controlado, além de avaliar se essa composição varia com a profundidade de amostragem. Constatou-se pouca diferença na composição gravimétrica dos RS entre os aterros. No aterro controlado predominou a massa pastosa (41,2 %, enquanto que no lixão houve maior teor de plástico filme (35,0 %. A composição dos resíduos aterrados não variou com a profundidade de amostragem.The gravimetric composition of solid waste (SW landfill is basic information for environmental monitoring and projects evaluation. The lack of standard procedures for sampling, the inherent heterogeneity of SW and the different disposal techniques of such wastes or type of landfill, among other factors, have imposed certain limitations to obtain data about landfill gravimetric composition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the difference between the gravimetric composition of SW collected from an open dump and from a controlled landfill and to evaluate if this composition changes with depth of sampling. There was little difference between the SW collected in the two types of landfills. In the controlled landfill pasted mass (41,2 % was the major component, while in the open dump the plastic film (35,0 % was the most common material. The SW composition did not change with the sampling depth.

  14. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford's Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford

  15. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  19. New strategic solid waste management in Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is, today, a very critical issue. In spite of all the attempts in order to recovery and to recycle waste, the dump still remains the more followed solution, while only a small part of solid waste is going to be burnt down. But the rubbish dump isn't, actually, an environmentally sustainable solution. In the last years the waste incineration systems with energy recovery are spreading more over the territory, and if on one hand they allow to recover energy, on the other they also generate waste. So the emergency remains and it has to be faced. Today, the waste incineration system with energy recovery seems to be the best solution for this problem. the following article examinates the main strategic aspects of the solid waste management in Sicily after the General Plan of Waste Management application [it

  20. Storage of long lived solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarde, P.D.; Agarwal, K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gandhi, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Long lived solid waste, generated during the fuel cycle mainly includes high level vitrified waste product, high level cladding hulls and low and intermediate level alpha wastes. These wastes require storage in specially designed engineered facilities before final disposal into deep geological repository. Since high-level vitrified waste contain heat generating radionuclides, the facility for their storage is designed for continuous cooling. High level cladding hulls undergo volume reduction by compaction and will be subsequently stored. (author)

  1. Removal of batteries from solid waste using trommel separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S T; Cheung, W H; Kwong, C K; Wan, C P; Choy, K K H; Leung, C C; Porter, J F; Hui, C W; Mc Kay, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a trommel for separation of batteries from solid waste. A trommel is a cylindrical separation device that rotates and performs size separation. It has also been used in areas such as municipal solid waste (MSW) processing, classifying construction and demolition debris, screening mass-burn incinerator ash and compost processing. A trommel has been designed based on size separation to separate household batteries from solid waste, which can then be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste combustion, particularly where the metal content of the product is also a critical parameter, such as the Co-Co process for integrated cement and power production. This trommel has been tested with batches of university office and restaurant wastes against various factors. The recovery efficiency of batteries increases with decreasing inclination angle of the trommel and decreasing rotational speed. A physical characterization of the university solid waste has been performed with a 20-kg sample of the tested waste. It was found that there is a trend of decreasing recovery of batteries with increasing paper composition, and a trend of increasing recovery of batteries with increasing organic materials composition.

  2. Managing America's solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  3. Solid Waste Management Holistic Decision Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study provides support to the Bank's ability to conduct client dialogue on solid waste management technology selection, and will contribute to client decision-making. The goal of the study was to fully explore the use of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Research Triangle Institute (EPA/RTI) holistic decision model to study alternative solid waste systems in a ...

  4. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  5. Managing America`s solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  6. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  7. Implementation of a multi-variable regression analysis in the assessment of the generation rate and composition of hospital solid waste for the design of a sustainable management system in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Fkhidah, Ismail; Khatib, Jumana I; Kontogianni, Stamatia

    2016-03-01

    Forecasting of hospital solid waste generation is a critical challenge for future planning. The composition and generation rate of hospital solid waste in hospital units was the field where the proposed methodology of the present article was applied in order to validate the results and secure the outcomes of the management plan in national hospitals. A set of three multiple-variable regression models has been derived for estimating the daily total hospital waste, general hospital waste, and total hazardous waste as a function of number of inpatients, number of total patients, and number of beds. The application of several key indicators and validation procedures indicates the high significance and reliability of the developed models in predicting the hospital solid waste of any hospital. Methodology data were drawn from existent scientific literature. Also, useful raw data were retrieved from international organisations and the investigated hospitals' personnel. The primal generation outcomes are compared with other local hospitals and also with hospitals from other countries. The main outcome, which is the developed model results, are presented and analysed thoroughly. The goal is this model to act as leverage in the discussions among governmental authorities on the implementation of a national plan for safe hospital waste management in Palestine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  11. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  13. Conversion of Waste into Wealth: A Study in Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janakiram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of solid waste has been the talk of the day. An attempt has been made to dispose of the solid waste Jatropha (Kattamanakku. Aerobic composting method was employed. Properly treated solid wastes of different composition were mixed with slurries of cowdung and physicochemical parameters were measured after 30 and 60 days of composting. It was observed that percentages of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium increased as time elapsed. Water holding capacity, electrical conductivity and moisture content were found to increase, while pH and C/N ratio have been observed to decrease.

  14. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  15. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  16. Management of Port Solid Waste Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Fontana, , Carla Marísia Maccagnan; Fontana, Caio Fernando; Sakurai, Claedson Akio

    2014-01-01

    One of contemporary environmental issues refers to progressive and diverse generation of solid waste in urban areas or specific, and requires solutions because the traditional methods of treatment and disposal are becoming unviable over the years and, consequently, a significant contingent of these wastes presents final destination inappropriate. The diversity of solid waste generated as a result of human activities must have the appropriate allocation to specific ...

  17. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  20. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  1. Radionanalysis in solid waste research and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment of dumping or recycling of solid waste makes part of environmental geochemistry. Radioanalysis provides efficient procedures for the characterization of solid wastes, both granular and as recycled products. Radiotracers are applied to measure the situ values of transport parameters. Activation analysis is used in the determination of trace constituents in solids and leachates. This text summarizes some important applications of radioanalysis in this part of environmental monitoring

  2. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  3. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford's SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford's future solid waste management requirements

  4. Resource Prospects of Municipal Solid Wastes Generatedin the Ga East Municipal Assembly of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicta Abiti; Susanne Hartard; Heike B. Bradl; Davar Pishva; John Kojo Ahiakpa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Municipal solid wastes management has recently become an important public health concern. Municipal solid wastes are a major source of raw materials that could be used for resource recovery for diverse applications. Objectives. The present study aimed to determine the composition of municipal solid waste and recoverable resources from the waste of the Ga East Municipal Assembly (GEMA) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods. An exploratory approach was used to collect ...

  5. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford's past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D ampersand D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers

  6. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N E; Sion, H C

    2014-01-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined

  7. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  8. Integrated Solid Waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain Abdul Kareem Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of waste management requires accurate data on generation and composition of waste which is pivotal for the decisions towards the appropriate waste management system. A five years (2008-2012 study was conducted to evaluate the solid wastes management system in all the six divisions of Basrah district (more than 30 sub-districts. Recent investigations in 2012 resulted information that population of Basrah district has reached 1,018,000 person The quantity of municipal solid waste generated was recorded to be 634 tons per day with MSW generation rates of 0.62 kg per capita per day. Municipal solid waste density was conducted as 192.6 kg/m³ with moisture content of 31.1%. The main components of the MSW were Food wastes represents largest proportion (54.8%, followed by plastic (25.2% and paper (7%. The study results reveal that the MSW stream has the largest proportion of biodegradable and recyclable waste. Therefore, the study recommends to use methods of waste treatment such composting, recycling and incineration in order to reduce the amount of waste that are taken to the landfill.

  9. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  10. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city Dhaka Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are increasing with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budge for collection capacity alone does not improve the environmental quality rather increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a compute laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis. (author)

  11. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of co-landfill proportion of bottom ash and municipal solid waste composition on the leachate characteristics during the acidogenesis phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pin-Jing; Pu, Hong-Xia; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-11-01

    Incineration has become an important municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment strategy, and generates a large amount of bottom ash (BA). Although some BA is reused, much BA and pretreatment residues from BA recycling are disposed in landfill. When BA and MSW are co-landfilled together, acid neutralization capacity and alkaline earth metal dissolution of BA, as well as different components of MSW may change environmental conditions within the landfill, so the degradation of organic matter and the physical and chemical properties of leachate would be affected. In this study, the effect of co-landfilled BA and MSW on the leachate characteristics during the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phase was studied using different BA/MSW ratios and MSW compositions. The results showed that the co-landfill system increased leachate pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity. For MSW with a high content of degradable components, the release and degradation of total organic carbon (TOC) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from MSW were promoted when the BA ratio by wet weight was less than 50%, and the biodegradability of leachate was improved. When the BA ratio exceeded 50%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. For MSW with low content of degradable components, when the proportion of BA was less than 20%, the release and degradation of TOC and VFA from MSW were promoted and alkalinity increased. When the BA ratio exceeded 20%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. The 50% BA ratio could improve the bio-treatability of leachate indicated by the leachate pH and C/N ratio. However, BA inhibited the release of nitrogen (TN and NH 4 + -N) at all BA ratios and MSW compositions. At the same time, the addition of BA increased the risk of leachate collection system clogging due to the dissolution and re-precipitation of alkaline earth metals contained in BA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  14. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  15. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  16. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  17. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Kawser Jamil; Farid Nasir Ani

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  19. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  20. Integrated waste management - Looking beyond the solid waste horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seadon, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Waste as a management issue has been evident for over four millennia. Disposal of waste to the biosphere has given way to thinking about, and trying to implement, an integrated waste management approach. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) defined 'integrated waste management' as 'a framework of reference for designing and implementing new waste management systems and for analysing and optimising existing systems'. In this paper the concept of integrated waste management as defined by UNEP is considered, along with the parameters that constitute integrated waste management. The examples used are put into four categories: (1) integration within a single medium (solid, aqueous or atmospheric wastes) by considering alternative waste management options (2) multi-media integration (solid, aqueous, atmospheric and energy wastes) by considering waste management options that can be applied to more than one medium (3) tools (regulatory, economic, voluntary and informational) and (4) agents (governmental bodies (local and national), businesses and the community). This evaluation allows guidelines for enhancing success: (1) as experience increases, it is possible to deal with a greater complexity; and (2) integrated waste management requires a holistic approach, which encompasses a life cycle understanding of products and services. This in turn requires different specialisms to be involved in the instigation and analysis of an integrated waste management system. Taken together these advance the path to sustainability

  1. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... inadequate manpower and welfare, poor provision of health services, negative attitudes, ...

  2. Solid and liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology for the treatment of low - and intermediate-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes is somewhat extensive. Some main guidance on the treatment methods are shown, based on informations contained in technical reports and complementary documents. (author) [pt

  3. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Nishi, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  4. Solid Waste Management In Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Tahiri; , A. Maçi; , V. Tahiri; , K. Tahiri

    2016-01-01

    Waste management accordingly from concept and practices that are used in different countries there are differences, particularly between developed and developing countries. Our country takes part in the context of small developing countries where waste management right is almost at the beginning. In order to have better knowledge about waste management in Kosovo is done a research. The research has included the institutions that are responsible for waste management, including central and loca...

  5. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  6. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  7. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  8. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  9. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  10. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  11. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Pham Phu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room, garden, and level of restaurant. The differences in waste generation rate of the hotels were proved to be statistically significant. The higher the scale of hotels, the higher the waste generation rate. Moreover, the waste composition of the hotels was identified by 58.5% for biodegradable waste, 25.8% for recyclables and 15.7% for others. The relative differences in the waste composition of the hotels by climate, the features of hotels, and the types of the guest were explained. Whereby, the higher size of the hotels, the higher percentage of biodegradable and less proportion of recyclable waste. Also, this study revealed that the implementation status of waste management practices of the hoteliers initially reaped quite positive achievements with 76% for sorting, 39% for recycling, 29% for reduction, and 0.8% for composting. The rate of waste management practices was proportional to the scale of the hotel. This study provided information on waste management practice of hotel industry and contributed to the overall assessment of municipal solid waste management practices of Hoi An city.

  12. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  13. The study for management process of radioactive solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Jumpei; Sugimoto, Masahiko [Energy and Nuclear System Center, Engineering Company, Kobe Steel Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of contributing to decide treatment method for solid waste stored by JNC, a series of investigation was conducted for domestic and overseas technologies about volume-reduction and immobilization of radioactive solid waste, focused on the melting technologies. Based on the result of investigation, melting and off-gas treatment were classified and summarized based on the result of investigation. Treatment and disposal cost for each melting method were estimated under definite conditions. Followings are obtained: (1) Melters for radioactive metal have been in operation since 1980's. On the other hand, melter for solid waste is under construction in Japan and Switzerland, never in operation. (2) Plasma arc melter and induction heat melter is developed for radioactive solid waste. They are classified into 5 method since there are 4 induction heat melter is developed. (3) Construction cost for each kind of melter are about 700-950 million yen, estimated by using open melting capacity and cost ratio of existing facility. (4) Volume of the molten waste to be filled up per disposal container, supposing 200 liter drum about 70-140 liter depends on the volume of receptacle and sub-heat material. Decision of the melter need detailed estimation of filling factor since they have large effects on disposal cost. (5) For adopting radioactive solid waste melter, it needs to estimate of melting capacity taking consideration into wide range composition of the JNC waste. In addition, it is necessary to develop estimating method of inventory for JNC waste since radioactivity composition is differ from that of nuclear power station. (author)

  14. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  15. Solid waste disposal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a small and densely populated country, the disposal of solid waste requires strict precautions. Because the landscape is flat and the watertable just under groundlevel, landfilling and dumping must be avoided as much as possible. Incineration of municipal and industrial waste are

  16. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  17. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  18. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECOVERY POTENTIAL: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir, A. Ahsan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 7690 tons of municipal solid waste generated daily at the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet, as estimated in 2005. Sampling was done at different waste generation sources such as residential, commercial, institutional and open areas, in different seasons. The composition of the entire waste stream was about 74.4% organic matter, 9.1% paper, 3.5% plastic, 1.9% textile and wood, 0.8% leather and rubber, 1.5% metal, 0.8% glass and 8% other waste. The per capita generation of municipal solid waste was ranged from 0.325 to 0.485 kg/cap/day while the average rate was 0.387 kg/cap/day as measured in the six major cities. The potential for waste recovery and reduction based on the waste characteristics are evaluated and it is predicted that 21.64 million US$/yr can be earned from recycling and composting of municipal solid waste.

  19. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  20. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  1. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  2. The Effect of COD Concentration Containing Leaves Litter, Canteen and Composite Waste to the Performance of Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudro, Ganjar; Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Sutrisno, Endro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus; Muthi'ah, Hilma; Sinaga, Glory Natalia; Hakiem, Rahmat Tubagus

    2018-02-01

    This research is conducted to analyze and determine the optimum of COD concentration containing leaves litter, canteen and composite waste to power density and COD removal efficiency as the indicator of SMFC performance. COD as the one of organic matter parameters perform as substrate, nutrient and dominating the whole process of SMFC. Leaves litter and canteen based food waste were obtained from TPST UNDIP in Semarang and treated in SMFC reactor. Its reactor was designed 2 liter volume and equipped by homemade graphene electrodes that were utilized at the surface of organic waste as cathode and in a half of reactor height as anode. COD concentration was initially characterized and became variations of initial COD concentration. Waste volume was maintained 2/3 of volume of reactor. Bacteria sources as the important process factor in SMFC were obtained from river sediment which contain bacteroides and exoelectrogenic bacteria. Temperature and pH were not maintained while power density and COD concentration were periodically observed and measured during 44 days. The results showed that power density up to 4 mW/m2 and COD removal efficiency performance up to 70% were reached by leaves litter, canteen and composite waste at days 11 up to days 44 days. Leaves litter contain 16,567 mg COD/l providing higher COD removal efficiency reached approximately 87.67%, more stable power density reached approximately 4.71 mW/m2, and faster optimum time in the third day than canteen based food waste and composite waste. High COD removal efficiency has not yet resulted in high power density.

  3. Biogasification of solid wastes by two-phase anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Vieitez, E.R.; Liu, T.; Kato, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Municipal, industrial and agricultural solid wastes, and biomass deposits, cause large-scale pollution of land and water. Gaseous products of waste decomposition pollute the air and contribute to global warming. This paper describes the development of a two-phase fermentation system that alleviates methanogenic inhibition encountered with high-solids feed, accelerates methane fermentation of the solid bed, and captures methane (renewable energy) for captive use to reduce global warming. The innovative system consisted of a solid bed reactor packed with simulated solid waste at a density of 160 kg/m 3 and operated with recirculation of the percolated culture (bioleachate) through the bed. A rapid onset of solids hydrolysis, acidification, denitrification and hydrogen gas formation was observed under these operating conditions. However, these fermentative reactions stopped at a total fatty acids concentration of 13,000 mg/l (as acetic) at pH 5, with a reactor head-gas composition of 75 percent carbon dioxide, 20 percent nitrogen, 2 percent hydrogen and 3 percent methane. Fermentation inhibition was alleviated by moving the bioleachate to a separate methane-phase fermenter, and recycling methanogenic effluents at pH 7 to the solid bed. Coupled operation of the two reactors promoted methanogenic conversion of the high-solids feed. (author)

  4. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  5. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  6. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  7. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  8. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  9. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  10. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  11. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  12. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  13. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors

  14. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents

  15. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  16. Integrated models for solid waste management in tourism regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Hashim, Halimaton Saadiah; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  17. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Shamshiry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  18. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Bin Mokhtar, Mazlin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Saadiah Hashim, Halimaton; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island. PMID:21904559

  19. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  20. Evaluation of dental solid waste in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabizadeh R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Today, one of the most important environmental issues is dental solid wastes which are of great importance because of the presence of hazardous, toxic and pathogen agents. In this survey, solid waste produced in Hamedan general dental offices is evaluated. "nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive study, from 104 general dental offices in Hamedan , 10 offices were selected in simple random way. From each offices, 3 sample at the end of successive working day (Sunday, Monday and Tuesday were analyzed. Samples were manually sorted into different 74 components and measured by means of laboratory scale. Then, measured components were classified in the basis of characteristic and hazardous potential as well as material type. "nResults: Total annual waste produced in general dental offices in Hamadan is 14662.67 Kg (9315.45>95.0% Confidence Interval>20009.88. Production percentages of infectious, domestic type, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic wastes were 51.93, 38.16, 9.47, 0.44 respectively. Main components of produced dental waste were 14 components that consist of more than 80 percents of total dental solid waste. So, waste reduction, separation and recycling plans in the offices must be concentrated on these main components. "nConclusion: In order to dental waste proper management, it is suggested that in addition to educate dentists for waste reduction, separation and recycling in the offices, each section of dental waste(toxic,chemical and pharmaceutical, infectious and domestic type wastes separately and according to related criteria should be managed.

  1. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  2. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  3. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  4. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  5. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  6. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  7. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1) A...

  8. Construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Whee; Lee, Kang Moo; Koo, Jun Mo; Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Sung Whan; Bae, Sang Min; Cho, Kang Whon; Sung, Suk Jong

    1989-02-01

    The Solid Waste Form Test Facility (SWFTF) is now construction at DAEDUCK in Korea. In SWFTF, the characteristics of solidified waste products as radiological homogeneity, mechanical and thermal property, water resistance and lechability will be tested and evaluated to meet conditions for long-term storage or final disposal of wastes. The construction of solid waste form test facility has been started with finishing its design of a building and equipments in Sep. 1984, and now building construction is completed. Radioactive gas treatment system, extinguishers, cooling and heating system for the facility, electrical equipments, Master/Slave manipulator, power manipulator, lead glass and C.C.T.V. has also been installed. SWFTF will be established in the beginning of 1990's. At this report, radiation shielding door, nondestructive test of the wall, instrumentation system for the utility supply system and cell lighting system are described. (Author)

  9. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  11. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  12. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  13. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  14. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  15. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  16. Method of solidifying radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes satisfactorily and safely with no destruction even under a high pressure atmosphere by preventing the stress concentration by considering the relationships of the elastic module between the solidifying material and radioactive solid wastes. Method: Solidification products of radioactive wastes with safety and securing an aimed safety ratio are produced by conditioning the modules of elasticity of the solidifying material equal to or less than that of the radioactive wastes in a case where the elastic module of radioactive solid wastes to be solidified is smaller than that of the solidifying material (the elastic module of wastes having the minimum elastic module among various wastes). The method of decreasing the elastic module of the solidifying material usable herein includes the use of such a resin having a long distance between cross-linking points of a polymer in the case of plastic solidifying materials, and addition of rubber-like binders in the case of cement or like other inorganic solidifying materials. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  18. The potential of household solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal District, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Kurniawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid population growth affects the amount of waste generated. Sukomanunggal Subdistrict is the densest area in West Surabaya which has a population of 100,602 inhabitants with a total area of 11.2 km2. The population growth significantly affects the problem of limited land for landfill facilities (final processing sites). According to the prevailing regulations, solid waste management solutions include the solid waste reduction and management. This study aims to determine the potential reduction of household solid waste at the sources. Household solid waste samplings were performed for eight consecutive days. The samples were then analyzed to obtain the generation rate, density, and composition so that the household solid waste reduction potential for the next 20 years could be devised. Results of the analysis showed that the value of waste is 0.27 kg/person/day, while the total household solid waste generation amounted to 27,162.58 kg/day or 187.70 m3/day. Concerning the technical aspects, the current solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has reached 2.1% through the application of waste bank, composting, and scavenging activities at the dumping sites by the garbage collectors. In the year of 2036, the potential reduction of household solid waste in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has been estimated to reach 28.0%.

  19. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Jamil, M.K.; Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R.

    2000-01-01

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 450 0 C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  20. The Museum of Solid Waste and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This activity geared for grades 5-9 involves students in creating museum stations on eight solid waste and energy topics. While working in groups, students present their station topic to other students who are conducting a "museum tour." In doing so participants are encouraged to enhance their reading, writing, public speaking, and artistic skills…

  1. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  2. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  3. General survey of solid-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  4. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  5. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampton, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures

  6. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of composite based biohydroxyapatite bovine bone mandible waste (BHAp) doped with 10 wt % amorphous SiO{sub 2} from rice husk by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmi, Dwi, E-mail: dwiasmi82@yahoo.com, E-mail: dwi.asmi@fmipa.unila.ac.id; Sulaiman, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadsulaiman@yahoo.co.id; Oktavia, Irene Lucky, E-mail: ireneluckyo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Gedung Meneng Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Badaruddin, Muhammad, E-mail: mbruddin@eng.unila.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lampung Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Gedung Meneng Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Zulfia, Anne, E-mail: anne@metal.ui.ac.id [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus Baru-UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Effect of 10 wt% amorphous SiO{sub 2} from rice husk addition on the microstructures of biohydroxyapatite (BHAp) obtained from bovine bone was synthesized by solid state reaction. In this study, biohydroxyapatite powder was obtained from bovine bone mandible waste heat treated at 800 °C for 5 h and amorphous SiO{sub 2} powder was extracted from citric acid leaching of rice husk followed by combustion at 700°C for 5 h. The composite powder then mixed and sintered at 1200 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are utilized to characterize the phase relations, functional group present and morphology of the sample. The study has revealed that the processing procedures played an important role in microstructural development of BHAp-10 wt% SiO{sub 2} composite. The XRD study of the raw material revealed that the primary phase material in the heat treated of bovine bone mandible waste is hydroxyapatite and in the combustion of rice husk is amorphous SiO{sub 2}. However, in the composite the hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium phosphate silicate were observed. The FTIR result show that the hydroxyl stretching band in the composite decrease compared with those of hydroxyapatite spectra and the evolution of morphology was occurred in the composite.

  8. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  9. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  10. Evaluation of Waste-to-Energy Potential of Domestic Solid Wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    waste in the metropolis ends up on illegal waste dumpsites. The aim of this paper was to investigate the waste-to-energy potentials of domestic solid wastes in Benin metropolis, Nigeria using a three-phase study plan - study of current waste management activities, characterization of domestic solid waste and determination ...

  11. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  12. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Power from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo dos Reis, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy production potential from urban wastes for several cities in Latin America. Technologies available for transforming wastes into energy are reviewed and the high efficiency and low pollution levels obtained are discussed based on some very successful examples in the developed countries. Several criteria to help plan a plant and choose its location and appropriate size are presented under the framework of environmental and energy constraints. Economic and financial feasibility, barriers to the introduction of new technologies and their transfer to developing countries, and political obstacles created by the lobby that is taking advantage of the present situation are presented. Management of such plants requires that a social communication program be well designed to touch and inform the public about the importance of the plants; it should also emphasize the gains to society. Marketing strategies are presented that will highlight life quality improvement and preservation of the environment to decision makers and the public. A case study for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will be discussed in detail, showing how several levels of decision makers are involved in the preparation of the feasibility study and in raising financial resources both inside and outside the country. The study is for a large plant with a capacity of 1,800 ton/day and the generation of 27 MW of electric power

  14. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  15. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  16. Exhumation test with aged radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The deterioration of solid radioactive waste buried in soil is an important consideration when estimating the migration of radionuclides from the burial site, planning procedures for exhuming buried waste, and evaluating hazards caused by intentional or unintentional uncovering of the waste. This report presents observations during the excavation of low-level waste buried for 14 years in the humid environment of the Savannah River Plant. The radiation dose rates that were used to define the limits for low-level beta-gamma wastes were <50 mR/hr from an unshielded package or <50 mR/hr at 10 feet from a truck load. The waste was buried in sandy clay soil trenches more than 20 feet above the water table and covered with soil soon after burial. Rainfall for the area averages 47 inches per year. Because of the higher water permeability in backfilled soil than in undisturbed soil, perched water was sometimes found in the bottom of some trenches. However, the duration and/or extent of perched water is limited so that most waste is not subjected to water-saturated soil. The waste uncovered included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials that deteriorated visibly. Apparently, decades would be required for all cellulose materials to decompose; plastics, rubber, and metals will probably survive indefinitely

  17. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  18. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system

  20. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  1. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The... Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.202 Definition of solid waste. (a) A military munition is not...

  3. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  4. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  5. studies on municipal solid wastes dumping on soil anions, cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and selected soil enzymes activities of Njoku solid waste dumpsite Owerri municipal, Nigeria were investigated. ... wastes) and sometimes commercial wastes collected by a ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.

  6. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  7. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  8. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  9. Hanford solid waste management system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Armacost, L.L.; Konynenbelt, H.S.; Wehrman, R.R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes systems analysis and simulation model development for a proposed solid waste management system at a U.S. Department of Energy Site. The proposed system will include a central storage facility, four treatment facilities, and three disposal sites. The material managed by this system will include radioactive, hazardous, and mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide a means of evaluating throughput and capacity requirements for the proposed treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The model is used to evaluate alternative system configurations and the effect on the alternatives of changing waste stream characteristics and receipt schedules. An iterative modeling and analysis approach is used that provides macro-level models early in the project and establishes credibility with the customer. The results from the analyses based on the macro models influence system design decisions and provide information that helps focus subsequent model development. Modeling and simulation of alternative system configurations and operating strategies yield a better understanding of the solid waste system requirements. The model effectively integrates information obtained through systems analysis and waste characterization to provide a consistent basis for system and facility planning

  10. Potential of solid waste utilization as source of refuse derived fuel (RDF) energy (case study at temporary solid waste disposal site in West Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Lindu, M.; Denita, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to measure the volume of solid waste generated as well asits density, composition, and characteristics, to analyze the potential of waste in TPS to become RDF materials and to analyze the best composition mixture of RDF materials. The results show that the average of solid waste generation in TPS reaches 40.80 m3/day, with the largest percentage of its share is the organic waste component of 77.9%, while the smallest amount of its share is metal and rubber of 0.1%. The average water content and ash content of solid waste at the TPS is 27.7% and 6.4% respectively, while the average calorific potential value is 728.71 kcal/kg. The results of solid waste characteristics comparison at three TPS indicate thatTPS Tanjung Duren has the greatest waste potential to be processed into RDF materials with a calorific value of 893.73 kcal/kg, water content level of 24.6%, andlow ash content of 6.11%. This research has also shown that the best composition for RDF composite materials is rubber, wood, and textile mixtureexposed to outdoor drying conditions because it produced low water content and low ash content of 10.8% and 9.6%, thus optimizedthe calorific value of 4,372.896 kcal/kg.

  11. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  12. Storage and Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Monitoring and Protection Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    This paper deals with solutions for the problem of final disposal of solid radioactive waste. I. It is first essential to organize a proper system of temporary storage. II. Final Storage In order to organize final storage, it is necessary to fix, according to the activity and form of the waste, the site and the modes of transport to be used within and outside the nuclear centre. The choice of solutions follows from the foregoing essentials. The paper then considers, in turn, final storage, on the ground, in the sub-soil and in the sea. Economic considerations are an important factor in determining the choice of solution. (author)

  13. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  15. Investigation of solid organic waste processing by oxidative pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibaba, O. B.; Sokolsky, A. I.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2017-11-01

    A thermal analysis of a mixture of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the average morphological composition and its individual components was carried out in order to develop ways to improve the efficiency of its utilization for energy production in thermal reactors. Experimental studies were performed on a synchronous thermal analyzer NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer QMC 403. Based on the results of the experiments, the temperature ranges of the pyrolysis process were determined as well as the rate of decrease of the mass of the sample of solid waste during the drying and oxidative pyrolysis processes, the thermal effects accompanying these processes, as well as the composition and volumes of gases produced during oxidative pyrolysis of solid waste and its components in an atmosphere with oxygen content of 1%, 5%, and 10%. On the basis of experimental data the dependences of the yield of gas on the moisture content of MSW were obtained under different pyrolysis conditions under which a gas of various calorific values was produced.

  16. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  17. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  18. Effect of fluidization number on the combustion of simulated municipal solid waste in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Johari; Mutahharah, M.M.; Abdul, A.; Salema, A.; Kalantarifard, A.; Rozainee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of fluidization number on the combustion of simulated municipal solid was in a fluidized bed was investigated. Simulated municipal solid waste was used a sample and it was formulated from major waste composition found in Malaysia which comprised of food waste, paper, plastic and vegetable waste. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the simulated were conducted and results showed its composition was similar to the actual Malaysian municipal solid waste composition. Combustion study was carried out in a rectangular fluidized bed with sand of mean particle size of 0.34 mm as a fluidising medium. The range of fluidization numbers investigated was 3 to 11 U mf . The combustion was carried out at stoichiometric condition (Air Factor = 1). Results showed that the best fluidization number was in the range of 5 to 7 U mf with 5 U mf being the most optimum in which the bed temperature was sustained in a much longer period. (author)

  19. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  20. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles

  1. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  2. Optimization of concrete composition in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Peric, A.

    1995-01-01

    Low and intermediate level waste represents 95% of the total wastes that is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these containers are to protect radioactive waste safely for about 300 years, the selection and precise control of physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is very important. After volume reduction and valuable components recovery, waste materials have to be conditioned for transport, storage and disposal. Conditioning is the waste management step in which radioactive wastes are immobilized and packed. The immobilization processes involve conversation of the wastes to solid forms that reduce the potential for migration or dispersion of radionuclides from the wastes by natural processes during storage, transport and disposal. The immobilization processes involve the use of various matrices of nonradioactive materials, such as concrete, to fix the wastes as monoliths, usually directly in the waste containers used for subsequent handling. In this paper an optimization of concrete container composition, used for storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is presented. Optimization was performed on the composition of the concrete that is used in the container production. In experiments, the authors tried to obtain the best mechanical characteristics of the concrete, varying the weight percentage of the granulate due to its diameter, water-to-cement ratios and type of the cements that were used in preparing the concrete container formulation. Concrete containers, that were optimized in the manner described in this paper, will be in used for the radioactive waste materials final disposal, using the concept of the engineer trench system facilities

  3. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  4. Cementitious Composites for Immobilization of Radioactive Waste into Final Wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlakov, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Research and development works are important on universal cementation technological processes to achieve maximal conditioning efficiency for various type wastes such as saline liquid radioactive waste (LRW), where the variants of cement composition formulations, modes of cement compounds preparation and types of equipment are minimised. This work presents the results of development of multi-component cement compositions for the complex of technological processes of different types of radioactive waste (RAW) cementation: concentrated saline LRW, concentrated boron-containing saline LRW, LRW with high surface active substances content, with residues, liquid organic radioactive waste, spent ion-exchange resins and filter-perlite powder, ash residues from solid radioactive waste (SRW) combustion, mixed closely packed and large-fragmented SRW. The research has found technological parameters of equipment and cement compositions providing reliable RAW cementation. Continuous and periodic cycle plants were developed for LRW cementation by mixing. Pouring and penetration methods were developed for SRW cementation. Based on compliance with equipment parameters, methods and cement grouts were selected for most effective technological processes of cementation. Formulations of cement compositions were developed to provide reliable preparation of cement compounds with maximal waste loading at required cement compound quality. The complex of technological processes of cementation using multi-component cement compositions allows highly efficient treatment of the wide range of RAW including problematic waste streams and wastes generated in small amounts. Rational reduction of cementation variants significantly increases economical efficiency of immobilisation. (author)

  5. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  6. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  7. Establishing Value of Ceramic Solid Waste Into Light Weight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Prasetya, H. R.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    Ceramic solid waste is a waste in the form of the ceramic or ceramic powder that has a defect and cannot be resold where the amount will continue to increase as the ceramic industry continues to produce. Handling waste so far is done by pilling it on vacant land so that if the waste continues to grow the more areas are also needed to stockpile. In addition, waste handling by boards can be a potential hazard to the surrounding environment such as chemical content in ceramics can be carried to the waters and the dust can be blown by the wind and disrupt breathing. This study aims to convert ceramics solid wastes into bricks that have more added value. Data collection is done with primary and secondary data. The method used is Taguchi experiment design to determine the optimum brick composition. The experiment consisted of 4 factors and 3 levels of ceramic with 4 kg, 5 kg and 6 kg, cement with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, silica with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, water level 500 ml, 750 ml, and 1000 ml. After that proceed with the financial analysis that is determining the selling price, Break Event Point (BEP, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Pay Back Period (PBP), and Profitability Index. The results of this research are the optimum composition of the concrete blocks, 6 kg of ceramics, 5 kg of cement, 4 kg of silica sand and 1000 ml of water with the compressive strength of 125,677 kg/cm2 and signal to noise is 41,964 dB. In the financial analysis, the selling price of brick is Rp 7,751.75/unit and BEP 318,612 units of product, IRR level 43.174% and PBP for 1 year and 10 months

  8. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  9. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita -1 day -1 . Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  10. Development of a master plan for industrial solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zahraie, B.; Kerachian, R.; Mahjouri, N.; Moridi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid industrial growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran has resulted in disposal of about 1750 tons of solid waste per day. Most of these industrial solid wastes including hazardous wastes are disposed without considering environmental issues. This has contributed considerably to the pollution of the environment. This paper introduces a framework in which to develop a master plan for industrial solid waste management. There are usually different criteria for evaluating the existing solid waste pollution loads and how effective the management schemes are. A multiple criteria decision making technique, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process, is used for ranking the industrial units based on their share in solid waste related environmental pollution and determining the share of each unit in total solid waste pollution load. In this framework, a comprehensive set of direct, indirect, and supporting projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control. The proposed framework is applied for industrial solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan in Iran and a databank including GIS based maps of the study area is also developed. The results have shown that the industries located near the capital city of the province, Ahwaz, produce more than 32 percent of the total solid waste pollution load of the province. Application of the methodology also has shown that it can be effectively used for development of the master plan and management of industrial solid wastes

  11. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  12. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  13. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  14. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  15. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  16. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  17. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  19. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S. [CSI Resource Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, and geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste management as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Japanese have not defined a specific hierarchical preference for alternative waste management practices, i.e., waste reduction, reuse and recycling, combustion, composting, and landfill disposal. However, in marked contrast to the US approach, the Japanese system relies heavily on waste combustion, with and without energy recovery. {open_quotes}Discards{close_quotes}, as the term is used in this paper, refers to all materials considered used and spent by residential and commercial generators. That which is discarded (whether recyclable or nonrecyclable) by a municipality is referred to as MSW. This paper provides an overview of MSW management practices and private-sector recycling in Japan. Estimates of the total generation of residential and commercial discards and their disposition are also presented. Such an overview of Japanese practices can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of US integrated solid waste management programs. Of the estimated 61.3 to 72.1 million tons of residential and commercial discards generated in Japan during its 1989 fiscal year (April 1, 1989, through March 31, 1990), an estimated 55 to 64 percent was incinerated; 15 to 28 percent was recycled (only 2 to 3 percent through municipal recycling activities); less than 0.1 percent was composted or used as animal feed; and 17 to 20 percent was landfilled. Including ash disposal, 26 to 30 percent, by weight, of the gross discards were landfilled.

  20. Characterization of domestic and market solid wastes at source in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Waste management is an important element of environmental protection. Proper ... market waste generated from source and also the seasonal composition of household waste. The ..... the recent explosion in packaged water business and the.

  1. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  2. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  3. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  4. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*10 6 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  5. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  6. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  7. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  8. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  9. Chrome recycling from leather solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, O.A.; Mohamady, H.S.; El-Sayed, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Leather processing is one of the industrial activities that generate chromium bearing wastes in different forms, one of them is chrome shavings which contributes about 10% of the quantum raw skins /hides, and causes on burning dangerous human hazardous. Hydrolysis processes by different alkalis such as (LiOK KOH, NaOH) have been applied to recover chrome from solid wastes. The extent of hydrolysis was studied as a function of alkalis concentrations, in presence and absence of reducing agents, shaking time and temperature. Hydrolysis process exhibits 99%, 98% and 97%, chrome recovery for LiOH, KOH and NaOH respectively. The recovered chrome has been used in retaining process, examined through visual and mechanical tests of leather samples. The evaluation of the tanning process with recovered chrome gave acceptable results

  10. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  11. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  12. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  13. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  14. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  15. Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, Mehmet; Aras, Egemen; Nemlioglu, Semih

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants

  16. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  17. The Construction Solid Waste Minimization Practices among Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ahmad A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of minimization of construction solid waste is to reduce or eliminates the adverse impacts on the environment and to human health. Due to the increase of population that leads to rapid development, there are possibilities of construction solid waste to be increased shortly from the construction works, demolition or renovation works. Materials such as wood, concrete, paint, brick, roofing, tiles, plastic and any other materials would contribute problem involving construction solid waste. Therefore, the proper waste minimization is needed to control the quantity of construction solid waste produced. This paper identifies the type of construction solid waste produced and discusses the waste minimization practice by the contractors at construction sites in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

  18. 6th international solid wastes congress and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ategrus

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the sixth International Solid Wastes Congress and exhibition held in Madrid the dates June 14-19, 1992, and organized by ISWA. It sumps up 3 volumes dealing with Environmental Aspects, Administrative Aspects, Waste treatment Technologies, Waste Minimization, Land disposal and Hazardous Wastes

  19. Evaluation of Solid Waste Generation, Categories and Disposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... collection service and waste management regulations, respectively; while 28.4% separated their solid wastes at source ...

  20. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  1. Management of radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced in CDTN, the foreseen treatment and the responsibilities of various organs of CDTN involved in radioactive waste management are presented. (C.M.)

  2. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  3. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  4. Municipal solid waste management system: decision support through systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Lúcia Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering The present study intends to show the development of systems analysis model applied to solid waste management system, applied into AMARSUL, a solid waste management system responsible for the management of municipal solid waste produced in Setúbal peninsula, Portugal. The model developed intended to promote sustainable decision making, ...

  5. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  6. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  7. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  8. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  9. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  10. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  11. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  12. The Reduction of Solid Waste Associated with Military Ration Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratto, Jo Ann; Lucciarini, Jeanne; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; D'Souza, Nandika A

    2006-01-01

    ... decrease the amount of solid waste generated by the military. These nanocomposites formulations were melt processed into films and characterized for barrier, mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties...

  13. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  14. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  15. Contributions of Solid Wastes Disposal Practice to Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Malaria, solid waste, open drainage, RDT, environment. ... Natural and man-made habitats include temporary .... require community cooperation and Government interventions for alleviation. Prioritizing willingness of community.

  16. Solid Waste Management Facilities with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  17. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  18. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  19. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Database for waste glass composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.; Chapman, C.C.; Mendel, J.E.; Williams, C.G.

    1993-09-01

    A database of waste glass composition and properties, called PNL Waste Glass Database, has been developed. The source of data is published literature and files from projects funded by the US Department of Energy. The glass data have been organized into categories and corresponding data files have been prepared. These categories are glass chemical composition, thermal properties, leaching data, waste composition, glass radionuclide composition and crystallinity data. The data files are compatible with commercial database software. Glass compositions are linked to properties across the various files using a unique glass code. Programs have been written in database software language to permit searches and retrievals of data. The database provides easy access to the vast quantities of glass compositions and properties that have been studied. It will be a tool for researchers and others investigating vitrification and glass waste forms

  1. Factors influencing household participation in solid waste management (Case study: Waste Bank Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Arifiani, N. F.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Putri, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Solid waste management is very important measure in order to reduce the amount of waste. One of solid waste management form in Indonesia is waste banks. This kind of solid waste management required high level of participation of the community. The objective of this study is to explore factors influencing household participation in waste banks. Waste bank in Malang City (WBM) was selected as case study. Questionnaires distribution and investigation in WBM were conducted to identify problems of participation. Quantitative analysis was used to analyze the data. The research reveals that education, income, and knowledge about WBM have relationship with participation in WBM.

  2. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  3. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  5. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  6. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  7. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  8. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    MA Abduli; M Akbarpour Shirazi; B Omidvar; R Samieifard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid waste reduction is a key and fundamental factor in creating a sustainable society. Tehran Municipality has embarked on a series of positive measures in recent years in different areas of waste management such as source separation, mechanized waste collection, and constructing compost factories. However these measures have not only brought about any reduction in solid waste reduction but have also resulted in their increase. In this article, first we will describe the curre...

  9. Urban solid waste management in Chongqing: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hui; Wang Li'ao; Su Fenwei; Hu Gang

    2006-01-01

    The dual influences of the resource supply and protection in ecological environments will pose a significant challenge to China's sustainable development. Solid waste management offers opportunities to improve profits by conserving resources and improving environmental performance. This paper examines municipal solid waste (MSW) management in urban Chongqing, the nation's fourth largest municipality after Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. In this paper, we will provide information on the quantity and composition of MSW, as well as give an overview of different methods for collection, transport, treatment and disposal of MSW. At present the daily amount of MSW generated per person is about 1.08 kg; food waste accounts for about 59% of total MSW. MSW in Chongqing has a higher moisture content (64.1%) and a lower LHV (3728 kJ/kg) than other cities in Asia, which is an obstruction for incineration. Landfills are the main method of disposal in Chongqing, but pollution caused by simple landfills and lack of backup MSW disposal capacity are becoming major problems in the main districts of Chongqing. In this paper, the challenges being faced and opportunities to MSW in Chongqing are analyzed and some suggestions are given for improving the MSW system in the future

  10. Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established

  11. Race, wealth, and solid waste facilities in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jennifer M; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J; Kaufman, Jay S; Marshall, Stephen W; Cravey, Altha J

    2007-09-01

    Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with or = 100,000 dollars. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice.

  12. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  13. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  14. Characterization on incineration residue of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kiyoshi; Hirayama, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization was carried out on incineration residue discharged from the radioactive solid waste incineration unit (capacity, 100 kg/h) in use at the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain basic data for investigating solidification methods of the residue. The characterized residue was taken from furnace and a primary ceramic filter of the incineration unit which incinerates combustible solid wastes generated at JAERI and the outside organizations. Items of characterization involve a particle size distribution, misplaced materials content, ignition loss, chemical composition and radioactivity of nuclides in the ash. As the results, the size of ash sampled from the furnace distributed a wide range, with about 35∼60 % of ash smaller than 5 mm and about 10∼25 % of massive one larger than 30 mm (max. size: ∼130 mm). The ignition loss was 2∼3 %. The chemical compositions of the ash were mainly SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO and Al 2 O 3 . The specific activities of the ash were about 0.4∼4 x 10 3 Bq/g, and principal contaminants were 60 Co and 137 Cs. (author)

  15. Global climate change mitigation scenarios for solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monni, S. [Benviroc Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Pipatti, R. [Statistics Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Syri, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The waste sector is an important contributor to climate change. CH{sub 4} produced at solid waste disposal sites contributes approximately 3.4 percent to the annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from solid waste disposal are expected to increase with increasing global population and GDP. On the other hand, many cost-efficient emission reduction options are available. The rate of waste degradation in landfills depends on waste composition, climate and conditions in the landfill. Because the duration of CH{sub 4} generation is several decades, estimation of emissions from landfills requires modelling of waste disposal prior to the year whose emissions are of interest. In this study, country- or region-specific first-order decay (FOD) models based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines are used to estimate emissions from municipal solid waste disposal in landfills. In addition, IPCC methodology is used to estimate emissions from waste incineration. Five global scenarios are compiled from 1990 to 2050. These scenarios take into account political decision making and changes in the waste management system. In the Baseline scenario, waste generation is assumed to follow past and current trends using population and GDP as drivers. In the other scenarios, effects of increased incineration, increased recycling and increased landfill gas recovery on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are assessed. Economic maximum emission reduction potentials for these waste management options are estimated at different marginal cost levels for the year 2030 by using the Global TIMES model. Global emissions from landfills are projected to increase from 340 Tg CO{sub 2} eq in 1990 to 1500 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2030 and 2900 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2050 in the Baseline scenario. The emission reduction scenarios give emissions reductions from 5% (9%) to 21% (27%) compared to the Baseline in 2030 (2050). As each scenario considered one mitigation option, the results are largely additive, and

  16. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  17. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  18. Study on Waste Composition at Taman Pura Kencana, Batu Pahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is a major challenge due to the increase in population and the development of a country. The problems also arise when the lifespan of the landfills available are shorten than estimated. The aim of this study is to determine waste composition at Taman Pura Kencana. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted based on Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data collected is recorded. The result showed the moisture content was approximately ranging between 25% – 30%. The density for each waste has been calculated and the result was recorded accordingly. The highest density is metal followed by organic waste, glass, napkins, household hazardous waste, textiles, paper, plastic rigid, plastic film, rubber and tetrapek. The waste collected also were categorized and consisted of food waste/organic (43.75%, paper (17.97%, plastics rigid (13.58%, plastic film (10.62%, napkins (4.43%, glass (3.10%, household hazardous waste (1.68%, metal (1.67%, tetrapek (1.34% , rubber (0.93%, and textiles (0.92%. Results from the analysis illustrated that waste generation in Taman Pura Kencana may influenced by sudden changes in lifestyles, incomes, household size and also increase of population.

  19. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2002-01-01

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  20. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, H.H. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Dept. of divil Engineering, Melbourne, Florida (United States); Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S

    2002-06-15

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  1. Potential useful products from solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golueke, C G; Diaz, L F

    1991-10-01

    Wastes have been aptly defined as "items, i.e. resources, that have been discarded because their possessors no longer have an apparent use for them". Accordingly, "wastes" have a significance only in relation to the items and those who have discarded them. The discarded items now are resources awaiting reclamation. Reclamation usually involves either salvage or conversion--or in modern terminology, "reuse" or "recycling". Reclamation for reuse consists in refurbishing or other upgrading without significantly altering original form and composition. Examples of wastes amenable to reuse are containers (bottles, etc.), cartons and repairable tires. With "recycling" (i.e. conservation), the discarded items are processed such that they become raw material, i.e. resources in the manufacture of "new" products. The variety of processes is wide, ranging from simply physical (grinding) through thermal (melting, gasification, combustion), to biological (composting, biogasification, hydrolysis, microbial protein production). In the paper, reuse and recycling (conversion) are evaluated in terms of advantages and disadvantages (limitations) and their respective technologies are described and discussed in detail.

  2. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  3. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models

  4. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  5. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  6. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  7. Survey of Environmental Technician Employment Needs in Solid Waste Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Satyakam

    A study was done to determine the extent of current employment, expected job growth, necessary job skills, and the educational background preferred by employers in the solid waste field. Eight different questionnaires were developed and representatives of the solid waste management industry from 1,004 state agencies, municipalities, and private…

  8. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  9. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  10. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  11. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  12. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, ... four models of decentralized solid waste management in low-income urban ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  13. Problems Associated With Solid Waste Management Among Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of solid waste management in Nigeria has been an important issue for discussion among scientists and researchers in recent times. This study evaluates the problems associated with effective solid waste management among peri-urban households in southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected from 94 ...

  14. Facility for low-level solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    A facility for low-level solid waste compaction, encapsulation and storage is described. Solid wastes are compacted in 200 l drums and stored over concrete platforms covered with canvas, for decay or for interim storage before transport to the final disposal site. (Author) [pt

  15. Solid Waste Management: Abstracts From the Literature - 1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John A.; Stainback, Sandra E.

    The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-272, Title II) and its amending legislation, the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-512, Title I), authorize collection, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to all aspects of solid-waste management. As part of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  16. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Information, demonstration projects, and other activities, pertaining to solid-waste-related research, available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are contained in this document. These EPA publications are reports of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965.…

  17. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature, October 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Listed are 269 solid waste management publications available from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). There are EPA publications reporting on results of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. Certain conference proceedings, findings of various commissions and…

  18. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  19. Municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Robe town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasu, Duguma; Faye, Tesfaye; Kiros, Amaha; Balew, Abel

    2018-04-20

    The amount of solid waste generated in developing countries is rising from time to time due to economic growth, change in consumer behavior and lifestyles of people. But it is hard to manage and handle the increase of solid waste with existing waste management infrastructure. Thus, the management system of solid waste is very poor and become a serious problem. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the volume of solid waste generated and investigate factors affecting generation and disposal of wastes in the study area. The result of this study indicated that total waste generated from households was about 97.092kg/day.Furthermore, the study reveals that the solid waste generation rate of the town is 0.261kg/person/day.About 57.5% of solid waste is properly disposed of to landfill site whereas the remaining 42.5% is illegally dumped at the roadsides and open fields. Implication Statement Nowadays, in developing countries there is high concentration of people in urban areas and cause for the generation of enormous concentration of municipal waste in urban areas. Therefore this finding will be important for various policy makers and town planners. It may also serve as a benchmark for the municipal authorities of the town for whom the problem is still invisible and negligible and can push environmental protection authorities to reexamine the implementation of their policies and strategies with regard to the broader issues of human and environmental health condition of town dwellers.

  20. Evaluating citizen attitudes and participation in solid waste management in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Yavari, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadnejad, Shahin

    2008-12-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the environmental impact of solid waste in Iran. Consequently, solid waste management has become a remarkably important issue. Solid waste comprises a wide range of materials and comes from a variety of sources. Having a population of about 10 million (about 1/7 of Iran's total population), Tehran is among the most populated capitals in the world. With 22 different districts, this city generates approximately 7,000 metric tons of municipal waste per day that culminates in a total of 2.5 million tons annually. If no reduction strategy on the waste stream is implemented, this huge amount of waste will be buried in Kahrizak (the exclusive landfill site of Tehran). Land and underground water resource degradation in the vicinity of the landfill site-as well as disease outbreaks in the area surrounding the site may be considered alarming warnings for further catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled waste dumping. In this study, the composition of Tehran's solid wastes is analyzed. In order to physically analyze waste generated, waste sampling was carried out by trained workers of the Tehran organization of waste recycling and compost in 2004 for 10 successive days in the middle of each of four seasons. As a result of the study, some practical recommendations are made to reduce the waste stream load directed toward the land. Furthermore, this study evaluated people's concern about the fate of the waste they generate. According to the data collected in a survey, citizens' participation is not remarkably high, but even the modest cooperation recorded may cause a great benefit if extrapolated to the whole city. By virtue of sharp decreases in the cost of total waste collection and transport, as well as the benefits of land and underground water resource preservation, separation of wastes at their source by individual households makes economic sense.

  1. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  2. Dental solid waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Mostafapour, Ferdos Kord; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2014-02-01

    The management of dental solid waste continues to be a major challenge, particularly in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. In Iran, few studies on management of dental solid waste and its composition are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous and infectious status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. For this study, 123 private dental centres and 36 public dental centres were selected and the composition and generation rate of dental solid waste produced were measured. Dental solid waste was classified to four main categories: (i) domestic-type; (ii) potentially infectious; (iii) chemical and pharmaceutical; and (iv) toxic, which constituted 11.7, 80.3, 6.3, and 1.7%, respectively, of the total. Also, the results indicated that the dental solid waste per patient per day generation rate for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 169.9, 8.6, 153.3, 11.2, and 3.3 g/patient/d, respectively. Furthermore, the per day generation rates for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 194.5, 22.6, 156.1, 12.3, and 3.4 kg/d, respectively. According to findings of this study, for best management of dental waste it is suggested that source reduction, separation, reuse, and recycling programmes be implemented and each section of dental waste be collected and disposed of separately and in accordance with related criteria.

  3. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianjun; Wang Zhishi; Ran Shenghong

    2006-01-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future

  4. Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Problems and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGUNWAMBA

    1998-11-01

    / This paper is a presentation of the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria and certain important issues that must be addressed in order to achieve success. At the core of the problems of solid waste management are the absence of adequate policies, enabling legislation, and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and are poorly implemented. Public enlightenment programs lacked the needed coverage, intensity, and continuity to correct the apathetic public attitude towards the environment. Up to now the activities of the state environmental agencies have been hampered by poor funding, inadequate facilities and human resources, inappropriate technology, and an inequitable taxation system. Successful solid waste management in Nigeria will require a holistic program that will integrate all the technical, economic, social, cultural, and psychological factors that are often ignored in solid waste programs.KEY WORDS: Solid waste; Management; Problems; Solutions; Nigeria

  5. Examining of solid waste generation and community awareness between city center and suburban area in Medan City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, H.; Putri, C. N.; Dalimunthe, R. A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2018-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is still an issue in many cities in Indonesia including Medan. Understanding the waste generation, its characteristic and communities involvement could provide effective solid waste management. This research compares waste generation from people who live in the city center and suburban area. The research also examines the willingness and participation of community about environmental aspect, especially solid waste management. The method of waste generation used Indonesian Nasional Standard 19-3964-1994. The city center generates 0.295 kg/person/day of solid waste and 0.180 kg/person/day for suburbs. The result showed that there are the common amount of waste compositions between the city center and suburban area. The majority waste composition was an organic fraction. Questionnaires were distributed to examine the community awareness. The descriptive statistic used to analyze the data. The result showed that people living in the city center are slightly higher in community awareness than in the suburb. This paper highlights that area of living could give some effect to solid waste generation, waste composition and rate of awareness.

  6. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  7. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  8. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  9. Solid waste management of Jakarta : Indonesia an environmental systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trisyanti, Dini

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management has been one of the critical issues in Jakarta, Indonesia.With enormous amounts of generated waste per day and limited supportinginfrastructure, the city has faced serious threat of environmental deterioration andhealth hazard. It relies on one sanitary landfill only, whose capacity is currently beingexceeded, leading to excessive amounts of solid wastes left untreated in the city. An assessment with a system perspective was carried out, aiming to examine thecomplexity ...

  10. Economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd:

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami H; Mokhtari M; Eslami Dost Z; Barzegar Khanghah MR; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: In every urban waste management plan, recycling and reuse is considered as an economic pattern. This study aimed to economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd by cost-benefit analysis in 2015. Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytic study which in the data about quality and quantity of municipal solid waste in Yazd city were collected through the sampling and physical analysis and the data about total income and costs from the implementatio...

  11. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  12. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  13. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial solid waste is a serious health concern in Aba, South East Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess the approaches of some industries toward some aspects of waste management in Aba. Interviews, observation and questionnaires administered to industry executives and waste managers were used to ...

  14. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  17. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Baumol-Oates approach to solid waste taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.

    2002-01-01

    A national Baumol–Oates tax on waste in Denmark helped achieve a reduction of 26% in net solid waste from 1987 to 1998. The tax, which is levied per ton of waste, was particularly effective as regards the heavier waste streams such as construction waste and garden waste. When it comes to industrial...... and commercial waste, there are indications that the waste tax is not sufficiently significant to induce changes in behavior, and that except for very waste-intensive enterprises, companies do not seem to be very price sensitive. For household waste, the impact of the tax can be improved where tariffs...... for garbage collection are weight based, rather than per unit. However, the waste sector is an area in which the price signals are modified and filtered by institutionalized practices in municipal administration, and in which true-cost pricing is not easy to achieve. Hence, the rational choice assumption...

  19. Method and device of decontaminating radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tamada, Masami.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely enable grinding for the inner surface of hollow radioactive solid wastes such as pipeways or valves, as well as enable to decontaminate these solid wastes to such a level as being capable of processing in the same manner for the ordinary wastes. Method: A grinding piece abutting resiliently against the inner surface of a hollow radioactive solid wastes to be contaminated is attached at the top end of a flexible shaft, and the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes is ground while rotating and slightly reciprocating, as well as axially moving the flexible shaft. Consequently, since the grinding piece is always abutted against the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes just following after the profile of the inner surface, and the flexible shaft is resiliently flexed corresponding to the profile of the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes, even an inner surface of radioactive solid wastes with a complicated configuration can surely be ground entirely. This surely enables to remove radioactive claddings and contaminated layers deposited on the surface. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  1. Rural Solid Waste Management in China: Status, Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe the overall state of Rural Solid Waste Management (RSWM in China in three main areas: waste collection services, waste transportation services and waste disposal services. Given China’s urbanization, industrialization, and the subsequent improvement of household living standards, the amount of solid waste generated in rural China has increased rapidly. Based on primary data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, we find that the proportion of villages with waste collection, waste transportation, and waste disposal services in 2015 is 80%, 55% and 22%, respectively. The differences in shares of villages with these services across provinces are statistically significant. Using descriptive and econometric analyses, the authors show that richer villages are more likely to provide rural solid waste (RSW collection and transportation services. Villages with new (newly elected or appointed village leaders are more likely to supply RSW disposal services. While the majority of villages report that they offer waste collection services (installing waste collection facilities and employing waste collection workers, the vast majority of villages do not transport their waste to treatment plants. Even fewer villages report using centralized disposal methods to dispose of waste, as required by law or regulation. This study represents the first effort to describe the state and determinants of waste management services in rural China in the wake of increased investment in and new policies regarding RSWM released in 2015. Additionally, we provide evidence-based suggestions that might be useful for policy makers interested in improving RSWM in China. These suggestions include increasing investments in waste collection facilities and worker services; encouraging local residents to classify and recycle waste; designing optimal waste transportation networks and routes; and improving on-site waste disposal

  2. Urban solid waste generation and disposal in Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Bernache, G

    2001-04-01

    The adequate management of municipal solid waste in developing countries is difficult because of the scarcity of studies about their composition. This paper analyses the composition of urban solid waste (USW) in the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Residential and non-residential waste sources were sampled, and a structured interview was made to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied area. Also, to determine the seasonal patterns of solid waste generation and the efficiency level of the collection service, quantification of solid waste deposited in the dumping ground was measured. Our results show that the recorded amount of SW deposited in the municipal dumping-ground is less than the estimated amount of SW generated; for this reason, the former amount is not recommended as an unbiased indicator for planning public waste collection services. It is essential that dumping-grounds are permanently monitored and that the incoming waste be weighed in order to have a more efficient record of USW deposited in the dumping-ground per day; these data are fundamental for developing adequate managing strategies.

  3. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan, E-mail: swapan2009sajal@gmail.com; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr., E-mail: bidyut53@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  4. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length

  5. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  6. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.30 Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. In...

  7. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna W; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating ((14)C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the (14)C method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7-10% (95% confidence interval) for the (14)C method and slightly lower for the balance method.

  8. Treatment of solid wastes. Preventing waste production, recovery, waste collection, waste disposal, sanitation. Procedures, technical processes, legal foundations. 2. rev. ed. Behandlung fester Abfaelle. Vermeiden, Verwerten, Sammeln, Beseitigen, Sanieren. Verfahrensweise, technische Realisierung, rechtliche Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, K.; Emberger, J.

    1990-01-01

    The book 'Treatment of Solid Wastes' was compiled by the group 'Environmental Protection/Waste Disposal' and looks at disposal methods and processes. The initial chapters deal with technical methods of environmental protection, describe laws and legal regulations pertaining to waste disposal, explain the quantities and composition of the waste matter and give an overview of the treatments which are available. Methods and technical process of waste collection, transport, sorting, recapturing of valuable matter, biochemical and thermal conversion and depositing. Treatment of poisonous wastes and old sites are dealt with in the final chapters. (orig./EF).

  9. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  10. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  11. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Lautaru, V.; Bujoreanu, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from each other. For a CANDU type reactor, the occurrence of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  12. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste From Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Laotaru, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from which other. For a CANDU type reactor, the appearance of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  13. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  14. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TWunderscoreTRUM)

  15. Solid Waste Management with Emphasis on Environmental Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navin Kr.; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Shree, Shalini

    2011-12-01

    In this paper focus on Solid waste management. Its comprises of purposeful and systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transport, separations, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste. Awareness of Four R's management & EMS support also for management Solid waste. Basel convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their Disposal usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). it came into force 5 May 1992. According to this "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law"(UNEP).

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  17. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  18. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  19. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  1. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW.

  2. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  3. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  4. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  5. Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    Different process strategies for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) are reviewed weighing high-solids versus low-solids, mesophilic versus thermophilic and single-stage versus multi-stage processes. The influence of different waste characteristics...... such as composition of biodegradable fractions, C:N ratio and particle size is described. Generally, source sorting of OFMSW and a high content of food waste leads to higher biogas yields than the use of mechanically sorted OFMSW. Thermophilic processes are more efficient than mesophilic processes in terms of higher...... biogas yields at different organic loading rates (OLR). Highest biogas yields are achieved by means of wet thermophilic processes at OLRs lower than 6 kg-VS(.)m(-3) d(-1). High-solids processes appear to be relatively more efficient when OLRs higher than 6 kg-VS(.)m(-3) d(-1) are applied. Multi...

  6. Semi-continuous co-digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste, manure, and fruit and vegetable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    The potential of semi-continuous mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) for the treatment of solid slaughterhouse waste, fruit-vegetable wastes, and manure in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated. A study was made at laboratory scale using four 2 L reactors working semi-continuously at 35 C. The effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) was initially examined (using equal proportion of the three components on a volatile solids, VS, basis). Anaerobic co-digestion with OLRs in the range 0.3-1.3 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} resulted in methane yields of 0.3 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane content in the biogas of 54-56%. However, at a further increased loading, the biogas production decreased and there was a reduction in the methane yield indicating organic overload or insufficient buffering capacity in the digester. In the second part of the investigation, co-digestion was studied in a mixture experiment using 10 different feed compositions. The digestion of mixed substrates was in all cases better than that of the pure substrates, with the exception of the mixture of equal amounts of (VS/VS) solid cattle-swine slaughterhouse waste (SCSSW) with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW). For all other mixtures, the steady-state biogas production for the mixture was in the range 1.1-1.6 L d{sup -1}, with a methane content of 50-57% after 60 days of operation. The methane yields were in the range 0.27-0.35 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added and VS reductions of more than 50% and up to 67% were obtained. (author)

  7. Storage facility for highly radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Shozo

    1996-01-01

    A heat insulation plate is disposed at an intermediate portion between a ceiling wall of a storage chamber and an upper plate of a storage pit in parallel with them. A large number of highly radioactive solid wastes contained in canisters are contained in the storage pit. Cooling air is introduced from an air suction port, passes a channel on the upper side of the heat insulation plate formed by the ceiling of the storage chamber and the heat insulation plate, and flows from a flow channel on the side of the wall of the storage chamber to the lower portion of the storage pit. Afterheat is removed by the air flown from the lower portion to ventilation tubes at the outer side of container tubes. The air heated to a high temperature through the flow channel on the lower side of the heat insulation plate between the heat insulation plate and the upper plate of the storage pit, and is exhausted to an exhaustion port. Further, a portion of a heat insulation plate as a boundary between the cooling air and a high temperature air formed on the upper portion of the storage pit is formed as a heat transfer plate, so that the heat of the high temperature air is removed by the cooling air flowing the upper flow channel. This can prevent heating of the ceiling wall of the storage chamber. (I.N.)

  8. Management of radioactive solid waste arisings from PFR reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Hackney, S.; Bailey, G.; Bremner, W.; Lillyman, E.; Pugh, O.; Reekie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the solid radioactive waste management facilities for dealing with the arisings from PFR reprocessing at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Four major categories of solid waste are identified. The 'La Calhene' posting system for the transfer of active wastes which has been installed is discussed. The three new retrievable stores for high α#betta##betta#, high α low #betta##betta# and low α high #betta##betta# are described. The methods of waste categorisation by non-destructive assay techniques are outlined. Finally a review of operating experience with the facilities is presented. (U.K.)

  9. Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    2005-01-01

    SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan [it

  10. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  11. Implementation of a management applied program for solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the Post-irradiated Fuel Examination Facility, the Irradiated Material Examination Facility, the Research Reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A data collection of a solid radioactive waste treatment process of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by treatment process. Data on the actual treatment process that is not limited experiment improve by a document, human traces, saving of material resources and improve with efficiency of tracking about a radioactive waste and a process and give help to radioactive waste material balance and inventory study.

  12. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abduli

    2015-07-01

    Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one conducted from 2010 to 2014. Relevant officials of the waste recovery in 22 regions of Tehran were approached in order to collect data about municipal solid waste generation through interviewing, filling out questionnaires, conducting field visits from Aradkooh Disposal and Processing Complex and collecting information on disposal and destiny of wastes. Then the data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Total solid waste generation in Tehran from 2010 to 2014 amounted to respectively 3389662, 3399344, 3449338 and 3245157 Metric Tons, categorized into three groups of municipal, companies and townships and hospital wastes. Most of the generated waste produced in Tehran was that of households and commercial (known as municipal waste from 22 Regions of Tehran. Based on the surveys conducted, per capita solid waste generation of 11 regions of Tehran ranged from 550 to 1000 grams and in other 11 ones from 1000 to 1521 grams per capita per day. The lowest and highest waste generation rate belonged respectively to region 13 with 556 grams and region 12 with 1521 grams per capita per day in 2011. Conclusion: Comparing per capita generation of municipal solid waste in different municipal regions in Tehran with maximum acceptable capacity of waste generation indicates the deviation of waste generation of all Tehran regions from the standard acceptable amount. Therefore, not only is it necessary to plan and take strategic measures to reduce Tehran waste generation but also these programs and measures should be specific to each region considering its specifications and solid waste quality and quantity.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  15. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  16. Processing glass-pyrochlore composites for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, S.; Cannillo, V.; Wu, J.; Boccaccini, D.N.; Seglem, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Glass matrix composites have been developed as alternative materials to immobilize nuclear solid waste, in particular actinides. These composites are made of soda borosilicate glass matrix, into which particles of lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore are encapsulated in concentrations of 30 vol.%. The fabrication process involves powder mixing followed by hot-pressing. At the relatively low processing temperature used (620 deg. C), the pyrochlore crystalline structure of the zirconate, which is relevant for containment of radioactive nuclei, remains unaltered. The microstructure of the composites exhibits a homogeneous distribution of isolated pyrochlore particles in the glass matrix and strong bonding at the matrix-particle interfaces. Hot-pressing was found to lead to high densification (95% th.d.) of the composite. The materials are characterized by relatively high elastic modulus, flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness. A numerical approach using a microstructure-based finite element solver was used in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the composites

  17. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose

  18. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  19. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  20. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, an amount that ... The lessons learned and best (and worst) practices will be compiled, ... development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  1. Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North, Oyo State using geo-spatial ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Keywords: GIS, Median, Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA), Skip Bins ...

  2. feasibility study on solid waste management in port harcourt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    generation, storage, segregation, collection, treatment and disposal has been investigated. ... system is still being used instead of the integrated solid waste management system (1SWMS) and that about 75% ..... Master thesis, Submitted to the.

  3. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study identifies and analyses the solid waste management service gaps and situations in these different socio-economic ... identifying gaps existing at primary (household) SW ... internal structure is based on land uses and income levels.

  4. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problems of recycling and solid waste. It is investigated traditional methods of waste management (storage, disposal, incineration. Authors insist on ineffectiveness of these methods, because of the pollution increases anthropogenic pressure on the environment. It is proved harmful health effects using the traditional methods of disposal. The question of introducing innovative recycling, particularly separating solid waste, the development and use of clean technology waste processing, using microorganisms, pyrolysis. It is determined implementation barriers such as lack of effective government support, and high cost. It is noted that there is a problem of underestimating the complexity, scope and specifics of the issue. The experience of developed countries is outlined. The comparative performance of existing tariffs for disposal of solid waste is used. The ways of solving problems are done.

  6. Melting method for radioactive solid wastes and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Abe, Takashi; Nakayama, Junpei; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Sakamoto, Koichi

    1998-11-17

    Upon melting radioactive solid wastes mixed with radioactive metal wastes and non metal materials such as concrete by cold crucible high frequency induction heating, induction coils are wound around the outer circumference of a copper crucible having a water cooling structure to which radioactive solid wastes are charged. A heating sleeve formed by a material which generates heat by an induction heating function of graphite is disposed to the inside of the crucible at a height not in contact with molten metals in the crucible vertically movably. Radioactive solid wastes are melted collectively by the induction heat of the induction coils and thermal radiation and heat conduction of the heating sleeve heated by the induction heat. With such procedures, non metal materials such as concrete and radioactive metal wastes in a mixed state can be melt collectively continuously highly economically. (T.M.)

  7. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  8. Solid medical waste management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    may be higher than the expected 10 to 25% because of poor waste ... use of color coded bags, containers and symbols; waste collected at least once a day from .... regarding the awareness of existing policies, availability of waste plans and ...

  9. Solid waste as a renewable resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria Albanese, Jimmy Alexander; Ruiz, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The volume of waste produced by human activity continues to grow, but steps are being taken to mitigate this problem by viewing waste as a resource. Recovering a proportion of waste for re-use immediately reduces the volume of landfill. Furthermore, the scarcity of some elements (such as phosphorous

  10. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  11. Savannah River solid radioactive waste forecast, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The 1986 Solid Waste Forecast considers two types of waste: nonretrievable and retrievable (transuranic) waste. The effect of new facilities (DWPF, Naval Fuels, etc.) beginning operation coupled with plant-wide efforts to compact or reduce the volume of waste sent to 643-7G will tend to stabilize the solid waste generation rate over the forecast period (CY 1986--1995). Volume reduction by incineration and compaction, which is expected to increase during the forecast period, could reduce the volume of nonretrievable waste requiring burial by 50%. The volume of transuranic (TRU) waste generated each year is expected to increase to approximately 32,000 ft 3 /yr in 1987 and then decrease and stabilize at 17,000 ft 3 /yr TRU during the forecast period. A program is underway to process and dispose of all retrievably stored TRU waste and newly generated waste over approximately a 16-year period beginning in 1993. This program will reduce the amount of waste that must be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal and process that waste which is not certifiable for the WIPP. 9 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  13. Incineration of alpha-active solid waste by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1996-12-31

    The conventional techniques for treatment of alpha-active compressible solid waste involve incineration using electrically heated incinerators and subsequent recovery of special nuclear materials (SNM) from the ash by acid leaching. A microwave incineration followed by microwave digestion and SNM recovery from ash has specific advantages from maintenance and productivity consideration. The paper describes a preliminary work carried out with simulated uranium containing compressible solid waste using microwave heating technique. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  16. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m 3 of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time

  17. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiuju; Sun, Wenqiang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Eco-industry, Institute of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  18. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  19. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  20. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  1. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  2. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  3. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R.; Mokhtarani, N.; Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years

  5. The construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Koo, Jun Mo; Kim, Jeong Guk; Jung, In Ha

    1990-03-01

    The solid waste form test facility (SWFTF) to test and/or evaluate the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogeniety, mechanical properties, thermal properties, waste resistance and leachability, have been constructed, and some equipments for testing actual waste forms has been purchased; radiocative monitoring system, glove box for the manipulator repair room, and uninteruppted power supply system, et al. Classifications of radioactive wastes, basic requirements and criteria to be considered during waste management were also reviewed. Some of the described items above have been standardized for the purpose of indigenigation. Therefore, safety assurance of waste forms, as well as increase in the range of participating of domestic companies in construction of further nuclear facilities could be obtained as results through constructing this facility. In the furture this facility is going to be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination for extending the life time of some expensive radiological equipments using remote handling techniques. (author)

  6. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, F; Scaglia, B; Scotti, S; Adani, F

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid waste management in faisalabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, A.; Ali, S.; Khan, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today's world. There is a considerable amount of disposal of waste without proper segregation which has lead to both economic and environment sufferings. It is still practiced in many cities. There is a tremendous amount of loss in terms of environmental degradation, health hazards and economic descend due to direct disposal of waste. It is better to segregate the waste at the initial stages where it is generated, rather than going for a later option which is inconvenient and expensive. There has to be appropriate planning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste situation of the area. This paper would deal with, how Geographical Information System can be used as a decision support tool for planning waste management. A model is designed for the case study area in Pakistan city for the purpose of planning waste management. The suggestions for amendments in the system through GIS based model would reduce the waste management workload to some extent and exhibit remedies for some of the SWM problems in the case study area. The waste management issues are considered to solve some of the present situation problems like proper allocation and relocation of waste bins, check for unsuitability and proximity convenience due to waste bin to the users, proposal of recyclable waste bins for the required areas and future suggestions. The model will be implemented on the Faisalabad city's case study area data for the analysis and results will suggest some modification in the existing system which is expected to reduce the waste management workload to a certain extent. (author)

  8. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H 2 S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H 2 S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H 2 S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H 2 S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H 2 S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H 2 S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H 2 S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H 2 S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H 2 S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the

  9. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  10. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Hogland, W

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that

  11. Energy in Solid Waste: A Citizen Guide to Saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This booklet contains information for citizens on solid wastes. It discusses the possible energy available in combustible and noncombustible trash. It suggests how citizens can reduce waste at home through discriminating buying practices and through recycling and reuse of resources. Recommendations are given for community action along with state…

  12. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  13. Household Willingness to Pay for solid Waste Disposal Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    implement the sanitation bye-laws and re-institute the sanitation court to deal with cases of improper solid waste ... 8(2), 2016 Pages 1-17 ..... by both private companies and Waste Management Department, KMA) [1 for good quality service;.

  14. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  15. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Key Words: Household Storage, Solid Waste Management; Garbage Bins. Introduction .... depends on people's identification with the SWM system. The character of SWM ..... end up in the right place, and health and safety of those handling the full ... Afullo A (2004) Environmental and occupational health aspects of waste ...

  16. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  17. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  18. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  19. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  20. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T g ) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T g of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance

  1. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  2. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  3. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste

  4. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...... waste fractions with waste treatment statistics for Europe, and 4. illustrating the general distribution of ENM into incineration, recycling and landfilling. Our results indicate that ╲plastic from used product containers╡ is the most abundant and diverse waste fraction, comprising a variety of both...... nanoproducts and materials. While differences are seen between individual EU countries/regions according to the local waste management system, results show that all waste treatment options are significantly involved in nanowaste handling, suggesting that research activities should cover different areas...

  5. Prediction of the compression ratio for municipal solid waste using decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati R, Ali Akbar; Mokhtari, Maryam; Shakiba Rad, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The compression ratio of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential parameter for evaluation of waste settlement and landfill design. However, no appropriate model has been proposed to estimate the waste compression ratio so far. In this study, a decision tree method was utilized to predict the waste compression ratio (C'c). The tree was constructed using Quinlan's M5 algorithm. A reliable database retrieved from the literature was used to develop a practical model that relates C'c to waste composition and properties, including dry density, dry weight water content, and percentage of biodegradable organic waste using the decision tree method. The performance of the developed model was examined in terms of different statistical criteria, including correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, mean absolute error and mean bias error, recommended by researchers. The obtained results demonstrate that the suggested model is able to evaluate the compression ratio of MSW effectively.

  6. Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

    1978-06-01

    Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m 3 /GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m 3 /GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste

  7. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  8. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  9. SWSA [Solid Waste Storage Area] 6 tumulus disposal demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate the above-grade disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is being constructed in the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The demonstration facility will utilize the ''Tumulus'' technology, which basically involves sealing the waste in concrete vaults, placing the vaults on a grade level concrete pad, and covering the pad with a soil cover after vault placement is complete. Loading of the demonstration unit is scheduled to begin in June, and will continue one to one and a half years until the 28,000 ft 3 capacity is exhausted

  10. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  12. Assessment of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina C. Azuelo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003 mandates the local government units to take initiatives in managing their daunting problems on ecological solid waste disposal. Consequently, compliance of Camarines Norte, Philippines on this mandate needs assessment to determine the existing solid waste management (SWM strategies, the effectiveness and the possibility of adoption in each municipality. This study utilized the descriptive method using questionnaire as the main tool supplemented by interview. Results showed that the existing SWM strategies with the highest percentages of existence in the twelve (12 municipalities were provision of number of trucks in transporting solid wastes and knowledge on waste segregation conducted at every household/establishment. Varying levels were observed. However, high level of effectiveness is still required for significant impact, seeing that from the six areas assessed only four municipalities were identified to have more and highly effective SWM strategies. Generally, only availability of technology for composting was considered more effective and can be adopted in all municipalities. Better solid waste management may be fully attained through the involvement, political will and commitment of the implementers in the implementation of politically passed resolutions and undertaking of their initiatives that will stimulate active participation of the community. All these measures may bring change in health and environment in the province.

  13. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  14. Italian experience on the processing of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; De Angelis, G.

    1989-12-01

    Experimental work is under way in Italy for treatment and conditioning of different types of solid radioactive wastes. The following wastes are taken into account in this paper: Magnox fuel element debris, solid compactable wastes, radiation sources and contaminated carcasses. The metallic debris, consisting of Magnox splitters and braces, are conditioned, after drying and separation of corrosion products, by means of a two component epoxy system (base product + hardener). Solid compactable wastes are reduced in volume by using a press. The resulting pellets are transferred to a final container and conditioned with a cement mortar of a suitable consistency. As to the radiation sources, mainly contained in lightning-rods, gas detectors and radioactive thickness gauges, the encapsulation in a cementitious grout is a common practice for their incorporation. Early experiments, with satisfactory results, have also been conducted for the cementation of contaminated carcasses. (author)

  15. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  16. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  17. Evaluation and Analysis of Solid Waste at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D. W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Waste management is one of the biggest environmental problems in Hong Kong. According to a report from the HK government, in less than 3 years, which is 2020, all the local landfills will be filled with trash. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in HK with 1800 students, is planning to reduce their solid waste on campus by evaluating and analysing all solid wastes, which can assist professionals to reform and innovate solutions for refuse disposal. Meanwhile, this project is designed for both raising students' awareness of the magnitude of waste and figuring out measures for waste reduction. For one thing, the project includes the promotion of Waste Audit to reach the former purpose by teaching students how to sort waste. In addition, the weight of each type of waste will be recorded as reference data for students to learn about varied degrees of quantities among different kinds of garbage and relate data to impacts brought by waste with diverse characteristics on the environment. For another, the researcher involved in this project will carry out solutions corresponding to various sorts of waste by applying scientific knowledge, carrying out surveys, organizing campaigns etc.

  18. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  19. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  20. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs