WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid waste activities

  1. Treatment of solid non-active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this part of the text-book treatment of solid non-active wastes is described. This part consist of following chapters: (1) Law on wastes; (2) Present situation in waste management; (3) Strategic tendencies of waste management; (4) Incineration (disposal of solid wastes); (5) Disposal; (6) Composting; (7) Treatment of sludge from sewage clarification plant; (8) Biodegradation; (9) Recycling of wastes (assessing of secondary raw materials). Legal aspects of treatment of solid non-active wastes is presented

  2. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  3. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  4. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  5. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  6. Incineration of alpha-active solid waste by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1996-12-31

    The conventional techniques for treatment of alpha-active compressible solid waste involve incineration using electrically heated incinerators and subsequent recovery of special nuclear materials (SNM) from the ash by acid leaching. A microwave incineration followed by microwave digestion and SNM recovery from ash has specific advantages from maintenance and productivity consideration. The paper describes a preliminary work carried out with simulated uranium containing compressible solid waste using microwave heating technique. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Conversion of highly active waste to solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, K.

    Borosilicate glasses were selected as matrix material for solidification of highly radioactive wastes. Current laboratory work on the VERA process is described. Goals were met by a five-component glass VG-38 and a glass-ceramic VC-15. The VERA process is described: flowsheet, denitration, calcinator, fusion facility

  8. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  9. Characterization and application of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and waste granite powder in alkali activated slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Yuan, B.; Yu, Q. L.; Brouwers, H. J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using two solid wastes in alkali activated slag composites as construction and building materials is evaluated. One waste is the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, and the other one is fine granite powder from aggregate manufacturing. These two

  10. Activity measurement algorithm in solid radioactive waste clearance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Skala, L.

    2014-01-01

    Most of European metrology experts prefer in radiation wastes characterization process to use scaling factor method in combination with high definition gamma spectrometry rather than radionuclide vector method in combination with gross gamma activity measurement. The second method is actually used in Slovakian nuclear facilities. The international (IAEA) and Slovak national authorities (UVZ) recognize both approach but there is a fact, that high definition gamma spectrometry radionuclides more properly. (authors)

  11. Development of MHI's induction melting system for low level radio active solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi; Hashiba, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sato, Akio; Minemoto, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., (MHI) has developed melting facilities that reduce radioactive waste volume. The system uses a high-frequency induction to separately melt nonmetallic waste in SUS containers and metallic waste. Use of system extends refractory life. To validate system feasibility, major components were tested with the following results: (1) Two 200-liter drum cans of molten solid waste are produced per work day, (2) Radioactivity in molten solid was homogeneous with a coefficient of variation ≤10%, clarifying residue properties, (3) The radioactive decontamination factor of off-gas facilities --DF=Activity to system/Activity at the system exit --exceeded 10 7 . We confirmed system to fill the requirements for molten solid waste and have the merit of high volume-reduction and long-life refractory. (author)

  12. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  13. Developments in the management of low and intermediate activity solid wastes at the Cadarache Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Marcaillou, J.; Mery, J.; Pinto, D.; Rancon, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Cadarache Nuclear Studies Centre is located in a thinly populated region. Covering a total area of 1600 hectares, it has been able to accommodate numerous and important research facilities. In 1970, 11 reactors or critical assemblies were in operation. More than 164000 m 2 are devoted to laboratories, testing areas, installations for the inspection of irradiated fuel elements and plutonium technology workshops. Up to 1968 the low- and intermediate-activity solid wastes (categories 1, 2 and 30) collected at the Centre were divided into two classes for disposal purposes: (a) burnable wastes which, after sorting, were destroyed in an incinerator; (b) compressible wastes which were compacted in concrete containers after recovery of the packing, by means of a 250-ton press. The situation at Cadarache and the results obtained in hydrogeological studies have prompted the Centre to improve the processing of these wastes and reduce the cost. The treatment of solid wastes should, in effect, be regarded as a step towards their final elimination. The measure envisaged at Cadarache were thus aimed at permitting final storage on site, in order to reduce the volume of waste, contain the activity and keep the cost to a minimum. The management of solid wastes is at present based on the following methods: (a) storage in trenches with PVC packing for non-burnable solid wastes of categories 1 and 4, after monitoring of specific activities; (b) compacting and storage in leak-proof pools for solid wastes of categories 2 and 3, the most highly active undergoing a period of decay storage beforehand; (c) incineration of burnable solid wastes of categories 1 and 2 and also of contaminated oils and solvents. (author)

  14. A treatment station for solid radio-active waste at the Saclay nuclear research centre (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.; Lebrun, P.

    1962-01-01

    The waste from an atomic centre is very varied in nature, in form, and in activity, going from weakly contaminated laboratory waste to objects actuated in a pile and strongly radioactive. After one year's working of a pilot plant, a factory has been built, in which solide waste is treated and then conditioned in concrete blocks. The present communication describes the treatment and conditioning techniques in this factory which uses to a maximum remotely controlled operation. (authors) [fr

  15. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  16. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  17. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  18. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  19. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  20. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourist activities of the Porto de Galinhas - P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant solid waste generation, coupled with the lack of proper management of the waste generated, has been one of the issues of concern and conducting research on the part of scholars in the field. Tourism as an activity that positively impacts and negativity a given location, has emerged as an activity that can generate a lot of waste, especially in periods of high season, considering the increase of people moving to the tourist destinations. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze the generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourism in Porto de Galinhas, PE. We performed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in the form of a case study in Porto de Galinhas, PE. The data collection was done interviews together social actors, as well as non-participant observation during data collection. The results showed that tourism activities in Porto de Galinhas result in a high amount of solid waste, and these are directed to inappropriate places. Although fate presents a combination of recyclable materials, RECYCLE, reuses this not a significant amount, given the proportion of waste generated.

  3. A systematic approach for future solid waste cleanup activities at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, L.L.; Konynenbelt, H.S.; Hladek, K.L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the systematic approach to the treatment, storage, and disposal system (TSD) planning and management that has been developed and implemented by Hanford's Solid Waste Program. The systematic approach includes: collecting the forecast and waste inventory data; defining Hanford's TSD system; studying and refining the TSD system by using analysis tools; and documenting analysis results. The customers responsible for planning, funding, and managing future solid waste activities have driven the evolution of the solid waste system. Currently, all treatment facilities are several years from operating. As these facilities become closer to reality, more detailed systems analysis and modeling will be necessary to successfully remediate solid waste at the Site. The tools will continue to be developed in detail to address the complexities of the system as they become better defined. The tools will help determine which facility lay-outs are most optimal, will help determine what types of equipment should be used to optimize the transport of materials to and from each TSD facility, and will be used for performing life-cycle analysis. It is envisioned that in addition to developing the tools to be adapted to the more specific facility design issues, this approach will also be used as an example for other waste installations across the DOE complex

  4. Quantitative analysis of impact of awareness-raising activities on organic solid waste separation behaviour in Balikpapan City, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Noriaki; Murayama, Takehiko; Nishikizawa, Shigeo; Sato, Yuriko

    2017-10-01

    Many cities in Indonesia are under pressure to reduce solid waste and dispose of it properly. In response to this pressure, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Indonesian Government have implemented a solid waste separation and collection project to reduce solid waste in the target area (810 households) of Balikpapan City. We used a cluster randomised controlled trial method to measure the impact of awareness-raising activities that were introduced by the project on residents' organic solid waste separation behaviour. The level of properly separated organic solid waste increased by 6.0% in areas that conducted awareness-raising activities. Meanwhile, the level decreased by 3.6% in areas that did not conduct similar activities. Therefore, in relative comparison, awareness-raising increased the level by 9.6%. A comparison among small communities in the target area confirmed that awareness-raising activities had a significant impact on organic solid waste separation. High frequencies of monitoring at waste stations and door-to-door visits by community members had a positive impact on organic solid waste separation. A correlation between the proximity of environmental volunteers' houses to waste stations and a high level of separation was also confirmed. The awareness-raising activities introduced by the project led to a significant increase in the separation of organic solid waste.

  5. Evaluation of residual activity of solid waste generated in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Ana M.; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Magalhaes, Maisa Haiidamus; Guerrero, Jesus Salvador Perez

    2008-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy was conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radio pharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclides contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes can be adopted instead of the previously assumed 2%. It is suggested that the more conservative average value obtained in the present work for the activity that remains in flasks and syringes, that is, 10% of the initial activity, could be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. (author)

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  7. Solid radioactive waste: evaluation of residual activity in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico G.; Xavier, Ana M.; Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Guerrero, Jesus S.P.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy is been conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radiopharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclide contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes should be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. The 'rule of thumb' of 10 half-lives for storage before clearance is also discussed in the present work. (author)

  8. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  9. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  10. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  11. Activation analysis and waste management of China ITER helium cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.R., E-mail: hanjingru@163.co [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Chen, Y.X.; Han, R. [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Feng, K.M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Forrest, R.A. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Activation characteristics have been assessed for the ITER China helium cooled solid breeder (CH-HCSB) 3 x 6 test blanket module (TBM). Taking a representative irradiation scenario, the activation calculations were performed by FISPACT code. Neutron fluxes distributions in the TBM were provided by a preceding MCNP calculation. These fluxes were passed to FISPACT for the activation calculation. The main activation parameters of the HCSB-TBM were calculated and discussed, such as activity, afterheat and contact dose rate. Meanwhile, the dominant radioactivity nuclides and reaction channel pathways have been identified. According to the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) waste management strategy, the activated materials can be re-used following the remote handling recycling options. The results will provide useful indications for further optimization design and waste management of the TBM.

  12. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  13. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  16. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  18. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  19. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  20. FFTF radioactive solid waste handling and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport

  1. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  2. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  3. Development activities on shallow land disposal of solid radioactive waste. Progress report, January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Progress on projects focused on problems of shallow land burial of radioactively contaminated solid waste is summarized. Developments on a system to evaluate the containment adequacy of existing burial sites are described. Efforts to describe the environmental factors in monitoring the LASL disposal sites are discussed. The aim of a new program on radioactive waste burial technology is outlined

  4. The volume reduction of low-activity solid wastes. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.; Parsons, P.J.; Malasek, E.

    1970-01-01

    The accumulation of large volumes of low-level solid radioactive wastes is a matter of concern to waste management authorities, particularly when the wastes are produced close to urban areas. Some of the older and larger nuclear establishments are situated in relatively sparsely populated regions where the problem of dealing with such wastes can even be solved on-site, usually by burial, with little or no pre-treatment. This is the most economical solution. Now, however, increasing amounts of wastes are being produced in more populated areas, and local storage can constitute a hindrance to urban development. It is therefore often necessary to transport the wastes elsewhere; to effect this economically the volume and, if possible, the weight must be reduced, so that the wastes can be transported in regulation packages. The present report is concerned with the methods by which this can be achieved for a large variety of solid materials that accrue as radioactive wastes. It has been compiled largely from information and experience gained at major establishments dealing with large quantities of waste, but articular attention has been paid to the interests of the waste management specialists working at smaller nuclear centres. The manual supplements the guides which have already appeared in IAEA publications series and have dealt with some specific aspect of waste management and, like them, it is oriented in the operational rather than the research direction

  5. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  6. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford's Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford

  7. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  8. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  9. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L -1 and a concentration of CO 2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10 5 -10 6 MPN mL -1 ). The acetogenic population was (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH 4 (70%) were higher than CO 2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L -1 . Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and methanogenic bacteria (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  10. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  11. Management of Port Solid Waste Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Fontana, , Carla Marísia Maccagnan; Fontana, Caio Fernando; Sakurai, Claedson Akio

    2014-01-01

    One of contemporary environmental issues refers to progressive and diverse generation of solid waste in urban areas or specific, and requires solutions because the traditional methods of treatment and disposal are becoming unviable over the years and, consequently, a significant contingent of these wastes presents final destination inappropriate. The diversity of solid waste generated as a result of human activities must have the appropriate allocation to specific ...

  12. Application of thermally activated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines as binder substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    Untreated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0–2 mm) have poor pozzolanic properties, and contain substances which can pose an environmental risk (e.g. heavy metals and salts). This study investigates combined treatments applied on bottom ash fines (BAF) to increase their

  13. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. ► Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. ► Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. ► Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg

  14. Radionanalysis in solid waste research and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment of dumping or recycling of solid waste makes part of environmental geochemistry. Radioanalysis provides efficient procedures for the characterization of solid wastes, both granular and as recycled products. Radiotracers are applied to measure the situ values of transport parameters. Activation analysis is used in the determination of trace constituents in solids and leachates. This text summarizes some important applications of radioanalysis in this part of environmental monitoring

  15. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  16. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Loya, E Ivan; Allouche, Erez N; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5

  17. Conditioning of high activity solid waste: fuel claddings and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experimental studies of embedding into matrix material, the melting and conversion of zircaloy, and waste properties and characterization. Methods are developed for embedding the waste scrap into a solid and resistant matrix material in order to confine the radioactivity and to prevent it from dispersion. The matrix materials investigated are lead alloys, ceramics and compacted graphite or aluminium powder. The treatment of fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion is described. Cemented hulls are characterized and the pyrophoricity of zircaloy fines is investigated. Topics considered include the embedding of hulls into graphite and aluminium, the embedding of hulls and dissolution residues into alumino-ceramics, the solidification of alpha-bearing wastes into a ceramic matrix, and the conditioning of cladding waste by eutectoidic melting and by embedding in glass

  18. Evaluation of Waste-to-Energy Potential of Domestic Solid Wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    waste in the metropolis ends up on illegal waste dumpsites. The aim of this paper was to investigate the waste-to-energy potentials of domestic solid wastes in Benin metropolis, Nigeria using a three-phase study plan - study of current waste management activities, characterization of domestic solid waste and determination ...

  19. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford's SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford's future solid waste management requirements

  20. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  2. characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is produced through human activities and in the last two ... Solid waste samples were collected and analysed from the four major dumpsites in ..... Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133,. Switzerland.

  3. Waste activated sludge fermentation: effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory scale, room temperature, semi-continuous reactors were set-up to investigate the effect of solids retention time (SRT, equal to HRT hydraulic retention time) and biomass concentration on generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the non-methanogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) originating from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. It was found that VFA yields increased with SRT. At the longest SRT (10d), improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield from the influent COD (0.14g VFA-COD/g TCOD). It was also observed that under the same SRT, VFA yields increased when the biomass concentration decreased. At a 10d SRT the VFA yield increased by 46%, when the biomass concentration decreased from 13g/L to 4.8g/L. Relatively high nutrient release was observed during fermentation. The average phosphorus release was 17.3mg PO(4)-P/g TCOD and nitrogen release was 25.8mg NH(4)-N/g TCOD.

  4. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  6. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  7. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  8. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  10. studies on municipal solid wastes dumping on soil anions, cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and selected soil enzymes activities of Njoku solid waste dumpsite Owerri municipal, Nigeria were investigated. ... wastes) and sometimes commercial wastes collected by a ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.

  11. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  12. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1998-07-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g., cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  13. Study on the management of radioactive solid wastes for the KRR-I and II dismantling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Jung, K. H.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    KRR-1(TRIGA Mark II) and KRR-2(TRIGA Mark-III) have been operated 33 years and 23 years, respectively, and now are about to be decommissioned as they reach the end of their useful lives. In the decommissioning of the reactors, the treatment of radioactive wastes is practical issues and, therefore, the plan on it has to be essentially established prior to the actual decontamination and decommissioning activities. In the present study, the classification, radiological status, classification criteria and package on the radioactive solid wastes in the TRIGA Mark-II and III are investigated for the investigated for the purpose of the effective management plan of them

  14. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  15. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  16. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  17. Assessment of DOE low-level radioactive solid waste disposal storage activities: task 103. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    From a survey of DOE sites, facilities, and practices for the disposal/storage of low-level radioactive solid waste, the following can be summarized: (1) No health hazard has been reported. (2) Some burial grounds are releasing small quantities of radionuclides to the immediate environment. These releases are well within release limits at all sites with the exception of on-site concentrations at ORNL. At ORNL, concentrations in the Clinch River are less than 1% of the release limits. (3) Many practices have been instituted in the last few years which have improved disposal/storage operations considerably. The most notable are: (a) improved record keeping and a centralized computer data file, (b) improved burial site surface maintenance and drainage control, (c) initiation of the use of waste compactors and current plans for their use at most burial sites, (d) initiation of studies at major sites for evaluation of the long-term impact of buried waste, (e) improvement of modeling/monitoring programs at all major sites, (f) initiation of studies to provide engineering methods of reducing burial ground discharges at ORNL, and (g) initiation of the shallow land burial technologoy program.Overall, the low-level waste is being disposed of and stored in a safe and orderly manner. Recent and planned improvements will provide increased environmental protection. The only unsatisfactory area involves record keeping. Records of waste buried years ago are either poor or nonexistent. This makes it very difficult to evaluate the total impact of some 30 years of disposal operations. While some of this important history is lost forever, projects now under way should be able to reconstruct most of it

  18. Integrated solid waste management: a palliative to existing waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a concept, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a sustainable ... on the perspective of consumers on waste generation, collection and disposal. ... to effective solid waste management in the case study area; non-sorting and ...

  19. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  20. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  1. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  2. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  3. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  4. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  5. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  6. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  7. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  10. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  11. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  12. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  13. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE INTEGRATED STEELWORKS ACTIVITY AND SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara CIOCAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of steel industry is subject to solve major problems arising from industry-nature relationship, strictly targeted on pollution control and protection of natural resources and energy. In this paper we discussed about the management of solid waste generated by an integrated steelwork located near a major urban area and the adopted solutions for the reduction of environmental impact. There are summarized technical solutions that are currently applied and were proposed some solutions that can be applied in accordance with the environmental legislations. The new solutions are proposed for integrated management of solid wastes in accordance with: the exact quantification (quantitative, qualitative and the generation sources of emissions and solid wastes; controlled storage; minimization of the wastes and its harmfulness; transformation of the wastes into valuable by-products used directly by the company in a subsequent process, or by external down-stream user.

  14. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  15. The Museum of Solid Waste and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This activity geared for grades 5-9 involves students in creating museum stations on eight solid waste and energy topics. While working in groups, students present their station topic to other students who are conducting a "museum tour." In doing so participants are encouraged to enhance their reading, writing, public speaking, and artistic skills…

  16. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  17. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  18. Monitoring the performances of a real scale municipal solid waste composting and a biodrying facility using respiration activity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Alexandros; Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Mavrakis, Nikitas; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Objective of the work was to monitor two full-scale commingled municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical and biological pretreatment (MBT) facilities in Greece, namely a biodrying and a composting facility. Monitoring data from a 1.5-year sampling period is presented, whilst microbial respiration indices were used to monitor the decomposition process and the stability status of the wastes in both facilities during the process. Results showed that in the composting facility, the organic matter reduced by 35 % after 8 weeks of combined composting/curing. Material exiting the biocells had a moisture content of less than 30 % (wb) indicating a moisture limitation during the active composting process. The static respiration indexes indicated that some stabilization occurred during the process, but the final material could not be characterized as stable compost. In the biodrying facility, the initial and final moisture contents were 50 % and less than 20 % wb, respectively, and the biodrying index was equal to 4.1 indicating effective biodrying. Lower heating values at the inlet and outlet were approximately 5.5 and 10 MJ/wet kg, respectively. The organic matter was reduced by 20 % during the process and specifically from a range of 63-77 % dw (inlet) to a range of 61-70 % dw. A significant respiration activity reduction was observed for some of the biodrying samples. A statistically significant correlation among all three respiration activity indices was recorded, with the two oxygen related activity indices (CRI7 and SRI24) observing the highest correlation.

  19. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  20. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  1. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  2. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  3. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  5. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  6. Solid waste management in Khartoum industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsidig, N. O. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness

  7. Summary of environmental characterization activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Solid Waste Storage Area Six, FY 1986 through 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Solomon, D.K.; Dreier, R.B.; Lee, S.Y.; Kelmers, A.D.; Lietzke, D.A.; Craig, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP), has supported characterization activities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA 6) to acquire information necessary for identification and planning of remedial actions that may be warranted, and to facilitate eventual closure of the site. In FY 1986 investigations began in the areas of site hydrology, geochemistry, soils, geology, and geohydrologic model application. This report summarizes work carried out in each of these areas during FY's 1986 and 1987 and serves as a status report pulling together the large volume of data that has resulted. Characterization efforts are by no means completed; however, a sufficient data base has been generated to begin data interpretation and analysis of site contaminants

  8. Summary of environmental characterization activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Solid Waste Storage Area Six, FY 1986 through 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Solomon, D.K.; Dreier, R.B.; Lee, S.Y.; Kelmers, A.D.; Lietzke, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Craig, P.M. (Environmental Consulting Engineers, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1987-09-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP), has supported characterization activities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA 6) to acquire information necessary for identification and planning of remedial actions that may be warranted, and to facilitate eventual closure of the site. In FY 1986 investigations began in the areas of site hydrology, geochemistry, soils, geology, and geohydrologic model application. This report summarizes work carried out in each of these areas during FY's 1986 and 1987 and serves as a status report pulling together the large volume of data that has resulted. Characterization efforts are by no means completed; however, a sufficient data base has been generated to begin data interpretation and analysis of site contaminants.

  9. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  10. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  11. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  12. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Information, demonstration projects, and other activities, pertaining to solid-waste-related research, available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are contained in this document. These EPA publications are reports of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965.…

  13. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  14. Radioactive solid waste management at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, A.P.; Balu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Radioactive solid waste management programme at BARC, India during 1965-1975 is described in detail. The operational experience, which includes the handling treatment and disposal of these solid wastes is reported alongwith the special problems faced in the case of large volume low hazard potential wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. (K.B.)

  15. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  16. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover...... LCA on solid waste systems....

  17. An evaluation of the production of solid radio-active waste in the Tricastin nuclear power station and, more generally, in the other French nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuisenier, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the effect of processing and packaging of solid radio-active wastes on the necessary staff, on the dosimetry acquired by this personnel and on the running costs will be presented, thus permitting a quantitative evaluation of the different types of waste produced, not only for the Tricastin plant but also for any typical French nuclear plant. Experience in the Tricastin power plant has shown that the volume of solid wastes can vary considerably depending on the different problems which can arise during production (cooling system leaks or less regular incidents). The different techniques used will be relooked at in order to facilitate the explanation of these fluctuations in the volume of waste produced and the measures which can be taken to limit them. The different measures which have been taken to improve performance in this domain will be presented: improvements in equipment, in methods, and in the increased awareness of the personnel concerning these problems

  18. Storage and Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Monitoring and Protection Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    This paper deals with solutions for the problem of final disposal of solid radioactive waste. I. It is first essential to organize a proper system of temporary storage. II. Final Storage In order to organize final storage, it is necessary to fix, according to the activity and form of the waste, the site and the modes of transport to be used within and outside the nuclear centre. The choice of solutions follows from the foregoing essentials. The paper then considers, in turn, final storage, on the ground, in the sub-soil and in the sea. Economic considerations are an important factor in determining the choice of solution. (author)

  19. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  20. Evaluation of the influence of mechanical activation on physical and chemical properties of municipal solid waste incineration sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprai, V; Florea, M V A; Brouwers, H J H

    2018-06-15

    Despite numerous studies concerning the application of by-products in the construction field, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are not widely used as secondary building materials. In some European countries, washing treatment to the full bottom ash (BA) fraction (0-32 mm) is applied, isolating more contaminated particles, smaller than 0.063 mm. Therefore, a MWSI sludge is produced, having a high moisture content, and thus a limited presence of soluble species. In order to enhance its performance as building material, here, dry mechanical activation is applied on MSWI sludge. Thereafter, a reactivity comparison between reference BA and untreated and treated MSWI sludge is provided, evaluating their behaviour in the presence of cement and their pozzolanic activity. Moreover, the mechanical performances, as 25% substitution of Portland cement (PC) are assessed, based on the EN 450. Mechanical activation enhances MSWI sludge physically due to the improved particle morphology and packing. Chemically, the hydration degree of PC is enhanced by the MSWI sludge by ≈25%. The milling treatment proved to be beneficial to the residues performances in the presence of PC, providing 32% higher strength than untreated sample. Environmentally, the compliance with the unshaped material legislation is successfully verified, according to the Soil Quality Decree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  2. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  3. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  4. Infrastructure Task Force Tribal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe 1) issues to consider when planning and designing community engagement approaches for tribal integrated waste management programs and 2) a proposed approach to improve tribal open dumps data and solid waste projects, and 3) an MOU.

  5. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  6. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  7. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  8. Effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetics of organic solid wastes using thermogravimetric analysis and distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Mei, Qingqing; Dai, Xiaohu; Ding, Guoji

    2017-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion. DAEM analysis showed that anaerobic digestion had discrepant effects on activation energy for four OSW pyrolysis, possibly because of their different organic composition. It requires further investigation for the special organic matter, i.e., protein-like and carbohydrate-like groups, to confirm the assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Problems and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGUNWAMBA

    1998-11-01

    / This paper is a presentation of the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria and certain important issues that must be addressed in order to achieve success. At the core of the problems of solid waste management are the absence of adequate policies, enabling legislation, and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and are poorly implemented. Public enlightenment programs lacked the needed coverage, intensity, and continuity to correct the apathetic public attitude towards the environment. Up to now the activities of the state environmental agencies have been hampered by poor funding, inadequate facilities and human resources, inappropriate technology, and an inequitable taxation system. Successful solid waste management in Nigeria will require a holistic program that will integrate all the technical, economic, social, cultural, and psychological factors that are often ignored in solid waste programs.KEY WORDS: Solid waste; Management; Problems; Solutions; Nigeria

  10. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TWunderscoreTRUM)

  11. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  12. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  13. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  14. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  18. New strategic solid waste management in Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is, today, a very critical issue. In spite of all the attempts in order to recovery and to recycle waste, the dump still remains the more followed solution, while only a small part of solid waste is going to be burnt down. But the rubbish dump isn't, actually, an environmentally sustainable solution. In the last years the waste incineration systems with energy recovery are spreading more over the territory, and if on one hand they allow to recover energy, on the other they also generate waste. So the emergency remains and it has to be faced. Today, the waste incineration system with energy recovery seems to be the best solution for this problem. the following article examinates the main strategic aspects of the solid waste management in Sicily after the General Plan of Waste Management application [it

  19. Storage of long lived solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarde, P.D.; Agarwal, K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gandhi, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Long lived solid waste, generated during the fuel cycle mainly includes high level vitrified waste product, high level cladding hulls and low and intermediate level alpha wastes. These wastes require storage in specially designed engineered facilities before final disposal into deep geological repository. Since high-level vitrified waste contain heat generating radionuclides, the facility for their storage is designed for continuous cooling. High level cladding hulls undergo volume reduction by compaction and will be subsequently stored. (author)

  20. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  2. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  3. Managing America's solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  4. Solid Waste Management Holistic Decision Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study provides support to the Bank's ability to conduct client dialogue on solid waste management technology selection, and will contribute to client decision-making. The goal of the study was to fully explore the use of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Research Triangle Institute (EPA/RTI) holistic decision model to study alternative solid waste systems in a ...

  5. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  6. Managing America`s solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  7. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  8. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  11. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  13. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Lautaru, V.; Bujoreanu, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from each other. For a CANDU type reactor, the occurrence of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  14. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste From Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Laotaru, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from which other. For a CANDU type reactor, the appearance of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  15. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  16. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  19. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  20. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  1. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  2. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidarakos, E.; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands

  3. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  4. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford's past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D ampersand D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers

  5. Management of radioactive solid waste arisings from PFR reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Hackney, S.; Bailey, G.; Bremner, W.; Lillyman, E.; Pugh, O.; Reekie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the solid radioactive waste management facilities for dealing with the arisings from PFR reprocessing at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Four major categories of solid waste are identified. The 'La Calhene' posting system for the transfer of active wastes which has been installed is discussed. The three new retrievable stores for high α#betta##betta#, high α low #betta##betta# and low α high #betta##betta# are described. The methods of waste categorisation by non-destructive assay techniques are outlined. Finally a review of operating experience with the facilities is presented. (U.K.)

  6. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  7. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S. [CSI Resource Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, and geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste management as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Japanese have not defined a specific hierarchical preference for alternative waste management practices, i.e., waste reduction, reuse and recycling, combustion, composting, and landfill disposal. However, in marked contrast to the US approach, the Japanese system relies heavily on waste combustion, with and without energy recovery. {open_quotes}Discards{close_quotes}, as the term is used in this paper, refers to all materials considered used and spent by residential and commercial generators. That which is discarded (whether recyclable or nonrecyclable) by a municipality is referred to as MSW. This paper provides an overview of MSW management practices and private-sector recycling in Japan. Estimates of the total generation of residential and commercial discards and their disposition are also presented. Such an overview of Japanese practices can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of US integrated solid waste management programs. Of the estimated 61.3 to 72.1 million tons of residential and commercial discards generated in Japan during its 1989 fiscal year (April 1, 1989, through March 31, 1990), an estimated 55 to 64 percent was incinerated; 15 to 28 percent was recycled (only 2 to 3 percent through municipal recycling activities); less than 0.1 percent was composted or used as animal feed; and 17 to 20 percent was landfilled. Including ash disposal, 26 to 30 percent, by weight, of the gross discards were landfilled.

  9. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G's Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC's), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC's), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 ampersand 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G's disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred

  10. Chrome recycling from leather solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, O.A.; Mohamady, H.S.; El-Sayed, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Leather processing is one of the industrial activities that generate chromium bearing wastes in different forms, one of them is chrome shavings which contributes about 10% of the quantum raw skins /hides, and causes on burning dangerous human hazardous. Hydrolysis processes by different alkalis such as (LiOK KOH, NaOH) have been applied to recover chrome from solid wastes. The extent of hydrolysis was studied as a function of alkalis concentrations, in presence and absence of reducing agents, shaking time and temperature. Hydrolysis process exhibits 99%, 98% and 97%, chrome recovery for LiOH, KOH and NaOH respectively. The recovered chrome has been used in retaining process, examined through visual and mechanical tests of leather samples. The evaluation of the tanning process with recovered chrome gave acceptable results

  11. HANFORD SITE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT [SEC 1 THRU 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement''. Assumptions and waste volumes used to calculate engineering data are also provided in this document. This chapter provides a brief description of: the Solid Waste Management Program (including a description of waste types and known characteristics of waste covered under the program), the Hanford Site (including a general discussion of the operating areas), and the alternatives analyzed. The Hanford Site Solid Waste Management Program and DOE/EIS-0286 address solid radioactive waste types generated by various activities from both onsite and offsite generators. The Environmental Restoration (ER) waste management activities are not within the scope of DOE/EIS-0286 or this TID. Activities for processing and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) are not within the scope of the Solid Waste Management Program and this TID

  12. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Solid Waste: Albizia amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 (Reactive Dye from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from Albizia amara pod shell waste as an adsorbent have been carried out. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Kinetic parameters as a function of Initial dye concentration have been calculated and the kinetic data were substituted in Pseudo First Order, Elovich and Pseudo Second order equations. A probable explanation is offered to account for the results of kinetic study. The thermodynamic parameter enthalpy change (∆H suggests the exothermic nature of absorption of Reactive Blue 171 onto activated Albizia amara pod shell waste carbon.

  13. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  14. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  15. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  16. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  17. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, F. B.; Amaral, M. C.; Bou-Issa, R. A.; Holanda, J. N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste) as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, wa...

  18. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elvie E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Surman, J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kay, R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-08

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  19. Integrated waste management - Looking beyond the solid waste horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seadon, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Waste as a management issue has been evident for over four millennia. Disposal of waste to the biosphere has given way to thinking about, and trying to implement, an integrated waste management approach. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) defined 'integrated waste management' as 'a framework of reference for designing and implementing new waste management systems and for analysing and optimising existing systems'. In this paper the concept of integrated waste management as defined by UNEP is considered, along with the parameters that constitute integrated waste management. The examples used are put into four categories: (1) integration within a single medium (solid, aqueous or atmospheric wastes) by considering alternative waste management options (2) multi-media integration (solid, aqueous, atmospheric and energy wastes) by considering waste management options that can be applied to more than one medium (3) tools (regulatory, economic, voluntary and informational) and (4) agents (governmental bodies (local and national), businesses and the community). This evaluation allows guidelines for enhancing success: (1) as experience increases, it is possible to deal with a greater complexity; and (2) integrated waste management requires a holistic approach, which encompasses a life cycle understanding of products and services. This in turn requires different specialisms to be involved in the instigation and analysis of an integrated waste management system. Taken together these advance the path to sustainability

  20. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... inadequate manpower and welfare, poor provision of health services, negative attitudes, ...

  1. Solid and liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology for the treatment of low - and intermediate-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes is somewhat extensive. Some main guidance on the treatment methods are shown, based on informations contained in technical reports and complementary documents. (author) [pt

  2. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Nishi, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  3. Solid Waste Management In Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Tahiri; , A. Maçi; , V. Tahiri; , K. Tahiri

    2016-01-01

    Waste management accordingly from concept and practices that are used in different countries there are differences, particularly between developed and developing countries. Our country takes part in the context of small developing countries where waste management right is almost at the beginning. In order to have better knowledge about waste management in Kosovo is done a research. The research has included the institutions that are responsible for waste management, including central and loca...

  4. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  5. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  6. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  7. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  8. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  9. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  10. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  11. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  12. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies...... the comparison of waste data with various objectives. Analysis revealed that Danish residual household waste constitutes mainly food waste (42 – 45% mass per wet basis). Misplaced recyclable materials in residual waste bins, such as paper, board, glass, metal and plastic, amounted to 20% (mass per wet basis...

  13. Seven years of experience in storage of solid radioactive wastes of low and medium activity on the surface or in concrete ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardet, G.

    This experience in the transport and storage of radioactive waste leads to several reflections pertinent to large-scale nuclear installations throughout the world. The experience demonstrates that products of this kind can be centralized and confined by relatively simple processes which are safe and of reasonable cost. The necessary liaison between the producer of radioactive wastes and the group which takes charge of storage is emphasized for the choice of the waste conditioning procedure. It is a consistent part of the experience that the initial conditioning determines in large measure the handling and storage techniques. It is certain that the absence of a solution for long-term storage of radioactive wastes will lead the producers to consider and carry out conditioning which, although valuable, does not have all the same advantages for final disposition of the product. In the field of transport, the volumes and weights are important. It is desirable that a permanent storage center be near a railroad. It is stated that storage can be ensured under safe conditions and with acceptable costs of all solid wastes of low and average activity except those having more than a certain amount of alpha activity. For the latter products a solution can be found which is safe

  14. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  15. Solid waste disposal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a small and densely populated country, the disposal of solid waste requires strict precautions. Because the landscape is flat and the watertable just under groundlevel, landfilling and dumping must be avoided as much as possible. Incineration of municipal and industrial waste are

  16. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  17. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  18. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  19. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R.; Mokhtarani, N.; Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years

  20. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  1. Hydrolytic activities of extracellular enzymes in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic sequencing-batch reactors treating organic fractions of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Kang, Seok-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kyung-Won; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2012-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes offer active catalysis for hydrolysis of organic solid wastes in anaerobic digestion. To evidence the quantitative significance of hydrolytic enzyme activities for major waste components, track studies of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic sequencing-batch reactors (TASBR and MASBR) were conducted using a co-substrate of real organic wastes. During 1day batch cycle, TASBR showed higher amylase activity for carbohydrate (46%), protease activity for proteins (270%), and lipase activity for lipids (19%) than MASBR. In particular, the track study of protease identified that thermophilic anaerobes degraded protein polymers much more rapidly. Results revealed that differences in enzyme activities eventually affected acidogenic and methanogenic performances. It was demonstrated that the superior nature of enzymatic capability at thermophilic condition led to successive high-rate acidogenesis and 32% higher CH(4) recovery. Consequently, these results evidence that the coupling thermophilic digestion with sequencing-batch operation is a viable option to promote enzymatic hydrolysis of organic particulates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  3. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  4. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  5. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents

  6. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Kawser Jamil; Farid Nasir Ani

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  7. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  8. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  9. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  10. Evaluation of dental solid waste in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabizadeh R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Today, one of the most important environmental issues is dental solid wastes which are of great importance because of the presence of hazardous, toxic and pathogen agents. In this survey, solid waste produced in Hamedan general dental offices is evaluated. "nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive study, from 104 general dental offices in Hamedan , 10 offices were selected in simple random way. From each offices, 3 sample at the end of successive working day (Sunday, Monday and Tuesday were analyzed. Samples were manually sorted into different 74 components and measured by means of laboratory scale. Then, measured components were classified in the basis of characteristic and hazardous potential as well as material type. "nResults: Total annual waste produced in general dental offices in Hamadan is 14662.67 Kg (9315.45>95.0% Confidence Interval>20009.88. Production percentages of infectious, domestic type, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic wastes were 51.93, 38.16, 9.47, 0.44 respectively. Main components of produced dental waste were 14 components that consist of more than 80 percents of total dental solid waste. So, waste reduction, separation and recycling plans in the offices must be concentrated on these main components. "nConclusion: In order to dental waste proper management, it is suggested that in addition to educate dentists for waste reduction, separation and recycling in the offices, each section of dental waste(toxic,chemical and pharmaceutical, infectious and domestic type wastes separately and according to related criteria should be managed.

  11. Decontamination of alpha-bearing solid wastes and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.; Saulze, J.L.; Broudic, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear activities in the Radiochemistry building of Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Center concern principally the study of fuel reprocessing and the production of transuranium isotopes. During these activities solid wastes are produced. In order to improve the management of these wastes, it has been decided to build new facilities: a group of three glove-boxes named ELISE for the treatment of α active solid waste and a hot-cell, PROLIXE, for the treatment of solid wastes. Leaching processes were developed in order to: decontaminate these wastes and recover actinide elements, particularly the highly valuable plutonium, from the leachates. The processes developed are sufficiently flexible to be able to accommodate solid wastes produced in other facilities. Laboratory studies were conducted to develop the leaching process based on the use of electrogenerated Ag(II) species which is particularly suitable to provoke the dissolution of PuO 2 . Successful exhaustive Pu decontaminations with DF(Pu) higher than 10 4 were achieved for the first time during the treatment of stainless steel PuO 2 cans (future MELOX plant) by electrogenerated Ag (II) in nitric acid medium

  12. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  13. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  14. Assessment of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina C. Azuelo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003 mandates the local government units to take initiatives in managing their daunting problems on ecological solid waste disposal. Consequently, compliance of Camarines Norte, Philippines on this mandate needs assessment to determine the existing solid waste management (SWM strategies, the effectiveness and the possibility of adoption in each municipality. This study utilized the descriptive method using questionnaire as the main tool supplemented by interview. Results showed that the existing SWM strategies with the highest percentages of existence in the twelve (12 municipalities were provision of number of trucks in transporting solid wastes and knowledge on waste segregation conducted at every household/establishment. Varying levels were observed. However, high level of effectiveness is still required for significant impact, seeing that from the six areas assessed only four municipalities were identified to have more and highly effective SWM strategies. Generally, only availability of technology for composting was considered more effective and can be adopted in all municipalities. Better solid waste management may be fully attained through the involvement, political will and commitment of the implementers in the implementation of politically passed resolutions and undertaking of their initiatives that will stimulate active participation of the community. All these measures may bring change in health and environment in the province.

  15. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  16. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose

  17. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  18. Solid waste as a renewable resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria Albanese, Jimmy Alexander; Ruiz, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The volume of waste produced by human activity continues to grow, but steps are being taken to mitigate this problem by viewing waste as a resource. Recovering a proportion of waste for re-use immediately reduces the volume of landfill. Furthermore, the scarcity of some elements (such as phosphorous

  19. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1) A...

  20. Construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Whee; Lee, Kang Moo; Koo, Jun Mo; Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Sung Whan; Bae, Sang Min; Cho, Kang Whon; Sung, Suk Jong

    1989-02-01

    The Solid Waste Form Test Facility (SWFTF) is now construction at DAEDUCK in Korea. In SWFTF, the characteristics of solidified waste products as radiological homogeneity, mechanical and thermal property, water resistance and lechability will be tested and evaluated to meet conditions for long-term storage or final disposal of wastes. The construction of solid waste form test facility has been started with finishing its design of a building and equipments in Sep. 1984, and now building construction is completed. Radioactive gas treatment system, extinguishers, cooling and heating system for the facility, electrical equipments, Master/Slave manipulator, power manipulator, lead glass and C.C.T.V. has also been installed. SWFTF will be established in the beginning of 1990's. At this report, radiation shielding door, nondestructive test of the wall, instrumentation system for the utility supply system and cell lighting system are described. (Author)

  1. Decree 182/013 It would regulate the management of industrial solid waste and similar expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    It regulate of industrial solid waste management and similar expenses activities covered, exclusions, categorization, requirements, transportation, recycling and treatment, incineration, use as alternative fuel

  2. A treatment station for solid radio-active waste at the Saclay nuclear research centre (1962); Station de traitement des dechets radioactifs solides au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Saclay (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerre, P; Mestre, E; Lebrun, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The waste from an atomic centre is very varied in nature, in form, and in activity, going from weakly contaminated laboratory waste to objects actuated in a pile and strongly radioactive. After one year's working of a pilot plant, a factory has been built, in which solide waste is treated and then conditioned in concrete blocks. The present communication describes the treatment and conditioning techniques in this factory which uses to a maximum remotely controlled operation. (authors) [French] Les dechets d'un Centre Atomique sont de natures, de forme et d'activites extremement variees, allant des dechets de laboratoires faiblement contamines, aux dispositifs actives en pile et fortement radioactifs. Apres l'exploitation pendant un an d'une unite pilote, une usine a ete construite dans laquelle les dechets solides sont traites, puis conditionnes en bloc de beton. La presente communication a pour objet la description des techniques de traitement et de conditionnement dans cette usine ou les operations sont au maximum commandees automatiquement et a distance. (auteurs)

  3. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  4. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  5. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams

  7. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... constant between 50 - 60 % wet weight and therefore holds a potential for bioenergy production. The degradable fraction has positive effects for anaerobic digestion when evaluated to desired parameters of anaerobic digestion plants. Wanted parameters are: 1) high organic content (high volatile solid...

  8. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  9. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites

  10. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  11. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  12. Method of solidifying radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes satisfactorily and safely with no destruction even under a high pressure atmosphere by preventing the stress concentration by considering the relationships of the elastic module between the solidifying material and radioactive solid wastes. Method: Solidification products of radioactive wastes with safety and securing an aimed safety ratio are produced by conditioning the modules of elasticity of the solidifying material equal to or less than that of the radioactive wastes in a case where the elastic module of radioactive solid wastes to be solidified is smaller than that of the solidifying material (the elastic module of wastes having the minimum elastic module among various wastes). The method of decreasing the elastic module of the solidifying material usable herein includes the use of such a resin having a long distance between cross-linking points of a polymer in the case of plastic solidifying materials, and addition of rubber-like binders in the case of cement or like other inorganic solidifying materials. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  14. SEM Model Medical Solid Waste Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    In daily activities, hospitals, as one of the important health care unit, generate both medical solid waste and non-medical solid waste. The occurrence of medical solid waste could be from the results of treatment activities, such as, in the treatment room for a hospital inpatient, general clinic, a dental clinic, a mother and child clinic, laboratories and pharmacies. Most of the medical solid waste contains infectious and hazardous materials. Therefore it should be managed properly, otherwise it could be a source of new infectious for the community around the hospital as well as for health workers themselves. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. One of the efforts that need to be done in improving the quality of the environment is to undertake waste management activities, because with proper waste management is the most important in order to achieve an optimal degree of human health. Health development in Indonesian aims to achieve a future in which the Indonesian people live in a healthy environment, its people behave clean and healthy, able to reach quality health services, fair and equitable, so as to have optimal health status, health development paradigm anchored to the healthy. The healthy condition of the individual and society can be influenced by the environment. Poor environmental quality is a cause of various health problems. Efforts surveillance of various environmental factors need to be applied in accordance with the principles of sanitation focuses on environmental cleanliness. This paper proposes a model for managing the medical solid waste in hospitals in Medan city, in order to create healthy environment around hospitals.

  15. Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation: downstream and zero waste strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Maria; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w : v solid-solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w : v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.

  16. Thermal Analysis of Fission Moly Target Solid Waste Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyung Min; Park, Jonghark [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There are various ways to produce Mo-99. Among them, nuclear transmutation of uranium target became the major one owing to its superior specific activity. After the fission molybdenum (FM) target is irradiated, it is transported to treatment facility to extract wanted isotope. During the process, various forms of wastes are produced including filter cake and other solid wastes. The filter cake is mostly consisted of decaying uranium compounds. The solid wastes are then packaged and moved to storage facility which will stay there for considerable amount of time. Being the continuous source of heat, the solid wastes are required to be cooled for the certain amount of time before transported to the storage area. In this study, temperature evaluation of the storage facility is carried out with pre-cooling time sensitivity to check its thermal integrity. In this study, thermal analysis on the FM target solid waste storage is performed. Finite volume method is utilized to numerically discretize and solve the geometry of interest. Analysis shows that the developed method can simulate temperature behavior during storage process, but needs to be checked against other code to see calculation accuracy. Highest temperature distribution is observed when every hole is filled with waste containers. Sensitivity results on pre-cooling time shows that at least 13 months of cooling is necessary to keep the structure integrity.

  17. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  18. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  19. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  20. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  1. General survey of solid-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  2. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  3. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampton, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures

  4. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  5. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  6. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  7. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  8. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  9. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  10. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Power from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo dos Reis, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy production potential from urban wastes for several cities in Latin America. Technologies available for transforming wastes into energy are reviewed and the high efficiency and low pollution levels obtained are discussed based on some very successful examples in the developed countries. Several criteria to help plan a plant and choose its location and appropriate size are presented under the framework of environmental and energy constraints. Economic and financial feasibility, barriers to the introduction of new technologies and their transfer to developing countries, and political obstacles created by the lobby that is taking advantage of the present situation are presented. Management of such plants requires that a social communication program be well designed to touch and inform the public about the importance of the plants; it should also emphasize the gains to society. Marketing strategies are presented that will highlight life quality improvement and preservation of the environment to decision makers and the public. A case study for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will be discussed in detail, showing how several levels of decision makers are involved in the preparation of the feasibility study and in raising financial resources both inside and outside the country. The study is for a large plant with a capacity of 1,800 ton/day and the generation of 27 MW of electric power

  12. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  13. Exhumation test with aged radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The deterioration of solid radioactive waste buried in soil is an important consideration when estimating the migration of radionuclides from the burial site, planning procedures for exhuming buried waste, and evaluating hazards caused by intentional or unintentional uncovering of the waste. This report presents observations during the excavation of low-level waste buried for 14 years in the humid environment of the Savannah River Plant. The radiation dose rates that were used to define the limits for low-level beta-gamma wastes were <50 mR/hr from an unshielded package or <50 mR/hr at 10 feet from a truck load. The waste was buried in sandy clay soil trenches more than 20 feet above the water table and covered with soil soon after burial. Rainfall for the area averages 47 inches per year. Because of the higher water permeability in backfilled soil than in undisturbed soil, perched water was sometimes found in the bottom of some trenches. However, the duration and/or extent of perched water is limited so that most waste is not subjected to water-saturated soil. The waste uncovered included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials that deteriorated visibly. Apparently, decades would be required for all cellulose materials to decompose; plastics, rubber, and metals will probably survive indefinitely

  14. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  15. Treatment and disposal techniques of dangerous municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative and quantitative features of the different types of dangerous municipal solid wastes, according to Italian law. In the second part the impact on environment and man health is presented. This impact should be minimized by suitable controlled disposal techniques, which differ from other municipal waste treatments. Finally, the paper deals with the most appropriate systems for treatment and disposal of such kind of waste. Particularly, some research activities in the field of metal recovery from used batteries, sponsored by ENEA, and carrying out by private companies, are described. (author)

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris

  17. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...... waste fractions with waste treatment statistics for Europe, and 4. illustrating the general distribution of ENM into incineration, recycling and landfilling. Our results indicate that ╲plastic from used product containers╡ is the most abundant and diverse waste fraction, comprising a variety of both...... nanoproducts and materials. While differences are seen between individual EU countries/regions according to the local waste management system, results show that all waste treatment options are significantly involved in nanowaste handling, suggesting that research activities should cover different areas...

  18. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  19. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The... Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.202 Definition of solid waste. (a) A military munition is not...

  1. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  2. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  3. Separation of CO2 in a Solid Waste Management Incineration Facility Using Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Durán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective separation of CO2 from gas mixtures representative of flue gas generated in waste incineration systems is studied on two activated carbons obtained from pine sawdust and compared to a commercial activated carbon. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed adsorption column using a binary mixture (N2/CO2 with a composition representative of incineration streams at temperatures from 30 to 70 °C. The adsorption behavior of humid mixtures (N2/CO2/H2O was also evaluated in order to assess the influence of water vapor in CO2 adsorption at different relative humidity in the feed gas: 22% and 60%. Moreover, CO2 adsorption was studied in less favorable conditions, i.e., departing from a bed initially saturated with H2O. In addition, the effect of CO2 on H2O adsorption was examined. Experimental results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity can be reduced significantly by the adsorption of H2O (up to 60% at high relative humidity conditions. On the other hand, the breakthrough tests over the adsorbent initially saturated with water vapor indicated that H2O is little affected by CO2 adsorption. The experimental results pointed out the biomass based carbons as best candidates for CO2 separation under incineration flue gas conditions.

  4. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  5. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  6. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  7. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  8. Treatment of organic solid waste for reuse: a step towards zero waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, Z.M.; Raja, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of organic solid wastes are being generated from municipal, industrial and agricultural activities. After necessary processing, the organic solid waste can be reused for agriculture not only as a nutrient supplement for plant growth, but also as a conditioner for seedbed soil. Processed organic wastes may improve soil structure and enhance water and nutrient-holding capacity of the soil, as well as increase the microbial activity within the soil, thereby increasing soil fertility. In this study, problems like undesirably high moisture contents and large volumes per unit weight of the processed organic solid wastes have been addressed through pelletization. Physical properties like durability, percent of fines content, and bulk and particle density of the processed and pelletized organic waste have been investigated, and the optimum values for storage, handling and transportation of the pelletized organic waste have been determined. Three different sizes of extruding sieve (4.35, 6.35 and 7.9 mm) and three different waste-mixing ratios (1:1:2, 1:2:2 and 1:3:3) of farmyard waste, wastewater sludge and sugar industry press mud were used respectively for the production of bio-solid pellets. The physical properties of the palletes show that durability increases by increasing the amount of sewage sludge while fines content, bulk density and unit density decrease. The large sieve size has more durability and less fine content. The results showed that the pelletization technique can be efficiently used by the farmers and appears to be a good option for sustainable management and re-use of organic solid wastes. (author)

  9. Hanford solid waste management system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Armacost, L.L.; Konynenbelt, H.S.; Wehrman, R.R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes systems analysis and simulation model development for a proposed solid waste management system at a U.S. Department of Energy Site. The proposed system will include a central storage facility, four treatment facilities, and three disposal sites. The material managed by this system will include radioactive, hazardous, and mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide a means of evaluating throughput and capacity requirements for the proposed treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The model is used to evaluate alternative system configurations and the effect on the alternatives of changing waste stream characteristics and receipt schedules. An iterative modeling and analysis approach is used that provides macro-level models early in the project and establishes credibility with the customer. The results from the analyses based on the macro models influence system design decisions and provide information that helps focus subsequent model development. Modeling and simulation of alternative system configurations and operating strategies yield a better understanding of the solid waste system requirements. The model effectively integrates information obtained through systems analysis and waste characterization to provide a consistent basis for system and facility planning

  10. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  11. Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

    1978-06-01

    Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m 3 /GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m 3 /GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste

  12. Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

  13. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Urban Solid Waste Management on Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خالد عبد الوهاب

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing population and the rising standard of living in cities as well as the increased commercial, industrial and agricultural activities around the world led to massive production of waste containing different materials and one of them is the municipal solid waste (MSW, so there is a major problem facing the cities around the world about the waste, how to collect, transfer it and how to discard it. Because the accumulation of wastes, whether in the city alleys or in its squares and especially in its residential areas affect the health of their populations besides this situation will be a major indication of the deteriorating quality of life in the city, as hygiene considered a fundamental criterion for the city beauty as well as an indication of the protection provided by the city to their environment and the level of protection provided to the health of city residence. The accumulated waste which is left in the city without treatment significantly affects the psychological behavior of the residence of these areas towards their community and environment and therefore their behavior towards their regions and their cities. From here emerged the general research problem concerning the modern civilization and its lifestyle that produced great amounts of (municipal solid waste, which became a big problem facing the modern cities concerning their collection, transportation and finally their disposal, how can these great amounts of waste be used whether by recycling, energy recovery or transferring to plant fertilizers ... etc. To serve the sustainable growth of these modern cities, this lead to the specific research problem concerning the lack of clarity concerning the impact of waste collection, transporting and treating and city urban environment and its townscape. Research Hypothesis: The process of collecting, transporting and. treating city solid waste or using it has a great impact on city urban environment and its townscape.

  15. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  16. Anaerobic treatment of complex wastewater and waste activated sludge - Appl. of an upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Wang, K.Y.; Lettinga, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of one phase anaerobic wastewater systems for the treatment of complex wastewaters containing high amounts of suspended solids or lipids is usually limited by accumulation of these compounds in the sludge bed. This accumulation reduces the solid retention time and methanogenic

  17. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for using Version 1.4 of the SWPM database: system requirements and preparation, entering and maintaining data, and performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not Provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  18. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles

  19. The potential of household solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal District, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Kurniawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid population growth affects the amount of waste generated. Sukomanunggal Subdistrict is the densest area in West Surabaya which has a population of 100,602 inhabitants with a total area of 11.2 km2. The population growth significantly affects the problem of limited land for landfill facilities (final processing sites). According to the prevailing regulations, solid waste management solutions include the solid waste reduction and management. This study aims to determine the potential reduction of household solid waste at the sources. Household solid waste samplings were performed for eight consecutive days. The samples were then analyzed to obtain the generation rate, density, and composition so that the household solid waste reduction potential for the next 20 years could be devised. Results of the analysis showed that the value of waste is 0.27 kg/person/day, while the total household solid waste generation amounted to 27,162.58 kg/day or 187.70 m3/day. Concerning the technical aspects, the current solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has reached 2.1% through the application of waste bank, composting, and scavenging activities at the dumping sites by the garbage collectors. In the year of 2036, the potential reduction of household solid waste in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has been estimated to reach 28.0%.

  20. Public health response to striking solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murti, Michelle; Ayre, Reg; Shapiro, Howard; de Burger, Ron

    2011-10-01

    In 2009, the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, experienced a six-week labor disruption involving 24,000 city workers that included solid waste and public health employees. In an attempt to control illegal dumping and to manage garbage storage across the city during this period, 24 temporary garbage storage sites were established by the city (mostly in local parks) for residents to dispose of their household waste. No other municipality in North America has attempted to operate this many temporary sites for this long a period. Management and nonunion staff from Healthy Environments in Toronto Public Health performed daily inspections, responded to community questions, issued public health orders, and worked closely with Solid Waste Management and the Ministry of the Environment to actively manage the public health concerns associated with these sites. This intensive oversight mitigated public health risks to the community and facilitated an effective, safe solution to the temporary garbage storage problem.

  1. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  2. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  3. Development of a master plan for industrial solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zahraie, B.; Kerachian, R.; Mahjouri, N.; Moridi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid industrial growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran has resulted in disposal of about 1750 tons of solid waste per day. Most of these industrial solid wastes including hazardous wastes are disposed without considering environmental issues. This has contributed considerably to the pollution of the environment. This paper introduces a framework in which to develop a master plan for industrial solid waste management. There are usually different criteria for evaluating the existing solid waste pollution loads and how effective the management schemes are. A multiple criteria decision making technique, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process, is used for ranking the industrial units based on their share in solid waste related environmental pollution and determining the share of each unit in total solid waste pollution load. In this framework, a comprehensive set of direct, indirect, and supporting projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control. The proposed framework is applied for industrial solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan in Iran and a databank including GIS based maps of the study area is also developed. The results have shown that the industries located near the capital city of the province, Ahwaz, produce more than 32 percent of the total solid waste pollution load of the province. Application of the methodology also has shown that it can be effectively used for development of the master plan and management of industrial solid wastes

  4. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  5. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  6. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project's Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP

  7. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  8. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  9. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  10. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  11. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  12. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  13. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  16. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*10 6 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  17. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  18. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  20. Solid radioactive waste processing facility of the NPP Leningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, Swetlana

    2008-01-01

    On behalf of the Russian Company Rosenergoatom NUKEM Technologies GmbH is planning and constructing a complete facility for the processing of solid low- and medium-active radioactive wastes. The NPP Leningrad comprises 4 units of RBMK-1000 reactors, the plant life has been extended by 15 years, the first unit is to be decommissioned in 2018. The construction of four new units is planned. NUKEM is in charge of planning, manufacture, construction and startup of the following facilities: sorting, internal transport, combustion and waste gas cleaning, emission surveillance, compacting, packaging and radiological measurement.

  1. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  2. Solid and liquid radioactive waste management of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) - NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Mourao, R.P.; Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.; Santos, P.O.; Silva, E.M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Low level liquid and solid wastes are produced in several laboratories of the NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (CDTN)-NUCLEBRAS. In the last years, the intensification of technical activities at the Center has increased the radioactive waste volumes. Therefore, the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Management Program has begun. This Program includes the systematic of activities from the waste collection to the transportation for the final disposal. The liquid and solid waste are collected separately in proper containers and stored for later treatment according to the processes available or under development at the Center. (Author) [pt

  3. Solid and liquid radioactive waste management of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN)- Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.; Mourao, R.P.; Reis, L.C.A.; Silva, E.M.P.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Prado, M.A.S.; Santos, P.O.

    1986-01-01

    Low level liquid and solid wastes are produced in several laboratories of the NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (CDTN) - NUCLEBRAS. In the last years, the intensification of technical activities at the Center has increased the radioactive waste volumes. Therefore, the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Management Program has begun. This Program includes the systematic of activities from the waste collection to the transportation for the final disposal. The liquid and solid waste are collected separately in proper containers and stored for later treatment according to the processes available or under development at the Center. (Author) [pt

  4. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  5. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  6. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  7. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  8. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  10. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  11. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  12. The Construction Solid Waste Minimization Practices among Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ahmad A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of minimization of construction solid waste is to reduce or eliminates the adverse impacts on the environment and to human health. Due to the increase of population that leads to rapid development, there are possibilities of construction solid waste to be increased shortly from the construction works, demolition or renovation works. Materials such as wood, concrete, paint, brick, roofing, tiles, plastic and any other materials would contribute problem involving construction solid waste. Therefore, the proper waste minimization is needed to control the quantity of construction solid waste produced. This paper identifies the type of construction solid waste produced and discusses the waste minimization practice by the contractors at construction sites in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

  13. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  14. 6th international solid wastes congress and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ategrus

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the sixth International Solid Wastes Congress and exhibition held in Madrid the dates June 14-19, 1992, and organized by ISWA. It sumps up 3 volumes dealing with Environmental Aspects, Administrative Aspects, Waste treatment Technologies, Waste Minimization, Land disposal and Hazardous Wastes

  15. Evaluation of Solid Waste Generation, Categories and Disposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... collection service and waste management regulations, respectively; while 28.4% separated their solid wastes at source ...

  16. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  17. Management of radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced in CDTN, the foreseen treatment and the responsibilities of various organs of CDTN involved in radioactive waste management are presented. (C.M.)

  18. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  19. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  20. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  1. Municipal solid waste management system: decision support through systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Lúcia Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering The present study intends to show the development of systems analysis model applied to solid waste management system, applied into AMARSUL, a solid waste management system responsible for the management of municipal solid waste produced in Setúbal peninsula, Portugal. The model developed intended to promote sustainable decision making, ...

  2. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  3. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  4. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  5. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  6. The Reduction of Solid Waste Associated with Military Ration Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratto, Jo Ann; Lucciarini, Jeanne; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; D'Souza, Nandika A

    2006-01-01

    ... decrease the amount of solid waste generated by the military. These nanocomposites formulations were melt processed into films and characterized for barrier, mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  8. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  9. Contributions of Solid Wastes Disposal Practice to Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Malaria, solid waste, open drainage, RDT, environment. ... Natural and man-made habitats include temporary .... require community cooperation and Government interventions for alleviation. Prioritizing willingness of community.

  10. Solid Waste Management Facilities with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  11. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  12. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  14. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  15. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing household participation in solid waste management (Case study: Waste Bank Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Arifiani, N. F.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Putri, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Solid waste management is very important measure in order to reduce the amount of waste. One of solid waste management form in Indonesia is waste banks. This kind of solid waste management required high level of participation of the community. The objective of this study is to explore factors influencing household participation in waste banks. Waste bank in Malang City (WBM) was selected as case study. Questionnaires distribution and investigation in WBM were conducted to identify problems of participation. Quantitative analysis was used to analyze the data. The research reveals that education, income, and knowledge about WBM have relationship with participation in WBM.

  17. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  18. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  19. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Claudel

    2010-01-01

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  20. Effect of solids retention time and temperature on waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under alkaline conditions in continuous-flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and the production of SCFAs. The changes in SRT gave also impact on the percentage of acetic and propionic acids in the fermentative SCFAs, but little influence on that of the slightly long-chain SCFAs, such as n-butyric, iso-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids. Compared with the control (pH unadjusted) experiment, at SRT of 12d and temperature of 20 degrees C the concentration of SCFAs produced at pH 10 increased from 261.2 to 933.5mg COD/L, and the propionic acid percentage improved from 11.7 to 16.0%. It can be concluded from this investigation that the efficient continuous production of SCFAs at pH 10 is feasible.

  1. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process

  2. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolaane, Benjamin, E-mail: bolaaneb@mopipi.ub.bw; Isaac, Emmanuel, E-mail: eisaac300@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  4. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    MA Abduli; M Akbarpour Shirazi; B Omidvar; R Samieifard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid waste reduction is a key and fundamental factor in creating a sustainable society. Tehran Municipality has embarked on a series of positive measures in recent years in different areas of waste management such as source separation, mechanized waste collection, and constructing compost factories. However these measures have not only brought about any reduction in solid waste reduction but have also resulted in their increase. In this article, first we will describe the curre...

  5. Race, wealth, and solid waste facilities in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jennifer M; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J; Kaufman, Jay S; Marshall, Stephen W; Cravey, Altha J

    2007-09-01

    Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with or = 100,000 dollars. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice.

  6. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  7. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  8. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California's ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts

  9. Utilization of activated carbon produced from fruit juice industry solid waste for the adsorption of Yellow 18 from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Dilek

    2014-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) stones for the removal of a basic textile dye, which is Yellow 18, from aqueous solutions at different contact times, pH values and solution temperatures was investigated. The surface area and micropore volume of chemically modified activated carbon were 1704 m(2) g(-1) and 0.984 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation and the calculated adsorption capacity was 75.76 mg g(-1) at 318 K. The adsorption kinetic of Yellow 18 obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 0.71-2.36 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal of Yellow 18 from wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  12. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  13. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LISREL Model Medical Solid Infectious Waste Hazardous Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Siahaan, Ungkap; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste resulting from activities at most hospitals contain various elements of medical solid waste ranging from heavy metals that have the nature of accumulative toxic which are harmful to human health. Medical waste in the form of gas, liquid or solid generally include the category or the nature of the hazard and toxicity waste. The operational in activities of the hospital aims to improve the health and well-being, but it also produces waste as an environmental pollutant waters, soil and gas. From the description of the background of the above in mind that the management of solid waste pollution control medical hospital, is one of the fundamental problems in the city of Medan and application supervision is the main business licensing and control alternatives in accordance with applicable regulations.

  15. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models

  16. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  17. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  19. Survey of Environmental Technician Employment Needs in Solid Waste Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Satyakam

    A study was done to determine the extent of current employment, expected job growth, necessary job skills, and the educational background preferred by employers in the solid waste field. Eight different questionnaires were developed and representatives of the solid waste management industry from 1,004 state agencies, municipalities, and private…

  20. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  1. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  2. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  3. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  4. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  5. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, ... four models of decentralized solid waste management in low-income urban ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  6. Problems Associated With Solid Waste Management Among Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of solid waste management in Nigeria has been an important issue for discussion among scientists and researchers in recent times. This study evaluates the problems associated with effective solid waste management among peri-urban households in southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected from 94 ...

  7. Facility for low-level solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    A facility for low-level solid waste compaction, encapsulation and storage is described. Solid wastes are compacted in 200 l drums and stored over concrete platforms covered with canvas, for decay or for interim storage before transport to the final disposal site. (Author) [pt

  8. Solid Waste Management: Abstracts From the Literature - 1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John A.; Stainback, Sandra E.

    The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-272, Title II) and its amending legislation, the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-512, Title I), authorize collection, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to all aspects of solid-waste management. As part of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  9. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature, October 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Listed are 269 solid waste management publications available from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). There are EPA publications reporting on results of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. Certain conference proceedings, findings of various commissions and…

  10. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  11. Municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Robe town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasu, Duguma; Faye, Tesfaye; Kiros, Amaha; Balew, Abel

    2018-04-20

    The amount of solid waste generated in developing countries is rising from time to time due to economic growth, change in consumer behavior and lifestyles of people. But it is hard to manage and handle the increase of solid waste with existing waste management infrastructure. Thus, the management system of solid waste is very poor and become a serious problem. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the volume of solid waste generated and investigate factors affecting generation and disposal of wastes in the study area. The result of this study indicated that total waste generated from households was about 97.092kg/day.Furthermore, the study reveals that the solid waste generation rate of the town is 0.261kg/person/day.About 57.5% of solid waste is properly disposed of to landfill site whereas the remaining 42.5% is illegally dumped at the roadsides and open fields. Implication Statement Nowadays, in developing countries there is high concentration of people in urban areas and cause for the generation of enormous concentration of municipal waste in urban areas. Therefore this finding will be important for various policy makers and town planners. It may also serve as a benchmark for the municipal authorities of the town for whom the problem is still invisible and negligible and can push environmental protection authorities to reexamine the implementation of their policies and strategies with regard to the broader issues of human and environmental health condition of town dwellers.

  12. Community Learning Process: A Model of Solid Waste Reduction and Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittree Pothimamaka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study and develop an appropriate model of waste reduction and separation in the community under the community learning process. This is a research and development (R&D study with mixed methodology consisting of four steps. Step One: Research was conducted to obtain information on solid waste disposal in Bang Sue District, Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand, employing group discussions with community members and data collection from the field. Step Two: The activities for development of the model consisted of group discussions, workshops, and development of a test of knowledge and behaviors concerning solid waste disposal using the 1A3R practice concept. Step Three : Experimentation with the model consisting of pre testing and post testing of knowledge and behaviors concerning solid waste disposal ; door to door imparting of appropriate knowledge and behaviors concerning solid waste disposal ; and collecting of data on the rate and amount of generated waste, and waste separation. Step Four: Evaluation of the developed model consisting of assessments based on physical indicators of the waste, opinions of experts, and impacts on participating communities. The findings revealed that (1 the post experiment knowledge and behavior mean scores of community members in the sample significantly increased over their pre experiment counterparts; and (2 the rate of waste generation decreased while waste separation increased. The proposed model of solid waste reduction and separation was accepted, and has four main components:(1 Community Practice: solid waste should be separated in the household into three types: food waste, marketable waste and non marketable waste must be clearly separated from household waste.(2 Knowledge sharing: door to door imparting of knowledge and behaviors on solid waste reduction and separation based on the 1A3R practice concept should be promoted.(3 Community mastery: the community organization

  13. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  14. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic conditions in SWSA-6 for use in further studies related to assessing compliance with 5820.2. Burial operations in SWSA-6 began in 1969 on a limited scale, and full operation was initiated in 1973. Since that time, ca. 29,100 m 3 of low-level waste containing ca. 251,000 Ci of activity has been buried in SWSA-6. No transuranic waste has been disposed of in SWSA-6; rather this waste is retrievably stored in SWSA-5. Estimates of the remaining usable space in SWSA-6 vary; however, in 1982 sufficient useful land was reported for about 10 more years of operation. Analysis of the information available on SWSA-6 indicates that more information is required to evaluate the surface water hydrology, the geology at depths below the burial trenches, and the nature and extent of soils within the site. Also, a monitoring network will be required to allow detection of potential contaminant movement in groundwater. Although these are the most obvious needs, a number of specific measurements must be made to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of the site and to provide background information for geohydrological modeling. Some indication of the nature of these measurements is included

  15. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianjun; Wang Zhishi; Ran Shenghong

    2006-01-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future

  16. Kinetic studies of adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2005-09-01

    The adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith was investigated to assess the possible use of this adsorbent. The influence of various parameters such as agitation time, thiocyanate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 16.2 mg g(-1) of the adsorbent. The per cent adsorption was maximum in the pH range 3.0-7.0. pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism are involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. The negative values of DeltaH0 confirm the exothermic nature of adsorption. Effects of foreign ions on the adsorption of thiocyanate have been investigated. Removal of thiocyanate from ground water was also tested.

  17. Solid waste management of Jakarta : Indonesia an environmental systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trisyanti, Dini

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management has been one of the critical issues in Jakarta, Indonesia.With enormous amounts of generated waste per day and limited supportinginfrastructure, the city has faced serious threat of environmental deterioration andhealth hazard. It relies on one sanitary landfill only, whose capacity is currently beingexceeded, leading to excessive amounts of solid wastes left untreated in the city. An assessment with a system perspective was carried out, aiming to examine thecomplexity ...

  18. Economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd:

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami H; Mokhtari M; Eslami Dost Z; Barzegar Khanghah MR; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: In every urban waste management plan, recycling and reuse is considered as an economic pattern. This study aimed to economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd by cost-benefit analysis in 2015. Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytic study which in the data about quality and quantity of municipal solid waste in Yazd city were collected through the sampling and physical analysis and the data about total income and costs from the implementatio...

  19. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  20. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  1. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial solid waste is a serious health concern in Aba, South East Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess the approaches of some industries toward some aspects of waste management in Aba. Interviews, observation and questionnaires administered to industry executives and waste managers were used to ...

  2. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  3. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the effects of activated carbon on methane generation and the fate of antibiotic resistant genes and class I integrons during anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Mao, Feijian; Loh, Kai-Chee; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah

    2018-02-01

    The effects of activated carbon (AC) on methane production and the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated through comparing the anaerobic digestion performance and transformation of ARGs among anaerobic mono-digestion of food waste, co-digestion of food waste and chicken manure, and co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge. Results showed that adding AC in anaerobic digesters improved methane yield by at least double through the enrichment of bacteria and archaea. Conventional digestion process showed ability in removing certain types of ARGs, such as tetA, tetX, sul1, sul2, cmlA, floR, and intl1. Supplementing AC in anaerobic digester enhanced the removal of most of the ARGs in mono-digestion of food waste. The effects tended to be minimal in co-digestion of co-substrates such as chicken manure and waste activated sludge, both of which contain a certain amount of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Baumol-Oates approach to solid waste taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.

    2002-01-01

    A national Baumol–Oates tax on waste in Denmark helped achieve a reduction of 26% in net solid waste from 1987 to 1998. The tax, which is levied per ton of waste, was particularly effective as regards the heavier waste streams such as construction waste and garden waste. When it comes to industrial...... and commercial waste, there are indications that the waste tax is not sufficiently significant to induce changes in behavior, and that except for very waste-intensive enterprises, companies do not seem to be very price sensitive. For household waste, the impact of the tax can be improved where tariffs...... for garbage collection are weight based, rather than per unit. However, the waste sector is an area in which the price signals are modified and filtered by institutionalized practices in municipal administration, and in which true-cost pricing is not easy to achieve. Hence, the rational choice assumption...

  6. Waste monitoring of the uranium ore processing activities in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nica, L.

    2002-01-01

    The uranium ore processing activities at the Feldioara site produce a range of liquid and solid waste that are monitored. Liquids are treated through decantation, pH correction and uranium precipitation before their release into the environment. The solid waste is gathered into ore specific area and are covered regularly with clay materials. (author)

  7. Solid waste programs Fiscal Year 1995 multi-year program plan/fiscal year work plan WBS 1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Mission Plan, Volume 1, Site Guidance identifies the need for the Solid Waste Program to treat, store, and dispose of a wide variety of solid material types consisting of multiple radioactive and hazardous waste classes. This includes future Hanford Site activities which will generate new wastes that must be handled as cleanup activities are completed. Solid wastes are typically categorized as transuranic waste, low level waste, low level mixed waste, and hazardous waste. To meet this need the Solid Waste Program has defined its mission as the following - receive, store, treat, decontaminate, and dispose of solid radioactive and nonradioactive dangerous wastes in a safe, cost effective and environmentally compliant manner. This workbook contains the program overview, program baselines and fiscal year work plan for the Solid Waste Program

  8. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  9. Method and device of decontaminating radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tamada, Masami.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely enable grinding for the inner surface of hollow radioactive solid wastes such as pipeways or valves, as well as enable to decontaminate these solid wastes to such a level as being capable of processing in the same manner for the ordinary wastes. Method: A grinding piece abutting resiliently against the inner surface of a hollow radioactive solid wastes to be contaminated is attached at the top end of a flexible shaft, and the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes is ground while rotating and slightly reciprocating, as well as axially moving the flexible shaft. Consequently, since the grinding piece is always abutted against the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes just following after the profile of the inner surface, and the flexible shaft is resiliently flexed corresponding to the profile of the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes, even an inner surface of radioactive solid wastes with a complicated configuration can surely be ground entirely. This surely enables to remove radioactive claddings and contaminated layers deposited on the surface. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  11. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  12. Rural Solid Waste Management in China: Status, Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe the overall state of Rural Solid Waste Management (RSWM in China in three main areas: waste collection services, waste transportation services and waste disposal services. Given China’s urbanization, industrialization, and the subsequent improvement of household living standards, the amount of solid waste generated in rural China has increased rapidly. Based on primary data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, we find that the proportion of villages with waste collection, waste transportation, and waste disposal services in 2015 is 80%, 55% and 22%, respectively. The differences in shares of villages with these services across provinces are statistically significant. Using descriptive and econometric analyses, the authors show that richer villages are more likely to provide rural solid waste (RSW collection and transportation services. Villages with new (newly elected or appointed village leaders are more likely to supply RSW disposal services. While the majority of villages report that they offer waste collection services (installing waste collection facilities and employing waste collection workers, the vast majority of villages do not transport their waste to treatment plants. Even fewer villages report using centralized disposal methods to dispose of waste, as required by law or regulation. This study represents the first effort to describe the state and determinants of waste management services in rural China in the wake of increased investment in and new policies regarding RSWM released in 2015. Additionally, we provide evidence-based suggestions that might be useful for policy makers interested in improving RSWM in China. These suggestions include increasing investments in waste collection facilities and worker services; encouraging local residents to classify and recycle waste; designing optimal waste transportation networks and routes; and improving on-site waste disposal

  13. Global climate change mitigation scenarios for solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monni, S. [Benviroc Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Pipatti, R. [Statistics Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Syri, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The waste sector is an important contributor to climate change. CH{sub 4} produced at solid waste disposal sites contributes approximately 3.4 percent to the annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from solid waste disposal are expected to increase with increasing global population and GDP. On the other hand, many cost-efficient emission reduction options are available. The rate of waste degradation in landfills depends on waste composition, climate and conditions in the landfill. Because the duration of CH{sub 4} generation is several decades, estimation of emissions from landfills requires modelling of waste disposal prior to the year whose emissions are of interest. In this study, country- or region-specific first-order decay (FOD) models based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines are used to estimate emissions from municipal solid waste disposal in landfills. In addition, IPCC methodology is used to estimate emissions from waste incineration. Five global scenarios are compiled from 1990 to 2050. These scenarios take into account political decision making and changes in the waste management system. In the Baseline scenario, waste generation is assumed to follow past and current trends using population and GDP as drivers. In the other scenarios, effects of increased incineration, increased recycling and increased landfill gas recovery on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are assessed. Economic maximum emission reduction potentials for these waste management options are estimated at different marginal cost levels for the year 2030 by using the Global TIMES model. Global emissions from landfills are projected to increase from 340 Tg CO{sub 2} eq in 1990 to 1500 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2030 and 2900 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2050 in the Baseline scenario. The emission reduction scenarios give emissions reductions from 5% (9%) to 21% (27%) compared to the Baseline in 2030 (2050). As each scenario considered one mitigation option, the results are largely additive, and

  14. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan, E-mail: swapan2009sajal@gmail.com; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr., E-mail: bidyut53@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  15. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length

  16. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  17. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.30 Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. In...

  18. Conversion of Waste into Wealth: A Study in Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, T.; Sridevi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of solid waste has been the talk of the day. An attempt has been made to dispose of the solid waste Jatropha (Kattamanakku). Aerobic composting method was employed. Properly treated solid wastes of different composition were mixed with slurries of cowdung and physicochemical parameters were measured after 30 and 60 days of composting. It was observed that percentages of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium increased as time elapsed. Water holding capacity, ...

  19. Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established

  20. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  1. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  2. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification process can compete......Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by their use it is possible to reduce the waste...... storage in landfills and devote these spaces to other human activities. It is also important to point out that this kind of renewable energy suffers significantly less availability which characterizes other type of renewable energy sources such as in wind and solar energy.In a gasification process, waste...

  4. Treatment of solid radioactive waste: Volume reduction of non-combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, G.

    1982-01-01

    Press compaction is very common as for volume reduction of low level radioactive solid waste. In most cases a sorting step and if necessary a fragmenting step are desirable prior to the compaction process. Besides contamination-free loading and unloading techniques are important. Typical technical solutions for mixed solid waste handling and compacting equipment are shown and discussed by means of the lay-out drawings for a medium size radwaste compaction facility. A special technique can be applied if one has to compact active exhaust air filters in a hot cell. KfK has developed a remotely operated mobile equipment for this purpose. As for the nuclear fuel cycle considerable interest is existing in compacting spent fuel halls after fuel dissolution. In various European countries mechanical compaction and high temperature processes are therefore under development. These processes are described and the related equipment is discussed. (orig./RW)

  5. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  6. Solid Waste Management with Emphasis on Environmental Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navin Kr.; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Shree, Shalini

    2011-12-01

    In this paper focus on Solid waste management. Its comprises of purposeful and systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transport, separations, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste. Awareness of Four R's management & EMS support also for management Solid waste. Basel convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their Disposal usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). it came into force 5 May 1992. According to this "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law"(UNEP).

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  8. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.

    1997-01-01

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data that was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview

  9. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  10. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  11. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  12. Dynamic evaluation of municipal solid waste ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, T.L.; Gardner, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) produces ashes which are concentrated in many inorganic species. The release of toxic elements from the ash to the aqueous environment is of concern as present methods of ash disposal consist primarily of landfilling. It was the goal of this paper to achieve an understanding of the mechanisms by which elements are transported from the solid ash phase to the aqueous phase. Twelve ash samples were collected from six different incinerators with varying designs and capacities. The leaching experiments were conducted using small (mini) dynamic columns to investigate the variation of leachate chemical characteristics with time. In analyzing the data, a multicomponent chemical equilibrium model was used to determine chemical speciation and component activities. Auxiliary experiments included an array of physical measurements, and aqueous batch leach tests

  13. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  14. Storage facility for highly radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Shozo

    1996-01-01

    A heat insulation plate is disposed at an intermediate portion between a ceiling wall of a storage chamber and an upper plate of a storage pit in parallel with them. A large number of highly radioactive solid wastes contained in canisters are contained in the storage pit. Cooling air is introduced from an air suction port, passes a channel on the upper side of the heat insulation plate formed by the ceiling of the storage chamber and the heat insulation plate, and flows from a flow channel on the side of the wall of the storage chamber to the lower portion of the storage pit. Afterheat is removed by the air flown from the lower portion to ventilation tubes at the outer side of container tubes. The air heated to a high temperature through the flow channel on the lower side of the heat insulation plate between the heat insulation plate and the upper plate of the storage pit, and is exhausted to an exhaustion port. Further, a portion of a heat insulation plate as a boundary between the cooling air and a high temperature air formed on the upper portion of the storage pit is formed as a heat transfer plate, so that the heat of the high temperature air is removed by the cooling air flowing the upper flow channel. This can prevent heating of the ceiling wall of the storage chamber. (I.N.)

  15. Municipal solid waste management in Lebanon: the need for an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, R.; El-Fadel, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.This study focuses on the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Lebanon. It addresses the current status of MSW management in Lebanon in terms of collection, transport and disposal, infers the associated impacts of such practices and discusses mitigation measures and finally proposes basic guidelines for a national strategy for solid waste management in the country. The study is based on available previous investigations and on a field survey of 113 villages in four different countries. The study revealed the absence of an effective environmental policy and poor collection and disposal methods throughout the country, except for the Greater Beirut Area (G A), where better solid waste management practices are employed. Although collection of MSW outside GBA was found to be acceptable by local authorities, resources (labor and equipment) were not used efficiently. Furthermore, treatment of collected waste is almost not available. Waste collected is invariably open dumped and /or open burned outside GBA. The poor quality of the services were reflected by the low budgets available in the solid waste sanitation departments of most surveyed villages. Unlike the situation outside the GBA a solid waste management component can be identified in the GBA. However, until recently, nearly 90 percent of the total waste generated in the GBA is being ultimately disposed of at the landfill. This raises into question the purpose of the sorting-processing-composting facilities as well as the recycling program. Apparently, the current waste management activities, particularly source reduction and recycling have not measured up favorably with the steps outlined in an integrated solid waste management system. The study concludes with a series of policy measures that can constitute the framework for a long-term strategy in order to implement an effective solid waste master plan in Lebanon

  16. Treatment for dismantled radioactive solid waste from the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Kyung Hwan

    1999-06-01

    Radioactive wastes are generally classified into 3 type depending on their physical property: liquid, solid and gaseous type. State-of -the art concerning liquid waste treatment has already been published; KAERI/TR-1315/99. Solid wastes classification package and treatment method will be studied to effectively manage them during the practical decommissioning work. All of the spent fuel produced during the operation of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 have been transported to the US last year, 1998, according to the spent fuel management strategy set-up by the US government for the non-proliferation of nuclear energy. Solid wastes are mainly all equipment existing inside of the reactors, activated concrete among the bio-shielded concrete, pipes, pimps, resin filter and it's housings, heat-exchangers, liquid waste storage tanks, to radioactive waste storage treatment facilities and so on. Solid wastes are generally low-level. They are classified according to the national regulation and nuclear law and IAEA Safety Standard Series ST-1(1996). Medium level radioactive wastes from reactor structures, mainly stainless steel component from the Rotary Specimen Rack(RSR) will be properly dismantled and stored in a shield container such as TIF(TRIGA Irradiated Fuel) container. While, low-level solid waste will be treated and packed in a ISO container(4m 3 ISO container for example) according to the IAEA recommendation. And combustible solid waste such as cloths, gloves, paper etc. will be packed in a 200 liters drum. This state-of-the art shows a general feature of the solid radioactive waste management which will be produced during the decommissioning of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 research reactors. (author). 17 refs., 17 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Strategic solid waste management in cities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    2005-01-01

    SWM (Solid Waste Management) systems have always been compatible with the societal need at every point of time. In 1950's it was oriented towards maintaining public health standards mainly to control infectious diseases. While in 1970's energy generation was considered as the vital aspect of the system. In 1990's reduction in waste generation and recycling were officially incorporated in the waste management regulation. By enacting basic law in 2000 A.D.; the society is poised to become a recycling based society in its drive towards sustainable society. The document explain the actual solid waste strategic management, and related issues, in Japan [it

  18. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  19. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  20. Implementation of a management applied program for solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the Post-irradiated Fuel Examination Facility, the Irradiated Material Examination Facility, the Research Reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A data collection of a solid radioactive waste treatment process of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by treatment process. Data on the actual treatment process that is not limited experiment improve by a document, human traces, saving of material resources and improve with efficiency of tracking about a radioactive waste and a process and give help to radioactive waste material balance and inventory study.

  1. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abduli

    2015-07-01

    Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one conducted from 2010 to 2014. Relevant officials of the waste recovery in 22 regions of Tehran were approached in order to collect data about municipal solid waste generation through interviewing, filling out questionnaires, conducting field visits from Aradkooh Disposal and Processing Complex and collecting information on disposal and destiny of wastes. Then the data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Total solid waste generation in Tehran from 2010 to 2014 amounted to respectively 3389662, 3399344, 3449338 and 3245157 Metric Tons, categorized into three groups of municipal, companies and townships and hospital wastes. Most of the generated waste produced in Tehran was that of households and commercial (known as municipal waste from 22 Regions of Tehran. Based on the surveys conducted, per capita solid waste generation of 11 regions of Tehran ranged from 550 to 1000 grams and in other 11 ones from 1000 to 1521 grams per capita per day. The lowest and highest waste generation rate belonged respectively to region 13 with 556 grams and region 12 with 1521 grams per capita per day in 2011. Conclusion: Comparing per capita generation of municipal solid waste in different municipal regions in Tehran with maximum acceptable capacity of waste generation indicates the deviation of waste generation of all Tehran regions from the standard acceptable amount. Therefore, not only is it necessary to plan and take strategic measures to reduce Tehran waste generation but also these programs and measures should be specific to each region considering its specifications and solid waste quality and quantity.

  2. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  4. Comparison of various chemical processes for avoidance of generation of radio active solid waste in UO{sub 2} powder production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Babaji, P.; Sairam, S.; Meena, R.; Hemantharao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    The Uranium Di-Oxide (UO{sub 2}) powder production process involves dissolution of yellow cake (uranium concentrate) in commercial grade nitric acid followed by solvent extraction process to obtain nuclear grade Uranyl Nitrate Solution(UNS). The UNS is initially precipitated with ammonia to produce Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) and subsequently converted to UO{sub 2} powder through a series of thermal treatment steps viz. calcination, reduction and stabilization. The Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate (UNR) generated in the purification step above, contains residual uranium, due to which its direct disposal is not permissible. The effluent is therefore neutralized with caustic lye and the resultant slurry is filtered over a pre-coat drum filter. The uranium thus gets fixed in the solid form, Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate Cake (UNRC) and the filtrate is disposed off, after ensuring that it meets the disposal criteria of 1 Bq/gm of solid. The uranium bearing solid waste is packed in 200 litre polythene lined MS drums and transported to uranium mill for further processing. This UNR treatment process is manpower intensive, requires large storage space, and involves material handling work, transportation etc. In order to reduce/eliminate generation of UNRC, several new chemical processes were developed and studied in detail. An attempt is made to compare these different processes and the details are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials

  6. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  7. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  8. A solid waste management survey in Davao del Sur (school and household waste management survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondillo, Mark Jude F.; Amaba, Jeneley A.; Paniza, Lyndelle Ann D.; Cubol, John Rhico V.

    2018-02-01

    Environmental degradation has become a very alarming issue at present. Human activities have been the primary cause of this unfortunate event which has resulted to other complications such as health problems. The resources are limited and people solely depend on it for living. Thus, the necessity to address these concerns arises. Various solid waste management programs have been established however the people's commitment has continued to challenge the local authorities as well as the cooperating agencies. This study was conducted in order to assess the awareness, practice and attitude towards the existing solid waste management programs of the selected students in Davao del Sur. It also aims to measure the effectiveness and current status of these implemented programs. The study used survey method. One hundred sixty eight of 227 students were surveyed using a validated, self-administered instrument. The study revealed that majority of the students is well aware of the existing solid waste management programs, practice them and is willing to learn more about the issue. Others, on the other hand, do the opposite. It is of great importance that all citizens must commit in the implementation of environmental programs so as to be more effective.

  9. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  10. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  11. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, an amount that ... The lessons learned and best (and worst) practices will be compiled, ... development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  12. Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North, Oyo State using geo-spatial ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Keywords: GIS, Median, Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA), Skip Bins ...

  13. feasibility study on solid waste management in port harcourt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    generation, storage, segregation, collection, treatment and disposal has been investigated. ... system is still being used instead of the integrated solid waste management system (1SWMS) and that about 75% ..... Master thesis, Submitted to the.

  14. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study identifies and analyses the solid waste management service gaps and situations in these different socio-economic ... identifying gaps existing at primary (household) SW ... internal structure is based on land uses and income levels.

  15. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problems of recycling and solid waste. It is investigated traditional methods of waste management (storage, disposal, incineration. Authors insist on ineffectiveness of these methods, because of the pollution increases anthropogenic pressure on the environment. It is proved harmful health effects using the traditional methods of disposal. The question of introducing innovative recycling, particularly separating solid waste, the development and use of clean technology waste processing, using microorganisms, pyrolysis. It is determined implementation barriers such as lack of effective government support, and high cost. It is noted that there is a problem of underestimating the complexity, scope and specifics of the issue. The experience of developed countries is outlined. The comparative performance of existing tariffs for disposal of solid waste is used. The ways of solving problems are done.

  17. Melting method for radioactive solid wastes and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Abe, Takashi; Nakayama, Junpei; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Sakamoto, Koichi

    1998-11-17

    Upon melting radioactive solid wastes mixed with radioactive metal wastes and non metal materials such as concrete by cold crucible high frequency induction heating, induction coils are wound around the outer circumference of a copper crucible having a water cooling structure to which radioactive solid wastes are charged. A heating sleeve formed by a material which generates heat by an induction heating function of graphite is disposed to the inside of the crucible at a height not in contact with molten metals in the crucible vertically movably. Radioactive solid wastes are melted collectively by the induction heat of the induction coils and thermal radiation and heat conduction of the heating sleeve heated by the induction heat. With such procedures, non metal materials such as concrete and radioactive metal wastes in a mixed state can be melt collectively continuously highly economically. (T.M.)

  18. Solid medical waste management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    may be higher than the expected 10 to 25% because of poor waste ... use of color coded bags, containers and symbols; waste collected at least once a day from .... regarding the awareness of existing policies, availability of waste plans and ...

  19. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  20. Savannah River solid radioactive waste forecast, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The 1986 Solid Waste Forecast considers two types of waste: nonretrievable and retrievable (transuranic) waste. The effect of new facilities (DWPF, Naval Fuels, etc.) beginning operation coupled with plant-wide efforts to compact or reduce the volume of waste sent to 643-7G will tend to stabilize the solid waste generation rate over the forecast period (CY 1986--1995). Volume reduction by incineration and compaction, which is expected to increase during the forecast period, could reduce the volume of nonretrievable waste requiring burial by 50%. The volume of transuranic (TRU) waste generated each year is expected to increase to approximately 32,000 ft 3 /yr in 1987 and then decrease and stabilize at 17,000 ft 3 /yr TRU during the forecast period. A program is underway to process and dispose of all retrievably stored TRU waste and newly generated waste over approximately a 16-year period beginning in 1993. This program will reduce the amount of waste that must be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal and process that waste which is not certifiable for the WIPP. 9 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Integrated Solid Waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain Abdul Kareem Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of waste management requires accurate data on generation and composition of waste which is pivotal for the decisions towards the appropriate waste management system. A five years (2008-2012 study was conducted to evaluate the solid wastes management system in all the six divisions of Basrah district (more than 30 sub-districts. Recent investigations in 2012 resulted information that population of Basrah district has reached 1,018,000 person The quantity of municipal solid waste generated was recorded to be 634 tons per day with MSW generation rates of 0.62 kg per capita per day. Municipal solid waste density was conducted as 192.6 kg/m³ with moisture content of 31.1%. The main components of the MSW were Food wastes represents largest proportion (54.8%, followed by plastic (25.2% and paper (7%. The study results reveal that the MSW stream has the largest proportion of biodegradable and recyclable waste. Therefore, the study recommends to use methods of waste treatment such composting, recycling and incineration in order to reduce the amount of waste that are taken to the landfill.

  2. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  3. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  4. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  5. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  6. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m 3 of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time

  7. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiuju; Sun, Wenqiang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Eco-industry, Institute of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  8. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N E; Sion, H C

    2014-01-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined

  9. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  10. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  11. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  12. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  13. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  14. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  15. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  16. Removal of batteries from solid waste using trommel separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S T; Cheung, W H; Kwong, C K; Wan, C P; Choy, K K H; Leung, C C; Porter, J F; Hui, C W; Mc Kay, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a trommel for separation of batteries from solid waste. A trommel is a cylindrical separation device that rotates and performs size separation. It has also been used in areas such as municipal solid waste (MSW) processing, classifying construction and demolition debris, screening mass-burn incinerator ash and compost processing. A trommel has been designed based on size separation to separate household batteries from solid waste, which can then be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste combustion, particularly where the metal content of the product is also a critical parameter, such as the Co-Co process for integrated cement and power production. This trommel has been tested with batches of university office and restaurant wastes against various factors. The recovery efficiency of batteries increases with decreasing inclination angle of the trommel and decreasing rotational speed. A physical characterization of the university solid waste has been performed with a 20-kg sample of the tested waste. It was found that there is a trend of decreasing recovery of batteries with increasing paper composition, and a trend of increasing recovery of batteries with increasing organic materials composition.

  17. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  18. The construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Koo, Jun Mo; Kim, Jeong Guk; Jung, In Ha

    1990-03-01

    The solid waste form test facility (SWFTF) to test and/or evaluate the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogeniety, mechanical properties, thermal properties, waste resistance and leachability, have been constructed, and some equipments for testing actual waste forms has been purchased; radiocative monitoring system, glove box for the manipulator repair room, and uninteruppted power supply system, et al. Classifications of radioactive wastes, basic requirements and criteria to be considered during waste management were also reviewed. Some of the described items above have been standardized for the purpose of indigenigation. Therefore, safety assurance of waste forms, as well as increase in the range of participating of domestic companies in construction of further nuclear facilities could be obtained as results through constructing this facility. In the furture this facility is going to be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination for extending the life time of some expensive radiological equipments using remote handling techniques. (author)

  19. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, F; Scaglia, B; Scotti, S; Adani, F

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid waste management in faisalabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, A.; Ali, S.; Khan, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today's world. There is a considerable amount of disposal of waste without proper segregation which has lead to both economic and environment sufferings. It is still practiced in many cities. There is a tremendous amount of loss in terms of environmental degradation, health hazards and economic descend due to direct disposal of waste. It is better to segregate the waste at the initial stages where it is generated, rather than going for a later option which is inconvenient and expensive. There has to be appropriate planning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste situation of the area. This paper would deal with, how Geographical Information System can be used as a decision support tool for planning waste management. A model is designed for the case study area in Pakistan city for the purpose of planning waste management. The suggestions for amendments in the system through GIS based model would reduce the waste management workload to some extent and exhibit remedies for some of the SWM problems in the case study area. The waste management issues are considered to solve some of the present situation problems like proper allocation and relocation of waste bins, check for unsuitability and proximity convenience due to waste bin to the users, proposal of recyclable waste bins for the required areas and future suggestions. The model will be implemented on the Faisalabad city's case study area data for the analysis and results will suggest some modification in the existing system which is expected to reduce the waste management workload to a certain extent. (author)

  1. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Hogland, W

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that

  2. Energy in Solid Waste: A Citizen Guide to Saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This booklet contains information for citizens on solid wastes. It discusses the possible energy available in combustible and noncombustible trash. It suggests how citizens can reduce waste at home through discriminating buying practices and through recycling and reuse of resources. Recommendations are given for community action along with state…

  3. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  4. Household Willingness to Pay for solid Waste Disposal Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    implement the sanitation bye-laws and re-institute the sanitation court to deal with cases of improper solid waste ... 8(2), 2016 Pages 1-17 ..... by both private companies and Waste Management Department, KMA) [1 for good quality service;.

  5. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  6. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Key Words: Household Storage, Solid Waste Management; Garbage Bins. Introduction .... depends on people's identification with the SWM system. The character of SWM ..... end up in the right place, and health and safety of those handling the full ... Afullo A (2004) Environmental and occupational health aspects of waste ...

  7. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  8. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  9. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  10. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste

  11. Characterization on incineration residue of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kiyoshi; Hirayama, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization was carried out on incineration residue discharged from the radioactive solid waste incineration unit (capacity, 100 kg/h) in use at the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain basic data for investigating solidification methods of the residue. The characterized residue was taken from furnace and a primary ceramic filter of the incineration unit which incinerates combustible solid wastes generated at JAERI and the outside organizations. Items of characterization involve a particle size distribution, misplaced materials content, ignition loss, chemical composition and radioactivity of nuclides in the ash. As the results, the size of ash sampled from the furnace distributed a wide range, with about 35∼60 % of ash smaller than 5 mm and about 10∼25 % of massive one larger than 30 mm (max. size: ∼130 mm). The ignition loss was 2∼3 %. The chemical compositions of the ash were mainly SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO and Al 2 O 3 . The specific activities of the ash were about 0.4∼4 x 10 3 Bq/g, and principal contaminants were 60 Co and 137 Cs. (author)

  12. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  13. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  14. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  15. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  16. SWSA [Solid Waste Storage Area] 6 tumulus disposal demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate the above-grade disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is being constructed in the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The demonstration facility will utilize the ''Tumulus'' technology, which basically involves sealing the waste in concrete vaults, placing the vaults on a grade level concrete pad, and covering the pad with a soil cover after vault placement is complete. Loading of the demonstration unit is scheduled to begin in June, and will continue one to one and a half years until the 28,000 ft 3 capacity is exhausted

  17. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  18. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  19. Urban observatories opportunities for environmental monitoring: solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caldelas, R I; Corona Zambrano, E A

    2008-01-01

    Towns concentrate around 50% of world-wide population and the trend is oriented to underscore an urban profile of population. In addition, towns have become important for their economic contribution to the Gross Internal Product. The negative side of towns is the environmental and social impacts as a result of productive and domestic activities, besides the lack of available data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the United Nations has established a project of urban monitoring throughout the Global Network of Urban Observatories; Mexico joined the project in 2005. The Local Urban Observatory of Mexicali has the task to produce information about cities that is useful to design public policies. Some of this information deals with a set of environmental indicators in the United Nations Habitat Agenda, which includes solid wastes. Therefore, this paper deals with two main topics; firstly, from the Habitat Agenda, a comparative urban analysis of waste production and coverage of domestic waste collection services; secondly, from the Local Agenda, the identification and ranking of environmental problems according to public perception coming from people involved in the municipal planning and decision making process. Results will be used to develop local indicators and public environmental policies.

  20. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  1. Italian experience on the processing of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; De Angelis, G.

    1989-12-01

    Experimental work is under way in Italy for treatment and conditioning of different types of solid radioactive wastes. The following wastes are taken into account in this paper: Magnox fuel element debris, solid compactable wastes, radiation sources and contaminated carcasses. The metallic debris, consisting of Magnox splitters and braces, are conditioned, after drying and separation of corrosion products, by means of a two component epoxy system (base product + hardener). Solid compactable wastes are reduced in volume by using a press. The resulting pellets are transferred to a final container and conditioned with a cement mortar of a suitable consistency. As to the radiation sources, mainly contained in lightning-rods, gas detectors and radioactive thickness gauges, the encapsulation in a cementitious grout is a common practice for their incorporation. Early experiments, with satisfactory results, have also been conducted for the cementation of contaminated carcasses. (author)

  2. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  3. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, durability, and compressive strength, microstructure and mineral phases of soil-cement bricks. Microstructural evolution was evaluated via confocal microscopy. The experimental results showed that the solid wastes behave as charge material and influenced both technical properties and microstructure of the soil-cement bricks. It was found that up to 15 wt% of welding flux slag waste and up to 30 wt% of avian eggshell waste could be added into the soil-cement bricks for use as building material.

  4. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  5. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  6. Evaluation and Analysis of Solid Waste at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D. W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Waste management is one of the biggest environmental problems in Hong Kong. According to a report from the HK government, in less than 3 years, which is 2020, all the local landfills will be filled with trash. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in HK with 1800 students, is planning to reduce their solid waste on campus by evaluating and analysing all solid wastes, which can assist professionals to reform and innovate solutions for refuse disposal. Meanwhile, this project is designed for both raising students' awareness of the magnitude of waste and figuring out measures for waste reduction. For one thing, the project includes the promotion of Waste Audit to reach the former purpose by teaching students how to sort waste. In addition, the weight of each type of waste will be recorded as reference data for students to learn about varied degrees of quantities among different kinds of garbage and relate data to impacts brought by waste with diverse characteristics on the environment. For another, the researcher involved in this project will carry out solutions corresponding to various sorts of waste by applying scientific knowledge, carrying out surveys, organizing campaigns etc.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  8. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  9. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scenario Of Solid Waste Management In Hetauda Municipality, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigyan Neupane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to enlighten the solid waste management of Hetauda Municipality in Makwanpur district of an area of 44.5 sq. km. The total human population of the municipality is 84,671 (CBS 2011. Out of 11 wards, 5 wards (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were selected for the present study. In total 50 households, 10 institutions and 10 commercial sectors were selected from studied wards from which samples of different types of wastes were collected, segregated and weighed. Weight was calculated using a digital spring balance and a bag 0.043 m3 was used for the estimation of volume. Organic wastes were found to be dominant in the household (51.73% and commercial sectors (61.70% whereas in institutions, plastic (50.36% and papers (38.19% were prevailing. The findings revealed that per capita 155.4 gm/person/day household waste was generated in Hetauda Municipality. The residents are also aware of the harmful effects of the wastes, and demand an effective solid waste management services. Though they are aware about the sustainable management of wastes, due to erratic collection of wastes, some of them throw the wastes in the open lands - The local people also participate in the awareness campaigns organized by local NGOs and municipal. Solid waste management strategies are timely need for an effective management of anthropogenic wastes. Regular waste collection, improvement of dumping sites and sufficient number of composting plants are recommended in the municipality. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 105-114 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9214

  11. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECOVERY POTENTIAL: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir, A. Ahsan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 7690 tons of municipal solid waste generated daily at the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet, as estimated in 2005. Sampling was done at different waste generation sources such as residential, commercial, institutional and open areas, in different seasons. The composition of the entire waste stream was about 74.4% organic matter, 9.1% paper, 3.5% plastic, 1.9% textile and wood, 0.8% leather and rubber, 1.5% metal, 0.8% glass and 8% other waste. The per capita generation of municipal solid waste was ranged from 0.325 to 0.485 kg/cap/day while the average rate was 0.387 kg/cap/day as measured in the six major cities. The potential for waste recovery and reduction based on the waste characteristics are evaluated and it is predicted that 21.64 million US$/yr can be earned from recycling and composting of municipal solid waste.

  12. ALTENER. Strategic framework municipal solid waste. Waste for energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwant, K.W.; Van Halen, C.; Pfeiffer, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    General objective of European, national and regional waste for energy (WfE) policies is to support sustainable development. In each of the Altener WfE countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and UK) general waste management strategies have been implemented. Common aspects are waste management hierarchies and general objectives such as: (1) to reduce the amount of wastes; (2) to make the best use of the wastes that are produced; and (3) to choose waste management practices, which (4) minimise the risks of immediate and future environmental pollution and harm to human health. All WfE countries have defined an order of preference for waste handling, starting with prevention as most preferred option, through re-use and recycling, thermal treatment with energy-recovery to landfill as a least desired option. In all Altener WfE countries, waste management structures are in a phase of transformation. At least three general transition processes can be recognized to take place, which are of great importance for the waste for energy future of the Altener countries: (1) increased energy recovery from MSW; (2) increased separation of MSW for recycling and recovery; and (3) reorganization of landfills. Two groups of instruments to stimulate the use of waste to energy are distinguished: (1) instruments, aiming to create improved WfE solutions; and (2) instruments, aiming to create a WfE market. In this framework document an overview is given of today's WfE situation in 9 European countries, as well as up-to-date national waste and energy policies, including the available instruments and future goals

  13. The construction of solid waste form test and inspection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Jeong Woo; Lee, Jong Youl; Bae, Sang Min

    1988-01-01

    The solid waste form test and inspection facility is a facility to test and inspect the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogenity, mechanical structure, thermal behaviour, water resistance and leachability. Such kinds of characteristics in waste forms are required to meet a certain conditions for long-term storage or for final disposal of wastes. The facility will be used to evaluate safety for the disposal of wastes by test and inspection. At this moment, the efforts to search the most effective management of the radioactive wastes generated from power plants and radioisotope user are being executed by the people related to this field. Therefore, the facility becomes more significant tool because of its guidance of sucessfully converting wastes into forms to give a credit to the safety of waste disposal for managing the radioactive wastes. In addition the overall technical standards for inspecting of waste forms such as the standardized equipment and processes in the facility will be estabilished in the begining of 1990's when the project of waste management will be on the stream. Some of the items of the project have been standardized for the purpose of localization. In future, this facility will be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination apparatus by remote operation techniques. (Author)

  14. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  15. Municipal solid waste management. Strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, C.; Hellweg, S.; Stucki, S. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The way municipal solid waste is handled greatly determines its impact on the local as well as the global environment. New technologies habe emerged for the treatment of waste, for the recovery of raw materials and energy, and for safe final disposal. The environmental performance of technologies, their social acceptance and their economic viability are key issues to be considered in sustainable waste management. This book provides an overview of current practices in waste management and a synthesis of new developments achieved through interdisciplinary discussions of recent research results. (orig.)

  16. Solid municipal waste management: Systems and reference technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, G.; Mura, A.

    1993-03-01

    The management of solid municipal wastes comprises simple methods such as dumping into suitably controlled waste disposal sites, and more complex solutions, which can include waste segregation, some form of materials and/or energy recovery, and the use of combined cycle combustion systems. All these methods, however, require environmental protection systems with custom designed techniques, equipment and safeguards. This paper reviews the technical-economic aspects of different pollution control options currently available to meet the specific requirements of various waste management alternatives

  17. Processing and Pre-Treatment of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerre, P. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    As solid radioactive waste varies in form, dimensions and volume, the Atomic Energy Commission first of all reduces the volume by breaking up and compressing the waste. Since the temporary storage of such waste is always attended by the risk of contamination, an efficient packing system has been devised and adopted. This consists of embedding the waste in the heart of a specially-designed block of concrete possessing the following characteristics: Great strength Maximum insolubility Resistance to corrosion Maximum imperviousness Protection against radiation. It is thus quite safe to store these blocks with a view to final dumping. (author)

  18. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, Sarika

    2006-01-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management

  19. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  20. Global capacity, potentials and trends of solid waste research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael A; Ronald, Mersky; Feng, Huan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research. Results show significant solid waste research potentials globally, with the United States leading by 373 articles, followed by India with 230 articles. The rest of the countries are ranked in the order of: UK > Taiwan > Brazil > Nigeria > Italy > Japan > China > Canada > Germany >Mexico > Egypt > Australia. Global capacity in solid waste management options is in the order of: Waste characterisation-management > waste biotech/composting > waste to landfill > waste recovery/reduction > waste in construction > waste recycling > waste treatment-reuse-storage > waste to energy > waste dumping > waste education/public participation/policy. It is observed that the solid waste research potential is not a measure of solid waste management capacity. The results show more significant research impacts on solid waste management in developed countries than in developing countries where economy, technology and society factors are not strong. This article is targeted to motivate similar study in each country, using solid waste research articles from other streamed databases to measure research impacts on solid waste management.