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Sample records for solid support polyester

  1. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(Ethylene Furanoate Biobased Polyester, II: An Efficient and Facile Method to Synthesize High Molecular Weight Polyester Appropriate for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to synthesize, through a facile strategy, high molecular weight poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, which could be applicable in food packaging applications. The efficient method to generate PEF with high molecular weight consists of carrying out a first solid-state polycondensation under vacuum for 6 h reaction time at 205 °C for the resulting polymer from two-step melt polycondensation process, which is catalyzed by tetrabutyl titanate (TBT. A remelting step was thereafter applied for 15 min at 250 °C for the obtained polyester. Thus, the PEF sample was ground into powder, and was then crystallized for 6 h at 170 °C. This polyester is then submitted to a second solid-state polycondensation (SSP carried out at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. Ultimately, a significant increase in intrinsic viscosity is observed with only 5 h reaction time at 205 °C during the second SSP being needed to obtain very high molecular weight PEF polymer greater than 1 dL/g, which sufficient for manufacturing purposes. Intrinsic viscosity (IV, carboxyl end-group content (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, were measured for all resultant polyesters. Thanks to the post-polymerization process, DSC results showed that the melting temperatures of the prepared PEF samples were steadily enhanced in an obvious way as a function of reaction time and temperature increase. It was revealed, as was expected for all SSP samples, that the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF polyester increased with increasing SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-group concentration was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polyesters IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl end-groups of PEF during the SSP.

  2. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  3. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  4. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV isopropoxide (TIS, tetrabutyltitanate (TBT, and dibutyltin (IV oxide (DBTO, via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV, end groups (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  5. Molecular phospholipid films on solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes are versatile structures for mimicking biological surfaces. Bilayer and monolayer membranes can be formed on solid supports, leading to enhanced stability and accessibility of the biomimetic molecular film. This has facilitated functional studies of membrane proteins and ai...

  6. Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Bacterial Polyester Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers. The growing amount of PU used industrially has resulted in a worldwide increase of plastic wastes. The related environmental pollution as well as the limited availability of the raw materials based on petrochemicals requires novel solutions for their efficient degradation and recycling. The degradation of the polyester PU Impranil DLN by the polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC, TfCut2, Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 was analyzed using a turbidimetric assay. The highest hydrolysis rates were obtained with TfCut2 and Tcur0390. TfCut2 also showed a significantly higher substrate affinity for Impranil DLN than the other three enzymes, indicated by a higher adsorption constant K. Significant weight losses of the solid thermoplastic polyester PU (TPU Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10 were detected as a result of the enzymatic degradation by all four polyester hydrolases. Within a reaction time of 200 h at 70 °C, LCC caused weight losses of up to 4.9% and 4.1% of Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed a preferential degradation of the larger polymer chains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks at the surface of the TPU cubes as a result of enzymatic surface erosion. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the observed weight losses were a result of the cleavage of ester bonds of the polyester TPU.

  7. Biodegradation of polyester. Polyester no bunkai sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Fermentation Research Inst.)

    1991-09-10

    Penicillium sp. 14-3 and penicillium sp. 26-1 can degrade various kinds of polyester. The results of studies made on hydrolysis of polyester by enzyme, hydrolysis of polyester by various kinds of lipase, and degradation of ester type polyurethane by microbes and lipase are introduced. For the improvement of physical properties of aliphatic polyester, aromatic-aliphatic polyester copolymers (CPE) have been synthesized to study the biodegradability. Copolymer in which a number of polyamide (nylon) are alternately introduced (CPAE) to aliphatic polyester has been developed. The result of studies made on the degradability of a blended body of PCL and natural high polymer, and on the collapsibility by lipase of high polymer materials including aliphatic polyamide are introduced. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-01-01

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  9. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  10. Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

    1999-02-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but which can actually be used for processes, which pro- duce interesting ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the .... The solid product obtained from the glycolysis of PET was bis(hydroxy ethyl ...

  12. Introduction to solid supported membrane based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Braner, Markus; Călinescu, Octavian; Hatahet, Lina; Fendler, Klaus

    2013-05-11

    The electrophysiological method we present is based on a solid supported membrane (SSM) composed of an octadecanethiol layer chemisorbed on a gold coated sensor chip and a phosphatidylcholine monolayer on top. This assembly is mounted into a cuvette system containing the reference electrode, a chlorinated silver wire. After adsorption of membrane fragments or proteoliposomes containing the membrane protein of interest, a fast solution exchange is used to induce the transport activity of the membrane protein. In the single solution exchange protocol two solutions, one non-activating and one activating solution, are needed. The flow is controlled by pressurized air and a valve and tubing system within a faraday cage. The kinetics of the electrogenic transport activity is obtained via capacitive coupling between the SSM and the proteoliposomes or membrane fragments. The method, therefore, yields only transient currents. The peak current represents the stationary transport activity. The time dependent transporter currents can be reconstructed by circuit analysis. This method is especially suited for prokaryotic transporters or eukaryotic transporters from intracellular membranes, which cannot be investigated by patch clamp or voltage clamp methods.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  15. Paraffin scintillator for radioassay of solid support samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Haruo; Takiue, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    A new paraffin scintillator used for solid support sample counting has been proposed, and its composition and various characteristics are described. The solid support sample treated with this scintillator can be easily handled because of rigid sample conditions. This technique provides great advantages such as the elimination of a large volume of scintillator and little radioactive waste material by using an economical polyethylene bag instead of the conventional counting vial. (author)

  16. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Hydantoins Synthesis on Solid Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursindel, Thibault; Martinez, Jean; Parrot, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to a three-step synthesis of hydantoin (imidazolidine-2,4-dione), a moiety that is found in many biologically active compounds. Using a microwave oven and solid-support technology, this synthetic experiment is designed for masters-degree candidates working in organic chemistry or upper-level…

  19. Strength of Anode‐Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faes, A.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Nickel oxide and yttria doped zirconia composite strength is crucial for anode‐supported solid oxide fuel cells, especially during transient operation, but also for the initial stacking process, where cell curvature after sintering can cause problems. This work first compares tensile and ball....... Even though the electrolyte is to the tensile side, it is found that the anode support fails due to the thermo‐mechanical residual stresses....

  20. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  1. Polymer-Induced Swelling of Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kreuzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH in D2O. The positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules interact with the lipid bilayers and induce a drastic increase in their d-spacing by a factor of ~4. Temperature, time, and pH influence the swollen interfacial lipid linings. From our study, we conclude that electrostatic interactions introduced by the adsorbed PAH are the main cause for the drastic swelling of the lipid coatings. The DMPC membrane stacks do not detach from their solid support at T > Tm. Steric interactions, also introduced by the PAH molecules, are held responsible for the stabilizing effect. We believe that this novel system offers great potential for fundamental studies of biomembrane properties, keeping the membrane’s natural fluidity and freedom, decoupled from a solid support at physiological conditions.

  2. Automated Solid-Phase Radiofluorination Using Polymer-Supported Phosphazenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiessen, Bente; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    of [18F]FDG. The combination of compact form factor, simplicity of [18F]F− recovery and processing, and column reusability can make solid phase radiofluorination an attractive radiochemistry platform for the emerging dose-on-demand instruments for bedside production of PET radiotracers.......The polymer supported phosphazene bases PS-P2tBu and the novel PS-P2PEG allowed for efficient extraction of [18F]F− from proton irradiated [18O]H2O and subsequent radiofluorination of a broad range of substrates directly on the resin. The highest radiochemical yields were obtained with aliphatic...

  3. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  4. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at demonstrating the potential of unidirectional natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites in structural applications, textile flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites with variable fiber volume fractions have been manufactured by a filament-winding process followed by a vacuum......-assisted compression molding process. The microstructure of the composites shows that the flax fiber yarns are well impregnated by the polyester matrix, and this supports the measured low porosity content of the composites. The experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the composites in the axial...

  5. Failure analysis of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Tiefenauer, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) one key aspect is the structural integrity of the cell and hence its thermo mechanical long term behaviour. The present study investigates the failure mechanisms and the actual causes for fracture of electrolyte supported SOFCs which were run using the current μ-CHP system of Hexis AG, Winterthur - Switzerland under lab conditions or at customer sites for up to 40,000 h. In a first step several operated stacks were demounted for post-mortem inspection, followed by a fractographic evaluation of the failed cells. The respective findings are then set into a larger picture including an analysis of the present stresses acting on the cell like thermal and residual stresses and the measurements regarding the temperature dependent electrolyte strength. For all investigated stacks, the mechanical failure of individual cells can be attributed to locally acting bending loads, which rise due to an inhomogeneous and uneven contact between the metallic interconnect and the cell.

  6. Development of seismic support snubber using solid lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunakoda, Katsuaki; Akimoto, Kohichi; Uchi, Toshiyasu

    1990-01-01

    Solid lubricant MoS 2 films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering and a new physical process were applied to bearings and ball screws used in seismic support mechanical snubbers. The lubricity of MoS 2 films was maintained throughout 720 hours of exposure at a temperature of 200 degC. The endurance life of MoS 2 films using both radio-frequency sputtering and a new physical process was investigated by subjecting the mechanical snubber to a drag force test. Cumulative drag length reached 100 meters and 400 meters, respectively, for the two methods. The dynamic characteristics and durability of mechanical snubbers in an abnormal environment were also investigated. (author)

  7. Study of ion separation through solid-supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    1990-01-01

    The membranes used in this study consist of a microporous polymeric support with the solvent contraining alamine 336, Tri-N-Octyl phosphine oxide, Tri-N-butyl phosphate, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as a carrier within the pores by the capillary forces. When this liquid membrane is interposed between aqueous feed and product solutions, the carrier serving as a complexing agent, can pick up the uranium ions on the feed side of the membrane and carry them across the membrane by diffusion. In this study, the uranium flux through the solid-supported liquid membrane was analyzed as a function of carrier concentration and acidity of the feed solution for the carrier species. Also, the Gel-liquid extraction of uranium ions from aqueous solution was performed. The adsorbents were prepared by casting the polymer solution composed of polyvinyl chloride, TOPO, and additions. The extraction of uranyl nitrate ions has been investigated as a function of TOPO/PVC ratio, evaporation time, and the stability. The results show that is maybe possible to develop an alternative uranium purification process. (author)

  8. Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiesheng; Liu Chunxi; Chen Zhijin; Zhang Na; Wang Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (≤20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo

  9. Study of the solid-solid surface adsorption of Eu2O3 on various Al2O3 supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongchuan; Yu Zhi; Zhou Yuan; Yoshitake Yamazaki

    1997-12-01

    Solid-solid surface interactions of Eu 2 O 3 on various oxide substrates are investigated with X-ray and Moessbauer experiments. The results indicate that the interaction of Eu 2 O 3 on the complex support differs from that having simple support. An incorporation model is used to explain how Eu 2 O 3 disperses onto the surface of γ-alumina or η-alumina

  10. Municipal solid waste management system: decision support through systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Lúcia Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering The present study intends to show the development of systems analysis model applied to solid waste management system, applied into AMARSUL, a solid waste management system responsible for the management of municipal solid waste produced in Setúbal peninsula, Portugal. The model developed intended to promote sustainable decision making, ...

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure investigations on crosslinked polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobelny, J.

    1999-01-01

    Styrene-crosslinked mixed polyesters derived from maleic anhydride, 2,2-di(4-hydroxypropoxyphenyl)propane, oligo(propylene oxide) and 1,2-propylene glycol were investigated by high-resolution solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The structural modifications accompanying crosslinking were characterized in terms of spin-lattice relaxation times as a function of unsaturated polyester composition. Copolymerization and crosslinking effects were individually evaluated and the latter effect was related to variations in crosslinking density associated with the chemical structure of the unsaturated prepolymer. As the crosslinking effect is suppressed, the mechanical properties undergo expected changes, e.g., impact strength is increased and modulus of elasticity in tension is decreased. (author)

  12. Polyester Apparel Cutting Waste as Insulation Material

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Dušan; Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Zafirova, Koleta

    2017-01-01

    Polyester waste is the dominant component of the clothing industry waste stream, yet its recycling in this industry is rarely addressed. This paper proposes using polyester cutting waste as an insulation blanket for roofing and buildings’ internal walls in order to reduce environmental pollution. The designed textile structures used waste cuttings from different polyester fabrics without opening the fabric to fibre. Thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, fire resistance and biodegradation o...

  13. Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-05

    of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price* Unclassified Unclassified 83 For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield. Virginia...low sensitivity .... ........... 68 B2B C-scan of carbon fiber reinforced polyester Laminate #2 at high sensitivity ..... .......... 68 B3A C-scan of...right corner, but it is obscured by the delamination. Figure B2B shows the same composite at a 12 decibel increase in sensitivity. The image now shows

  14. Radiation effects on biodegradable polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Mitomo; Darmawan Darwis; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] are microbial biodegradable polyesters produced by many types of bacteria. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(E-caprolactone) (PCL) are also biodegradable synthetic polyesters which have been commercialized. These thermoplastics are expected for wide usage in environmental protection and blocompatible applications. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto many polymers, e.g., polyethylene and polypropylene has been studied mainly for biomedical applications. In the present study, radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto PHB and P(3HB-co-3HV) was carried out and improvement of their properties was studied. Changes in the properties and biodegradability were compared with the degree of grafting. Radiation-induced crosslinking of PBS and PCL which relatively show thermal and irradiation stability was also carried out to improve their thermal stability or processability. Irradiation to PBS and PCL mainly resulted in crosslinking and characterization of these crosslinked polyesters was investigated

  15. Effect of Structure Change on Radiation Crosslinking of Unsaturated Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec, F.

    2006-01-01

    During the course of crosslinking of unsaturated polyesters reacting system, that was liquid prior to reaction, gels, and becomes solid. Crosslinking reaction begins to be controlled by the change of the physical state of the system at an early stage of reaction. The kinetics can not be studied by the usual kinetical methods. In-source 60 C o gamma rays induced crosslinking of unsaturated polyester with styrene was followed directly and continuously by measuring electrical conductivity change. The results of extraction analysis proved good correlation between the change of electrical conductivity and the extent of curing. The gel content was inversely proportional to conductivity and free styrene content directly proportional to conductivity. DC-electrical conductivity has shown high sensitivity toward structural changes and enabled us to detect liquid-liquid transitions in unsaturated polyester. The upper liquid-liquid transition (T l ρ) is less known transition caused by a stepwise decrease of intramolecular short-range local order that remains above the glass and lower liquid-liquid transitions. The local order is based on secondary valent interactions and is enhanced by hydrogen bonding. The linear temperature dependence of the viscosity and dc electrical conductivity of unsaturated polyesters showed a change of slope caused by the (T l ρ). Those changes were the result of the diminishing of the local order (which includes several bond lengths) caused by breaking of the intramolecular interactions. The intramolecular nature of the (T l ρ) in the polyesters under consideration was proved by its insensitivity to crosslinking and dilution with solvents. In the corresponding temperature range, DSC thermograms shoved expected endothermic changes. The structure changes related to the (T l ρ) in the investigated polyesters were determined by 1 H NMR and NIR spectroscopy. The proton NMR indicated that the stepwise change in hydrogen bonding occurred in the

  16. Dot-ELISA-IgM in saliva for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis using polyester fabric-resin as support (Preliminary Report Dot-ELISA-IgM em saliva para diagnóstico da leptospirose humana, empregando como suporte tecido de poliéster-resina (Nota Prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius da Silva

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the diagnosis of human leptospirosis, we standardized the dot-ELISA for the search of specific IgM antibodies in saliva. Saliva and serum samples were collected simultaneously from 20 patients with the icterohemorrhagic form of the disease, from 10 patients with other pathologies and from 5 negative controls. Leptospires of serovars icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, hebdomadis, brasiliensis and cynopteri grown in EMJH medium and mixed together in equal volumes, were used as antigen at individual protein concentration of 0.2 µg/µl. In the solid phase of the test we used polyester fabric impregnated with N-methylolacrylamide resin. The antigen volume for each test was 1µl, the saliva volume was 8 µl, and the volume of peroxidase-labelled anti-human IgM conjugate was 30 µl. A visual reading was taken after development in freshly prepared chromogen solution. In contrast to the classic nitrocellulose membrane support, the fabric support is easy to obtain and to handle. Saliva can be collected directly onto the support, a fact that facilitates the method and reduces the expenses and risks related to blood processing.Com a finalidade de melhorar o diagnóstico da leptospirose humana, padronizou-se o teste dot-ELISA para a pesquisa de anticorpos específicos da classe IgM na saliva. Empregaram-se amostras de saliva e soro coletadas simultaneamente de 20 pacientes com a forma ictero-hemorrágica da doença, de 10 pacientes com outras patologias e 5 controles negativos. Culturas de Leptos-pira em meio EMJH, dos sorovares: icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, hebdomadis, brasiliensis e cynopteri, foram utilizadas como antígeno, na concentração proteica individual de 0,2 µg/µl, misturadas em volumes iguais. Na fase sólida do teste empregou-se tecido de po-liéster impregnado com resina de N-metilol-acrilamida. O volume do antígeno para cada teste foi de 1µl, o de saliva 8µl, o de conjugado anti-IgM humana marcada com peroxidase, de

  17. Synthesis and binding studies of Alzheimer ligands on solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecki, Petra; Geib, Nina; Peifer, Manuel; Biesemeier, Frank; Schrader, Thomas

    2007-05-11

    Aminopyrazole derivatives constitute the first class of nonpeptidic rationally designed beta-sheet ligands. Here we describe a double solid-phase protocol for both synthesis and affinity testing. The presented solid-phase synthesis of four types of hybrid compounds relies on the Fmoc strategy and circumvents subsequent HPLC purification by precipitating the final product from organic solution in pure form. Hexa- and octapeptide pendants with internal di- and tetrapeptide bridges are now amenable in high yields to combinatorial synthesis of compound libraries for high-throughput screening purposes. Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) on an acid-resistant PAM allows us, after PMB deprotection, to subject the free aminopyrazole binding sites in an immobilized state to on-bead assays with fluorescence-labeled peptides. From the fluorescence emission intensity decrease, individual binding constants can be calculated via reference curves by simple application of the law of mass action. Gratifyingly, host/guest complexation can be monitored quantitatively even for those ligands, which are almost insoluble in water.

  18. Intensification of polyester synthesis by continuous reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis starts with a brief overview of unsaturated polyesters. In particular, the usage of raw materials, the application of unsaturated polyester resins, and, the worldwide supply and demand of the unsaturated polyester resins are discussed. Unsaturated polyester is traditionally produced in a

  19. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  20. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  1. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  2. Solvent-Controlled Chemoselectivity in the Photolytic Release of Hydroxamic Acids and Carboxamides from Solid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Petersen, Rico G; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    The synthetic utility and theoretical basis of a photolabile hydroxylamine-linker are presented. The developed protocols enable the efficient synthesis and chemoselective photolytic release of either hydroxamates or carboxamides from solid support. The bidetachable mode of the linker unit...

  3. Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends and Reactive Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulkern, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... In this work, the incorporation of HBPs in thermoplastic blends was investigated. Several volume fractions of hydroxyl functionalized hyperbranched polyesters were melt blended with nonreactive polystyrene (PS...

  4. Exceptionally Stable and Efficient Solid Supported Hoveyda-Type Catalyst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skowerski, K.; Pastva, J.; Czarnocki, S. J.; Janošcová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2015), s. 872-877 ISSN 1083-6160 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : OLEFIN-METATHESIS CATALYSTS * RING-CLOSING METATHESIS * N-HETEROCYCLIC CARBENES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2015

  5. Chemical cleavage reactions of DNA on solid support: application in mutation detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotton Richard GH

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional solution-phase Chemical Cleavage of Mismatch (CCM method is time-consuming, as the protocol requires purification of DNA after each reaction step. This paper describes a new version of CCM to overcome this problem by immobilizing DNA on silica solid supports. Results DNA test samples were loaded on to silica beads and the DNA bound to the solid supports underwent chemical modification reactions with KMnO4 (potassium permanganate and hydroxylamine in 3M TEAC (tetraethylammonium chloride solution. The resulting modified DNA was then simultaneously cleaved by piperidine and removed from the solid supports to afford DNA fragments without the requirement of DNA purification between reaction steps. Conclusions The new solid-phase version of CCM is a fast, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of mismatches and mutations.

  6. Covalent attachment of proteins to solid supports and surfaces via Sortase-mediated ligation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the attachment of proteins to solid supports for the development of supported catalysts, affinity matrices, and micro devices as well as for the development of planar and bead based protein arrays for multiplexed assays of protein concentration, interactions, and activity. A critical requirement for these applications is the generation of a stable linkage between the solid support and the immobilized, but still functional, protein. METHODOLOGY: Solid supports including crosslinked polymer beads, beaded agarose, and planar glass surfaces, were modified to present an oligoglycine motif to solution. A range of proteins were ligated to the various surfaces using the Sortase A enzyme of S. aureus. Reactions were carried out in aqueous buffer conditions at room temperature for times between one and twelve hours. CONCLUSIONS: The Sortase A transpeptidase of S. aureus provides a general, robust, and gentle approach to the selective covalent immobilization of proteins on three very different solid supports. The proteins remain functional and accessible to solution. Sortase mediated ligation is therefore a straightforward methodology for the preparation of solid supported enzymes and bead based assays, as well as the modification of planar surfaces for microanalytical devices and protein arrays.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters from renewable cardol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The preparation and thermal characteristics of new polyesters from cardol, a renewable monomer ... All prepared polyesters were insoluble in common laboratory solvents at room temperature.

  8. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed

  9. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  10. Recovery of Terephthalic Acid by employing magnetic nanoparticles as a solid support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghamary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research work is focused on the improvement of Terephthalic acid recovery from PET wastes by using organically modified nano-Fe3O4@Cyanuric Chloride as the solid support. The performance of organically modified nano magnetic was examined in detail and the obtained results were compared with the unsupported reaction data. Required reaction time for complete glycolysis of the wastes, consumption of the solvent as well as catalyst decreases up 99%, 37.5% and 40% respectively. Result showed that nano-Fe 3O4@Cyanuric Chloride delivered good performance as solid support in depolymerizing of PET to the terephthalic acid.

  11. Propagation of polarized light through azobenzene polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L; Matharu, A; Nikolova, Ludmila

    2002-01-01

    When elliptically polarized light of appropriate wavelength Corresponding to trans-cis-trans isomerisation process is incident on thin films of azobenzene polyesters, a helical structure is induced. We investigate the propagation of the exciting light beam (self-induced) as well as a probe light...... beam outside the absorption band through the polyester films. Investigations are carried out in one amorphous and one liquid crystalline polyester. We show that amorphous polyester after irradiation behaves like classical helical material....

  12. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  13. Combinatorial chemistry on solid support in the search for central nervous system agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Paweł; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2009-08-01

    The advent of combinatorial chemistry was one of the most important developments, that has significantly contributed to the drug discovery process. Within just a few years, its initial concept aimed at production of libraries containing huge number of compounds (thousands to millions), so called screening libraries, has shifted towards preparation of small and medium-sized rationally designed libraries. When applicable, the use of solid supports for the generation of libraries has been a real breakthrough in enhancing productivity. With a limited amount of resin and simple manual workups, the split/mix procedure may generate thousands of bead-tethered compounds. Beads can be chemically or physically encoded to facilitate the identification of a hit after the biological assay. Compartmentalization of solid supports using small reactors like teabags, kans or pellicular discrete supports like Lanterns resulted in powerful sort and combine technologies, relying on codes 'written' on the reactor, and thus reducing the need for automation and improving the number of compounds synthesized. These methods of solid-phase combinatorial chemistry have been recently supported by introduction of solid-supported reagents and scavenger resins. The first part of this review discusses the general premises of combinatorial chemistry and some methods used in the design of primary and focused combinatorial libraries. The aim of the second part is to present combinatorial chemistry methodologies aimed at discovering bioactive compounds acting on diverse GPCR involved in central nervous system disorders.

  14. Numerical evaluation of micro-structural parameters of porous supports in metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Georg; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Brandstätter, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Metallic supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are considered as a durable and cost effective alternative to the state-of-the-art ceramic supported cell designs. In order to understand the mass and charge transport in the metal-support of this new type of cell a novel technique involving X......-ray tomography and micro-structural modelling is presented in this work. The simulation technique comprises a novel treatment of the boundary conditions, which leads to more accurate effective transport parameters compared to those, which can be achieved with the conventional homogenisation procedures....... Furthermore, the porosity distribution in the metal-support was determined, which provided information about the inhomogeneous nature of the material. In addition to that, transport parameters for two identified, different dense layers of the metal-support are evaluated separately. The results...

  15. (Citric acid–co–polycaprolactone triol) polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynda V.; Nair, Prabha D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds enormous challenges for materials science, wherein the ideal scaffold to be used is expected to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possess mechanical and physical properties that are suitable for target application. In this context, we have prepared degradable polyesters in different ratios by a simple polycondensation technique with citric acid and polycaprolactone triol. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the materials were amorphous based the absence of a crystalline melting peak and the presence of a glass transition temperature below 37°C. These polyesters were found to be hydrophilic and could be tailor-made into tubes and films. Porosity could also be introduced by addition of porogens. All the materials were non-cytotoxic in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay and may degrade via hydrolysis to non-toxic degradation products. These polyesters have potential implications in the field of soft tissue engineering on account of their similarity of properties. PMID:23507730

  16. Holographic recording in thiophene-based polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar Singh; Chambers-Asman, David; Jeeva, Shehzad

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and optical data storage properties of a side-chain thiophene-phenyl azopolyester ThPhAzoP.ol is reported. The polyester is derived from diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a thiophenebased liquid crystalline diol which exhibits a short-lived enantiotropic SmA phase (Cryst 177.7 SmA 180.......4 I). The polyester ThPhAzoPol exhibits amorphous (Tg, 78.6 DC), crystalline and liquid crystalline character as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal polarising microscopy. A grainy texture, which is thermally reversible, with increasing birefringence on cooling from...... the isotropic melt is observed. The polyester is amenable to optical data storage, showing efficient induced anisotropy, which is stable at room temperature. Polarisation gratings can be inscribed using orthogonally.linear and circularly polarised light to good effect (>10/0) and surface relief gratings...

  17. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Joon Ching; Jiang Yajie; Meng Xiujuan; Cao Weiliang; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Zhang Jingchang

    2007-01-01

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid

  18. Defined media and inert supports : their potential as solid-state fermentation production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijkaas, L.P.; Weber, F.J.; Buitelaar, R.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) using inert supports impregnated with chemically defined liquid media has several potential applications in both scientific studies and in the industrial production of high-value products, such as metabolites, biological control agents and enzymes. As a result of its

  19. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3...

  20. Smectite clays as solid supports for immobilization of beta-glucosidase : Synthesis, characterization, and biochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serefoglou, Evangelia; Litina, Kiriaki; Gournis, Dimitrios; Kalogeris, Emmanuel; Tzialla, Aikaterini A.; Pavlidis, Ioannis V.; Stamatis, Haralambos; Maccallini, Enrico; Lubomska, Monika; Rudolf, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Nanomaterials as solid supports can improve the efficiency of immobilized enzymes by reducing diffusional limitation as well as by increasing the surface area per mass unit and therefore improving enzyme loading. In this work, beta-glucosidase from almonds was immobilized on two smectite nanoclays.

  1. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  2. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Muhl, Thuy Thanh

    2018-01-01

    For use of metal supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast startup, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the Technical...

  3. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmy; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performance and stability of the planar metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFC) with two different electrocatalytically active materials, namely, Ni:GDC and Ru:GDC were investigated. Ru:GDC with an ASR of 0.322 Ωcm2 performed better than Ni:GDC with an ASR of 0.453 Ωc...

  4. Study of compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of polyester fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of three commercial polyester fabrics for indoor outfit and decorations (upholstery, curtains were studied. The experiments were carried out in a flow tubular furnace at 600°C in an air atmosphere. During decomposition process the complex mixtures of volatile and solid compounds were emitted. The main volatile products were carbon oxides, benzene, acetaldehyde, vinyl benzoate and acetophe-none. The emitted solid compounds consisted mainly of aromatic carboxylic acids and its derivatives, among which the greatest part took terephthalic acid, monovinyl terephthalate and benzoic acid. The small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also emitted. The emission profiles of the tested polyester fabrics were similar. The presence of toxic compounds indicates the possibility of serious hazard for people during fire.

  5. Dot-ELISA for the detection of anti-Cysticercus cellulosae antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid using a new solid phase (resin-treated polyester fabric and Cysticercus longicollis antigens Teste dot-ELISA para detecção de anticorpos anti-Cysticercus cellulosae em líquido cefalorraquiano utilizando um novo suporte (tecido de poliéster-resina e antígenos de Cysticercus longicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide José Vaz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A dot-ELISA was developed for the detection of antibodies in CSF in the immunologic diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis, using antigen extracts of the membrane and scolex of Cysticercus cellulosae (M+S-Cc and, alternately, membrane (M and vesicular fluid (VF of Cysticercus longicollis (Cl covalently bound to a new solid phase consisting of polyester fabric treated with N-methylol-acrylamide resin (dot-RT. The test was performed at room temperature, with reduced incubation times and with no need for special care in the manipulation of the support. The sensitivity rates obtained were 95.1% for antigen Cc and 97.6% for antigen Cl. Specificity was 90.6% when Cc was used, and 96.9% and 100% when M-Cl and VF-Cl were used, respectively. No significant differences in titer were observed between tests carried out with homologous and heterologous antigens. The low cost and easy execution of the dot-RT test using antigen extracts of Cysticercus longicollis indicate the test for use in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.Foi desenvolvido o teste dot-ELISA para detecção de anticorpos em líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR no diagnóstico imunológico da neurocisticercose humana, utilizando antígenos de membrana e escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae (M+E-Cc e, alternativamente, membrana (M e líquido vesicular (LV de Cysticercus longicollis (Cl covalentemente ligados a um novo suporte constituído de tecido de poliéster-resina de N-metilol-acrilamida (dot-TR. O teste foi realizado à temperatura ambiente, com tempos de incubação reduzidos e sem necessidade de cuidados na manipulação do suporte. A sensibilidade obtida foi de 95,1% para o antígeno Cc e 97,6% para o Cl. A especificidade foi de 90,6% quando o antígeno Cc foi usado, e 96,9% e 100% para M-Cl e LV-Cl, respectivamente. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os antígenos homólogo e heterólogo. O baixo custo e a fácil execução do teste dot-TR empregando extratos antig

  6. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión, F.; Montalban Domingo, Maria Laura; Real Herráiz, Julia Irene; Real, T.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate) and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strenght, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity,...

  7. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  8. Peptide Synthesis Method and Solid Support for Use in the Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1994-01-01

    A method for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides or proteins in high yield and high purity uses a solid support consisting of a functionalized polystyrene-grafted polymer substrate, the grafted polystyrene chains being substantially non-cross-linked and having a chain molecular weight, not incl...... is immersed in a solution of optionally substituted styrene monomer in an alcohol such as methanol, the volume percentage of styrene in the solution preferably being about 30% v/v, and subjected to gamma irradiation....

  9. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure

  10. Photoinduced Deformation of Azobenzene Polyester Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, D.; Helgert, M.; Fleck, B.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate two types of azobenzene side-chain polyesters which have shown opposite behaviour in light-induced surface grating formation experiments. Thin films of these polymers prepared on a water surface undergo opposite changes of shape under the influence of polarized light. We propose...

  11. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  12. Stereoselective Reduction of Imines with Trichlorosilane Using Solid-Supported Chiral Picolinamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia D. Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stereoselective reduction of imines with trichlorosilane catalyzed by chiral Lewis bases is a well-established procedure for the synthesis of enantio-enriched amines. Five supported cinchona-based picolinamides have been prepared and their activity tested in a model reaction. The comparison of different supporting materials revealed that polystyrene gave better results than silica in terms of stereoselectivity. The applicability of the solid-supported catalyst of choice to the reduction of different imines was also demonstrated. Additionally, for the first time, a catalytic reactor containing a polymer-immobilized chiral picolinamide has been employed for the stereoselective reduction of imines with trichlorosilane under continuous flow conditions.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  14. Creep Behavior of Porous Supports in Metal-support Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Creep is the inelastic deformation of a material at high temperatures over long periods of time. It can be defined as timedependent deformation at absolute temperatures greater than one half the absolute melting. Creep resistance is a key parameter for high temperature steel components, e.g. SOFC...... metal supports, where high corrosion resistance is a major design requirement. The four variables affecting creep rate are strain, time, temperature, and stress level and make creep difficult to quantify. In this work, the creep parameters of a SOFC metal support have been determined for the first time...... by means of a thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) for stresses in the range of 1-17 MPa and temperatures between 650-750 °C. The creep parameters of Crofer® 22 APU were also acquired and compared with values obtained from literature to validate the technique....

  15. CSBB-ConeExclusion, adapting structure based solution virtual screening to libraries on solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Steven; Auer, Manfred

    2013-12-23

    Combinatorial chemical libraries produced on solid support offer fast and cost-effective access to a large number of unique compounds. If such libraries are screened directly on-bead, the speed at which chemical space can be explored by chemists is much greater than that addressable using solution based synthesis and screening methods. Solution based screening has a large supporting body of software such as structure-based virtual screening tools which enable the prediction of protein-ligand complexes. Use of these techniques to predict the protein bound complexes of compounds synthesized on solid support neglects to take into account the conjugation site on the small molecule ligand. This may invalidate predicted binding modes, the linker may be clashing with protein atoms. We present CSBB-ConeExclusion, a methodology and computer program which provides a measure of the applicability of solution dockings to solid support. Output is given in the form of statistics for each docking pose, a unique 2D visualization method which can be used to determine applicability at a glance, and automatically generated PyMol scripts allowing visualization of protein atom incursion into a defined exclusion volume. CSBB-ConeExclusion is then exemplarically used to determine the optimum attachment point for a purine library targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 CDK2.

  16. Simulation on the Performance of a Driven Fan Made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Jamri, Azmil; Nawawi, Azli; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Fauzi Ahmad, Md; Adzila, Sharifah; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a driven fan design made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN) material that specifically used for turbocharger compressor. Polyester/Epoxy IPN is polymer plastics that was used as replacements for traditional polymers and has been widely used in a variety of applications because of their limitless conformations. Simulation based on several parameters which are air pressure, air velocity and air temperature have been carried out for a driven fan design performance of two different materials, aluminum alloy (existing driven fan design) and Polyester/Epoxy IPN using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. Results from both simulations were analyzed and compared where both materials show similar performance in terms of air pressure and air velocity due to similar geometric and dimension, but Polyester/Epoxy IPN produces lower air temperature than aluminum alloy. This study shows a preliminary result of the potential Polyester/Epoxy IPN to be used as a driven fan design material. In the future, further studies will be conducted on detail simulation and experimental analysis.

  17. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin [Export, PA; Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  18. Effects of accelerated degradation on metal supported thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reolon, R. P.; Sanna, S.; Xu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte and nanostruct......A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte......, electrochemical performances are steady, indicating the stability of the cell. Under electrical load, a progressive degradation is activated. Post-test analysis reveals both mechanical and chemical degradation of the cell. Cracks and delamination of the thin films promote a significant nickel diffusion and new...

  19. Assaying the proton transport and regulation of UCP1 using solid supported membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesneac, Iulia; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Machillot, Paul; Zoonens, Manuela; Masscheylen, Sandrine; Miroux, Bruno; Vivaudou, Michel; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva

    2012-08-01

    The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a mitochondrial protein that carries protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has an important role in non-shivering thermogenesis, and recent evidence suggests its role in human adult metabolism. Using rapid solution exchange on solid supported membranes, we succeeded in measuring electrical currents generated by the transport activity of UCP1. The protein was purified from mouse brown adipose tissue, reconstituted in liposomes and absorbed on solid supported membranes. A fast pH jump activated the ion transport, and electrical signals could be recorded. The currents were characterized by a fast rise and a slow decay, were stable over time, inhibited by purine nucleotides and activated by fatty acids. This new assay permits direct observation of UCP1 activity in controlled cell-free conditions, and opens up new possibilities for UCP1 functional characterization and drug screening because of its robustness and its potential for automation.

  20. Typical Mexican agroindustrial residues as supports for solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A.; Mussatto, Solange Ines; Contreras Esquivel, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    . These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues...... process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes....

  1. Visual monitoring of solid-phase extraction using chromogenic fluorous synthesis supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Christopher

    2012-03-12

    Reductive aminations and further transformations of an azo dye and fluorous tagged aldehyde are described. The intensely colored 2,4-dialkoxybenzyl protected amines undergo Fmoc-based peptide coupling, Suzuki reactions, and sulfonamide formation with product isolation facilitated by visual monitoring of fluorous solid phase extraction. Target compounds are released from the supports in high yields and purities by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).

  2. Simple automated system for simultaneous production of 11C-labeled tracers by solid supported methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quincoces, Gemma; Penuelas, Ivan; Valero, Marta; Serra, Patricia; Collantes, Maria; Marti-Climent, Josep; Arbizu, Javier; Jose Garcia-Velloso, Maria; Angel Richter, Jose

    2006-01-01

    We herein describe a simple setup for the automated simultaneous synthesis of L-[methyl- 11 C]methionine and N-[methyl- 11 C]choline by solid-supported methylation . The setup is extremely simple and easy to adapt to other automated systems and due to its versatility, the method can be utilized for the production of other radiopharmaceuticals requiring a simple [ 11 C]methylation step. Furthermore, it can be used for multiple simultaneous synthesis

  3. Break‐down of Losses in High Performing Metal‐Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromp, A.; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in the metal support, the electrochemical fuel oxidation at the anode and the oxygen reduction in the mixed ionic electronic conducting cathode. An additional process with a rather high relaxation frequency was attributed to the formation of insulating interlayers at the cathode/electrolyte‐interface. Based...... on these results, selective measures to improve performance and stability, such as (i) PVD‐deposited CGO buffer layer preventing solid state reaction between cathode and the zirconia‐based electrolyte, (ii) LSC‐CGO based in‐situ sintered cathodes and (iii) reduced corrosion of the metal support, were adopted...

  4. Process for preparation of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay support and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of a support useful in radioimmunoassay chromatographic columns. The process involves the preparation of a chromatographic gel capable of selectively retaining one or more components contained in an antigen-antibody-containing solution. The gel is bound to the appropriate antiserum, then freeze-dried, pulverized and compressed into a tablet. The tablet support swells upon contact with an antigen-antibody-containing solution to conform to the shape of the columns. An example of the application of this support in the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone is described. This type of support is also particularly useful in second antibody solid phase radioimmunoassays since there is no limit to the size of the antigen to which this technology may be applied. (U.K.)

  5. Binding of monoclonal antibody to protein antigen in fluid phase or bound to solid supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, S J

    1982-01-01

    Rat monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to fragment D (FgD) of human fibrinogen was used to characterize the direct binding of antibody to protein in solution or bound to solid supports. Purified IgG, F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab' were prepared from ascites fluid of hybridoma 104-14B which is a fusion product of spleen cells from a rat immunized with FgD and the mouse myeloma cell line, P3-X63-Ag8. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of radioiodinated antibody preparations demonstrated the presence of hybrid immunoglobulin molecules, but only structures having rat heavy and rat light chains had active antibody combinig sites. The affinity constant for IgG as well as F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab', 6x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/, was identical when tested using fluid phase antigen (/sup 125/I-labeled FgD). Affinity constants determined for direct binding of iodinated IgG using FgD immobilized on solid supports showed a slight dependence on the antigen concentration used in the measurement. These values ranged from 0.5x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ at high antigen concentrations (1.3x10/sup -7/ M) to 9x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ at low antigen concentration (1.3x10/sup -10/ M). Binding constants for F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab' gave similar results indicating that binding was homogeneous and univalent. The capacity of solid state antigen to bind antibody varied with the method used to bind FgD to the solid support. FgD bound directly to polystyrene plates was least efficient at binding labeled antibody; FgD bound to plates through intermediate carriers poly(L-lysine) was only slightly more efficient, while antigen bound to Sepharose beads by cyanogen bromide activation was the most active.

  6. Degradation Mechanisms of Poly(ester urethane) Elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Alexander S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    This report describes literature regarding the degradation mechanisms associated with a poly(ester urethane) block copolymer, Estane® 5703 (Estane), used in conjunction with Nitroplasticizer (NP), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, also known as high molecular weight explosive (HMX) to produce polymer bonded explosive PBX 9501. Two principal degradation mechanisms are reported: NO2 oxidative reaction with the urethane linkage resulting in crosslinking and chain scission events, and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester linkage. This report details future work regarding this PBX support system, to be conducted in late 2017 and 2018 at Engineered Materials Group (MST-7), Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the first of a series of three reports on the degradation processes and trends of the support materials of PBX 9501.

  7. Technologies and decision support systems to aid solid-waste management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino de Souza Melaré, Angelina; Montenegro González, Sahudy; Faceli, Katti; Casadei, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    Population growth associated with population migration to urban areas and industrial development have led to a consumption relation that results in environmental, social, and economic problems. With respect to the environment, a critical concern is the lack of control and the inadequate management of the solid waste generated in urban centers. Among the challenges are proper waste-collection management, treatment, and disposal, with an emphasis on sustainable management. This paper presents a systematic review on scientific publications concerning decision support systems applied to Solid Waste Management (SWM) using ICTs and OR in the period of 2010-2013. A statistical analysis of the eighty-seven most relevant publications is presented, encompassing the ICTs and OR methods adopted in SWM, the processes of solid-waste management where they were adopted, and which countries are investigating solutions for the management of solid waste. A detailed discussion on how the ICTs and OR methods have been combined in the solutions was also presented. The analysis and discussion provided aims to help researchers and managers to gather insights on technologies/methods suitable the SWM challenges they have at hand, and on gaps that can be explored regarding technologies/methods that could be useful as well as the processes in SWM that currently do not benefit from using ICTs and OR methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carrión

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate, and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%, and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  9. Mechanical and physical properties of polyester polymer concrete using recycled aggregates from concrete sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I; Real, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  10. FSILP: fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies on municipal solid waste management (MSW management) were conducted under uncertain conditions of fuzzy, stochastic, and interval coexistence, the solution to the conventional linear programming problems of integrating fuzzy method with the other two was inefficient. In this study, a fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming (FSILP) method is developed by integrating Nguyen's method with conventional linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management. The Nguyen's method was used to convert the fuzzy and fuzzy-stochastic linear programming problems into the conventional linear programs, by measuring the attainment values of fuzzy numbers and/or fuzzy random variables, as well as superiority and inferiority between triangular fuzzy numbers/triangular fuzzy-stochastic variables. The developed method can effectively tackle uncertainties described in terms of probability density functions, fuzzy membership functions, and discrete intervals. Moreover, the method can also improve upon the conventional interval fuzzy programming and two-stage stochastic programming approaches, with advantageous capabilities that are easily achieved with fewer constraints and significantly reduces consumption time. The developed model was applied to a case study of municipal solid waste management system in a city. The results indicated that reasonable solutions had been generated. The solution can help quantify the relationship between the change of system cost and the uncertainties, which could support further analysis of tradeoffs between the waste management cost and the system failure risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  12. Komposit Hibrid Polyester Berpenguat Serbuk Batang Dan Serat Sabut Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Lumintang, Romels C. A; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2011-01-01

    Sawdust coconut trunks of palm trees and fiber coconut coir are two waste materials from the processing of coconuts and coconut tree trunks sawmill waste are plentiful materials can be utilized for producing composites using polyester resins. Both each properties materials as follow polyester resin: liquid in the open air conditions, sawdust coconut and coconut coir fiber properties is lightweight and fragile nature of the polyester adhesive used as a binder (binder) between fiber coconut coi...

  13. Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe fabrication of polarisation holographic optical elements in azobenzene polyesters. Both liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain polyesters have been utilised. Diffractive optical elements such as lenses and gratings that are sensitive to the polarisation...... of the incident light have been fabricated with polarisation holography. Computer-generated optical elements and patterns have also been written with a single polarised laser beam. Recording of polarisation defects enabling easy visualisation is also shown to be feasible in azobenzene polyesters....

  14. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  15. The radiation chemistry of symmetric aliphatic polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanalbandi, A.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring, symmetric polyesters, including polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate, have found biomedical applications in areas as diverse as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals and the manufacture of surgical sutures. As biomedical products, the materials require sterilization by high energy radiation. This has provided the motivation for the present work. D'Alelio et al. have reported that linear, asymmetric polyesters undergo scission on irradiation, but that branched polyesters containing a methyl group in the diol segments undergo crosslinking. However, for the symmetric polyhydroxybutyrate, Carswell-Pomerantz et al. have reported that only scission occurs on radiolysis, with the evolution of CO and CO 2 as a result of the loss of ester linkages. These workers also found that G(CO + CO 2 ) was approximately equal to G(S) for this polyester. By contrast, Collett et al. have reported that G(S) = 1.26 and G(X) = 0.53 for polylactic acid, which indicates that the polymer undergoes nett crosslinking on radiolysis to form a gel. They have also reported that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) should form a gel on radiolysis, since G(S) = 1.66 and G(X) = 0.65 for a 1:1 copolymer composition. In the present work the radiolysis of polylactic acid and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been reinvestigated in order to resolve the differences between the work of Collett et al. and that of Carswell-Pomerantz et al. In these studies, ESR has been used to study the radicals formed, GPC has been used to investigate scission and crosslinking, GC has been used to study the small molecule volatile products and NMR spectroscopy has been used to identify and measure the new chemical structures formed in the polymers

  16. Novel organometallic aromatic polyester based on ferrocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel polyester containing ferrocenyl was prepared by low-temperature interface polycondensation of 1,1'-ferrocenedi-carboxylic acid chloride with 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-phthalazin-l-one(DHPZ), which is a twisted non-coplanar heterocyclic bisphenol-like monomer. The newly generated polymer was evaluated based on characterization of its solubility, viscosity measurements, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric studies.

  17. Development of a Novel Ceramic Support Layer for Planar Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Boccaccini, Dino; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The conventional solid oxide cell is based on a Ni–YSZ support layer, placed on the fuel side of the cell, also known as the anode supported SOFC. An alternative design, based on a support of porous 3YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3–doped ZrO2), placed on the oxygen electrode side of the cell, is proposed...... of the support can be done simultaneously with forming the oxygen electrode, since some of the best performing oxygen electrodes are based on infiltrated LSC. The potential of the proposed structure was investigated by testing the mechanical and electrical properties of the support layer. Comparable strength...... properties to the conventional Ni/YSZ support were seen, and sufficient and fairly stable conductivity of LSC infiltrated 3YSZ was observed. The conductivity of 8–15 S cm–1 at 850 °C seen for over 600 h, corresponds to a serial resistance of less than 3.5 m Ω cm2 of a 300 μm thick support layer....

  18. The Progress of SBIR Supported R and D of Solid State Pulse Modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R

    2004-01-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant program funded by the US Department of Energy makes a number of awards each year for R and D in the field of accelerator technology including high power pulse modulators and their components. This paper outlines program requirements, and reviews some of the awards made in the last three years in support of high power modulator systems and solid state switching. A number of award recipients are presenting the results of their SBIR R and D at this workshop

  19. A novel polyester composite nanofiltration membrane formed by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Shi, Wenxin; Zhang, Lanhe; Zhang, Ruijun

    2017-09-01

    A novel polyester thin film composite nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on polyethersulfone (PES) supporting membrane. The performance of the polyester composite NF membrane was optimized by regulating the preparation parameters, including reaction time, pH of the aqueous phase solution, pentaerythritol concentration and TMC concentration. A series of characterization, including permeation experiments, attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential analyzer and chlorine resistance experiments, were employed to study the properties of the optimized membrane. The results showed that the optimized polyester composite NF membrane exhibited very high rejection of Na2SO4 (98.1%), but the water flux is relatively low (6.1 L/m2 h, 0.5 MPa, 25 °C). The order of salt rejections is Na2SO4 > MgSO4 > MgCl2 > NaCl, which indicated the membrane was negatively charged, just consistent with the membrane zeta potential results. After treating by NaClO solutions with different concentrations (100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm) for 48 h, the results demonstrated that the polyester NF membrane had good chlorine resistance. Additionally, the polyester TFC NF membrane exhibits good long-term stability.

  20. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  1. Accelerated creep in solid oxide fuel cell anode supports during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Greco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. The creep of reduced Ni-YSZ anode support at operating conditions has been...... studied previously. In this work a newly discovered creep phenomenon taking place during the reduction is reported. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (∼ x104) than creep during operation. The phenomenon was studied both in three-point bending and uniaxial tension. Differences between the two...... the NiO and the YSZ phases occurs during reduction. The accelerated creep should practically eliminate any residual stress in the anode support in an SOFC stack, as has previously been indirectly observed. This phenomenon has to be taken into account both in the production of stacks and in the simulation...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Polyester and Epoxy–Polyester Powder Coatings in Aggressive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojanović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protective coatings are the most widely used corrosion protection method for construction materials in different environmental conditions. They isolate metals from aggressive media, making the structure more durable. Today, alongside good anti-corrosive properties, coatings need to be safe for the environment and harmless to those who apply them. The high volatile organic compound (VOC content in conventional solvent-borne coatings presents a huge ecological problem. A solution for indispensable solvent emission reduction is the application of powder coatings. This study evaluates the corrosion performance and surface morphology of polyester and epoxy–polyester powder coatings. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, open circuit potential (OCP measurement, salt spray chamber and humidity chamber testing followed by adhesion testing were used to investigate the protective properties of powder coatings. Scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was used to analyse the surface morphology and chemical composition, whereas the microstructure and coating uniformity were determined by optical microscope examination. The research revealed a negative influence of coating surface texture on coating thickness and consequently a lack of barrier and adhesion properties. The epoxy–polyester powder coating showed a better performance than the polyester coating. All tested coatings showed uniform structure.

  3. Air-drying paint compositions comprising carbohydrate-based polyesters and polyester preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, E.A.; Weijnen, J.; Haveren, van J.; Gillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a polyester obtainable by transesterification or interesterification of:(i) a carbohydrate or an acyl ester thereof, (ii) an alkyl ester of a drying fatty acid, semi-drying fatty acid or mixture thereof; and (iii) an alkyl ester of a non aromatic polycarboxylic acid. The

  4. Direct on-chip DNA synthesis using electrochemically modified gold electrodes as solid support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrie, Karen; Jans, Karolien; Schepers, Guy; Vos, Rita; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Van Hoof, Chris; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Stakenborg, Tim

    2018-04-01

    DNA microarrays have propelled important advancements in the field of genomic research by enabling the monitoring of thousands of genes in parallel. The throughput can be increased even further by scaling down the microarray feature size. In this respect, microelectronics-based DNA arrays are promising as they can leverage semiconductor processing techniques with lithographic resolutions. We propose a method that enables the use of metal electrodes for de novo DNA synthesis without the need for an insulating support. By electrochemically functionalizing gold electrodes, these electrodes can act as solid support for phosphoramidite-based synthesis. The proposed method relies on the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salts, enabling site-specific incorporation of hydroxyl groups onto the metal electrodes. An automated DNA synthesizer was used to couple phosphoramidite moieties directly onto the OH-modified electrodes to obtain the desired oligonucleotide sequence. Characterization was done via cyclic voltammetry and fluorescence microscopy. Our results present a valuable proof-of-concept for the integration of solid-phase DNA synthesis with microelectronics.

  5. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  6. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  7. Process for the production of a dianhydrohexitol based polyester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Process for the production of a polyester by the polycondensation of a mixture comprising isoidide, and a dicarboxylic acid or dicarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the reaction is performed in the melt of the monomers and wherein these monomers are not activated. The polyesters based on one or more

  8. Biobased functional polyesters for coating applications: Synthesis, characterization and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordover, B.A.J.; Duchateau, R.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Thermosetting coating systems contain polyesters as binders. A crucial property of these polymers is their functionality. During coating application, the polyesters are cross-linked in situ, which means that each polymer chain needs a sufficient no. of reactive end-groups. Renewable monomers are

  9. Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Y; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T

    1998-01-01

    A polyester polyurethane (PUR)-degrading enzyme, PUR esterase, derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35, a bacterium that utilizes polyester PUR as the sole carbon source, was purified until it showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This enzyme was bound to the cell surface and was extracted by addition of 0.2% N,N-bis(3-d-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-BIGCHAP). The results of gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that the PUR esterase was a monomer with a molecular mass of about 62,000 Da. This enzyme, which is a kind of esterase, degraded solid polyester PUR, with diethylene glycol and adipic acid released as the degradation products. The optimum pH for this enzyme was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 45 degrees C. PUR degradation by the PUR esterase was strongly inhibited by the addition of 0.04% deoxy-BIGCHAP. On the other hand, deoxy-BIGCHAP did not inhibit the activity when p-nitrophenyl acetate, a water-soluble compound, was used as a substrate. These observations indicated that this enzyme degrades PUR in a two-step reaction: hydrophobic adsorption to the PUR surface and hydrolysis of the ester bond of PUR.

  10. Functional bio-based polyesters by enzymatic polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian; Andersen, Christian

    During recent years enzymatic polymerization has become increasingly popular as an alternative to classical polyesterification processes. The high regioselectivity observed for lipases permits preparation of novel polyesters with a high number of functional groups.1 This is particularly interesting...... polymerization was applied to prepare functional water soluble polyesters based on dimethyl itaconate and poly(ethyleneglycol).2 The monomer permits postfunctionalization using thiol-ene chemistry or aza-michael additions, which was used to illustrate the possibilites of preparing functional hydrogels. Hydrogels...... based on the polyesters were shown to be degradable and could be prepared either from the pure polyester or from prefunctionalized polyesters, though the thiol-ene reactions were found to be less effective. Since then a new monomer, trans-2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentenoic acid methyl ester (DPM) has been...

  11. Radiation processed composite materials of wood and elastic polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapolcai, I.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation polymerization of multifunctional unsaturated polyester-monomer mixtures in wood forms interpenetrating network system. The mechanical resistance (compression, abrasion, hardness, etc.) of these composite materials are generally well over the original wood, however the impact strength is almost the same or even reduced, in comparison to the wood itself. An attempt is made using elastic polyester resins to produced wood-polyester composite materials with improved modulus of elasticity and impact properties. For the impregnation of European beech wood two types of elastic unsaturated polyester resins were used. The exothermic effect of radiation copolymerization of these resins in wood has been measured and the dose rate effects as well as hardening dose was determined. Felxural strength and impact properties were examined. Elastic unsaturated polyester resins improved the impact strength of wood composite materials. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of metal complex hydrogels crosslinked with hyperbranched polyester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haroun, A. A.; Hakeim, O. A.; Trhlíková, Olga; Šlouf, Miroslav; Netopilík, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2017), s. 849-856 ISSN 0449-2285 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-04258J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) ASRT-16-02 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hyperbranched polyester * chitosan * miniemulsion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  13. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  14. Microstructure and properties of poly(urethane-siloxane)s based on hyperbranched polyester of the fourth pseudo generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pergal, M. V.; Džunuzović, J. V.; Poreba, Rafal; Ostojić, S.; Radulović, A.; Špírková, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2013), s. 743-756 ISSN 0300-9440 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(urethane-siloxane) films * hyperbranched polyester * polysiloxane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2013

  15. Study on the morphology and thermomechanical properties of poly(urethane-siloxane) networks based on hyperbranched polyester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pergal, M. V.; Džunuzović, J. V.; Špírková, Milena; Poreba, Rafal; Steinhart, Miloš; Pergal, M. M.; Ostojić, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2013), s. 871-879 ISSN 0367-598X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane networks * poly(dimethylsiloxane) * hyperbranched polyester Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2013

  16. Biocompatible succinic acid-based polyesters for potential biomedical applications: fungal biofilm inhibition and mesenchymal stem cell growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, Eliezer; Donato, R. K.; Perchacz, Magdalena; Jäger, Alessandro; Surman, František; Höcherl, Anita; Konefal, Rafal; Donato, K. Z.; Venturini, Cristina Garcia; Bergamo, V. Z.; Schrekker, H. S.; Fuentefria, A. M.; Raucci, M. G.; Ambrosio, L.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 104 (2015), s. 85756-85766 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyesters * coating of medical devices * fungal biofilm inhibition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  17. Analysis of dynamic mechanical, thermal and surface properties of poly(urethane-ester-siloxane) networks based on hyperbranched polyester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Džunuzović, J. V.; Pergal, M. V.; Poreba, Rafal; Vodnik, V. V.; Simonović, B. R.; Špírková, Milena; Jovanović, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 358, č. 23 (2012), s. 3161-3169 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane network * hyperbranched polyester * poly(dimethylsiloxane) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2012

  18. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidarakos, E.; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands

  19. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  20. Solid waste accident analysis in support of the Savannah River Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, W.J.; Crumm, A.T.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Rabin, M.S.; Rossi, D.E.

    1994-07-01

    The potential for facility accidents and the magnitude of their impacts are important factors in the evaluation of the solid waste management addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement. The purpose of this document is to address the potential solid waste management facility accidents for comparative use in support of the Environmental Impact Statement. This document must not be construed as an Authorization Basis document for any of the SRS waste management facilities. Because of the time constraints placed on preparing this accident impact analysis, all accident information was derived from existing safety documentation that has been prepared for SRS waste management facilities. A list of facilities to include in the accident impact analysis was provided as input by the Savannah River Technology Section. The accident impact analyses include existing SRS waste management facilities as well as proposed facilities. Safety documentation exists for all existing and many of the proposed facilities. Information was extracted from this existing documentation for this impact analysis. There are a few proposed facilities for which safety analyses have not been prepared. However, these facilities have similar processes to existing facilities and will treat, store, or dispose of the same type of material that is in existing facilities; therefore, the accidents can be expected to be similar

  1. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hartmut R.

    2010-04-01

    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure like chain scission and cross-linking are manifested by a shift of the LTA detectable Tg and by a change of the slope of the part of the LTA graph responsible for the penetration of the hot sensor into the material after passing the glass transition temperature. As such LTA is a valuable tool to have a quick look into coating surfaces and especially their ageing. The photo-degradation of polyester in air leads to the formation of a cross-linked network at a surface layer of about 3-4 μm coupled with an increase in hardness and of the glass transition temperature by ˜90 K, the effect is less drastic for a photo-degradation in a nitrogen environment. Moreover, the presence of a non-equilibrium dense surface layer with a higher Tg formed during the drying of the coating formulation and the film solidification can be shown.

  2. Protoenzymes: the case of hyperbranched polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamajanov, Irena; Cody, George D.

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands. Synthesis of such elaborate complexes has proven difficult under prebiotically plausible conditions. We explore here that catalysis may have been performed by alternative polymeric structures, namely hyperbranched polymers. Hyperbranched polymers are relatively complex structures that can be synthesized under prebiotically plausible conditions; their globular structure is ensured by virtue of their architecture rather than folding. In this study, we probe the ability of tertiary amine-bearing hyperbranched polyesters to form hydrophobic pockets as a reaction-promoting medium for the Kemp elimination reaction. Our results show that polyesters formed upon reaction between glycerol, triethanolamine and organic acid containing hydrophobic groups, i.e. adipic and methylsuccinic acid, are capable of increasing the rate of Kemp elimination by a factor of up to 3 over monomeric triethanolamine. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  3. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral; Florio, Daniel Zanetti de

    2017-01-01

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  4. Accelerated creep in solid oxide fuel cell anode supports during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Greco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. The creep of reduced Ni-YSZ anode support at operating conditions has been...... studied previously. In this work a newly discovered creep phenomenon taking place during the reduction is reported. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (∼ x104) than creep during operation. The phenomenon was studied both in three-point bending and uniaxial tension. Differences between the two...... measurements could be explained by newly observed stress promoted reduction. Finally, samples exposed to a small tensile stress (∼ 0.004 MPa) were observed to expand during reduction, which is in contradiction to previous literature. These observations suggest that release of internal residual stresses between...

  5. Recent Developments in the Site-Specific Immobilization of Proteins onto Solid Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A

    2007-02-21

    Immobilization of proteins onto surfaces is of great importance in numerous applications, including protein analysis, drug screening, and medical diagnostics, among others. The success of all these technologies relies on the immobilization technique employed to attach a protein to the corresponding surface. Non-specific physical adsorption or chemical cross-linking with appropriate surfaces results in the immobilization of the protein in random orientations. Site-specific covalent attachment, on the other hand, leads to molecules being arranged in a definite, orderly fashion and allows the use of spacers and linkers to help minimize steric hindrances between the protein and the surface. The present work reviews the latest chemical and biochemical developments for the site-specific covalent attachment of proteins onto solid supports.

  6. Controlled Clustering of Gold Nanoparticles using Solid-support for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Chae, Jinjoo; Jeong, Hong; Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoonsik

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated small clusters of gold nanoparticles by using solid-supported aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au nanoclusters consisting mainly of dimers showed homogeneous characteristics in cluster size and SERS intensity. The SERS enhancement of 4-ABT molecules in an effective area within 2-nm gap appeared to be approximately 10. Detachment process by ultrasonication was successively carried out in order to use the nanoclusters as SERS probes. The possibility of these clusters as SERS probe was proved in terms of signal and cluster size. Single molecule-level sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was known approximately fifteen years ago. Ever since there have been many different applications benefiting from the ultra-high sensitivity such as single molecule detection, chemical sensing and bio-molecular probes. Especially, SERS has drawn much attention in bio-multiplexing probes owing to its unique optical characteristics claiming extremely narrow bandwidth, high sensitivity of light signals, and non-bleaching feature

  7. Data supporting the comparative life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajaeifar, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios would help to select eco-friendly scenarios. In this study, the inventory data in support of life cycle assessment of different MSW are presented. The scenarios were defined as: anaerobic digestion (AD, Sc-0), landfilling combined with composting (Sc-1), incineration (Sc-2), incineration combined with composting (Sc-3), and AD combined with incineration (Sc-4). The current article contains flowcharts of the different scenarios. Additionally, six supplementary files including inventory data on the different scenarios, data on the different damage assessment categories, normalization, and single scores are presented (Supplementary files 1–6). The analysis of the different scenarios revealed that the most eco-friendly scenario to be implemented in the future would be the combination of AD and incineration (Sc-4). PMID:26217743

  8. Data supporting the comparative life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajaeifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW management scenarios would help to select eco-friendly scenarios. In this study, the inventory data in support of life cycle assessment of different MSW are presented. The scenarios were defined as: anaerobic digestion (AD, Sc-0, landfilling combined with composting (Sc-1, incineration (Sc-2, incineration combined with composting (Sc-3, and AD combined with incineration (Sc-4. The current article contains flowcharts of the different scenarios. Additionally, six supplementary files including inventory data on the different scenarios, data on the different damage assessment categories, normalization, and single scores are presented (Supplementary files 1–6. The analysis of the different scenarios revealed that the most eco-friendly scenario to be implemented in the future would be the combination of AD and incineration (Sc-4.

  9. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  10. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral, E-mail: shaynnedn@hotmail.com, E-mail: nataliakm@usp.br, E-mail: fntabuti@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiocf@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Florio, Daniel Zanetti de, E-mail: daniel.florio@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Liu, Renzhu; Wang, Shaorong; Wang, Zhenrong; Qian, Jiqin; Wen, Tinglian [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell (CTSOFC) with the length of 6.0 cm and outside diameter of 1.0 cm has been successfully fabricated via dip-coating and co-sintering techniques. A crack-free electrolyte film with a thickness of {proportional_to}14 {mu}m was obtained by co-firing of cathode/cathode active layer/electrolyte/anode at 1250 C. The relative low densifying temperature for electrolyte was attributed to the large shrinkage of the green tubular which assisted the densification of electrolyte. The assembled cell was electrochemically characterized with humidified H{sub 2} as fuel and O{sub 2} as oxidant. The open circuit voltages (OCV) were 1.1, 1.08 and 1.06 V at 750, 800 and 850 C, respectively, with the maximum power densities of 157, 272 and 358 mW cm{sup -2} at corresponding temperatures. (author)

  12. Controlled Clustering of Gold Nanoparticles using Solid-support for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Chae, Jinjoo; Jeong, Hong [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoonsik [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We fabricated small clusters of gold nanoparticles by using solid-supported aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au nanoclusters consisting mainly of dimers showed homogeneous characteristics in cluster size and SERS intensity. The SERS enhancement of 4-ABT molecules in an effective area within 2-nm gap appeared to be approximately 10. Detachment process by ultrasonication was successively carried out in order to use the nanoclusters as SERS probes. The possibility of these clusters as SERS probe was proved in terms of signal and cluster size. Single molecule-level sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was known approximately fifteen years ago. Ever since there have been many different applications benefiting from the ultra-high sensitivity such as single molecule detection, chemical sensing and bio-molecular probes. Especially, SERS has drawn much attention in bio-multiplexing probes owing to its unique optical characteristics claiming extremely narrow bandwidth, high sensitivity of light signals, and non-bleaching feature.

  13. Break-down of Losses in High Performing Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromp, Alexander; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Metal supported SOFC designs offer competitive advantages such as reduced material costs and improved mechanical robustness. On the other hand, disadvantages might arise due to possible corrosion of the porous metal parts during processing and operation at high fuel utilization. In this paper we...... in hydrogen. The electrochemically active parts were applied by infiltrating CGO-Ni precursor solution into the porous metal and anode backbone and screenprinting (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-based cathodes. To prevent a solid state reaction between cathode and zirconia electrolyte, CGO buffer layers were applied...... in between cathode and electrolyte. The detailed electrochemical characterization by means of impedance spectroscopy and a subsequent data analysis by the distribution of relaxation times enabled us to separate the different loss contributions in the cell. Based on an appropriate equivalent circuit model...

  14. Secondary creep of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells by a CDM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, L.; Boccaccini, D. N.; Pucillo, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous iron-chromium alloy used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the secondary creep stage of infiltrated and non-infiltrated porous metal supports (MS) was investigated and theoretically modelled...... as function of temperature, determined by the high temperature impulse excitation technique, was directly used to account for the porosity and the related effective stress acting during the creep tests. The proposed creep rate formulation was used to extend the Crofer® 22 APU Monkman-Grant diagram...... in the viscous creep regime. The influence of oxide scale formation on creep behaviour of the porous MS was assessed by comparing the creep data of pre-oxidised samples tested in reducing atmosphere....

  15. Creep behaviour of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous ironechromium alloy used as solid oxide fuel cell support was investigated, and the creep parameters are compared with those of dense strips of similar composition under different testing conditions. The creep parameters were determined using a thermo......-mechanical analyser with applied stresses in the range from 1 to 15 MPa and temperatures between 650 and 800 _C. The GibsoneAshby and Mueller models developed for uniaxial creep of open-cell foams were used to analyse the results. The influence of scale formation on creep behaviour was assessed by comparing the creep...... data for the samples tested in reducing and oxidising atmospheres. The influence of preoxidation on creep behaviour was also investigated. In-situ oxidation during creep experiments increases the strain rate while pre-oxidation of samples reduces it. Debonding of scales at high stress regime plays...

  16. Investigation of methane steam reforming in planar porous support of solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongping; Du Xiaoze; Yang Lijun; Huang Yuan; Xian Haizhen

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the porous support in integrated-planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC) can reduce the operating temperature by reducing thickness of electrolyte layer, and also, provide internal reforming environment for hydrogen-rich fuel gas. The distributions of reactant and product components, and temperature of methane steam reforming for IP-SOFC were investigated by the developed physical and mathematical model with thermodynamic analysis, in which eleven possible reaction mechanisms were considered by the source terms and Arrhenius relationship. Numerical simulation of the model revealed that the progress of reforming reaction and the distribution of the product, H 2 , were influenced by the operating conditions, included that of temperature, ratio of H 2 O and CH 4 , as well as by the porosity of the supporting material. The simulating results indicate that the methane conversion rate can reach its maximum value under the operating temperature of 800 deg. C and porosity of ε = 0.4, which rather approximate to the practical operating conditions of IP-SOFC. In addition, characteristics of carbon deposition on surface of catalyst were discussed under various operating conditions and configuration parameters of the porous support. The present works provided some theoretical explanations to the numerous experimental observations and engineered practices

  17. Highly durable anode supported solid oxide fuel cell with an infiltrated cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Hjalmarsson, Per; Søgaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    An anode supported solid oxide fuel cell with an La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3_δ (LSC) infiltrated-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) cathode that shows a stable performance has been developed. The cathode was prepared by screen printing a porous CGO backbone on top of a laminated and co-fired anode supported half cell...... was tested at 700 deg. C under a current density of 0.5 A cm-2 for 1500 h using air as oxidant and humidified hydrogen as fuel. The electrochemical performance of the cell was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and current evoltage relationships. No measurable degradation in the cell voltage or increase...... in the resistance from the recorded impedance was observed during long term testing. The power density reached 0.79Wcm-2 at a cell voltage of 0.6 V at 750 deg. C. Post test analysis of the LSC infiltrated-CGO cathode by scanning electron microscopy revealed no significant micro-structural difference...

  18. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries: Part B: Decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Reka; Whiteman, Andrew D; Wilson, David C; Briciu, Cosmin; Nürnberger, Sofia; Oelz, Barbara; Gunsilius, Ellen; Schwehn, Ekkehard

    2017-08-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model. Step 4A addresses three generic questions, including public versus private operation, inter-municipal co-operation and integration of services. For steps 1-4A, checklists have been developed as decision support tools. Step 4B helps choose locally appropriate models from an evidence-based set of 42 common operator models ( coms); decision support tools here are a detailed catalogue of the coms, setting out advantages and disadvantages of each, and a decision-making flowchart. The decision-making process is iterative, repeating steps 2-4 as required. The advantages of a more formal process include avoiding pre-selection of a particular com known to and favoured by one decision maker, and also its assistance in identifying the possible weaknesses and aspects to consider in the selection and design of operator models. To make the best of whichever operator models are selected, key issues which need to be addressed include the capacity of the public authority as 'client', management in general and financial management in particular.

  19. Electrospinning of microbial polyester for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ik Sang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Gwang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Meng, Wan [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Hye [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Yoshihiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, KSP East 309, Sakado 3-2-1, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2007-03-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial polyester, was fabricated as a nanofibrous mat by electrospinning. The specific surface area and the porosity of electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat were determined. When the mechanical properties of flat film and electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mats were investigated, both the tensile modulus and strength of electrospun PHBV were less than those of cast PHBV film. However, the elongation ratio of nanofiber mat was higher than that of the cast film. The structure of electrospun nanofibers using PHBV-trifluoroethanol solutions depended on the solution concentrations. When x-ray diffraction patterns of bulk PHBV before and after electrospinning were compared, the crystallinity of PHBV was not significantly affected by the electrospinning process. Chondrocytes adhered and grew on the electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat better than on the cast PHBV film. Therefore, the electrospun PHBV was considered to be suitable for cell culture.

  20. Characterization of material composite marble-polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpas, F. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we characterize a new material composite, formed with a polyester and crushed white marble mixture. The final purpose is double: to obtain a material for applications sufficiently competitive after an economic viability study, increasing the yield of the main commodity, using waste marble and improving the jobs in the quarries area. From the results obtained, we deduce then that this material could be used to inside and outside adornment.

    En este trabajo, caracterizamos un nuevo material compuesto, formado con una mezcla de poliéster y de mármol blanco triturado. El propósito final es doble: por un lado obtener un material para aplicaciones lo suficientemente competitivas como para que se pueda iniciar un estudio económico de viabilidad, aumentando el rendimiento de la materia prima y mejorando las salidas laborales de las comarcas extractoras. Para la caracterización del material se ha determinado el porcentaje adecuado de poliéster. Así como las propiedades mecánicas (flexión, compresión y dureza, químicas, fatiga térmica y su influencia a la exposición solar In order to characterized of material, we have determined the suitable porcentage of polyester Also we have carried out a study of the mechanical (stretching, resistance to traction, hardeness and thermal fatigue chemicals properties and solar radiation influence. De los resultados obtenidos, este material podría ser utilizado para ornamentación tanto de interior como de exterior.

  1. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dep. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal

    2011-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  2. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  3. Nano-biocomposites based on synthetic aliphatic polyesters and nanoclay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the recent developments in the preparation, characterisation, properties, crystallisation behaviour, and melt rheology of clay-containing composites of biodegradable synthetic aliphatic polyesters such as poly...

  4. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values....

  5. Synthetic polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes from thermophilic actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing synthetic polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition to carboxylesterases, which have hydrolytic activity predominantly against PET oligomers, esterases related to cutinases also hydrolyze synthetic polymers. The production of these enzymes by actinomycetes as well as their recombinant expression in heterologous hosts is described and their catalytic activity against polyester substrates is compared. Assays to analyze the enzymatic hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters are evaluated, and a kinetic model describing the enzymatic heterogeneous hydrolysis process is discussed. Structure-function and structure-stability relationships of actinomycete polyester hydrolases are compared based on molecular dynamics simulations and recently solved protein structures. In addition, recent progress in enhancing their activity and thermal stability by random or site-directed mutagenesis is presented. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and applications of wood-polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum processing parameters were searched for the pilot-scale production of wood-polyester composites by irradiation of resin-impregnated wood material. The radiation initiation of the following systems were examined in wood and without wood matrix: methyl methacrylate, mixture of styrene and acrylonitryle, and their combination with unsaturated polyester. In the most cases the over-all rate of the complete polymerization process in wood matrix is proportional to the square root of the initiation rate. The parameters of the radiation technology of wood-polyester composites have been determined, using 260 TBq (7 kCi) 60 Co radiation source. A pilot plant has been constructed using an underwater irradiation system of 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) 60 Co. The successful production rate of 200 kg wood-polyester composite per day, as well as the application tests have demonstrated the technical feasibility of this new structural material. (author)

  7. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  8. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  9. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  10. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  11. Long-term Steam Electrolysis with Electrolyte-Supported Solid Oxide Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, Josef; Brisse, Annabelle; Poepke, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Steam electrolysis over 11000 h with an electrolyte-supported solid oxide cell is discussed. The cell of 45 cm"2 area consists of a scandia/ceria doped zirconia electrolyte (6Sc1CeSZ), CGO diffusion-barrier/adhesion layers, a lanthanum strontium cobaltite ferrite (LSCF) oxygen electrode, and a nickel steam/hydrogen electrode. After initial 2500 h operation with lower current-density magnitude, the current density was set to j = -0.9 A cm"−"2 and the steam conversion rate to 51%. This led to a cell voltage of 1.185 V at 847 °C cell temperature. Average voltage degradation was 7.3 mV/1000 h ( 100% throughout the test (with an external heat source for evaporation). Impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed a degradation almost entirely due to increasing ohmic resistance. The rate of resistance increase was initially faster (up to 40 mΩ cm"2/1000 h) and stabilised after several 1000 h operation. After 9000 h a small (non-ohmic) electrode degradation became detectable (<2 mV/1000 h), superimposed to ohmic degradation. The small electrode degradation is understood as indication for largely reversible (electrolysis cell/fuel cell) behaviour.

  12. Metal Chlorides Supported Solid Catalysts for F-C Acylations of Arenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 刘云龙; 穆曼曼; 陈立功

    2015-01-01

    A series of metal chlorides supported solid catalysts were prepared by simple wet impregnation method. Their catalytic performances for Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoyl chloride were evaluated and the excellent results were obtained over FeCl3/SiO2. These catalysts were characterized by BET, NH3-TPD and FT-IR of pyridine adsorption to clarify the structure-activity relationship. It was found that FeCl3/SiO2 has larger pore size and pore volume than other catalysts, which increased the accessibility of the catalyst. In addition, FeCl3/SiO2 ex-hibited higher molar ratio of Lewis acid sites and Brφnsted acid sites, which might be another reason for the in-crease of toluene conversion. Furthermore, the reaction parameters, including temperature, time and molar ratio, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, 91.2%, conversion and 82.0%, selectivity were obtained. Mean-while, the generality of the catalyst was demonstrated by the acylations of alkyl substituted aromatics. Finally, the catalyst was reused for four runs with slight loss in catalytic activity, which attributed to the drain of the active component.

  13. Mobile magnetic particles as solid-supports for rapid surface-based bioanalysis in continuous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Sally A; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2009-11-07

    An extremely versatile microfluidic device is demonstrated in which multi-step (bio)chemical procedures can be performed in continuous flow. The system operates by generating several co-laminar flow streams, which contain reagents for specific (bio)reactions across a rectangular reaction chamber. Functionalized magnetic microparticles are employed as mobile solid-supports and are pulled from one side of the reaction chamber to the other by use of an external magnetic field. As the particles traverse the co-laminar reagent streams, binding and washing steps are performed on their surface in one operation in continuous flow. The applicability of the platform was first demonstrated by performing a proof-of-principle binding assay between streptavidin coated magnetic particles and biotin in free solution with a limit of detection of 20 ng mL(-1) of free biotin. The system was then applied to a mouse IgG sandwich immunoassay as a first example of a process involving two binding steps and two washing steps, all performed within 60 s, a fraction of the time required for conventional testing.

  14. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  15. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  16. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water Over Solid Ruthenium Hydroxide Catalysts with Magnesium-Based Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Solid catalyst systems comprised of ruthenium hydroxide supported on magnesium-based carrier materials (spinel, magnesium oxide and hydrotalcite) were investigated for the selective, aqueous aerobic oxidation of the biomass-derived chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid...

  17. Paddy Husk as Support for Solid State Fermentation to Produce Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan KAPILAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize culture conditions for xylanase production by solid state fermentation (SSF using Bacillus pumilus, with paddy husk as support, solid medium contained 200 g of paddy husk with 800 mL of liquid fermentation medium [xylan, 20.0 g/L; peptone, 2.0 g/L; yeast extract, 2.5 g/L; K2HPO4, 2.5 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.0 g/L; NaCl, 0.1 g/L; (NH42SO4, 2.0 g/L, CaCl2·2H2O, 0.005 g/L; MgCl2·6H2O, 0.005 g/L; and FeCl3, 0.005 g/L] at pH 9.0 was applied. The highest xylanase activity (142.0 ±0.47 U/g DM] was obtained on the 6th day at 30°C. The optimized paddy husk to liquid fermentation medium ratio was 2:9, and the optimized culture temperature was 40°C. When commercial Birchwood xylan was replaced with different concentrations of corncob, xylanase production was maximized (224.2 U/g DM in the medium with 150 g/L corncob. Xylanase production was increased by sucrose, fructose and arabinose, whereas reduced by glucose, galactose, lactose and amylose. When organic nitrogen sources were replaced with locally available nitrogen sources such as groundnut powder or sesame seedcake powder or coconut seedcake powder or soy meal powder, the highest xylanase production (290.7 U/g DM was obtained in the medium with soy meal powder and 16.0 g/L of soy meal powder was the optimum (326.5±0.34 U/g DM. Based on the optimization studies, B. pumilus produced 2.3 times higher xylanase activity. The medium cost was reduced from 2 458.3 to 178.3 SLR/kg and the total activity which could be obtained from 1 kg of the medium was increased from 48 624 to 220 253 Units.

  18. How Assessment Methods Can Support Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zurbrügg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting actions for improvement of solid waste management in low and middle income countries and understanding how a specific decision choice will fit and impact on a local context is key to identifying sustainable solutions. Assessment of the choice (be it technical or managerial and assessment of the local enabling or disabling conditions are both important steps in the decision making process. Various assessment tools and methods are currently available to support decision-making in solid waste management. Assessment can be used to identify weaknesses or strengths of existing systems in a structured way and hereby highlight factors of success and failure. Assessment methods can also evaluate and compare different possible choices as in project scenarios. This overview describes established and innovative assessment methods serving both these purposes. A range of assessment tools are often designed to assess a specific sustainability domain (technical, environmental and health, economic and financial, social and institutional, organizational aspects, others attempt to provide a more holistic picture by integrating different sustainability domains into the same tool. This paper reviews a number of methods describing and discussing each of them, and referring to their use in low and middle-income countries if published in scientific literature. The overview concludes that in low- and middle-income countries the use of comprehensive assessment methods is yet very limited. We hypothesize that most formal methods of assessment are still too complex and generally overburden the weak local capacities intended for their usage. The few applications identified, were conducted by academia for scientific purposes. Lack of resources to collect the vast data required for some assessment methods is a further restriction to their practical application. Future development is suggested to improve user friendliness of existing tools or to simplify certain

  19. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  20. Matrix supported tailored polymer for solid phase extraction of fluoride from variety of aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Wagh, D.N.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Th complexed with poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) as tailored polymer membranes. ► Membranes offered high capacity and selectivity for fluoride in aqueous media. ► Quantitative uptake (80 ± 5%) of fluoride. ► Fast sorption kinetics. ► Reusability of polymer membranes. - Abstract: Fluoride related health hazards (fluorosis) are a major environmental problem in many regions of the world. It affects teeth; skeleton and its accumulation over a long period can lead to changes in the DNA structure. It is thus absolutely essential to bring down the fluoride levels to acceptable limits. Here, we present a new inorganic–organic hybrid polymer sorbent having tailored fixed-sites for fluoride sorption. The matrix supported poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) was prepared by photo-initiator induced graft-polymerization in fibrous and microporous (sheet) host poly(propylene) substrates. These substrates were conditioned for selective fluoride sorption by forming thorium complex with phosphate groups on bis[2-methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] phosphate (MEP). These tailored sorbents were studied for their selectivity towards fluoride in aqueous media having different chemical conditions. The fibrous sorbent was found to take up fluoride with a faster rate (15 min for ≈76% sorption) than the sheet sorbent. But, the fluoride loading capacity of sheet sorbent (4320 mg kg −1 ), was higher than fibrous and any other sorbent reported in the literature so far. The sorbent developed in the present work was found to be reusable after desorption of fluoride using NaOH solution. It was tested for solid phase extraction of fluoride from natural water samples.

  1. COMPOSITE FRIEND SISAL / POLYESTER TREATED IN SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayna K. Dionisio Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of composites in manufacturing equipment and products is taking a very important space in the industry in general. Moreover these materials have unique characteristics when analyzed separately from constituents who are part of them. However it is know that cares must be taken in their manufacture, as the use of appropriate process and the composition of each element, in addition to adherence fiber / matrix, which is a major factor in obtaining of the final mechanical strength of the product. One should also take into account whether the composites are environmentally friendly. For this reason, in this work, a composite partially ecological was made, using as reinforcement, a sisal woven and, as matrix, the polyester resin. Seeking to improve the adherence fiber / matrix, a treatment in sisal woven was performed with aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at a concentration of 3%. The composite subjected to this treatment presented, in bending test, a better mechanical performance, with an increase of 27% in the flexion strength and of 54% in maximum strain, but there was a reduction of about 15% in its flexural modulus.

  2. An Undergraduate Experiment in Polyester (PET) Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammidge, Andrew N.

    1999-02-01

    The most important polyester manufactured industrially is PET (polyethyleneterephthalate). We describe an experiment that conveniently mimics the industrial synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory. The first step of the reaction is a base-catalyzed transesterification between ethane diol and dimethylterephthalate. Methanol is distilled off to drive the reaction to completion. Excess ethane diol is employed to suppress formation of higher oligomers. The intermediate (bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate) is isolated by crystallization and filtration and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the second step the monomer is heated (with and without acid catalyst) to form polymer. Samples are removed at intervals and their physical properties are recorded as they cool. These properties are used to qualitatively monitor polymerization. This experiment reinforces some fundamental chemical concepts and introduces the students to new laboratory procedures. The students perform a distillation and apply their knowledge of the reaction equilibrium to calculate the volume of distillate (methanol) expected. The reversible nature of esterification reactions is emphasized during the polymerization step (acid-catalyzed), where the process is driven towards polymer formation by the removal (evaporation) of ethane diol.

  3. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  4. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  5. Wettability and Impact Performance of Wood Veneer/Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Haghdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites have been of interest since the 1940s due to their ease of use in processing, fast curing times, and high specific stiffness and strength. While the use of plant fibers in a polyester matrix has been thoroughly studied, only limited information is available regarding using wood as reinforcement. In this study, composites of thin wood veneer and a polyester matrix were made and the difficulties in the lamination and curing processes were investigated. Sheets of Douglas fir, maple, and oak veneers using a catalyzed polyester resin were assembled as unidirectional, balanced, and unbalanced cross-ply laminates. These were compared to control specimens using glass fiber as reinforcement. The impact properties of the samples, with respect to the laminate thicknesses, were characterized using a drop-weight impact tester. The wettability and surface roughness of unsanded and sanded wood veneers were also investigated. Results showed that Douglas fir cross-ply laminates had an impact energy equivalent to glass fiber laminates, making them an interesting alternative to synthetic fiber composites. Wood/polyester laminates absorbed a considerable amount of energy through a higher number of fracture modes. The balanced lay-up limited twisting of the wood/polyester composites. The lowest contact angle and highest wettability were observed in unsanded Douglas fir veneers.

  6. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  7. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. V - Mars expedition technology trade study for solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joe; Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    A model has been developed for NASA to quantitatively compare and select life support systems and technology options. The model consists of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of the life support system into subsystems, and further breakdown of subsystems into functional elements representing individual processing technologies. This paper includes the technology trades for a Mars mission, using solid waste treatment technologies to recover water from selected liquid and solid waste streams. Technologies include freeze drying, thermal drying, wet oxidation, combustion, and supercritical-water oxidation. The use of these technologies does not have any significant advantages with respect to weight; however, significant power penalties are incurred. A benefit is the ability to convert hazardous waste into a useful resource, namely water.

  10. Study of the properties of poly(ester urethanes) following ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacka, A.M.; Przybytniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    Copolymers of polyurethanes and polyesters were found unsuitable for long-term implants because of fast hydrolysis of the ester soft segments. On the other hand, such properties make them valuable as gradually degradable biomaterial that might be used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. The elastomeric polyurethanes are known to be radiation stable materials in sterilizing dose. Nevertheless, if additional components appear in the system, e.g. segments of polyesters, then the influence of irradiation is poorly recognized. In presented paper it has been shown that ionizing radiation induces solid state reorganization of the segmented domains, leading to migration of soft segments towards the surface and to grow of hydrophobic properties. Obtained results confirmed that the urethane segments were more resistant towards ionizing irradiation and the presence of ester units facilitated generation of free radicals. It was also found that in poly(ε-caprolactane)diol (PCL) segments ionizing radiation induces radicals that are able to introduce cross-linking in macromolecules, and consequently reduce ability to biodegradation

  11. Azobenzene Polyesters Used as Gate‐Like Scaffolds in Nanoscopic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardos, Andrea; Mondragón, Laura; Javakhishvili, Irakli

    2012-01-01

    inside the mesopores. Two solid materials, Rh‐PAzo8‐S and Rh‐PAzo6‐S, containing two closely related polymers, PAzo8 and PAzo6, in the pore outlets have been prepared. Materials Rh‐PAzo8‐S and Rh‐PAzo6‐S showed an almost zero release in water due to steric hindrance imposed by the presence of anchored...... bulky polyesters, whereas a large delivery of the cargo was observed in the presence of an esterase enzyme due to the progressive hydrolysis of polyester chains. Moreover, nanoparticles Rh‐PAzo8‐S and Rh‐PAzo6‐S were used to study the controlled release of the dye in intracellular media. Nanoparticles...... were not toxic for HeLa cells and endocytosis‐mediated cell internalisation was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the possible use of capped materials as a drug‐delivery system was demonstrated by the preparation of a new mesoporous silica nanoparticle functionalised with PAzo6 and loaded...

  12. Fabrication of cathode supported tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for high temperature steam electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Le; Wang, Shaorong; Qian, Jiqin; Xue, Yanjie; Liu, Renzhu

    2011-01-15

    In recent years, hydrogen has been identified as a potential alternative fuel and energy carrier for the future energy supply. Water electrolysis is one of the important hydrogen production technologies which do not emit carbon dioxide. High temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) consumes even less electrical energy than low temperature water electrolysis. Theoretically, HTSE using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) can efficiently utilize renewable energy to produce hydrogen, and it is also possible to operate the SOEC in reverse mode as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to produce electricity. Tubular SOFC have been widely investigated. In this study, tubular solid oxide cells were fabricated by dip-coating and cosintering techniques. In SOEC mode, results suggested that steam ratio had a strong impact on the performance of the tubular cell; the tubular SOEC preferred to be operated at high steam ratio in order to avoid concentration polarization. The microstructure of the tubular SOEC should therefore be optimized for high temperature steam electrolysis.

  13. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance "1H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm"-"1 and "1H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  14. Radiation flame proofing of polyester/cotton blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepins, R.; Surles, J.R.; Morosoff, N.; Stannett, V.T.; Barker, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Methodology has been developed for the grafting of vinyl functional organobromide and organophosphorus compounds on polyester fibers and 50/50 PET/cotton fabric. Procedures were developed for localized grafting of vinyl bromide (VBr) and diethylvinylphosphonate (DEVP) upon PET fibers. Oxygen index was used to evaluate the effect of the location of VBr and DEVP within the filament upon their flame retardance efficiencies. For the various bromine homopolymer grafts the apparent thermal stability of the graft and its flame retardance efficiency may be related to the alpha aliphatic hydrogen to bromine ratio. Using results from the polyester studies, techniques were devised for the treatment of 50/50 polyester/ cotton fabrics. Both homopolymer and copolymer grafts were evaluated but the greatest degree of success was attained using mixtures of phosphorus and bromine containing monomers. The results of these studies will be reviewed and their implications for development as commercial textile treatments discussed. (author)

  15. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  16. Directing chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells with a solid-supported chitosan thermogel for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Linghui; Zhu, Jingxian; Man, Zhentao; Ao, Yingfang; Chen, Haifeng; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels are attractive for cartilage tissue engineering because of their high plasticity and similarity with the native cartilage matrix. However, one critical drawback of hydrogels for osteochondral repair is their inadequate mechanical strength. To address this limitation, we constructed a solid-supported thermogel comprising a chitosan hydrogel system and demineralized bone matrix. Scanning electron microscopy, the equilibrium scanning ratio, the biodegradation rate, biomechanical tests, biochemical assays, metabolic activity tests, immunostaining and cartilage-specific gene expression analysis were used to evaluate the solid-supported thermogel. Compared with pure hydrogel or demineralized matrix, the hybrid biomaterial showed superior porosity, equilibrium swelling and degradation rate. The hybrid scaffolds exhibited an increased mechanical strength: 75% and 30% higher compared with pure hydrogels and demineralized matrix, respectively. After three days culture, bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) maintained viability above 90% in all three materials; however, the cell retention of the hybrid scaffolds was more efficient and uniform than the other materials. Matrix production and chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the hybrid scaffolds were superior to its precursors, based on glycosaminoglycan quantification and hyaline cartilage marker expression after three weeks in culture. Its easy preparation, favourable biophysical properties and chondrogenic capacity indicated that this solid-supported thermogel could be an attractive biomaterial framework for cartilage tissue engineering. (paper)

  17. Saponification of esters of chiral alpha-amino acids anchored through their amine function on solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantel, Sonia; Desgranges, Stéphane; Martinez, Jean; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain

    2004-06-01

    Anchoring an alpha-amino acid residue by its amine function onto a solid support is an alternative to develop chemistry on its carboxylic function. This strategy can involve the use of amino-acid esters as precursors of the carboxylic function. A complete study on the Wang-resin was performed to determine the non racemizing saponification conditions of anchored alpha-amino esters. The use of LiOH, NaOH, NaOSi(Me)3, various solvents and temperatures were tested for this reaction. After saponification and cleavage from the support, samples were examined through their Marfey's derivatives by reversed phase HPLC to evaluate the percentage of racemization.

  18. Radiation cured polyester compositions containing metal-properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Gonerski, A.

    The subject of the studies was unsaturated polyester resin, Polimal-109 and its compositions containing acrylates of: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and acrylic acid. Polyester resin modified with acrylic acid salts was cured with 60Co gamma radiation. Measurements of Vicat softening temperature, water absorption, creep current resistance, volume and surface resistivity, the tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of radiation cured compositions were carried out. The results of the studies presented testify to the fact that the properties of cross-linked polymers alter after ionogenic compounds have been introduced into them.

  19. Radiation cured polyester compositions containing metal-properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Gonerski, A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the studies was unsaturated polyester resin, Polimal-109 and its compositions containing acrylates of: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and acrylic acid. Polyester resin modified with acrylic acid salts was cured with 60 Co gamma radiation. Measurements of Vicat softening temperature, water absorption, creep current resistance, volume and surface resistivity, the tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of radiation cured compositions were carried out. The results of the studies presented testify to the fact that the properties of cross-linked polymers alter after ionogenic compounds have been introduced into them. (author)

  20. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...... gratings was studied in case of films with and without a hard protective layer. We showed that the dominant contribution to the diffraction efficiency comes from the anisotropy in case of expositions below 1 sec even for high incident intensity. The usage of the same wavelength for writing, reading...

  1. Corrosion Protection Performance of Polyester-Melamine Coating with Natural Wood Fiber Using EIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, PyongHwa; Shon, MinYoung [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, DuHwan [POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, polyester-melamine coating systems with natural wood fiber (NWF) were prepared and the effects of NWF on the corrosion protectiveness of the polyester-melamine coating were examined using EIS analysis. From the results, higher average surface roughness was observed with increase of NWF content. Water diffusivity and water uptake into the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF were much higher than that into the pure polyester-melamine coating. The decrease in the impedance modulus |Z| was associated with the localized corrosion on carbon steel, confirming that corrosion protection of the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF well agrees with its water transport behavior.

  2. Long term performance degradation analysis and optimization of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, Tarannom; Roshandel, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A degradation based optimization framework is developed. • The cost of electricity based on degradation of solid oxide fuel cells is minimized. • The effects of operating conditions on degradation mechanisms are investigated. • Results show 7.12% lower cost of electricity in comparison with base case. • Degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term analysis. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is minimizing the cost of electricity of solid oxide fuel cell stacks by decelerating degradation mechanisms rate in long term operation for stationary power generation applications. The degradation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cells are caused by microstructural changes, reactions between lanthanum strontium manganite and electrolyte, poisoning by chromium, carburization on nickel particles, formation of nickel sulfide, nickel coarsening, nickel oxidation, loss of conductivity and crack formation in the electrolyte. The rate of degradation mechanisms depends on the cell operating conditions (cell voltage and fuel utilization). In this study, the degradation based optimization framework is developed which determines optimum operating conditions to achieve a minimum cost of electricity. To show the effectiveness of the developed framework, optimization results are compared with the case that system operates at its design point. Results illustrate optimum operating conditions decrease the cost of electricity by 7.12%. The performed study indicates that degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term performance degradation analysis of energy conversion systems.

  3. Effective Interfacially Polymerized Polyester Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane from Bioderived Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Mohamed H.

    2018-05-18

    Utilization of sustainable and environmentally friendly solvents for the preparation of membranes has attracted growing interest in recent years. In this work, a polyester thin film composite solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membrane is prepared by interfacial polymerization on a cellulose support. The cellulose support is prepared by nonsolvent‐induced phase separation from a dope solution containing an ionic liquid as an environmentally friendly solvent (negligible vapor pressure). The polyester film is formed via the interfacial reaction between quercetin, a plant‐derived polyphenol, and terephthaloyl chloride. Alpha‐pinene is used as a green alternative solvent to dissolve terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) while quercetin is dissolved in a 0.2 m NaOH solution. The interfacial polymerization reaction is successfully confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy while scanning electron and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the membrane structure. The composite membrane shows an outstanding performance with a molecular weight cut‐off around 330 Da combined with a dimethylformamide (DMF) permeance up to 2.8 L m−2 bar−1 h−1. The membrane is stable in strong aprotic solvents such as DMF offering potential application in the pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries.

  4. Synthesis of E7 peptide-modified biodegradable polyester with the improving affinity to mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qian; Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou

    2017-01-01

    As the most promising stem cell, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has attracted many attentions and applied widely in regenerative medicine. A biodegradable polyester with tunable affinity to BMSCs plays critical role in determining the properties of the BMSCs-based constructs. In this study, maleimide functionalized biodegradable polyester (P(MTMC-LA)) was synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization between L-lactide (LA) and furan-maleimide functionalized trimethylene carbonate (FMTMC) and a subsequent retro Diels-Alder reaction. P(MTMC-LA) was modified by different amounts of BMSCs specific affinity peptide (EPLQLKM, E7) through click-chemistry to investigate the effect on BMSCs. The E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) was casted into films on glass slides and BMSCs were seeded onto the films. In vitro study showed that E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) films supported BMSCs adhesion and proliferation compared to unmodified P(MTMC-LA) film. Besides, the adhesion and proliferation were enhanced by the increasing peptide grafting ratio. These results indicated that the novel biodegradable polyester can serve as a biomaterial with great potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • P(MTMC-LA) was synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization and retro Diels-Alder reaction. • P(MTMC-LA) was modified by dBMSCs specific affinity peptide (EPLQLKM, E7) through click-chemistry. • E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) films supported BMSCs adhesion and proliferation.

  5. Synthesis of E7 peptide-modified biodegradable polyester with the improving affinity to mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian; Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie, E-mail: liema@zju.edu.cn; Gao, Changyou

    2017-04-01

    As the most promising stem cell, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has attracted many attentions and applied widely in regenerative medicine. A biodegradable polyester with tunable affinity to BMSCs plays critical role in determining the properties of the BMSCs-based constructs. In this study, maleimide functionalized biodegradable polyester (P(MTMC-LA)) was synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization between L-lactide (LA) and furan-maleimide functionalized trimethylene carbonate (FMTMC) and a subsequent retro Diels-Alder reaction. P(MTMC-LA) was modified by different amounts of BMSCs specific affinity peptide (EPLQLKM, E7) through click-chemistry to investigate the effect on BMSCs. The E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) was casted into films on glass slides and BMSCs were seeded onto the films. In vitro study showed that E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) films supported BMSCs adhesion and proliferation compared to unmodified P(MTMC-LA) film. Besides, the adhesion and proliferation were enhanced by the increasing peptide grafting ratio. These results indicated that the novel biodegradable polyester can serve as a biomaterial with great potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • P(MTMC-LA) was synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization and retro Diels-Alder reaction. • P(MTMC-LA) was modified by dBMSCs specific affinity peptide (EPLQLKM, E7) through click-chemistry. • E7 peptide modified P(MTMC-LA) films supported BMSCs adhesion and proliferation.

  6. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    test method 39 (1971). ... pilot production line [7]. It is found that prior .... experiment was set up for testing the absorbancy of modified polyester fabric as in case of .... New Delhi for providing the research grant under TAPTEC scheme. We are ...

  7. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  9. Design of Functional Polyesters for Electronic and Biological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Ashley Marie

    2015-01-01

    Melt polymerization and novel monomers enabled the synthesis of polyesters for electronic and biological applications. Inspiration from nature and a passion for environmental preservation instigated an emphasis on the incorporation of renewable resources into polymeric materials. Critical analysis of current research surrounding bisphenol-A replacements and ioncontaining segmented polyurethanes aided in identifying benchmark polymers, including limitations, challenges, and future needs. Struc...

  10. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiep Dinh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA were polymerized using an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB and the potential for an enzymatic synthesis of alkyds was investigated. The developed method enables the use of both glycerol and also pentaerythritol (for the first time as the alcohol source and was found to be very robust. This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition.

  11. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of ... shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. ... permit diffusion of water, this function is often not adequately ... When designed ... blades in gas turbine engines, wing leading edges and flaps.

  12. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of polycarbonate / polyester blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarie, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of Bayfol (polycarbonate/polyester blend) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) was investigated. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) to obtain the activation energy of thermal decomposition for Bayfol detector. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the Bayfol samples were decomposed in one main break down stage. Samples of 250 μm thickness sheets were exposed to electron beam irradiations in the dose range 20-600 KGy. The variation of melting temperatures with the electron dose was determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results indicated that the electron irradiation in the dose range 200-600 KGy decreases the melting temperature of the Bayfol samples and this is most suitable for applications requiring the molding of this polymer at lower temperatures

  13. hermo-Physical and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester /Cobalt Ferrite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamees Salam Faiq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated polyester was used as a matrix which was filled with different percentages of cobalt ferrite using hand lay-up method. Cobalt ferrite was synthesized using solid state ceramic method with reagent of CoO and Fe2O3. Mechanical properties such tensile strength, Young's modulus and shore D hardness of the composite have been studied. All these properties have increased by 10% with increasing cobalt ferrite contents. Also the thermal properties such thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are highly increased as the ferrite content increased, while the thermal diffusivity increased by 22 %. On the other hand dielectric strength of composite has been measured which increased by 50% by increasing the cobalt ferrite content.

  14. Solid-supported synthesis: From pharmacologically relevant heterocycles to biologically active surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.

    for solid-phase synthesis, methods for on - and off-bead screening of combinatorial libraries and their applic ation to various biological targets. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the development of methodology for the synthesis of structurally diverse heterocyclic scaffolds via N...... methods for the controlled organo-functionalization of titanium, one of the most prominent materials in medicinal device industry, have been suggested . Initial acidic and oxidative treatment s of the metal surface genera te reactive hydroxyl moieties , which are subsequently modified with synthetically...... versatile amine -containing reagents. Subsequent applications in antimicrobial peptide synthesis, metal -catalysis, release from the surface, and polymer grafti ng, are also presented....

  15. Metronomic Chemotherapy vs Best Supportive Care in Progressive Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Raja; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-09-01

    Although oral metronomic chemotherapy is often used in progressive pediatric solid malignant tumors, a literature review reveals that only small single-arm retrospective or phase 1 and 2 studies have been performed. Skepticism abounds because of the lack of level 1 evidence. To compare the effect of metronomic chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) with that of placebo in pediatric patients with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progress after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015, at the cancer center at All India Institute of Medical Sciences in children aged 5 to 18 years with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progressed after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy and had no further curative options. One arm received a 4-drug oral metronomic regimen of daily celecoxib and thalidomide with alternating periods of etoposide and cyclophosphamide, whereas the other arm received placebo. Disease status was assessed at baseline, 9 weeks, 18 weeks, and 27 weeks or at clinical progression. The primary end point was PFS as defined by the proportion of patients without disease progression at 6 months, and PFS duration and overall survival (OS) were secondary end points. A total of 108 of the 123 patients screened were enrolled, with 52 randomized to the placebo group (median age, 15 years; 40 male [76.9%]) and 56 to the metronomic chemotherapy group (median age, 13 years; 42 male [75.0%]). At a median follow-up of 2.9 months, 100% of the patients had disease progression by 6 months in the placebo group vs 96.4% in the metronomic chemotherapy group (P = .24). Median PFS and OS in the 2 groups was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-1.03 [P = .07] for PFS; and HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50-1.09 [P = .13] for OS). In post hoc subgroup analysis, cohorts receiving more than

  16. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen; Muhl, Thuy

    2017-01-01

    For use of metal supported SOFC in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast start up, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the support layer thickness of 313 μm...

  17. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Anodes for Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Tape Casting and Lamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran-Lopez, J.F.; Laguna-Bercero, M.A.; Gurauskis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Graded anodes for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are fabricated by tape casting and subsequent cold lamination of plates using different compositions. Rheological parameters are adjusted to obtain stable suspensions for tape casting. The conditions for the tape casting and laminat......Graded anodes for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are fabricated by tape casting and subsequent cold lamination of plates using different compositions. Rheological parameters are adjusted to obtain stable suspensions for tape casting. The conditions for the tape casting...... and lamination will be described. Flexural strength of the reduced cermets measured using three-point bending configuration is 468±37MPa. The graded anode supports are characterized by scanning electron microscope observations, mercury porosimetry intrusion, and resistivity measurements, showing an adequate...... of tapes at room temperature without using plasticizers. This is made by the combination of two different binders with varying Tg (glass transition temperature) which resulted in plastic deformation at room temperature. Those results indicate that the proposed process is a cost-effective method...

  19. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan, E-mail: xdy0156@sina.com; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity.

  20. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongyan; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity

  1. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  2. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  3. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  4. Solid-supported enzymatic synthesis of pectic oligogalacturonides and their analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Sterling, J.D.; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-phase biosynthetic reactions, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF), was used to gain insight into the biosynthesis of pectin oligomers. Sepharose supports bearing long pectic oligogalacturonides (OGAs) anchored through...... into the liquid phases by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In time course studies conducted with an immobilized (alpha-D-GalA)(14) and limiting amounts of the glycosyl donor, the predominant product was an OGA extended by one GalA residue at the non-reducing end (i.e., (GalA)(15)). When UDP-GalA was added...

  5. Mechanistic modelling of a cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cell. Paper no. IGEC-1-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanwarangkul, R.; Croiset, E.; Pritzker, M.D.; Fowler, M.W.; Douglas, P.L.; Entchev, E.

    2005-01-01

    A model for a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell operating with humidified H 2 has been developed. Momentum-, mass-, energy- and charge-transport equations coupled with electrochemical reactions (H 2 oxidation and O 2 reduction) are considered in the model. The model also takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the cell and air-preheating tube. The model is validated against published experimental data ands shows a good agreement. The distributions of temperature, current density, reversible cell voltage, overpotential and species mole fractions within the cell are discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Transport of Eu3+ through a Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid, n-dodecane solid supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.

    1982-01-01

    The coupled transpot of Eu 3 + and H + ions througn a solid supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film immobilizing an HDEHP solution in n-dodecane has been studied as a function of the membrane area, stirring speed of the aqueous solutions, membrane composition, and acidity of the feed solution. The experimental results are in agreement with predictions derived from a theoretical permeability coefficient equation which assumes that membrane diffusion and aqueous film diffusion are the only rate-controlling factors

  7. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  8. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  9. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  10. Supporting Innovation in Organic Agriculture: A European Perspective Using Experience from the SOLID Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padel, Susanne; Vaarst, Mette; Zaralis, K.

    2015-01-01

    quality forage is vitally important, but farmers showed a lack of confidence in the reliability of forage production both in quantity and quality. We conclude that the systems framework improves the understanding of innovation processes in organic agriculture. Farmer-led research is an effective way......Organic farming is recognized as one source for innovation helping agriculture to develop sustainably. However, the understanding of innovation in agriculture is characterized by technical optimism, relying mainly on new inputs and technologies originating from research. The paper uses...... the alternative framework of innovation systems describing innovation as the outcome of stakeholder interaction and examples from the SOLID (Sustainable Organic Low-Input Dairying) project to discuss the role of farmers, researchers and knowledge exchange for innovation. We used a farmer-led participatory...

  11. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    Even though solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have a high potential with respect to efficiency and fuel flexibility they are not yet competitive in terms of cost and durability with conventional chemical energy conversion technologies. The potential cost reduction can be achieved through...... in tolerating the vibrations, transient loads, thermal and redox cycling [1-2]. The DTU MS-SOFC design based on ferritic stainless steel requires incorporation of electrocatalyst into the anode functional layer by infiltration methods [3]. Previously, the preferred electrocatalyst has been gadolinium doped...... and microstructure of the infiltrated electrocatalyst layer was characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization involved polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the temperature range of 650-750ºC. The polarization curve for Ru...

  12. New methodology of preparation support for solid oxide fuel cells using different pore forming agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da P.; Guedes, Bruna C.F.; Silva, Marcos A. da; Carvalho, Luiz F.V. de; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The development of environment-friendly energy sources has been of the most important scientific and technological area. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are very promising alternative for their ability to handle renewable fuels with low emissions and high efficiency. However, this device requires massive improvement before commercial application. This work studies the pore formation in the cell anode and cathode with NaHCO{sub 3} or citric acid, comparing to graphite. The three agents make pore with similar features, but the use of NaHCO{sub 3} and citric acid considerably improves the adhesion of the electrode-electrolyte interface, critical characteristic for good cell efficiency. The prepared anode-electrolyte-cathode structure was studied by SEM technique. The SOFC prepared using citric acid was tested with gaseous ethanol, natural gas and hydrogen. For all these three fuels the SOFC shows virtually no overpotential, indicating the good ionic conductance of the electrodes-electrolyte interface.. (author)

  13. Preliminary Electrochemical Characterization of Anode Supported Solid Oxide Cell (AS-SOC) Produced in the Institute of Power Engineering Operated in Electrolysis Mode (SOEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupecki, Jakub; Motyliński, Konrad; Skrzypkiewicz, Marek; Wierzbicki, Michał; Naumovich, Yevgeniy

    2017-12-01

    The article discusses the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOC) developed in the Institute of Power Engineering as prospective key components of power-to-gas systems. The fundamentals of the solid oxide cells operated as fuel cells (SOFC - solid oxide fuel cells) and electrolysers (SOEC - solid oxide fuel cells) are given. The experimental technique used for electrochemical characterization of cells is presented. The results obtained for planar cell with anodic support are given and discussed. Based on the results, the applicability of the cells in power-to-gas systems (P2G) is evaluated.

  14. Assessment of the radiation resistance of some aromatic polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.J.; Hill, D.J.T.; Kim, K.Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: For many applications, polyesters have more useful properties than vinyl polymers, and they can be degraded to their monomer components and recycled. In addition, aromatic polyesters are known to display a resistance to high temperatures and high-energy ionizing radiation. Recently, we have reported the γ-radiolysis for some aromatic polyesters at low radiation dose; The G-values of radical formation at 77 K were determined to be in the range 0.38∼0.46 for the polyesters of bisphenol A with fluorine substitution at isopropylidene units and in the range 0.71∼1.18 for the polyesters of halogenated bisphenol A with decamethylene segments. While the radiation sensitivities of the latter polymers were dependent on the position and content of halogen substitution, those of the former polymers were slightly dependent on these factors as assessed by the G-values at 77 K. We also have studied the radiolysis of the commercial aromatic polyesters (UP) and polycarbonate (PC). UP has been found to be more radiation stable than PC with respect to the total yield of radicals formed. The G-values for radical formation at 77K was determined to be 0.31 and 0.5 for UP and PC, respectively. In this work, we have prepared poly(ethylene-, butylene- or decalene-terephthalate)s (PET, PBT or PDT) and poly(ethylene-, buthylene- or decalene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate)s (PEN, PBN or PDN) by standard melt polymerization methods, and have examined their γ-radiolysis at 77 K or room temperature, and in vacuum or air, through the applications of ESR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Inherent viscosities of the polyesters used for the radiation studies were in the range of 0.16∼0.69 dL/g. The values of G(R) indicates that PEN-related polymers have more radiation stable than PET-related polymers and the E, B and D order is one of decreasing stability as one might expect. The significant decrease in the G(R)-values of the polyester being in the range of 0.1∼0.41 at 77 K by

  15. Compressive fatigue tests on a unidirectional glass/polyester composite at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.L.; El-Marazki, L.O.; Young, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The fatigue testing of a unidirectional glass-reinforced polyester composite at cryogenic temperatures to simulate the cyclic compressive loads of the magnet support struts in a superconductive magnetic energy storage unit is reported. Right circular cylindrical specimens were tested at 77, 4.2 K and room temperature at different stress levels using a 1-Hz haversine waveform imposed upon a constant baseload in a load-controlled closed-loop electrohydraulic test machine. Two failure modes, uniform mushrooming near one end and a 45 deg fracture line through the middle of the specimen, are observed, with no systematic difference in fatigue life between the modes. Fatigue lives obtained at 77 and 4.2 K are found to be similar, with fatigue failure at 100,000 cycles occurring at stress levels of 70 and 75% of the ultimate compressive strengths of specimens at room temperature and 77 K, respectively. The room temperature fatigue lives of the glass/polyester specimens are found to be intermediate between those reported for glass/epoxy composites with different glass contents costing over twice as much

  16. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  17. Modified fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongbo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Ying; Ren, Tingyan; Pan, Lang; Fang, Ping; Chen, Dingsheng; Cen, Chaoping

    2017-08-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration was modified by hydrothermal treatment and used as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides. The prepared catalyst showed good activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. A NO conversion of 93% could be achieved at 300 °C under a GHSV of 32857 h-1. With the help of characterizations including XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR, it was found that hydrothermal treatment brought a large surface area and abundant mesoporous to the modified fly ash, and Mn-Ce composite oxides were highly dispersed on the surface of the support. These physical and chemical properties were the intrinsic reasons for the good SCR activity. This work transformed fly ash into high value-added products, providing a new approach to the resource utilization and pollution control of fly ash.

  18. Testing of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Renzhu; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Junliang; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wen, Tinglian [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    We have studied the properties of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for use with anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The porous cathode connects well with the electrolyte. A preliminary examination of a single tubular cell, consisting of a Ni-YSZ anode support tube, a Ni-ScSZ anode functional layer, a ScSZ electrolyte film, and a LSM-ScSZ cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen, has been carried out, and an improved performance is obtained. The ohmic resistance of the cathode side clearly decreases, falling to a value only 37% of that of the comparable cathode made by dip-coating at 850 C. The single cell with the painted cathode generates a maximum power density of 405 mW cm{sup -2} at 850 C, when operating with humidified hydrogen. (author)

  19. Solid-support Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Studies of Aβ40 Monomers Reveal a Structured State with Three Ordered Segments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is associated with the pathological accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain. Soluble Aβ oligomers formed during early aggregation process are believed to be neurotoxins and causative agents in Alzheimer disease. Aβ monomer is the building block for amyloid assemblies. A comprehensive understanding of the structural features of Aβ monomer is crucial for delineating the mechanism of Aβ oligomerization. Here we investigated the structures of Aβ40 monomer using a solid-support approach, in which Aβ40 monomers are tethered on the solid support via an N-terminal His tag to prevent further aggregation. EPR spectra of tethered Aβ40 with spin labels at 18 different positions show that Aβ40 monomers adopt a completely disordered structure under denaturing conditions. Under native conditions, however, EPR spectra suggest that Aβ40 monomers adopt both a disordered state and a structured state. The structured state of Aβ40 monomer has three more ordered segments at 14–18, 29–30, and 38–40. Interactions between these segments may stabilize the structured state, which likely plays an important role in Aβ aggregation. PMID:22277652

  20. Spinel-based coatings for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Elena; Neagu, Dragos; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Metal supports and metal supported half cells developed at DTU are used for the study of a solution infiltration approach to form protective coatings on porous metal scaffolds. The metal particles in the anode layer, and sometimes even in the support may undergo oxidation in realistic operating...... conditions leading to severe cell degradation. Here, a controlled oxidation of the porous metal substrate and infiltration of Mn and/or Ce nitrate solutions are applied for in situ formation of protective coatings. Our approach consists of scavenging the FeCr oxides formed during the controlled oxidation...... into a continuous and well adhered coating. The effectiveness of coatings is the result of composition and structure, but also of the microstructure and surface characteristics of the metal scaffolds....

  1. Micromechanical Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Supports based on Three-dimensional Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    Ni-3YSZ in the operating temperature through numerical micromechanical modeling. Three-dimensional microstructures of Ni-3YSZ anode supports are reconstructed from a two-dimensional image stack obtained via focused ion beam tomography. Time-dependent stress distributions in the microscopic scale...... are computed by the finite element method. The macroscopic creep response of the porous anode support is determined based on homogenization theory. It is shown that micromechanical modeling provides an effective tool to study the effect of microstructures on the macroscopic properties....

  2. Calcium Oxide Supported on Monoclinic Zirconia as a Highly Active Solid Base Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, A.M.; Haasterecht, van T.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxide supported on ZrO2 is a highly active catalyst for base-catalyzed reactions such as aldol-type reactions and transesterification reactions. The role of key parameters during preparation, that is, impregnation versus precipitation, heat treatment, and metal oxide loading on the basicity

  3. High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Bermejo, Raul; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell systems are efficient devices to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels into electricity. The functionality of the cell is related to the structural integrity of the ceramic electrolyte, since its failure can lead to drastic performance losses. The mechanical property which is of most interest is the strength distribution at all relevant temperatures and how it is affected with time due to the environment. This study investigates the impact of the temperature on the strength and the fracture toughness of different zirconia electrolytes as well as the change of the elastic constants. 3YSZ and 6ScSZ materials are characterised regarding the influence of sub critical crack growth (SCCG) as one of the main lifetime limiting effects for ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, the reliability of different zirconia tapes is assessed with respect to temperature and SCCG. It was found that the strength is only influenced by temperature through the change in fracture toughness. SCCG has a large influence on the strength and the lifetime for intermediate temperature, while its impact becomes limited at temperatures higher than 650 °C. In this context the tetragonal 3YSZ and 6ScSZ behave quite different than the cubic 10Sc1CeSZ, so that at 850 °C it can be regarded as competitive compared to the tetragonal compounds.

  4. NiO-YSZ cermets supported low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Yick, Sing; Styles, Edward; Roller, Justin; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 3250 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-20

    Solid oxide fuel cells with thin electrolyte of two types, Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) (15{mu}m) single-layer and 8mol% Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (5{mu}m)+SDC (15{mu}m) bi-layer on NiO-YSZ cermet substrates were fabricated by screen printing and co-firing. A Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} cathode was printed, and in situ sintered during a cell performance test. The SDC single-layer electrolyte cell showed high electrochemical performance at low temperature, with a 1180mWcm{sup -2} peak power density at 650{sup o}C. The YSZ+SDC bi-layer electrolyte cell generated 340mWcm{sup -2} peak power density at 650{sup o}C, and showed good performance at 700-800{sup o}C, with an open circuit voltage close to theoretical value. Many high Zr-content micro-islands were found on the SDC electrolyte surface prior to the cathode preparation. The influence of co-firing temperature and thin film preparation methods on the Zr-islands' appearance was investigated. (author)

  5. Mechanistic modelling of a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwarangkul, R.; Croiset, E.; Pritzker, M. D.; Fowler, M. W.; Douglas, P. L.; Entchev, E.

    A two-dimensional mechanistic model of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) considering momentum, energy, mass and charge transport is developed. The model geometry of a single cell comprises an air-preheating tube, air channel, fuel channel, anode, cathode and electrolyte layers. The heat radiation between cell and air-preheating tube is also incorporated into the model. This allows the model to predict heat transfer between the cell and air-preheating tube accurately. The model is validated and shows good agreement with literature data. It is anticipated that this model can be used to help develop efficient fuel cell designs and set operating variables under practical conditions. The transport phenomena inside the cell, including gas flow behaviour, temperature, overpotential, current density and species concentration, are analysed and discussed in detail. Fuel and air velocities are found to vary along flow passages depending on the local temperature and species concentrations. This model demonstrates the importance of incorporating heat radiation into a tubular SOFC model. Furthermore, the model shows that the overall cell performance is limited by O 2 diffusion through the thick porous cathode and points to the development of new cathode materials and designs being important avenues to enhance cell performance.

  6. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cells via slurry spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Luo Jingli; Chuang, Karl T.; Sanger, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► LSM cathode-supported cell prepared by slurry spin coating. ► Optimizing porosity in CFL resulting in power density of 0.58 W cm −2 at 850 °C. ► Activation polarization govern the impedance arcs measured under the OCV condition. ► Concentration polarization can induce the change of activation polarization. ► Four kinds of polarizations of our cells are separated and investigated. - Abstract: A cathode-supported SOFC consisting of LSM (La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3−δ ) cathode supporter, LSM–Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 2−δ (SDC) cathode functional layer (CFL), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/SDC bi-layered electrolyte and Ni-YSZ anode layer was fabricated by a slurry spin coating technique. The influence of the porosity in both the CFL and cathode supporter on the electrochemical properties of the cells has been investigated. It was found that properly controlling the porosity in the CFL would improve the performance of the cells using O 2 in the cathode side (O 2 -cells), with a maximum power density (MPD) value achieving as high as 0.58 W cm −2 at 850 °C. However, this improvement is not so evident for the cells using air in the cathode side (air-cells). When increasing the porosity in the cathode-supporter, a significant increase of the power density for the air cells due to the decreasing R conc,c (cathode concentration polarization to the cell resistance) can be ascertained. In terms of our analysis on various electrochemical parameters, the R act (activation polarization to the cell resistance) is assumed to be mainly responsible for the impedance arcs measured under the OCV condition, with a negligible R conc,c value being able to be detected in our impedances. In this case, a significant decreasing size of the impedance arcs due to the increasing porosity in the cathode supporter would correspond to a decrease of the R act values, which was proved to be induced by the decreasing R conc,c .

  7. Radiation resistance of plastic solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru; Dojiri, Shigeru; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    The radiation from nucleides contained in solidified wates have some effects on the degradation of the solidification materials. This report deals with effects of such radiation on the mechanical strength of waste-plastics composites and on the generation of gasses. It is shown that the mechanical strength of polyethylene and polyester solids will not decrease at a total absorbed dose of 10 6 rad, a dose which a low-level waste composite is expected to receive during an infinite period of time. Rather, it increases in the case of polyethylene. The amount of gas generated from degraded polyethylene is about three times as large as that from polyester, namely, about 6 l per 200 l drum can at 10 6 rad. Hydrogen accounts for about 80 % of the total gas generated from polyethylene. On the other hand, the gas from polyester solid mainly contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane, with a composition greatly dependent on the type of the waste contained. It is concluded from these results that plastic materials can serve satisfactorily as for as the effects of radiation on their mechanical strength and gas generation are concerned. A more important problem still remaining to be solved is the effects of radiation on the leaching of radioactive nuclides. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Isohexide and Sorbitol-Derived, Enzymatically Synthesized Renewable Polyesters with Enhanced Tg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-10-10

    Sugar-based polyesters derived from sorbitol and isohexides were obtained via solvent-free enzymatic catalysis. Pendant hydroxyl groups, coming from the sorbitol units, were present along the polyester backbone, whereas the two isohexides, namely, isomannide and isoidide dimethyl ester monomers, were selected to introduce rigidity into the polyester chains. The feasibility of incorporating isomannide as a diol compared to the isoidide dimethyl ester as acyl-donor via lipase-catalyzed polycondensation was investigated. The presence of bicyclic units resulted in enhanced T g with respect to the parent sorbitol-containing polyester lacking isohexides. The different capability of the two isohexides to boost the thermal properties confirmed the more flexible character provided by the isoidide diester derivative. Solvent-borne coatings were prepared by cross-linking the sugar-based polyester polyols with polyisocyanates. The increased rigidity of the obtained sugar-based polyester polyols led to an enhancement in hardness of the resulting coatings.

  9. Development of solid supports for electrochemical study of biomimetic membrane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mech-Dorosz, Agnieszka

    cushion directly on a gold electrode microchip and on a polyethersulfone (PES) support grafted by in situ polymerized hydrogel. Both strategies proved to be suitable for immobilization of functional bRh loaded lipo-polymersomes. Amperometric monitoring showed that the PES membrane support facilitated......Biomimetic membranes are model membrane systems used as an experimental tool to study fundamental cellular membrane physics and functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins. By exploiting the properties of biomimetic membranes resembling the functions of biological membranes, it is possible...... to construct biosensors for high-throughput screening of potential drug candidates. Among a variety of membrane model systems used for biomimetic approach, lipid bilayers in the form of black lipid membranes (BLMs) and lipo-polymersomes (vesicle structures composed of lipids and polymers), both...

  10. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests under...

  11. A tosyl-activated magnetic bead cellulose as solid support for sensitive protein detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, J.; Horák, Daniel; Lenfeld, Jiří; Hammond, M.; Kamali-Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 3 (2013), s. 235-240 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664; GA MŠk 7E12054 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bead cellulose * magnetic * protein detection Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.884, year: 2013

  12. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  13. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Gallegoc, E.; Lorentec, A.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (M.C.N.P. code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  14. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Nuclear Studies (Mexico); Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Electric Engineering Academic Units (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, cNuclear Engineering Department (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  15. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  16. Procedure for the fabrication of a cross-linked polyester material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alelio, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described for the production of a cross-linked polyester material by means of the irradiation of a radiosensitive polyester with a dose of over 0.5 megarad and under 8 megarads high energy, ionising radiation, corresponding to at least 100,000 ev. The polyester is of the telomerised diacrylpolyester type, and may be in a mixture containing about 1% of a coplymerisable aliphatic monomer, or about 30-90% of an unsaturated aliphatic alkyd resin. (JIW)

  17. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)...... stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition....

  18. A study on influence of borax to polyester insulators

    OpenAIRE

    ERSOY, Aysel; KUNTMAN, Ayten

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of borax on polyester insulators is investigated by evaluating the tracking and erosion resistance using the inclined plane test. The test procedure follows the ASTM D2303 standard. During the test, 50 Hz current was acquired from the ground electrode allowing a sampling rate of 48000 samples per second. The effect of borax concentration on the glass transition and the degradation temperature is studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) an...

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis preprototype subsystem. [oxygen production for life support systems on space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and controls developed for an electrolysis demonstration unit for use with the life sciences payload program and in NASA's regenerative life support evaluation program are described. Components discussed include: the electrolysis module; power conditioner; phase separator-pump and hydrogen differential regulator; pressure regulation of O2, He, and N2; air-cooled heat exchanger; water accumulator; fluid flow sight gage assembly; catalytic O2/H2 sensor; gas flow sensors; low voltage power supply; 100 Amp DC contactor assembly; and the water purifier design.

  20. Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Deconvolution of Degradation into Cathode and Anode Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of anode supported cells was studied over 1500 h as function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rates...... of the cathode were strongly dependent on the pO(2); they were significantly smaller when testing in oxygen compared to air. Microstructural analysis of the cathode/electrolyte interface of a not-tested reference cell carried out after removal of the cathode showed sharp craters on the electrolyte surface where...

  1. N-Confused Porphyrin Immobilized on Solid Supports: Synthesis and Metal Ions Sensing Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. D. Gamelas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the N-confused porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin (NCTPP was immobilized on neutral or cationic supports based on silica and on Merrifield resin. The new materials were characterized by appropriate techniques (UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, and zeta potential analysis. Piezoelectric quartz crystal gold electrodes were coated with the different hybrids and their ability to interact with heavy metals was evaluated. The preliminary results obtained showed that the new materials can be explored for metal cations detection and the modification of the material surface is a key factor in tuning the metal selectivity.

  2. Acetalised Galactarate Polyesters: Interplay between Chemical Structure and Polymerisation Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavrila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the progress that has made so far in the recent years regarding the synthesis of bio-based polymers and in particular polyesters, only few references address the optimisation of these new reactions with respect to conversion and reaction time. Related to this aspect, we here describe the transesterification reaction of two different acetalised galactarate esters with a model aliphatic diol, 1,6-hexanediol. The kinetics of these two apparently similar reactions is compared, with a focus on the conversion while varying the concentration of a di-butyltin oxide catalyst (DBTO, respectively, the used N2 flow-rate. During the first stage of polymerisation, the molecular weight of the end-products is more than doubled when using a 250 mL/min flow as opposed to an almost static N2 pressure. Additionally, the resulted pre-polymers are subjected to further polycondensation and the comparison between the obtained polyesters is extended to their thermal, mechanical and dielectrical characterisation. The influence of the acetal groups on the stability of the polyesters in acidic conditions concludes the study.

  3. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  4. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  5. Thermal Degradation Mechanism of a Thermostable Polyester Stabilized with an Open-Cage Oligomeric Silsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A polyester composite was prepared through the polymerization of an unsaturated ester resin with styrene and an open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacrylate groups. The effect of the open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane on the thermal stability of the thermostable polyester was studied using both thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The results showed that the methacryl oligomeric silsesquioxane improved the thermal stability of the polyester. The decomposition mechanism of the polyester/oligomer silsesquioxane composite was proposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the volatiles.

  6. Blends of polyester ionomers with polar polymers: Interactions, reactions, and compatibilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy Lamar

    The compatibility of amorphous and semicrystalline polyester ionomers with various polar polymers (i.e., polyesters and polyamides) has been investigated for their potential use as minor component compatibilizers. The degree of compatibility (i.e., ranging from incompatible to miscible) between the polyester ionomers and the polar polymers was determined by evaluating the effect of blend composition on the melting behavior and phase behavior of binary blends. In addition, the origin of compatibility and/or incompatibility for each of the binary blends (i.e., polyamide/ionomer and polyester/ionomer) was determined by evaluating blends prepared by both solution and melt mixed methods. Subsequent to investigation of the binary blends, the effect of polyester ionomer addition on the compatibility of polyamide/polyester blends was investigated by evaluating the mechanical properties and phase morphology of ionomer compatibilized polyamide/polyester blends. Polyester ionomers (amorphous and semicrystalline) were shown to exhibit a high degree of compatibility (even miscibility) with polyamides, such as nylon 6,6 (N66). Compatibility was attributed to specific interactions between the metal counterion of the polyester ionomer and the amide groups of N66. The degree of compatibility (or miscibility) was shown to be dependent on the counterion type of the ionomer, with the highest degree exhibited by blends containing the divalent form of the polyester ionomers. Although polyester ionomers were shown to exhibit incompatibility with both poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), increasing the time of melt processing significantly enhanced the compatibility of the polyester ionomers with both PET and PBT. The observed enhancement in compatibility was attributed to ester-ester interchange between the polyester blend components, which was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The addition of polyester ionomers as a minor component compatibilizer (i

  7. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported micro-tubular solide oxide fuel cell by phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cong

    Nowadays, the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), especially the anode supported MT-SOFCs have been extensively developed to be applied for SOFC stacks designation, which can be potentially used for portable power sources and vehicle power supply. To prepare MT-SOFCs with high electrochemical performance, one of the main strategies is to optimize the microstructure of the anode support. Recently, a novel phase inversion method has been applied to prepare the anode support with a unique asymmetrical microstructure, which can improve the electrochemical performance of the MT-SOFCs. Since several process parameters of the phase inversion method can influence the pore formation mechanism and final microstructure, it is essential and necessary to systematically investigate the relationship between phase inversion process parameters and final microstructure of the anode supports. The objective of this study is aiming at correlating the process parameters and microstructure and further preparing MT-SOFCs with enhanced electrochemical performance. Non-solvent, which is used to trigger the phase separation process, can significantly influence the microstructure of the anode support fabricated by phase inversion method. To investigate the mechanism of non-solvent affecting the microstructure, water and ethanol/water mixture were selected for the NiO-YSZ anode supports fabrication. The presence of ethanol in non-solvent can inhibit the growth of the finger-like pores in the tubes. With the increasing of the ethanol concentration in the non-solvent, a relatively dense layer can be observed both in the outside and inside of the tubes. The mechanism of pores growth and morphology obtained by using non-solvent with high concentration ethanol was explained based on the inter-diffusivity between solvent and non-solvent. Solvent and non-solvent pair with larger Dm value is benefit for the growth of finger-like pores. Three cells with different anode geometries was

  8. Laboratory Studies of Solid CO2 Ices at Different Temperatures and Annealing Times in Support of Spitzer Space Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas; Gerakines, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    The infrared absorption features of solid carbon dioxide have been detected by space observatories in nearly all lines of sight probing the dense interstellar medium (ISM). It has also been shown that the absorption feature of solid CO2 near 658 cm-1 (15.2 μm) should be a sensitive indicator of the physical conditions of the ice (e.g., temperature and composition). However, the profile structure of this feature is not well understood, and previous laboratory studies have concentrated on a limited range of temperatures and compositions for comparisons to observed spectra from both the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the laboratory study described here, the infrared spectra of ices bearing H2O, CH3OH, and CO2 have been measured with systematically varying compositions and temperatures that span the range of the values expected in the interstellar medium. The mid-infrared spectra (λ = 2.5-25 µm) were measured for 47 different ice compositions at temperatures ranging from 5 K to evaporation (at 5 K intervals). Additionally, annealing experiments of some of these ice compositions have been investigated. These data may be used to determine thermal histories of interstellar ices. This research was supported by NASA award NNG05GE44G under the Astronomy and Physics Research & Analysis Program (APRA).

  9. Assessment of the cathode contribution to the degradation of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of anode-supported cells was studied over 1500 h as a function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode side. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of the anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rates...... of the cathode were strongly dependent on the pO(2). Microstructural analysis of the cathode/electrolyte interface carried out after removal of the cathode showed craters on the electrolyte surface where the lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) particles had been located. The changes of shape and size...... of these craters observed after testing correlated with the cell voltage degradation rates. The results can be interpreted in terms of element redistribution at the cathode/electrolyte interface and formation of foreign phases giving rise to a weakening of local contact points of the LSM cathode and yttria...

  10. An optics-based variable-temperature assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D., E-mail: xdzhu@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological temperature typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the temperature dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a variable-temperature opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10 000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10 °C to 60 °C within ±0.1 °C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Supports and Half‐Cells for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Influenced by Alumina‐Zirconia Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlas, Benoit; Ni, De Wei; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the durability and robustness of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and stacks, it is necessary to improve the strength of its components. In cathode supported SOEC, the main structural component is the Ni(O)- YSZ support. But the strength of the half-cell or cell is also...... determined by the strength of other weaker components and by the residual stress state induced by the thermal expansion mismatch. In this study, the mechanical properties of Ni(O)-3YSZ supports with a reference composition and with substitution of 3YSZ by 20A3YSZ (3YSZ with 20 wt.% Al2O3) have been tested...... and compared. The initial interest of this substitution are a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch within the half-cell and the fact that 20A3YSZ is stronger than 3YSZ. The influence of the process on the composition, strength, elastic properties and electrical conductivity...

  12. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  13. A comprehensive CFD model of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional comprehensive CFD model of anode-supported SOFCs operating at intermediate temperature has been presented. This model provides transport phenomena of gas species with electrochemical characteristics and micro-structural properties, and predicts SOFC performance. The mathematical model solves conservation of electrons and ions, continuity equation, conservation of momentum, conservation of mass, and conservation of energy. A continuum micro-scale model based on statistical properties together with a mole-based conservation model was employed. CFD technique was used to solve the set of governing equations. The cell performance was decomposed with contributions of each overpotential and was presented at several operating temperatures with analysis of effective diffusivity. It was found that the contribution of potential gain due to temperature rising was considerably high. However it became non-significant at high operating temperature due to decreasing of effective diffusivity in AFL. These results showed that the performance and the distributions of current density, overpotentials, and mole fractions of gas species have a strong dependence upon temperature. From these results, it was concluded that the conservation of energy should be accommodated in comprehensive SOFC model. Also the useful information for the effect of parameters on cell performance and transport phenomena was provided

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of protein-polymers on reversible immobilization supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hironobu; Carmali, Sheiliza; Baker, Stefanie L; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Russell, Alan J

    2018-02-27

    Facile automated biomacromolecule synthesis is at the heart of blending synthetic and biologic worlds. Full access to abiotic/biotic synthetic diversity first occurred when chemistry was developed to grow nucleic acids and peptides from reversibly immobilized precursors. Protein-polymer conjugates, however, have always been synthesized in solution in multi-step, multi-day processes that couple innovative chemistry with challenging purification. Here we report the generation of protein-polymer hybrids synthesized by protein-ATRP on reversible immobilization supports (PARIS). We utilized modified agarose beads to covalently and reversibly couple to proteins in amino-specific reactions. We then modified reversibly immobilized proteins with protein-reactive ATRP initiators and, after ATRP, we released and analyzed the protein polymers. The activity and stability of PARIS-synthesized and solution-synthesized conjugates demonstrated that PARIS was an effective, rapid, and simple method to generate protein-polymer conjugates. Automation of PARIS significantly reduced synthesis/purification timelines, thereby opening a path to changing how to generate protein-polymer conjugates.

  15. Colour interceptions, thermal stability and surface morphology of polyester metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Chelating copolymers via grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm/AAc) comonomer mixture onto polyester micro fiber fabrics (PETMF) using gamma-radiation technique were prepared. The prepared graft chains (PETMF-g-AAc) and (PETMF-g-PAAc/PAAm) acted as chelating sites for some selected transition metal ions. The prepared graft copolymers and their metal complexes were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), colour parameters and surface morphology measurements. The colour interception and strength measurements showed that the metal complexation is homogeneously distributed. The results showed that the thermal stability of PETMF was improved after graft copolymerization and metal complexes. Moreover, the degree of grafting enhanced the thermal stability values of the grafted and complexed copolymers up to 25% of magnitude, on the other hand the activation energy of the grafted-copolymer with acrylic acid increased up to 80%. The SEM observation gives further supports to the homogenous distribution of grafting and metal complexation

  16. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE's mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies

  17. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  18. Magnetostrictive properties of FeAl/polyester and FeAl/silicone composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesgo, G. [Dpto. de Ciencias y Técnicas de la Navegación, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus universitario de Gijón, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Carrizo, J. [Dpto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Elbaile, L., E-mail: elbaile@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Crespo, R.D. [Dpto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sepúlveda, R. [Dpto. de Ingeniería Mecánica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Sevilla, Isla Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); García, J.A. [Dpto. de Física de la Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline powders of FeAl have been obtained from the Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} ribbon produced by melt spinning. • The method allows the obtainment of a FeAl solid solution from the starting process. • The microstructure and magnetic properties of the powders were investigated. • Composites with a magnetostriction of 45 ppm have been obtained. - Abstract: Ribbons of composition Fe{sub 81}Al{sub 19} obtained by the melt spinning method have been used to yield powder by mechanical milling. Using this method, a rapid nanocrystallization and a FeAl solid solution phase was obtained from the start of the process. The microstructural and magnetic properties as well as the XRD patterns of the powders were studied in function of the milling time. Grain refinement and an increase of the coercive field were the main transformations resulting from increasing the milling time. Two sets of magnetostrictive composites were produced from the 100 h-milled powder. In one of them polyester was used as matrix and in the other one silicone. In the case of the silicone composites cured in a magnetic field of 140 mT in the longitudinal direction a saturation magnetostriction as high as 45 ppm was obtained.

  19. Chemistry by nanocatalysis: First example of a solid-supported RAPTA complex for organic reactions in aqueous medium

    KAUST Repository

    García-Garrido, Sergio E.

    2010-11-18

    A ruthenium-arene-PTA (RAPTA) complex has been supported for the first time on an inorganic solid, that is, silica-coated ferrite nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic material proved to be a general, very efficient and easily reusable catalyst for three synthetically useful organic transformations; selective nitrile hydration, redox isomerization of allylic alcohols, and heteroannulation of (Z)-enynols. The use of low metal concentration, environmentally friendly water as a reaction medium, with no use at all of organic solvent during or after the reactions, and microwaves as an alternative energy source renders the synthetic processes reported herein "truly" green and sustainable. RAPTA\\'s delight: A nano-RAPTA complex supported on silica-coated ferrite nanoparticles proved to be a general, very efficient and easily reusable catalyst for three synthetically useful organic transformations; selective nitrile hydration, redox isomerization of allylic alcohols, and heteroannulation of (Z)-enynols. The use of low metal concentrations, water as a reaction medium, and microwaves as an energy source renders these processes green and sustainable. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polyoxotungstate nanoclusters supported on silica as an efficient solid-phase microextraction fiber of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Yousefi, Vahid; Rafiee, Ezzat

    2014-01-01

    A highly porous silica-supported tungstophosphoric acid (PW) nanocluster was prepared for use in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PWs represent a class of discrete transition metal-oxide nanoclusters and their structures resemble discrete fragments of metal-oxide structures of definite size and shape. Transition metal-oxide nanoclusters display large structural diversity, and their monodisperse sizes can be tuned from several Ångstroms up to 10 nm. The highly porous silica-supported tungstophosphoric acid nanocluster material is found to be capable of efficiently extracting PAHs from aqueous sample solutions. The nanomaterial was immobilized on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fiber. Following thermal desorption, the PAHs were quantified by GC-MS. Analytical merits include limits of detection that range from 0.02 to 0.1 pg mL −1 and a dynamic range as wide as from 0.001 to 100 ng mL −1 . Under optimum conditions, the repeatability for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, is between 4.3 % and 8.6 %. The method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive. The thermal stability of the fiber and the high relative recovery make this method superior to conventional methods of extraction. (author)

  1. Modeling and Predicting the Electrical Conductivity of Composite Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Using Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. L.; Cai, C. Z.; Xiao, T. T.; Huang, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode is one of the most important indices affecting the efficiency of SOFC. In order to improve the performance of fuel cell system, it is advantageous to have accurate model with which one can predict the electrical conductivity. In this paper, a model utilizing support vector regression (SVR) approach combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for its parameter optimization was established to modeling and predicting the electrical conductivity of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2 O3-δ-xSm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (BSCF-xSSC) composite cathode under two influence factors, including operating temperature (T) and SSC content (x) in BSCF-xSSC composite cathode. The leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test result by SVR strongly supports that the generalization ability of SVR model is high enough. The absolute percentage error (APE) of 27 samples does not exceed 0.05%. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of all 30 samples is only 0.09% and the correlation coefficient (R2) as high as 0.999. This investigation suggests that the hybrid PSO-SVR approach may be not only a promising and practical methodology to simulate the properties of fuel cell system, but also a powerful tool to be used for optimal designing or controlling the operating process of a SOFC system.

  2. Stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2016-07-15

    In present work, a new configuration of micro-solid phase extraction was introduced and termed as stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction (SB-μ-SPE). A tiny stir-bar was packed inside the porous polypropylene membrane along with sorbent material and the edges of membrane sheet were heat sealed to secure the contents. The packing of stir-bar inside the μ-SPE device does not allow the device to stick with the wall or any corner of the sample vial during extraction, which is, however, a frequent observation in routine μ-SPE. Moreover, it enhances effective surface area of the sorbent exposed to sample solution through continuous agitation (motion and rotation). It also completely immerses the SB-μ-SPE device in the sample solution even for non-polar sorbents. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as model compounds and the method performance was evaluated in human serum samples. After extraction, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors that affect extraction efficiency of SB-μ-SPE were optimized. Under optimum conditions, a good linearity (0.1-100ngmL(-1)) with coefficients of determinations ranging from 0.9868 to 0.9992 was obtained. Limits of detections were ranged between 0.003 and 0.047ngmL(-1). Acceptable values for inter-day (3.2-9.1%) and intra-day (3.1-7.2%) relative standard deviations were obtained. The optimized method was successfully applied to determine the concentration of PCB congeners in human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of anode supported SOFCs (solid oxide fuel cells): Part I. mathematical modeling and state estimation within one cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amedi, Hamid Reza; Bazooyar, Bahamin; Pishvaie, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-dimensional mathematical model for one cell of an anode-supported SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) is presented. The model is derived from the partial differential equations representing the conservation laws of ionic and electronic charges, mass, energy, and momentum. The model is implemented to fully characterize the steady state operation of the cell with countercurrent flow pattern of fuel and air. The model is also used for the comparison of countercurrent with concurrent flow patterns in terms of thermal stress (temperature distribution) and quality of operation (current density). Results reveal that the steady-state cell performance curve and output of simulations qualitatively match experimental data of the literature. Results also demonstrate that countercurrent flow pattern leads to an even distribution of temperature, more uniform current density along the cell and thus is more enduring and superior to the concurrent flow pattern. Afterward, the thorough 3-dimensional model is used for state estimation instead of a real cell. To estimate states, the model is simplified and changed to a 1-dimensional model along flow streams. This simplified model includes uncertainty (because of simplifying assumptions of the model), noise, and disturbance (because of measurements). The behaviors of extended and ensemble Kalman filter as an observer are evaluated in terms of estimating the states and filtering the noises. Results demonstrate that, like extended Kalman filter, ensemble Kalman filter properly estimates the states with 20 sets. - Highlights: • A 3-dimensional model for one cell of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) is presented. • Higher voltages and thermal stress in countercurrent than concurrent flow pattern. • State estimation of the cell is examined by ensemble and extended Kalman filters. • Ensemble with 20 sets is as good as extended Kalman filter.

  4. Reactive distillation: an attractive alternative for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.; Zondervan, E.; Oudshoorn, M.L.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Unsaturated polyester is traditionally produced in a batch wise operating reaction vessel connected to a distillation unit. An attractive alternative for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester is a reactive distillation. To value such alternative synthesis route reliable process models need to be

  5. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  6. Light-induced circular birefringence in cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    We report the inducement of large circular birefringence (optical activity) in films of a cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester on illumination with circularly polarized light. The polyester has no chiral groups and is initially isotropic. The induced optical rotation is up to 5...

  7. Sustainable coatings from bio-based, enzymatically synthesized polyesters with enhanced functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustini, L.; Lavilla, C.; Finzel, L.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Koning, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based sorbitol-containing polyester polyols were synthesized via enzymatic polycondensation. The selectivity of the biocatalyst for primary vs. secondary hydroxyl groups allowed for the preparation of close to linear renewable polyester polyols with enhanced hydroxyl functionalities, both as

  8. Life-cycle assessment of textiles manufacture of polyester shirt (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Samer; Peter, Oduro Justice; Hassan, Osama

    1998-01-01

    According to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products), It is made possible to perform resource and environmental profile analysis of the 100% polyester shirt. In order to understand the true life-cycle consequences, life-cycle analysis of a typical 100% polyester shirt was carried out...

  9. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably...

  10. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to... the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to...

  11. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono Tsukuba Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi [Application Development Project, Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho Mizuho-ku Nagoya-shi Aichi, 467-8530 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T{sub cell}) of 750 C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T{sub ref}) with various fuel utilizations (U{sub f}) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO{sub 2} concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T{sub cell} is higher than T{sub ref}. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U{sub f} decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell. (author)

  12. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  13. Synthesis of quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxide derivatives on solid support using room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Caro, Lilia C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Mario; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo; Monge, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of 12 new ethyl and methyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives on solid supports with room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures. Results show that solid supports have good catalytic activity in the formation of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. We found that florisil and montmorillonite KSF and K10 could be used as new, easily available, inexpensive alternatives of catalysts. Additionally, room temperature and microwave-irradiation solvent-free synthesis was more efficient than a conventional procedure (Beirut reaction), reducing reaction time and increasing yield. (author)

  14. Synthesis of quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxide derivatives on solid support using room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Caro, Lilia C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Mario; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal; Monge, Antonio [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Centro de Investigacion en Farmacobiologia Aplicada. Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Medicamentos

    2011-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of 12 new ethyl and methyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives on solid supports with room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures. Results show that solid supports have good catalytic activity in the formation of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. We found that florisil and montmorillonite KSF and K10 could be used as new, easily available, inexpensive alternatives of catalysts. Additionally, room temperature and microwave-irradiation solvent-free synthesis was more efficient than a conventional procedure (Beirut reaction), reducing reaction time and increasing yield. (author)

  15. Novel side-chain liquid crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, Fulvio; Kulinna, Chrisian

    1995-01-01

    New side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters have been prepared by melt transesterification of diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a series of mesogenic 2-[omega-[4-[(4-cyanophenyl)azo]phenoxyl] alkyl]-1,3-propanediols, where the alkyl spacer is hexa-, octa-, and decamethylene in turn. The polyesters...... have molecular masses in the range 5000-89 000. Solution C-13 NMR spectroscopy has been employed to identify carbons of polyester repeat units and of both types of end groups. Polyester phases and phase transitions have been investigated in detail by polarizing optical microscopy and differential...... scanning calorimetry for the hexamethylene spacer architecture with different molecular masses. Using FTIR polarization spectroscopy, the segmental orientation in unoriented polyester films induced by argon ion laser irradiation has been followed and an irradiation-dependent order parameter...

  16. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  17. Oleic Acid Based Polyesters of Trimethylolpropane and Pentaerythritol for Bio lubricant Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamizah Ammarah Mahmud; Nadia Salih; Jumat Salimon

    2015-01-01

    The production of polyesters based on oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) or pentaerythritol (PE) as potential bio lubricant were carried out. The esterification processes between oleic acid with TMP or PE were carried out using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The esterification process produced high yield between 92 %-94 % w/w respectively. The formation of polyesters was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The polyesters were analyzed for basic lubrication physicochemical properties. The results showed that polyesters of both TMP and PE having high viscosity index between 200-309, good pour points ranging from -42 to -59 degree Celsius and high flash points of 280 - 300 degree Celsius respectively. The polyesters also showed good thermal oxidative stability with TGA onset temperatures above 180 degree Celsius. In general both products are plausible to be used as bio lubricant for industrial application. (author)

  18. Karakterstik Serapan Suara Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate of sound absorption of coconut filter fiber composites. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157 with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0,5% KMnO4. Production methods is poltrusion and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiber length are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of sound absorpt...

  19. UV-irradiation effects on polyester nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of UV irradiation (λ=254 nm) on polyester nuclear track detector have been investigated employing bulk-etch technique, UV-visible spectrophotometry and infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). The activation energy values for bulk-etching were found to decrease with the UV-irradiation time indicating the scission of the polymer. Not much shift in the absorption edge due to UV irradiation was seen in the UV-visible spectra. FTIR studies also indicate the scission of the chemical bonds, thereby further validating the bulk-etch rate results.

  20. Atmospheric pressure H20 plasma treatment of polyester cord threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simor, M.; Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Rahel, J.; Brablec, A.; Cernak, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyester cord threads, which are used as a reinforcing materials of rubber blend, have been treated in atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma in order to enhance their adhesion to rubber. The atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma was generated in an underwater diaphragm discharge. The plasma treatment resulted in approximately 100% improvement in the adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates that not only introduced surface polar groups but also increased surface area of the fibres due to a fibre surface roughening are responsible for the improved adhesive strength (Authors)

  1. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  2. Complete doping in solid-state by silica-supported perchloric acid as dopant solid acid: Synthesis and characterization of the novel chiral composite of poly [(±)-2-(sec-butyl) aniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzadeh, Abdolkarim; Modarresi-Alam, Ali Reza, E-mail: modaresi@chem.usb.ac.ir

    2016-05-15

    Poly [(±)-2-(sec-butyl) aniline]/silica-supported perchloric acid composites were synthesized by combination of poly[(±)-2-sec-butylaniline] base (PSBA) and the silica-supported perchloric acid (SSPA) as dopant solid acid in solid-state. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CHNS results confirm nigraniline oxidation state and complete doping for composites (about 75%) and non-complete for the PSBA·HCl salt (about 49%). The conductivity of samples was (≈0.07 S/cm) in agreement with the percent of doping obtained of the XPS analysis. Also, contact resistance was determined by circular-TLM measurement. The morphology of samples by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their coating were investigated by XPS, SEM-map and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The key benefits of this work are the preparation of conductive chiral composite with the delocalized polaron structure under green chemistry and solid-state condition, the improvement of the processability by inclusion of the 2-sec-butyl group and the use of dopant solid acid (SSPA) as dopant. - Highlights: • The solid-state synthesis of the novel chiral composites of poly[(±)-2-(sec-butyl)aniline] (PSBA) and silica-supported perchloric acid (SSPA). • It takes 120 h for complete deprotonation of PSBA.HCl salt. • Use of SSPA as dopant solid acid for the first time to attain the complete doping of PSBA. • The coating of silica surface with PSBA.

  3. Development and testing of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with slurry-coated electrolyte and cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Fonseca, F.C.; Franca, Y.V.; Porfirio, T.C. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, C.P. 11049, Pinheiros, S. Paulo, SP 05422-970 (Brazil); de Florio, D.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, R. Prof. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Berton, M.A.C.; Garcia, C.M. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, DPMA, C.P. 19067, Curitiba, PR 81531-980 (Brazil)

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory setup was designed and put into operation for the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The whole project consisted of the preparation of the component materials: anode, cathode and electrolyte, and the buildup of a hydrogen leaking-free sample chamber with platinum leads and current collectors for measuring the electrochemical properties of single SOFCs. Several anode-supported single SOFCs of the type (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}+NiO) thick anode/(ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin electrolyte/(La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3}+ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin cathode have been prepared and tested at 700 and 800{sup o}C after in situ H{sub 2} anode reduction. The main results show that the slurry-coating method resulted in single-cells with good reproducibility and reasonable performance, suggesting that this method can be considered for fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  4. Graphite Carbon-Supported Mo2C Nanocomposites by a Single-Step Solid State Reaction for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Bi, K; Liang, C; Lin, S; Wang, W J; Yang, T Z; Liu, J; Zhang, R; Fan, D Y; Wang, Y G; Lei, M

    2015-01-01

    Novel graphite-molybdenum carbide nanocomposites (G-Mo2C) are synthesized by a typical solid state reaction with melamine and MoO3 as precursors under inert atmosphere. The characterization results indicate that G-Mo2C composites are composed of high crystallization and purity of Mo2C and few layers of graphite carbon. Mo2C nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 5 to 50 nm are uniformly supported by surrounding graphite layers. It is believed that Mo atom resulting from the reduction of MoO3 is beneficial to the immobilization of graphite carbon. Moreover, the electrocatalytic performances of G-Mo2C for ORR in alkaline medium are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and chronoamperometry test with 3M methanol. The results show that G-Mo2C has a considerable catalytic activity and superior methanol tolerance performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) benefiting from the chemical interaction between the carbide nanoparticles and graphite carbon.

  5. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.

  6. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  7. Application of La-Doped SrTiO3 in Advanced Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Presto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials frequently allow the drawbacks of single components to be overcome thanks to a synergistic combination of material- and structure-specific features, leading to enhanced and also new properties. This is the case of a metallic-ceramic composite, a nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl foam impregnated with La-doped Strontium Titanate (LST. This particular cermet has very interesting properties that can be used in different fields of application, namely: mechanical robustness provided by the metal foam; and chemical stability in harsh conditions of temperature and atmosphere by promotion of a thin protective layer of alumina (Al2O3; high electronic conductivity given by a percolating ceramic conducting phase, i.e., La-doped Strontium Titanate. In this paper, its application as a current collector in a metal-supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC was studied. Firstly, the electronic properties of different compositions, stoichiometric and under stoichiometric, of LST were analyzed to choose the best one in terms of conductivity and phase purity. Then, LST chemical stability was studied in the presence of Al2O3 at different temperatures, gas compositions and aging times. Finally, stability and conductivity of LST-impregnated NiCrAl foam composite materials were measured, and LST was found to be fully compatible with the NiCrAl foam, as no reactions were detected in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere after up to 300 h operation at 750 °C and 900 °C between the Al2O3 layer and LST. Results showed that the composite is suitable as a current collector in innovative designs of metal-supported SOFC, like the Evolve cell, in which the metallic part is supposed not only to provide the structural stability to the cell, but also to play the role of current collector due to the impregnation of ceramic material.

  8. Preparation of functional layers for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells by the reverse roll coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, R.; Büchler, O.; Bram, M.; Leonide, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    The roll coating technique represents a novel method for applying functional layers to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This fast process is already used for mass production in other branches of industry and offers a high degree of automation. It was utilized for coating specially developed anode (NiO + 8YSZ, 8YSZ: 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia) and electrolyte (8YSZ) suspensions on green and pre-sintered tape-cast anode supports (NiO + 8YSZ). The layers formed were co-fired in a single step at 1400 °C for 5 h. As a result, the electrolyte exhibited a thickness of 14-18 μm and sufficient gas tightness. Complete cells with a screen-printed and sintered La 0.65Sr 0.3MnO 3- δ (LSM)/8YSZ cathode yielded a current density of 0.9-1.1 A cm -2 at 800 °C and 0.7 V, which is lower than the performance of non-co-fired slip-cast or screen-printed Jülich standard cells with thinner anode and electrolyte layers. The contribution of the cell components to the total area-specific resistance (ASR) was calculated by analyzing the distribution function of the relaxation times (DRTs) of measured electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and indicates the potential improvement in the cell performance achievable by reducing the thickness of the roll-coated layers. The results show that the anode-supported planar half-cells can be fabricated cost-effectively by combining roll coating with subsequent co-firing.

  9. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  10. Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on the Formation of Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tantallaaziridines: From Synthesis to Catalytic Application

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Chen, Yin; El Eter, Mohamad; Chermak, Edrisse; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H,13C HETCOR and DQ TQ solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopy. The formation mechanism, by β-H abstraction, was investigated by SS NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The C-H activation of the dimethylamide

  11. Unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Murata, Koichiro.

    1971-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations and excellent in weather resistance is provided. The composition is obtained by reacting 10-12 moles of a polyhydric alcohol (e.g. ethylene glycol) with 10 moles of an acid mixture (25.45% by mole of endo-cis-bicyclo (2,2,1)-5-heptene-2-3-dicarboxylic acid (A), 20-40% of unsaturated dibasic acid and 15-55% of saturated dibasic acid) so that the acid value reaches 4-11. The composition is useful as coating, laminating and molding materials. As a coating material it is excellent in surface hardening property. The ionizing radiation used is preferably β-, α-rays or electron beams. In one example, and unsaturated polyester was prepared by reacting 3 moles of fumaric acid, 2 moles of phthalic anhydride, 3 moles of adipic acid 3, moles of (A), 10 moles of neopentyl glycol and 1 mole of trimethylolpropane. The resin was dissolved into a mixture of styrene, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate (50:8:42) and incorporated with titanium white. An ABS plate was coated with the enamel thus obtained and irradiated with electron beams (12 Mrad). In exposure test at 60 0 C, luster of the film was 92 before exposure and 83 after 30 months. In a comparative run in which (A) was not used, luster of the film decreased from 90 to 45 in 30 months. (Sakaichi, S.)

  12. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  13. Complications of transvaginal silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govier, F E; Kobashi, K C; Kuznetsov, D D; Comiter, C; Jones, P; Dakil, S E; James, R

    2005-10-01

    To report a premarket multicenter trial to test the feasibility of a transvaginal silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling in women with anatomic incontinence. Fifty-one patients in four centers underwent transvaginal placement of a silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling (American Medical Systems) during an 8-month period. Of the 51 patients, 31 were part of a prospective institutional review board-approved feasibility trial in three centers funded by American Medical Systems (group 1) and 20 underwent implantation by a single surgeon and their data were retrospectively reviewed (group 2). The studies were done concomitantly, and all slings were fixed transvaginally with bone anchors. All patients in group 1 were followed up at 4 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year (as applicable) with repeat questionnaires, physical examinations, and pad tests. In group 1, 20 patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Ten patients (32%) required a second surgical procedure at an average of 183 days (range 68 to 343) postoperatively. Eight patients (26%) had vaginal extrusion of the mesh, one (3%) required sling lysis, and one (3%) required sling removal because of infection. In group 2, 8 patients (40%) underwent sling removal for vaginal extrusion at a mean of 160 days (range 83 to 214). Transvaginally placed silicone-coated mesh slings used for the treatment of urinary incontinence demonstrated an unacceptably high vaginal extrusion rate in this study. Once identified, this study was immediately terminated, and this product was not marketed for this application in the United States.

  14. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments.

  15. Biodegradation of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Short Term Seawater Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahneel Saharudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-polyester nanocomposites with four different concentrations were produced using solution casting technique and the biodegradation effect of short-term seawater exposure (120 h was studied. Monolithic polyester was observed to have the highest seawater absorption with 1.37%. At 0.3 wt % HNTs reinforcement, the seawater absorption dropped significantly to the lowest value of 0.77% due to increase of liquid diffusion path. For samples tested in dry conditions, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties were improved. The highest improvement of Tg was from 79.3 to 82.4 °C (increase 3.1 °C in the case of 0.3 wt % HNTs. This can be associated with the exfoliated HNTs particles, which restrict the mobility of polymer chains and thus raised the Tg. After seawater exposure, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties of polyester and its nanocomposites were decreased. The Young’s modulus of 0.3 wt % HNTs-polyester dropped 20% while monolithic polyester dropped up to 24% compared to their values in dry condition. Apart from that, 29% flexural modulus reduction was observed, which was 18% higher than monolithic polyester. In contrast, fracture toughness and surface roughness increased due to plasticization effect. The presence of various microbial communities caused gradual biodegradation on the microstructure of the polyester matrix as also evidently shown by SEM images.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of Some polyurethane/ Partially Aromatic Polyester Casting Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, E.M.; Mazroua, A.M.; Emam, A.S.; Motawie, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A series of partially aromatic terephthalate polyesters were synthesized by melt transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate with various types of aliphatic diol compounds in 1:1.1 molar ratio. Ethylene-, di-, tri-, tetra ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights 1000, 4000, 6000 as well as the prepared dihydroxy natural rubber were used. Another series of partially aromatic adipate and sebacate polyesters based on the prepared bisphenol A and its tetrabromo derivative were also synthesized by direct polycondensation esterification with adipic and sebacic acid. Polyurethane with NCO/OH ratio equal 4 was prepared from the reaction of 2,4 toluene diisocyanate with polyethylene glycol 1000. The prepared polyurethane was mixed with different weight percentages (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 % w/w) of the prepared partially aromatic polyesters to give polyurethane/polyester compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties as well as water and chemical resistance of the prepared film samples with thickness 3-4 mm were determined and compared with those of polyurethane film sample without polyester. The data indicate that 10 % w/w of the added partially aromatic polyester increases polyurethane tensile strength, improves its insulation properties and hydrolytic stability as well as its chemical resistance. Film samples based on bisphenol A impart excellent properties as compared with those based on aliphatic glycol species and dihydroxy natural rubber. Keywords: Partially aromatic polyesters, Dimethyl terephthalate, Glycols, Bisphenol A, Tetrabromo bisphenol A, Natural rubber, Adipic acid, Sebacic acid, Polyurethane, Casting

  17. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  18. Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Alongi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption. The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented.

  19. The catalytic microwave synthesis of biodegradable polyester polyols based on castor oil and l-lactide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, D.; Erceg, T.; Vukić, N.; Teofilović, V.; Ristić, I.; Budinski-Simendić, J.; Aleksić, V.

    2017-01-01

    Various strategies for achieving a functional poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have been developed such as ring-opening copolymerization with a functional monomer, the use of functional initiator and various post polymerization modifications. It is possible to obtain the star shaped polymer using natural oil with at least three OH groups as an initiator. It was estimated that despite of low-molecular mass of star-shaped PLA, the hydrophobic castor oil central core influenced the slow degradation rate in the case of injectable biomedical application. The star-shaped polymers with low-molecular-mass have a lower melt viscosity correlated with linear counterparts. In soft tissue reparation the polymer viscosity increases with fluid body contact and the solid implant can be formed. To ensure liquid state at injection temperature the low molar mass polymer is favorable. There is a particular size for each macromolecular chains at which chain entanglement occurs. In this work the influence of the l-lactide (LA) and the castor oil (CO) contents on the size of biodegradable branched polyester polyols was studied. The average molecular masses of synthesized polymers were estimated by GPC procedure. In sample formulations the [LA]/[CO] ratios were from to 113 to 533. Mn values for obtained polymers were from 5000 to 20000 Da. The molecular mass distribution for the resulting polymers was between 1.09 and 1.37.

  20. Second-harmonic generation of Lamb modes in a solid layer supported by a semi-infinite substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Mingxi

    2004-01-01

    Using a second-order perturbation approximation and a modal expansion analysis approach, this study develops an effective technique for studying the generation of second harmonics of Lamb modes propagating in the composite structure consisting of a solid layer supported by a semi-infinite substrate. The nonlinearity in the elastic wave motion process can result in the generation of second harmonics of primary Lamb mode propagation in the composite structure, and this nonlinearity may be treated as a second-order perturbation of the elastic response of the primary waves. There are second-order bulk and surface/interface driving sources in the composite structure wherever the primary Lamb modes propagate. These driving sources can be thought of as the forcing functions of a finite series of double-frequency Lamb modes (DFLMs) in terms of the approach of modal expansion analysis for waveguide excitation. The fields of the second harmonics of the primary Lamb modes can be regarded as superpositions of the fields of a finite series of DFLMs. Although Lamb modes are dispersive, the field of one DFLM component can have a cumulative growth effect when its phase velocity exactly or approximately equals that of a primary Lamb mode. The formal solutions for the second harmonics of Lamb modes have been obtained. The numerical simulations clearly show the physical process of the generation of second harmonics of Lamb modes in the composite structure. The complicated problems of second-harmonic generation of Lamb modes have been exactly determined within the second-order perturbation approximation

  1. High throughput measurement of high temperature strength of ceramics in controlled atmosphere and its use on solid oxide fuel cell anode supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Curran, Declan; Rasmussen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    In the development of structural and functional ceramics for high temperature electrochemical conversion devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, their mechanical properties must be tested at operational conditions, i.e. at high temperature and controlled atmospheres. Furthermore, characterization...... for testing multiple samples at operational conditions providing a high throughput and thus the possibility achieve high reliability. Optical methods are used to measure deformations contactless, frictionless load measuring is achieved, and multiple samples are handled in one heat up. The methodology...... is validated at room temperature, and exemplified by measurement of the strength of solid oxide fuel cell anode supports at 800 C. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pitchai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric was treated with polyvinyl alcohol in alkaline medium. The moisture regain, water retention and wettability of the PVA treated polyester fabric were tested. The PVA treated PET fabric was dyed with disperse dye. The presence of PVA in the treated PET fabric was assessed by spot test. The treated fabric was also characterized by scanning electron microscope, FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. The PVA treated polyester fabric showed improved hydrophilic character over intact and sodium hydroxide treated PET fabrics.

  3. Study of the properties and biodegradability of polyester/starch blends submitted to microbial attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Gloria M.; Almeida, Yeda M.B. de; Lima, Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade; Santos, Livia Almeida

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the biodegradation of blends of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate)/starch and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate)/ starch. The blends were obtained by evaporation of the solvent in the mixture of the polymers in chloroform. Tests were carried out in presence of micro-organisms which acted as biodegradation agents. The blends were consumed as carbon substrate and the production of CO 2 was evaluated in the process. In addition, the polyesters' mechanical properties were reduced by the incorporation of starch in its structure. ( 1 H) NMR and infrared spectroscopy detected some characteristic polyester degradation groups in the polyesters' chemical structure, thus confirming the alteration suffered by it. (author)

  4. Radiation-induced changes affecting polyester based polyurethane binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Sujita Basi

    The application of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers as binders in the high energy explosives particularly when used in weapons presents a significantly complex and challenging problem due to the impact of the aging of this polymer on the useful service life of the explosive. In this work, the effects of radiation on the aging of the polyester based polyurethane were investigated using both electron beam and gamma irradiation at various dose rates in the presence and absence of oxygen. It was found by means of GPC that, in the presence and absence of oxygen, the poly (ester urethane) primarily undergoes cross-linking, by means of a carbon-centered secondary alkyl radical. It was also concluded that the polymer partially undergoes scission of the backbone of the main chain at C-O, N-C, and C-C bonds. Substantial changes in the conditions of irradiation and in dose levels did not affect the cross-linking and scission yields. Experiments were also performed with EPR spectroscopy for the purpose of identifying the initial carbon-centered free radicals and for studying the decay mechanisms of these radicals. It was found that the carbon-centered radical which is produced via C-C scission (primary alkyl radical) is rapidly converted to a long-lived allylic species at higher temperatures; more than 80% radicals are converted to allyl species in 2.5 hours. In the presence of oxygen, the allyl radical undergoes a fast reaction to produce a peroxyl radical; this radical decays with a 1.7 hour half-life by pseudo first-order kinetics to negligible levels in 13 hours. FTIR measurements were conducted to identify the radiation-induced changes to the functional groups in the polyester polyurethane. These measurements show an increase in carbonyl, amine and carboxylic groups as a result of reaction of H atoms with R-C-O·, ·NH-R and R-COO·. The FTIR results also demonstrate the production of the unsaturation resulting from hydrogen atom transfer during intrachain conversion

  5. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-BASED POLYESTER POLYOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MİTHAT ÇELEBİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes are versatile polymeric materials and are usually synthesised by isocyanate reactions with polyols. Due to the variety of isocyanates and polyols, particularly polyols, polyurethanes can be easily tailored for wide applications, such as rigid and flexible foams, coatings, adhesives, and elastomers. Considerable efforts have been recently devoted to developing bio-based substitutes for petroleum-based polyuretahanes due to increasing concerns over the depletion of petroleum resources, environment, and sustainability. Polyester polyols based on aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylic acids are one of the most important materials in polymer technologies. Large volume of plants oils are used as renewable resources to produce various chemicals which are industrially important to make soaps, cosmetic products, surfactants, lubricants, diluents, plasticizers, inks, agrochemicals, composite materials, food industry. This study introduces synthesis and properties of bio-based polyols from different renewable feedstocks including vegetable oils and derivatives. A comparison of bio-based polyol properties with their petroleum-based analogues were investigated.

  6. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  7. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  8. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  9. Application of polyester derived from biomass in petroleum asphalt cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP. A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.

  10. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam Ali, M.; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah, A.; Ishiaku, U.S.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  11. Kekuatan Lentur Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki sifat mekanis yaitu kekuatan lentur dari kompositpolyester yang diperkuat dengan serat tapis kelapa. Di masa depan komposit ini dapatdigunakan untuk menggantikan kayu, bambu dan gipsun yang harganya mahal dan tidaktahan air. Komposit dibuat dengan memanfaatkan serat sabut kelapa dan matriks resinUnsaturated-Polyester (UPRs jenis Yucalac 157 BQTN, campuran 1% hardener jenis MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide dan perendaman serat dalam larutan alkali KMnO4 0,5%.Metode produksi yang digunakan adalah press hand lay up dengan orientasi serat acak.Desain komposit dengan variasi fraksi volume serat 20, 25 dan 30% dan variasi panjang serat5, 10 dan 15 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar fraksi volume danpanjang serat dalam komposit maka kekuatan lentur semakin tinggi. Mode patahan yangteramati adalah patah getas, debonding, pullout dan crack deflection.Kata kunci: komposit, serat tapis kelapa, kekuatan lentur, mode patahan The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. flexural strength ofcomposites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood,bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance.The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resinunsaturated polyester (UPRs type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and fiber treatment by 0.5% KMnO4. Production methods arepress hand lay-up and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiberlength are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of mechanical properties is flexural test (ASTM - D790The results of research show that the longer of fiber and the bigger of fiber volume fraction,the higher of flexural strength are obtained. The fracture mode are overload, debonding ,pullout and crack deflectionKeywords : composites, coconut filter fiber, flexural strength, fracture mode

  12. Influence of the molecular structure on hydrolysability of unsaturated polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.; Denis, V.

    1993-09-01

    EDF has decided to replace conventional materials by glass reinforced plastics for certain PWR water distribution systems (raw water system, essential service water system, firefighting water distribution system, etc...). Since steel corrodes rapidly in these pipings, introducing composite materials will be economically beneficial if the long-term resistance of these materials can be guaranteed. However, due to hydrolysis of the resin or of the fiber-matrix interface, composite materials deteriorations may occur during service life. This paper reports on the hydrolysis resistance of polyester and vinylester resins. - Model monomers were studied to relate the molecular structure to the hydrolysis resistance. Two ester categories were determined, the diacids and the diols. For the diacids, we obtained the following classification in increasing order of resistance: < maleates < ethoxysuccinates < succinates < fumerates < terephtalates < orthophtalates < isophtalates and for the diols: trioxyethylene glycol << butane diol ∼ ethylene glycol < neopentyl glycol < bisphenol A. The positions obtained for neopentyl glycol and isophtalic acid on this scale justify their inclusion in the formulation of hydrolysis-resistant resins. Since aliphatic unsaturated esters are highly sensitive to hydrolysis, the cross linking procedures for these materials, notably the post-cure stages, must be the subject of particular care. - The hydrolytic degradation of cross linked materials was studied. It was shown that hydrolysis could be monitored by a simple gravimetric method. Used in association with accelerated aging tests, it predicts the time lapse to initiation of the phenomenon. The better hydrolysis resistance of vinylester resins as compared with unsaturated polyesters has been demonstrated. However, forecasting over a 30-year life span is difficult to guarantee in that this involves indicating in the resin specifications the in-service stress which it will be required to

  13. Effective Interfacially Polymerized Polyester Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane from Bioderived Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Mohamed H.; Perez Manriquez, Liliana; Puspasari, Tiara; Scholes, Colin A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of sustainable and environmentally friendly solvents for the preparation of membranes has attracted growing interest in recent years. In this work, a polyester thin film composite solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membrane

  14. Filler Fraction Effect on Creep Response of Crosslinked Polyester Matrix with Mineral Filler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hristova, J.; Minster, Jiří

    Vol. 89, - (2003), s. 3329-3335 ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : polyester composites * creep * ageing Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2003

  15. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce.../CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...

  16. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  17. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  18. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites of glass and banana fiber (obtained from the pseudo stem of Musa sapientum) in polyester matrix, are subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over a range of temperature and three different frequencies. The effect of temperature...

  19. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Steel Fiber/Polyester Composites: Experiments and Micromechanical Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Bech, Jakob Ilsted

    2016-01-01

    the role of material and process parameters on material properties. Two types of SFRP were studied: polyester resin reinforced by both steel fabric containing unidirectional fibers and steel fibers wound on a metal frame with 0° orientations. The effects of the fiber volume fraction and the role of polymer......The article introduces steel fiber reinforced polymer composites, which is considered new for composite product developments. These composites consist of steel fibers or filaments of 0.21 mm diameter embedded in a polyester resin. The goal of this investigation is to characterize the mechanical...... performance of steel fiber reinforced polyester composites at room temperature. The mechanical properties of unidirectional steel fiber reinforced polyester composites (SFRP) are evaluated experimentally and compared with the predicted values by micro-mechanical models. These predictions help to understand...

  20. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters from polyester and polypropylene fibre nonwovens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available filtration efficiency. Glass fibres are more harmful to human, compared to polypropylene and polyester fibre which are chemically inert. Hydroentanglement and chemical bonding techniques were utilised in manufacturing nonwovens for dry filtration. Acrylic...

  1. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment Variables on Wettability and Antibacterial Properties of Polyester Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Pandurangan; Karthik, Thangavelu

    2016-04-01

    In this research work, the effect of argon plasma treatment variables on the comfort and antibacterial properties of polyester fabric has been investigated. The SEM micrographs and FTIR analysis confirms the modification of fabric surface. The Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of plasma process variables and to evaluate the effects and interactions of the process variables, i.e. operating power, treatment time and distance between the electrodes on the characteristics of polyester fabrics. The optimum conditions of operating power 600 W, treatment time 30 s, and the distance between the electrodes of 2.8 mm was arrived using numerical prediction tool in Design-Expert software. The plasma treated polyester fabrics showed better fabric characteristics particularly in terms of water vapour permeability, wickability and antibacterial activity compared to untreated fabrics, which confirms that the modified structure of polyester fabric.

  2. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic

  3. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopichander

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  4. Transport parameters of thin, supported cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); Transportparameter duenner, getraegerter Kathodenschichten der oxidkeramischen Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedershoven, Christian

    2010-12-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the transport properties of thin cathode layers, which are part of the composite layer of a fabricated anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The transport properties of the anode and cathode have a significant influence on the electrochemical performance of a fuel cell stack and therefore represent an important parameter when designing fuel cell stacks. In order to determine the transport parameters of the cathode layers in a fabricated SOFC, it is necessary to permeate the thin cathode layer deposited on the gas-tight electrolyte with a defined gas transport. These thin cathode layers cannot be fabricated as mechanically stable single layers and cannot therefore be investigated in the diffusion and permeation experiments usually used to determine transport parameters. The setup of these experiments - particularly the sample holder - was therefore altered in this work. The result of this altered setup was a three-dimensional flow configuration. Compared to the conventional setup, it was no longer possible to describe the gas transport in the experiments with an analytical one-dimensional solution. A numerical solution process had to be used to evaluate the measurements. The new setup permitted a sufficiently symmetrical gas distribution and thus allowed the description of the transport to be reduced to a two-dimensional description, which significantly reduced the computational effort required to evaluate the measurements. For pressure-induced transport, a parametrized coherent expression of transport could be derived. This expression is equivalent to the analytical description of the transport in conventional measurement setups, with the exception of parameters that describe the geometry of the gas diffusion. In this case, a numerical process is not necessary for the evaluation. Using the transport parameters of mechanically stable anode substrates, which can be measured both in the old and the new setups, the old and

  5. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  6. Influence of the substituent on azobenzene side-chain polyester optical storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M; Hvilsted, Søren; Holme, NCR

    1999-01-01

    , chloro, and bromo. C-13 NMR spectroscopic and molecular mass investigations substantiate good film forming characteristics. The optical storage performance of thin polyester films are investigated through polarization holography. The resulting diffraction efficiency is mapped and discussed as a function...... of irradiation power and exposure time. Polytetradecanedioates with cyano-, nitro-, methyl-, fluoro-, or trinuoromethyl-azobenzene reach more than 50% diffraction efficiency. Investigations of anisotropy induced at different temperatures reveal that the polyesters are only photosensitive in a narrow temperature...

  7. Clinical outcomes after parastomal hernia repair with a polyester monofilament composite mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, E; Pilsgaard, B; Jorgensen, L N

    2018-01-01

    with intraperitoneal placement of a polyester monofilament macroporous composite mesh. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing parastomal hernia repair with Parietex™ Composite Parastomal Mesh at our institution during a 4-year period were examined. Patients with urostomy were excluded. A team of three experienced...... chronic pain. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found low rates of recurrence and chronic pain following parastomal hernia repair using intraperitoneal reinforcement with a polyester monofilament composite mesh....

  8. New UV-curable acrylated polyester prepolymers from palm oil based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azam Ali; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah Ahmad; Umaru, S.I.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylated polyester prepolymers (PEPP-1 and PEPP-2) were synthesized from palm oil and its products. UV-curing and characteristic properties of UV-cured films of synthesized polyester resins were studied. The characteristic properties studied include pendulum hardness, gel content, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength and elongation at break. The materials have good potential for the production of radiation curable coating applications

  9. A New Nano Silica Gel Supported by Thionyl Chloride as a Solid Acid for the Efficient Diazotization of Aniline Derivatives: Application and Synthesis of Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nano silicagel supported by thionyl chloride as a solid acid was synthesized and used as a increasing the production yield of dye to affect the efficient diazotization of arylamines. The diazonium salts thus obtained were coupled, using standard experimental procedures, to anilines and naphthols to afford the requisite azo dyes in good yield. The diazotization and subsequent azo-coupling generated the related azo dyes at low temperature in short reaction times with a simple experimental procedure.

  10. Application of an Activated Carbon-Based Support for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Spectrophotometric Determination of Tartrazine in Commercial Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez, Jos? A.; Escamilla-Lara, Karen A.; Guevara-Lara, Alfredo; Miranda, Jose M.; P?ez-Hern?ndez, Ma. Elena

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30?mg?L?1, with a limit...

  11. Phase diagrams in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid with various aliphatic polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phase behavior with immiscibility, miscibility, crystalline morphology, and kinetic analysis in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB with aliphatic polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate (PBA, poly(ethylene adipate (PEA, poly(trimethylene adipate (PTA, or poly(ethylene succinate (PESu, respectively, were explored mainly using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM. Immiscibility phase behavior with reversible upper-critical-solution-temperature (UCST is common in the PHB/polyester blends. The polyester/polyester blend of PHB/PTA is partially miscible with no UCST in melt and amorphous glassy states within a composition range of PTA less than 50 wt%. The miscible crystalline/crystalline blend exhibits ring-banded spherulites at Tc = 50~100°C, with inter-ring spacing dependent on Tc. All immiscible or partially miscible PHB/polyester blends, by contrast, exhibit disrupted ringbanded spherulites or discrete spherical phase domains upon cooling from UCST to crystallization. The blends of PHB with all other aliphatic polyesters, such as PESu, PEA, PBA, etc. are only partially miscible or immiscible with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST at 180~221°C depending on blend composition. UCST with reversibility was verified.

  12. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and ESR study of polyesters containing isomeric naphthylene units by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.K.; Hill, D.J.T.; Choi, E.J.; Ahn, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Aromatic polyesters containing naphthalene groups have interesting properties because the geometry of the naphthalene group can provide many of the structural features for the polymer chain. In this study we synthesized six polyesters from 4,4 ' - (hexafluoroisopropyl-idene)bis(benzoic acid) and isomeric naphthylene-diols. An ESR study of the radicals formed on gamma radiolysis of the polyesters has been undertaken to investigate their relative radiation sensitivities. The structures of the polyesters were characterized by means of IR spectroscopy. Inherent viscosities were measured in the range of 0.11 - 0.46 dL/g. Thermal properties of polyesters were determined by DSC and TGA thermograms, respectively. All polyesters were irradiated in an AECL Gamma cell with a dose rate of approximately 6.7kGy h -1 to doses in the range of 0 - 15kGy at 77K and 300K, respectively. In order to identify other radicals present at 77K, annealing studies were utilized by taking advantage of the different reactivities of these radicals

  14. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K; Watanabe, K; Sugawara, H; Minemura, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Hairy foam" : carbon nanofibers grown on solid foam. A fully accessible, high surface area, graphitic catalyst support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmakers, P.W.A.M.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on solid carbon foam ("Hairy Foam") by catalytic decompn. of ethylene. The effect of nickel loading on fiber diam. and morphol., CNF coverage, and fiber layer thickness is studied using SEM and N2/Kr-physisorption. The surface area

  16. Using Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy To Study In-Operando Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierra, J. X.; Poulsen, H. F.; Jørgensen, P. S.

    Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy is a promising technique to study the structure of materials in nanometer length scale. In combination with x-ray diffraction technique, the microstructure evolution of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia electrolyte based solid oxide cell was studied running at extreme operating...

  17. Comparison of TEVAR resin beads, PAN fibers, and ePTFE membranes as a solid support for Aliquat-336 in immobilized liquid extraction chromatography for separation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe Dauner; Steve Workman

    2012-01-01

    The following paper covers a comparison of two new systems to traditional TEVA R resin systems for the analytical separation of actinides by immobilized liquid-liquid extraction using Aliquat-336. The new systems are using expanded polytetrafluroethane (ePTFE) membrane or polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as the solid support. The systems are compared in two ways. First in how much Aliquat-336 they contain with the Vs, ratio of volume of Aliquat-336 to volume of polymeric support, being 0.158, 0.483, and 0.590 for the TEVA R resin, PAN fibers, and the ePTFE systems, respectively. The second comparison is in their performance capacity of extraction of uranyl chloride anion complex. The fiber and resins systems show similar capacities, and the membrane system being an order of magnitude less than the other systems. A cost comparison demonstrates the savings advantages of using a fiber based support compared with resin and membrane support systems. (author)

  18. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar, E-mail: p.saha@iitg.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals lead and cadmium. • Conversion of liquid waste to solid precipitation. • Precipitation facilitates the metals transportation through LM. • Solidification of liquid waste minimizes the final removal of waste. - Abstract: Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of “sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil” was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals.

  19. Use of computerized, 3-dimensional solids modeling and data base management to support radiation mapping and ALARA planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, R.D.; Slobodien, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The RADiation Mapping and ALARA Planning System (RADMAPS) under development by GPU Nuclear Corporation in conjunction with Construction Systems Associates, Inc., integrates computerized solids modeling and data base management to provide an automated, integrated systems solution to the problems associated with acquiring, managing, and communicating plant radiological data at nuclear facilities. This presentation describes the status of the RADMAPS development and outlines plans for future expansion

  20. Synthesis of polyester urethane urea and fabrication of elastomeric nanofibrous scaffolds for myocardial regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadi, Elham Sadat; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morshed, Mohammad, E-mail: morshed@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Morteza [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nanotechmpp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of bioactive scaffolds is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct the infarcted myocardium. In this study, we synthesized polyester urethane urea (PEUU), further blended it with gelatin and fabricated PEUU/G nanofibrous scaffolds. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the synthesized PEUU and properties of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ATR-FTIR, contact angle measurement, biodegradation test, tensile strength analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In vitro biocompatibility studies were performed using cardiomyocytes. DMA analysis showed that the scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations and might remain stable in the frequencies of the physiological activity of the heart. On the whole, our study suggests that aligned PEUU/G 70:30 nanofibrous scaffolds meet the required specifications for cardiac tissue engineering and could be used as a promising construct for myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • PEUU was synthesized to fabricate elastomeric scaffolds for myocardial regeneration. • FTIR, DSC and XRD analysis showed that polymer synthesis was well. • PEUU/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations of the heart. • Gelatin in structure of PEUU nanofibers improved proliferation of cardiomyocytes. • Aligned PEUU/gelatin 70:30 nanofibrous scaffold support the alignment of cardiomyocytes.

  1. Synthesis and degradation kinetics of a novel polyester containing bithiazole rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, W., E-mail: hwdut2003@yahoo.com [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China); Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Jiang, Y.Y. [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China); Luyt, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Ocaya, R.O. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Ge, T.J. [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: {yields} A novel Schiff base type polyester was synthesized and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. {yields} Thermal degradation of the polyester in nitrogen has been studied at several heating rates by thermogravimetric analysis. {yields} The activation energies were calculated by different methods. And the possible conversation function was estimated. {yields} The life time estimates for the polyester can be determined and the results demonstrate that the polymer possesses good thermal resistance. - Abstract: A novel Schiff base type polyester containing 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (DABT) was prepared by low-temperature interface polycondensation of 1,4-benzenedicarbonyl dichloride with 4,4'-(4,4'-bithiazole-2,2'-diylbis(imine-2,1-diyl) diphenol (BDDP), which is derived from a 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (DABT) Schiff base reacted with a 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde monomer. The newly generated polyester was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition was investigated in nitrogen atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis. The activation energies of the decomposition step of the polyester were calculated through the isoconversional methods of Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (K-A-S) and the iterative equation. In order to estimate the reaction model that best describes the experimental data, the use of an empirical kinetic equation based on that proposed by Sestak-Berggren was investigated here. On the basis of the kinetic data, the life time estimates for the polyester generated from the weight loss of 5%, 10%, and 15% were also constructed.

  2. International and domestic uses of solid biofuels under different renewable energy support scenarios in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Resch, Gustav; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS based intermodal biomass transport model was developed for the European Union. • It was linked to the renewable energy model Green-X updated with biomass trade. • Scenarios of renewable energy deployment in the EU27 to 2020 were assessed. • Domestic biomass resources will remain the largest source of bioenergy (over 90%). • But increasing amounts of solid biomass will be traded (up to 506 PJ in 2020). - Abstract: This article describes the development of a geographic information systems (GIS) based biomass transport analysis tool BIT-UU used in combination with the European renewable energy model Green-X. BIT-UU calculates cost and GHG emissions from lowest cost routes, using intermodal transport (by road, rail, inland waterways and sea) between origins of supply and demand destinations. With the developed biomass trade module in Green-X, the role of bioenergy can be evaluated in the larger context of renewable energy deployment. The modeling framework takes into account the current and future energy policies at EU and country levels, competition with alternative sources of renewable energy (e.g. photovoltaic, wind) and sectors (electricity, heat, transport fuels) as well as competition between EU member states for the same biomass resources. Scenario projections to 2020 are used to demonstrate the developed modeling framework. According to these scenarios, biomass from domestic supply remains the most important source of bioenergy (91–93% in 2020). However, the role of traded solid biomass will become increasingly important. With a business as usual scenario, assuming continuation of current renewable energy policies to 2020, the binding renewable energy targets will not be achieved, but trade of solid biomass will still increase up to 451 PJ in 2020. In the scenario that meets the conditions to achieve the 20% renewable energy target in 2020, traded solid biomass is projected to increase to 440 PJ if sustainability criteria are

  3. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  4. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  5. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in polyester yarns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avny, Y.; Rebenfeld, L.; Weigmann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of a pretreatment of polyester (PET) yarns with a strongly interacting solvent such as dimethylformamide (DMF) on vinyl monomer incorporation were investigated. When the DMF pretreatment is carried out at high temperatures (above 120 0 C), the swollen PET structure is stabilized by solvent-induced secondary crystallization. This substrate is highly suitable for the incorporation of vinyl monomers. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in DMF-treated PET was investigated using chemical and γ-irradiation polymerization techniques, both in the presence and in the absence of excess monomer outside the PET fibers. When polymerization was carried out in a system in which a constant supply of free radicals was available from the outside of the PET fibers, lower initiator concentrations and smaller γ-irradiation doses were necessary. These results are attributed to a low efficiency of the initiator inside the PET fiber due to mobility restrictions. Water uptake and moisture regain of PET yarns containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) were also investigated. When most of the vinyl polymer was inside the PET fiber, water absorption was limited. The changes in mechanical properties of the PET yarns resulting from the DMF pretreatment were partially reversed by in situ polymerization of vinyl monomers

  6. Polyester composite versus PTFE in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Modesto J; Telem, Dana A; Chin, Edward; Weber, Kaare; Divino, Celia M; Nguyen, Scott Q

    2011-01-01

    Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair. A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit. Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, PPTFE group and none in the POC group (P NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS). Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.

  7. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  8. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  9. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiulan, Ioana; Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin; Panaitescu, Denis Mihaela

    2017-12-24

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  10. Fatigue life prediction in woven carbon fabric polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.; Al-Sulaiman, F.S.; Farooqi, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model, based on stiffness degradation during fatigue loading, which has been used for fatigue life predictions in the Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), is employed to examine its validity to the fatigue life predictions in the Woven Fabric Reinforced Plastics. The rate of stiffness degradation (dE/dN) has been obtained from the constant amplitude fatigue testing of 8-ply coupons made from prepreg plain-weave woven carbon-carbon fabric having a polyester resin as the matrix material. The test coupons had three different ply stacking sequences, namely, the unidirectional (0)8,and two off axis plied (0,0,+45,-45)s, and (+45,-45,0,0)s orientations. The estimated fatigue lives obtained from the damage rate function dD/dN, which in turn was a function of the stiffness degradation rate dE/dN, were compared with the experimentally observed fatigue life data. It is shown that the stiffness degradation model provides reasonably good correlation between the analytically determined fatigue lives and the experimentally observed fatigue for the plain-weave woven Carbon-Carbon Fabric Reinforced Plastic Composites. (author)

  11. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin

    2017-01-01

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed. PMID:29295559

  12. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chiulan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid (PLA and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  13. Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on the Formation of Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tantallaaziridines: From Synthesis to Catalytic Application

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2016-01-27

    Single-site, well-defined, silica-supported tantallaaziridine intermediates [≡Si-O-Ta(η2-NRCH2)(NMe2)2] [R=Me (2), Ph (3)] were prepared from silica-supported tetrakis(dimethylamido)tantalum [≡Si-O-Ta(NMe2)4] (1) and fully characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H,13C HETCOR and DQ TQ solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopy. The formation mechanism, by β-H abstraction, was investigated by SS NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The C-H activation of the dimethylamide ligand is favored for R=Ph. The results from catalytic testing in the hydroaminoalkylation of alkenes were consistent with the N-alkyl aryl amine substrates being more efficient than N-dialkyl amines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Molecular and Silica-Supported Molybdenum Alkyne Metathesis Catalysts: Influence of Electronics and Dynamics on Activity Revealed by Kinetics, Solid-State NMR, and Chemical Shift Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Deven P; Gordon, Christopher P; Fedorov, Alexey; Liao, Wei-Chih; Ehrhorn, Henrike; Bittner, Celine; Zier, Manuel Luca; Bockfeld, Dirk; Chan, Ka Wing; Eisenstein, Odile; Raynaud, Christophe; Tamm, Matthias; Copéret, Christophe

    2017-12-06

    Molybdenum-based molecular alkylidyne complexes of the type [MesC≡Mo{OC(CH 3 ) 3-x (CF 3 ) x } 3 ] (MoF 0 , x = 0; MoF 3 , x = 1; MoF 6 , x = 2; MoF 9 , x = 3; Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and their silica-supported analogues are prepared and characterized at the molecular level, in particular by solid-state NMR, and their alkyne metathesis catalytic activity is evaluated. The 13 C NMR chemical shift of the alkylidyne carbon increases with increasing number of fluorine atoms on the alkoxide ligands for both molecular and supported catalysts but with more shielded values for the supported complexes. The activity of these catalysts increases in the order MoF 0 molecular and supported species. Detailed solid-state NMR analysis of molecular and silica-supported metal alkylidyne catalysts coupled with DFT/ZORA calculations rationalize the NMR spectroscopic signatures and discernible activity trends at the frontier orbital level: (1) increasing the number of fluorine atoms lowers the energy of the π*(M≡C) orbital, explaining the more deshielded chemical shift values; it also leads to an increased electrophilicity and higher reactivity for catalysts up to MoF 6 , prior to a sharp decrease in reactivity for MoF 9 due to the formation of stable metallacyclobutadiene intermediates; (2) the silica-supported catalysts are less active than their molecular analogues because they are less electrophilic and dynamic, as revealed by their 13 C NMR chemical shift tensors.

  15. The Degradation of Mechanical Properties in Halloysite Nanoclay-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed in Seawater Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahneel Saharudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester based polymers are extensively used in aggressive marine environments; however, inadequate data is available on the effects of the seawater on the polyester based nanocomposites mechanical properties. This paper reports the effect of seawater absorption on the mechanical properties degradation of halloysite nanoclay-polyester nanocomposites. Results confirmed that the addition of halloysite nanoclay into polyester matrix was found to increase seawater uptake and reduce mechanical properties compared to monolithic polyester. The maximum decreases in microhardness, tensile and flexural properties, and impact toughness were observed in case of 1 wt% nanoclay. The microhardness decreased from 107 HV to 41.7 HV (61% decrease. Young’s modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.4 GPa (33% decrease. The flexural modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.34 GPa (43% decrease. The impact toughness dropped from 0.71 kJ/m2 to 0.48 kJ/m2 (32% decrease. Interestingly, the fracture toughness KIC increased with the addition of halloysite nanoclay due to the plasticization effect of the resin matrix. SEM images revealed the significant reduction in mechanical properties in case of 1 wt% reinforcement which is attributed to the degradation of the nanoclay-matrix interface influenced by seawater absorption and agglomeration of halloysite nanoclay.

  16. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  18. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  19. Influence of fibre treatments on mechanical properties of short Sansevieria cylindrica/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, V.S.; Ravindran, D.; Manikandan, V.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre treatments were performed to improve interfacial bond between SCF and matrix. ► Mechanical properties of treated SCFP composites are greater than USCFP composites. ► PSCFP composites show maximum mechanical properties among treated SCFP composites. ► SEM analysis revealed that the wetting of PSCFs by the polyester resin was good. ► KMnO 4 treatment is ideal treatment for SCFs to get optimum mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In the present study, to improve the interfacial bond between Sansevieria cylindrica fibres (SCFs) and polyester matrix, chemical surface treatments have been performed on the fibres. Treatments including alkali, benzoyl peroxide, potassium permanganate and stearic acid were carried out to modify the fibre surface. Raw and each type of treated SCF samples were utilised separately for fabricating the composites. The mechanical properties of composites prepared from the chemically treated SCFs are found to be much better than those of the untreated ones. Potassium-permanganate-treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (PSCFP) composites showed optimum mechanical properties among the treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (SCFP) composites. The surface morphologies of fracture surfaces of composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between potassium-permanganate-treated SCF (PSCF) and polyester matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of PSCF into the matrix has occurred upon potassium permanganate treatment of SCF.

  20. Composite Preparation of Wood Dust-Polyester-Coconut Choir Fiber Mixture for Particle Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Darsono; Padmono; Betty, Angesti

    2002-01-01

    Experiment on the use of γ-ray of Co 60 radiation has been used for curing of composite which made of wood dust, unsaturated polyester resin and coconut coir mixture. Composite was prepared by mixing of wood dust, polyester and coconut coir at a various mixture composition. Concentration of polyesters were 50, 55 and 60 % by weight based on saw dust and polyester mixture. Irradiation was conducted using 27,6 kCi acti vity Co 60 at a dose rate of 5 kGy/hrs and dose of 8, 10 and 12 kGy. Composite was also prepared conventionally by using peroxide catalyst. Parameters observed were density, pencil hardness and compression strength Experimental results showed that optimum condition wus achieved at irradiation dose of 12 kGy, polyester concentration of 60 % and coconut coir fiber of 4 %. In this condition, the density, hardness and compression strength were 1,115 g/cm 3, 5 Hand 6,815 kN/cm2 respectively. Density, hardness of composite prepared by radiation were almost the same whereas the compression strength was higher than that of composite prepared by conventional method

  1. Catalyst Influence on Undesired Side Reactions in the Polycondensation of Fully Bio-Based Polyester Itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins derived from itaconic acid can be an alternative to established resins of this type in the field of radical-curing resins. However, one of the challenges of these polyester itaconates is the somewhat more elaborate synthetic process, especially under polycondensation conditions used on an industrial scale. The α,β-unsaturated double bond of the itaconic acid is prone to side reactions that can lead to the gelation of the polyester resin under standard conditions. This is especially true when bio-based diols such as 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol are used to obtain resins that are 100% derived from renewable resources. It was observed in earlier studies that high amounts of these aliphatic diols in the polyester lead to low conversion and gelation of the resins. In this work, a catalytic study using different diols was performed in order to elucidate the reasons for this behavior. It was shown that the choice of catalyst has a crucial influence on the side reactions occurring during the polycondensation reactions. In addition, the side reactions taking place were identified and suppressed. These results will allow for the synthesis of polyester itaconates on a larger scale, setting the stage for their industrial application.

  2. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  3. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  4. Chemistry by nanocatalysis: First example of a solid-supported RAPTA complex for organic reactions in aqueous medium

    KAUST Repository

    Garcí a-Garrido, Sergio E.; Francos, Javier; Cadierno, Victorio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    , with no use at all of organic solvent during or after the reactions, and microwaves as an alternative energy source renders the synthetic processes reported herein "truly" green and sustainable. RAPTA's delight: A nano-RAPTA complex supported on silica

  5. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 μm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 μm), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  6. Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S; Wiest, Landon A; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L; Shutthanandan, V; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO(2) surfaces, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 microm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 microm), normal and reversed-phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates/m for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes and 54,800 plates/m for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides on a C(18) adsorbent.

  7. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 ?m) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 ?m), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  8. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ishak, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  9. Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters with outstanding optical storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Pedersen, M; Holme, NCR

    1998-01-01

    A flexible azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline (SCLC) polyester architecture employed for reversible optical storage is described. The modular design allows four structural parameters to be individually modified. These parameters: i- the methylene side-chain spacer length, ii- the substituent......,000 are routinely obtained by melt transesterification of the novel diols and selected diacid precursors (parameter iii). Prominent storage features include no prealignment of thin SCLC polyester films prior to the writing process, and sensitivity in a broad laser wavelength window (415-532 nm). Additionally...... sign of fatigue. The non-destructive read out is performed with red light (600-750 nm). Finally, erasing the information can be achieved by heating the polyester film to 80 degrees C or irradiating it briefly with UV-light. In the latter case at least 10,000 write, read and erase cycles are possible...

  10. Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, Lian; Matharu, Avtar S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2003-01-01

    of E1aX polymers characterized by two-ring aromatic substituent in the main chain is a good candidate for optical data storage media. A recording energy of approximately 2 J/cm(2) is sufficient to induce high refractive-index modulations of Deltan = 0.13 in these materials, which is retained even......We investigate parameters associated with optical data storage in a variety of amorphous side-chain azobenzene-containing polyesters denoted as E1aX. The polyesters possess a common cyano-substituted azobenzene chromophore as a side chain, but differ in their main-chain polyester composition....... Seventeen different polymers from the E1aX family divided into four classes, depending on the type of the main-chain substituent (one-, two-, and three-ring aromatic or alicyclic) have been thoroughly investigated. Various parameters characterizing the photoinduced birefringence in these materials...

  11. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das

    2009-01-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  12. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Carvalho, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  13. Biodegradative Activities of Selected Environmental Fungi on a Polyester Polyurethane Varnish and Polyether Polyurethane Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Barragán, Joyce; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Vargas-Suárez, Martín; González-Hernández, Ricardo; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Loza-Tavera, Herminia

    2016-09-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is widely used in many aspects of modern life because of its versatility and resistance. However, PU waste disposal generates large problems, since it is slowly degraded, there are limited recycling processes, and its destruction may generate toxic compounds. In this work, we isolated fungal strains able to grow in mineral medium with a polyester PU (PS-PU; Impranil DLN) or a polyether PU (PE-PU; Poly Lack) varnish as the only carbon source. Of the eight best Impranil-degrading strains, the six best degraders belonged to the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex, including the species C. pseudocladosporioides, C. tenuissimum, C. asperulatum, and C. montecillanum, and the two others were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum The best Impranil degrader, C. pseudocladosporioides strain T1.PL.1, degraded up to 87% after 14 days of incubation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of Impranil degradation by this strain showed a loss of carbonyl groups (1,729 cm(-1)) and N-H bonds (1,540 and 1,261 cm(-1)), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a decrease in ester compounds and increase in alcohols and hexane diisocyanate, indicating the hydrolysis of ester and urethane bonds. Extracellular esterase and low urease, but not protease activities were detected at 7 and 14 days of culture in Impranil. The best eight Impranil-degrading fungi were also able to degrade solid foams of the highly recalcitrant PE-PU type to different extents, with the highest levels generating up to 65% of dry-weight losses not previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of fungus-treated foams showed melted and thinner cell wall structures than the non-fungus-treated ones, demonstrating fungal biodegradative action on PE-PU. Polyurethane waste disposal has become a serious problem. In this work, fungal strains able to efficiently degrade different types of polyurethanes are reported, and

  14. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconciling Differences between Lipid Transfer in Free-Standing and Solid Supported Membranes: A Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Benny; Breidigan, Jeffrey M; Adams, Joseph; Horbal, Piotr; Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2017-04-11

    Maintaining compositional lipid gradients across membranes in animal cells is essential to biological function, but what is the energetic cost to maintain these differences? It has long been recognized that studying the passive movement of lipids in membranes can provide insight into this toll. Confusingly the reported values of inter- and, particularly, intra-lipid transport rates of lipids in membranes show significant differences. To overcome this difficulty, biases introduced by experimental approaches have to be identified. The present study addresses the difference in the reported intramembrane transport rates of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) on flat solid supports (fast flipping) and in curved free-standing membranes (slow flipping). Two possible scenarios are potentially at play: one is the difference in curvature of the membranes studied and the other the presence (or not) of the support. Using DMPC vesicles and DMPC supported membranes on silica nanoparticles of different radii, we found that an increase in curvature (from a diameter of 30 nm to a diameter of 100 nm) does not change the rates significantly, differing only by factors of order ∼1. Additionally, we found that the exchange rates of DMPC in supported membranes are similar to the ones in vesicles. And as previously reported, we found that the activation energies for exchange on free-standing and supported membranes are similar (84 and 78 kJ/mol, respectively). However, DMPC's flip-flop rates increase significantly when in a supported membrane, surpassing the exchange rates and no longer limiting the exchange process. Although the presence of holes or cracks in supported membranes explains the occurrence of fast lipid flip-flop in many studies, in defect-free supported membranes we find that fast flip-flop is driven by the surface's induced disorder of the bilayer's acyl chain packing as evidenced from their broad melting temperature behavior.

  16. The axial crushes behaviour on foam-filled round Jute/Polyester composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of axial loading compression on jute fibre reinforced polyester composite round tubes. The specimen of composite tube was fabricated by hand lay-up method of 120 mm length with fix 50.8 mm inner diameter to determine the behaviour of energy absorption on number of layers of 450 angle fibre and internally reinforced with and without foam filler material. The foam filler material used in this studies were polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) with average of 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities on the axial crushing load against displacement relations and on the failure modes. The number of layers of on this study were two; three and four were selected to calculate the crush force efficiency (CFE) and the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the composite tubes. Result indicated that the four layers’ jute/polyester show significant value in term of crushing load compared to 2 and 3 layers higher 60% for 2 layer and 3% compared to 3 layers. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 10% to 12% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to four increases the mean axial load from 1.01 KN to 3.60 KN for empty jute/polyester and from 2.11 KN to 4.26 KN for the polyurethane (PU) foam-filled jute/polyester tubes as well as for 3.60 KN to 5.58 KN for the polystyrene (PE) foam-filled jute/polyester. The author’s found that the failure of mechanism influence the characteristic of curve load against displacement obtained and conclude that an increasing number of layers and introduce filler material enhance the capability of specific absorbed energy.

  17. Adsorption of uranium ions by crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemal Oezeroglu; Niluefer Metin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the crosslinked polyester resin containing acrylic acid functional groups was used for the adsorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked polyester resin of unsaturated polyester in styrene monomer (Polipol 353, Poliya) and acrylic acid as weight percentage at 80 and 20%, respectively was synthesized by using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKp, Butanox M60, Azo Nobel)-cobalt octoate initiator system. The adsorption of uranium ions on the sample (0.05 g copolymer and 5 mL of U(VI) solution were mixed) of the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid was carried out in a batch reactor. The effects of adsorption parameters of the contact time, temperature, pH of solution and initial uranium(VI) concentration for U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid were investigated. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results depending on the initial U(VI) concentration were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity and free energy change were determined by using D-R isotherm. The obtained experimental adsorption data depending on temperature were evaluated to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (ΔH o ), entropy (ΔS o ) and free energy change (ΔG o ) for the U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions. The obtained adsorption data depending on contact time were analyzed by using adsorption models such as the modified Freundlich, Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. (author)

  18. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of "sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil" was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determination of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols in diet samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2014-05-01

    To establish a method for the determination of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-monochloropropane-1, 3-diol (2-MCPD) in diet samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE). Diet samples were ultrasonically extracted by hexane, followed by ester cleavage reaction with sodium methylate in methanol, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction. (SLE) using diatomaceous earth as the sorbent. After derivatization with heptafluorobutyrylimidazole, the analytes were detected by GC-MS and quantified by the deuterated internal standards. The limits of detection (LODs) of 3-MCPD esters and 2-MCPD esters in different diet samples were 0.002 - 0.005 mg/kg and 0.002 - 0.006 mg/kg. The average recoveries of 3-MCPD esters and 2-MCPD esters at the spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg in the diet samples were in the range of 65.9% - 104.2% and 75.4% - 118.0%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations in the range of 2.2% - 14.2% and 0.8% - .13.9%. The method is simple, accurate and rugged for the determination of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD in diet samples.

  20. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  1. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2008-01-01

    measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being...... analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary...

  2. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  3. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    1987-01-01

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60 Co radiation. (author)

  4. Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35

    OpenAIRE

    Akutsu, Yukie; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    1998-01-01

    A polyester polyurethane (PUR)-degrading enzyme, PUR esterase, derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35, a bacterium that utilizes polyester PUR as the sole carbon source, was purified until it showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This enzyme was bound to the cell surface and was extracted by addition of 0.2% N,N-bis(3-d-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-BIGCHAP). The results of gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that the PUR este...

  5. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  6. Streptavidin-modified monodispersed magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres as solid support in DNA-based molecular protocols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salih, T.; Ahlford, A.; Nilsson, M.; Plichta, Zdeněk; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1 April (2016), s. 362-367 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12054 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : rolling circle amplification * DNA * magnetic microspheres Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.164, year: 2016

  7. Influence of Immersion Conditions on The Tensile Strength of Recycled Kevlar®/Polyester/Low-Melting-Point Polyester Nonwoven Geotextiles through Applying Statistical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Chzi Hsieh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recycled Kevlar®/polyester/low-melting-point polyester (recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are immersed in neutral, strong acid, and strong alkali solutions, respectively, at different temperatures for four months. Their tensile strength is then tested according to various immersion periods at various temperatures, in order to determine their durability to chemicals. For the purpose of analyzing the possible factors that influence mechanical properties of geotextiles under diverse environmental conditions, the experimental results and statistical analyses are incorporated in this study. Therefore, influences of the content of recycled Kevlar® fibers, implementation of thermal treatment, and immersion periods on the tensile strength of recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are examined, after which their influential levels are statistically determined by performing multiple regression analyses. According to the results, the tensile strength of nonwoven geotextiles can be enhanced by adding recycled Kevlar® fibers and thermal treatment.

  8. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  9. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  10. Non-isothermal curing kinetics and physical properties of MMT-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, María A., E-mail: angelesvh@yahoo.com [Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnológico S/N, Valle de Anáhuac, 55210 Ecatepec de Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez, H. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Física, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Guthausen, G. [KIT, Pro2NMR at MVM and IBG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal DSC analysis results have shown that the addition of MMT to a UP resin produces a delay in the cure reaction. • The shape of experimental heat-flow DSC curves showed two exothermic peaks for all the samples at different heating rates. • The overall kinetic analysis was performed by isoconversional methods. • It was found that the dependence of the activation energy (E{sub a}) on degree of reaction (α) is complex. - Abstract: Cure behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)/cobalt octoate intercalated nanocomposites with various MMT loadings was investigated by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by sequential mixing. Non-isothermal DSC curves were obtained by applying heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 °C/min. They presented two exothermic peaks, which should correspond to two independent cure reactions. The effective activation energy E{sub a}, was determined by applying both the Kissinger’s and Starink’s methods. The results showed slightly higher activation energy for nanocomposites, except for UP/10-MMT. It was found that the dependence of E{sub a} on α is complex. All the systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model in overall reaction controlled kinetics and the corresponding model parameters, n, m, A were obtained, but it was insufficient in depicting the complex reaction kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy data support the formation of a partially delaminated nanocomposite material. UP and nanocomposites showed similar behavior on thermal stability.

  11. Numerical evaluation of oxide growth in metallic support microstructures of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and its influence on mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Georg; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Persson, Åsa Helen

    2015-01-01

    is evaluated by determining an effective diffusion coefficient and the equivalent electrical area specific resistance (ASR) due to diffusion over time. It is thus possible to assess the applicability (in terms of corrosion behaviour) of potential metallic supports without costly long-term experiments......-temperature corrosion theory, and the required model parameters can be retrieved by standard corrosion weight gain measurements. The microstructure is reconstructed from X-ray computed tomography, and converted into a computational grid. The influence of the changing microstructure on the fuel cell performance...

  12. Development and manufacturing of tape casted, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells; Entwicklung und Herstellung von foliengegossenen, anodengestuetzten Festoxidbrennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafbauer, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer high potential in transforming the chemical energy of hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Due to the high efficiency of fuel cells, lots of effort has been made in the improvement of net efficiency and in materials development during the last years. Recently, the introduction of high performance, low-cost production technologies become more and more important. At the Institute of Energy Research IEF-1 of Forschungszentrum Julich, standard SOFCs were processed by time and work consuming methods. On the way to market entrance, product costs have to be reduced drastically. The aim of this thesis is the introduction of a high efficient low-cost processing route for the SOFC manufacturing. Therefore, the well-known and well established shaping technology tape casting was used for generating the anode substrates. As the first goal of this approach, two different tape casting slurries were developed in order to get substrates in the thickness range from 300 to 500 {mu}m after sintering. After shaping of the substrates, sinter regimes for the different necessary coatings were adapted to the novel substrate types in order to obtain cells with high performance and strength. Therefore, the different coating technologies like screen printing and vacuum slip casting were used for cell manufacturing. The optimization of the different coating steps during cell manufacturing led to high performance SOFCs with a 10% higher power output compared to the Julich state-of-the-art SOFC. Additional experiments verified the workability of the novel tape cast substrates for the manufacturing of near-net-shape SOFC. Finally, the novel cell types based on tape cast substrates were assembled to stacks with up to ten repeating units. Stack tests showed identical performance and degradation compared to stacks containing state-of-the-art SOFCs. Thus, the complete lifetime circle of a SOFC starting from powder preparation to stack assembly has been

  13. The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Martin, Laetitia B. B.; Viart, Helene Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophobic cuticle consisting of waxes and the polyester cutin covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing essential protection from desiccation and other stresses. We have determined the enzymatic basis of cutin polymerization through characterization of a tomato extracellular...

  14. 76 FR 52935 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... conform to the Department's revised 19 CFR 351.303(g) certification language as announced in Certification... the correct certification language in a timely manner. On June 28, 2011, in accordance with 19 CFR 351... polyesters measuring 3.3 decitex (3 denier, inclusive) or more in diameter. This merchandise is cut to...

  15. Dipeptide-based polyphosphazene and polyester blends for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Jiang, Tao; Kanner, William A; Li, Xudong; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Weikel, Arlin L; Krogman, Nicholas R; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-06-01

    Polyphosphazene-polyester blends are attractive materials for bone tissue engineering applications due to their controllable degradation pattern with non-toxic and neutral pH degradation products. In our ongoing quest for an ideal completely miscible polyphosphazene-polyester blend system, we report synthesis and characterization of a mixed-substituent biodegradable polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)(1)(phenyl phenoxy)(1)phosphazene] (PNGEG/PhPh) and its blends with a polyester. Two dipeptide-based blends namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were produced at two different weight ratios of PNGEG/PhPh to poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA). Blend miscibility was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Both blends resulted in higher tensile modulus and strength than the polyester. The blends showed a degradation rate in the order of Matrix2PLAGA in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C over 12 weeks. Significantly higher pH values of degradation media were observed for blends compared to PLAGA confirming the neutralization of PLAGA acidic degradation by polyphosphazene hydrolysis products. The blend components PLAGA and polyphosphazene exhibited a similar degradation pattern as characterized by the molecular weight loss. Furthermore, blends demonstrated significantly higher osteoblast growth rates compared to PLAGA while maintaining osteoblast phenotype over a 21-day culture. Both blends demonstrated improved biocompatibility in a rat subcutaneous implantation model compared to PLAGA over 12 weeks. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaoning [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Tian, Mingwei [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Qu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunqu@126.com [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Zhu, Shifeng [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Guo, Xiaoqing [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Han, Guangting [Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); and others

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  17. Synthesis of a novel polyester building block from pentoses by tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Andersen, Christian; Tolborg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    a product containing functional groups originating from trans-2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentenoic acid methyl ester in the polyester backbone. The reactivity of the incorporated olefin and hydroxyl moieties was investigated using trifluoroacetic anhydride and thiol-ene chemisitry, thus illustrating the potential...

  18. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency...

  19. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    . The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...

  20. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around...

  1. Development of a model for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester by reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.; Zondervan, E.; Oudshoorn, M.L.; Haan, de A.B.; Haan, de A.B.; Kooijman, H.; Górak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally polyester production is done in a batch reactor equipped with a separation column for batch distillation. A promising alternative for the intensification of this process is reactive distillation. In this paper, a reactive distillation model is developed for the synthesis of an

  2. Plasma Surface Modification of Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Polyester Enhanced by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Bardenshtein, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation of the treating surface, because the delivered acoustic energy can reduce the thickness of the boundary gas layer. Here surfaces of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure...

  3. Material characterization of a polyester resin system for the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the chemo-rheology of an industrial ‘‘orthophthalic’’ polyester system specifically prepared for a pultrusion process is characterized. The curing behaviour is first characterized using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal and dynamic scans are performed...

  4. High diffraction efficiency polarization gratings recorded by biphotonic holography in an azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, C; Alcalá, R; Hvilsted, Søren

    2001-01-01

    High diffraction efficiencies have been achieved with polarization gratings recorded in thin films of an azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester by means of biphotonic processes. Efficiency values up to 30% have been reached after an induction period of 300 s and subsequent evolution...

  5. Gliding arc discharge — Application for adhesion improvement of fibre reinforced polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Teodoru, Steluta; Leipold, Frank

    2008-01-01

    production, and surface treatment. However, the application for adhesion improvement of structural materials has been rarely reported. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using atmospheric pressure gliding arcs with high speed air flow for adhesion improvement...

  6. Novel biphotonic holographic storage in a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, S.; Andruzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    We report novel biphotonic holographic storage of text and gratings on unoriented films of a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester capable of high density storage and complete erasure. The holograms have a typical size of 1 mm. The recording utilizes unusual photochemistry involving azo dye...

  7. Thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s from novel, bio-based amorphous polyester diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, D.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two novel, bio-based, amorphous polyester diols, namely poly(1,2-dimethylethylene adipate) (PDMEA) and poly(1,2-dimethylethylene succinate) (PDMES) are used to prepare thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s (TPUUs). Interestingly, the TPUUs based on PDMEA show similar thermal and

  8. Adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composites by gliding arc discharge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A gliding arc is a plasma that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied for plasma surface treatment for adhesion improvement. In the present work, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc discharge with an air flow to improve...

  9. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  10. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  11. Design and Applications of Biodegradable Polyester Tissue Scaffolds Based on Endogenous Monomers Found in Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin G. Barrett

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polyesters have deeply impacted various biomedical and engineering fields, such as tissue scaffolding and therapeutic delivery. Currently, many applications involving polyesters are being explored with polymers derived from monomers that are endogenous to the human metabolism. Examples of these monomers include glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, and lactic, sebacic, citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, and fumaric acids. In terms of mechanical versatility, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, and biocompatibility, polyesters synthesized partially or completely from these monomers can display a wide range of properties. The flexibility in these macromolecular properties allows for materials to be tailored according to the needs of a particular application. Along with the presence of natural monomers that allows for a high probability of biocompatibility, there is also an added benefit that this class of polyesters is more environmentally friendly than many other materials used in biomedical engineering. While the selection of monomers may be limited by nature, these polymers have produced or have the potential to produce an enormous number of successes in vitro and in vivo.

  12. The application of FT-IR spectrum method in photocuring process for polyester acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jin; Lu Xianliang; Zhang Zhenli

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes that the UV curing process of polyester acrylate can be monitored by measuring the degree of double bonds conversion with FT-IR spectroscopy. The various factors effect the UV curing rate. The relation between the curing rate and the concentration of photoinitiator, crosslinking agent, UV light intensity was discussed. (author)

  13. Thermal studies of poly(esters) containing silicon or germanium in the main chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagle, L.H.; Terraza, C.; Valenzuela, P.; Leiva, A.; Urzua, M.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal properties of poly(esters) containing Si and/or Ge in the main chain derived from the acid dichlorides bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane, and the diphenols bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-germane were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic thermogravimetry. Poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain showed higher values of T g than those with two Ge atoms, and the same was observed for poly(esters) with phenyl groups bonded to the heteroatoms, instead of those with methyl groups. Thermal decomposition temperatures were also higher for those poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain and those in which the heteroatom is bonded to phenyl groups, due to the higher polarity of the Si-C bond in front of the Ge-C

  14. Eco-friendly surface modification on polyester fabrics by esterase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jindan; Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Jinqiang; Ge, Huayun; Wang, Jiping, E-mail: jipingwanghz@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We used a simple and easy way to measure the enzyme activity. • We studied the mechanism by characterizing the chemical changes in the surface of fabric. • We studied the advantages in surface wettability, fiber integrity and mechanical performance of cutinase treated fabrics. • Cutinase pretreated fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking and better fiber integrity comparing to alkali treated ones. • Cutinase pretreatment technology promotes energy conservation and emission reduction. - Abstract: Currently, traditional alkali deweighting technology is widely used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyester fabrics. However, the wastewater and heavy chemicals in the effluent cause enormous damage to the environment. Esterase treatment, which is feasible in mild conditions with high selectivity, can provide a clean and efficient way for polyester modification. Under the optimum conditions, the polyester fabric hydrolysis process of esterase had a linear kinetics. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) results showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were produced only on the surface of modified fiber without changing the chemical composition of the bulk. These fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking, as well as greatly improved oily stain removal performance. Compared to the harsh alkali hydrolysis, the enzyme treatment led to smaller weight loss and better fiber integrity. The esterase treatment technology is promising to produce higher-quality polyester textiles with an environmental friendly approach.

  15. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric

  16. Synthetic scaffolds based on biodegradable, functionalized polyesters for tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyednejad, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of using a novel hydroxyl-functionalized polyester [poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-ε-caprolactone), pHMGCL] (Fig.9) to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Degradable polymers that are frequently used for tissue

  17. The use of sterilised polyester mosquito net mesh for inguinal hernia repair in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, M. G.; Oppong, C.; Simmermacher, R.; Park, K.; Kurzer, M.; Vanotoo, L.; Kingsnorth, A. N.

    The use of alloplastic mesh is now commonplace in hernia repair. However, in developing countries, cheaper alternatives to commercial mesh are required due to the high associated cost. Whilst nylon mosquito net mesh has been trialled previously, this study aimed to assess the use of polyester

  18. Corona Glow Discharge Plasma Treatment for Hidrophylicity Improvement of Polyester and Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan, A. I.; Widodo, M.; Nur, M.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of irradiation by a corona glow discharge plasma on hidrophylicity properties of polyester and cotton fabrics were investigated. We used a corona glow discharge plasma reactor with multiple points to plane electrodes, which was generated by a high voltage DC. Factors that affect the hidrophylicity properties were identified and evaluated as functions of irradiation parameters, which include duration of treatment, distance between electrodes, and bias voltage. It was readily observed from SEM examinations that plasma changed the surface morphology of both polyester and cotton fibers, giving result to an increased roughness to both of them. Results also showed that the hidrophylicityof polyester and cotton fabrics improved by the treatment, which is proportional to the time of treatment and voltage, but inversely proportional to the distance between electrodes. Time of treatment that provided the optimum enhancement of hidrophylicity for cotton is 15 minutes which improved the wetting time from 8.16 seconds to 1.26 seconds. For polyester, it took 15 minutes of irradiation time to improve the wetting time from 7340 seconds to 2905 seconds. The optimum distance between electrodes for both fabrics in this study was found to be 2 cm. Further analysis showed that the improved hidrophylicity properties is due to the creation of surface radicals by free radicals in the plasma leading to the formation of new water-attracting functional groups on the fiber surface.

  19. Exploring the Substrate Scope of Baeyer–Villiger Monooxygenases with Branched Lactones as Entry towards Polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgove, Marie; Fürst, Maximilian; Fraaije, Marco; Bernaerts, Katrien; de Wildeman, Stefaan

    2018-01-01

    Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that are able to convert cyclic ketones into lactones by the insertion of oxygen. The aim of this study was to explore the substrate scope of several BVMOs with (biobased) cyclic ketones as precursors for the synthesis of branched polyesters.

  20. Exploring the substrate scope of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases with branched lactones as entry towards polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgove, Marie; Fürst, Maximilian; Fraaije, Marco; Bernaerts, Katrien; De Wildeman, Stefaan M A

    2018-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts able to convert cyclic ketones to lactones by the insertion of oxygen. The aim of this study was to explore the substrate scope of several BVMOs with (biobased) cyclic ketones as precursors for the synthesis of branched polyesters.The product

  1. Solid phase extraction of penicillins from milk by using sacrificial silica beads as a support for a molecular imprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannoli, Cristina; Anfossi, Laura; Biagioli, Flavia; Passini, Cinzia; Baggiani, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared molecularly imprinted beads with molecular recognition capability for target molecules containing the penicillanic acid substructure. They were prepared by (a) grafting mesoporous silica beads with 6-aminopenicillanic acid as the mimic template, (b) filling the pores with a polymerized mixture of methacrylic acid and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, and (c) removing the silica support with ammonium fluoride. The resulting imprinted beads showed good molecular recognition capability for various penicillanic species, while antibiotics such as cephalosporins or chloramphenicol were poorly recognized. The imprinted beads were used to extract penicillin V, nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin from skimmed and deproteinized milk in the concentration range of 5–100 μg·L −1 . The extracts were then analyzed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography by applying reverse polarity staking as an in-capillary preconcentration step, and this resulted in a fast and affordable method within the MRL levels, characterized by minimal pretreatment steps and recoveries of 64–90 %. (author)

  2. Insight into the Supramolecular Architecture of Intact Diatom Biosilica from DNP-Supported Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantschke, Anne; Koers, Eline; Mance, Deni; Weingarth, Markus; Brunner, Eike; Baldus, Marc

    2015-12-07

    Diatom biosilica is an inorganic/organic hybrid with interesting properties. The molecular architecture of the organic material at the atomic and nanometer scale has so far remained unknown, in particular for intact biosilica. A DNP-supported ssNMR approach assisted by microscopy, MS, and MD simulations was applied to study the structural organization of intact biosilica. For the first time, the secondary structure elements of tightly biosilica-associated native proteins in diatom biosilica were characterized in situ. Our data suggest that these proteins are rich in a limited set of amino acids and adopt a mixture of random-coil and β-strand conformations. Furthermore, biosilica-associated long-chain polyamines and carbohydrates were characterized, thereby leading to a model for the supramolecular organization of intact biosilica. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Intensive heat method for using non-segregate fine tailings for generating hot process water and stable solids that can support traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzer-Zilevitch, M. [Ex-Tar Technologies Inc., AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This power point presentation described a method developed to extract energy from non-segregated fine tailings for generating hot process water. The method produced stable solids that were able to support traffic. Discharged non-segregated tailings passed through a zero liquid discharge direct contact steam generator (DCSG) and were then further treated and returned to the oil sands mine and bitumen extraction facility. A direct contact heat exchanger and condenser removed contaminates. Laboratory analyses confirmed that the DCSG condensate was toxic. Light organics were not destroyed. The method was then simulated in order to investigate the impact of pressure on performance. The study demonstrated that the method is both simple and robust. Non-segregated asphaltene-rich fine tailing streams can be used, and no changes to extraction, oil separation, or froth treatment equipment is needed. A cost benefit analysis was included. tabs., figs.

  4. Application of an Activated Carbon-Based Support for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Spectrophotometric Determination of Tartrazine in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30 mg L−1, with a limit of detection of 1 mg L−1. The method was validated by comparing the results with those obtained by HPLC. A precision of <5.0% was obtained in all cases and no significant differences were observed (P<0.05.

  5. Application of an activated carbon-based support for magnetic solid phase extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine in commercial beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José A; Escamilla-Lara, Karen A; Guevara-Lara, Alfredo; Miranda, Jose M; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for magnetic solid phase extraction of tartrazine from nonalcoholic beverages. The method involves the extraction and clean-up by activated carbon covered with magnetite dispersed in the sample, followed by the magnetic isolation and desorption of the analyte by basified methanol. The tartrazine eluted from the magnetic support was determined by spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 3 to 30 mg L(-1), with a limit of detection of 1 mg L(-1). The method was validated by comparing the results with those obtained by HPLC. A precision of <5.0% was obtained in all cases and no significant differences were observed (P < 0.05).

  6. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  7. Fracture strength and failure mode of maxillary implant-supported provisional single crowns: a comparison of composite resin crowns fabricated directly over PEEK abutments and solid titanium abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik Jacob; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture strength of implant-supported composite resin crowns on PEEK and solid titanium temporary abutments, and to analyze the failure types. Three types of provisional abutments, RN synOcta Temporary Meso Abutment (PEEK; Straumann), RN synOcta Titanium Post for Temporary Restorations (Straumann), and Temporary Abutment Engaging NobRplRP (Nobel Biocare) were used, and provisional screw-retained crowns using composite resin (Solidex) were fabricated for four different locations in the maxilla. The specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until fracture occurred. The failure types were analyzed and further categorized as irreparable (Type 1) or reparable (Type 2). No significant difference was found between different abutment types. Only for the position of the maxillary central incisor, composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments showed significantly lower (p Provisional crowns on PEEK abutments showed similar fracture strength as titanium temporary abutments except for central incisors. Maxillary right central incisor composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments fractured below the mean anterior masticatory loading forces reported to be approximately 206 N. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  9. Fabrication of narrow surface relief features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N. C. R.; Pedersen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We show that it is possible to fabricate topographic submicron features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field optical microscope, Through irradiation at a wavelength of 488 run at intensity levels of 12 W/cm(2), topographic features as narrow as 240 nm and as high as 6 nm...... have been reproducibly recorded in a thin film of the polyester. These observations are consistent with the fact that at low intensities peaks are produced evolving into formation of trenches at high intensities in the case of amorphous side-chain azobenzene polyesters. This may find applications...

  10. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  11. Ultrahigh-sensitive detection of molecules produced in catalytic reactions by uni-atomic-composition bi-element clusters supported on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumatsu, H; Fukui, N

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring catalytic activities of uni-atomic-composition bi-element clusters supported on a solid substrate. The cluster sample is prepared by irradiating a cluster-ion beam having the uni-atomic composition onto the substrate on a soft-landing condition in an ultra-high vacuum. The catalytic activity is measured by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) mass analysis. Molecules at a density as low as 3 cm −3 have been detected with an ultrahigh-sensitive TPD mass spectrometer consisting of a cylindrical electron gun, a quadrupole mass filter and a micro-channel-plate ion-detector. The high reproducibility has been achieved by careful calibration of the TPD mass spectrometer. As a benchmark example, thermal oxidation of CO catalysed on Pt 30 disks supported on a silicon surface was studied. The CO 2 products have been successfully observed at the Pt 30 density as low as 3 × 10 12 clusters in a circular area of 8 mm in diameter at the ramping rate of the sample temperature as low as 0.3 K s −1 .

  12. Interaction analysis of chimeric metal-binding green fluorescent protein and artificial solid-supported lipid membrane by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Na Ayudhya, Chartchalerm Isarankura; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Hinz, Andreas; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption and specific interaction between a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) carrying metal-binding region and the immobilized zinc ions on artificial solid-supported lipid membranes was investigated using the quartz crystal microbalance technique and the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Supported lipid bilayer, composed of octanethiol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N- (5-amino-1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid)succinyl] (NTA-DOGS)-Zn 2+ , was formed on the gold electrode of quartz resonator (5 MHz). Binding of the chimeric GFP to zinc ions resulted in a rapid decrease of resonance frequency. Reversibility of the process was demonstrated via the removal of metal ions by EDTA. Nanoscale structural orientation of the chimeric GFP on the membrane was imaged by AFM. Association constant of the specific binding to metal ions was 2- to 3-fold higher than that of the non-specific adsorption, which was caused by the fluidization effect of the metal-chelating lipid molecules as well as the steric hindrance effect. This infers a possibility for a further development of biofunctionalized membrane. However, maximization is needed in order to attain closer advancement to a membrane-based sensor device

  13. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  14. Testing And Performance Analysis Of NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM Bi-Supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Operated In Both Fuel Cell And Steam Electrolysis Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.C.; O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Zhang, X.; Farmer, S.C.; Cable, T.L.; Setlock, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of scandia ceria stabilized zirconia powders prepared by polymeric precursor method for integration into anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hengyong; Liu, Xin; Yu, Qingchun

    2011-03-01

    Scandia ceria stabilized zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) powders are synthesized by polymeric precursor method for use as the electrolyte of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The synthesized powders are characterized in terms of crystalline structure, particle shape and size distribution by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). 10Sc1CeSZ electrolyte films are deposited on green anode substrate by screen-printing method. Effects of 10Sc1CeSZ powder characteristics on sintered films are investigated regarding the integration process for application as the electrolytes in anode-supported SOFCs. It is found that the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from nano-sized powders with average size of 655 nm are very porous with many open pores. In comparison, the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from micron-sized powders with average size of 2.5 μm, which are obtained by calcination of nano-sized powders at higher temperatures, are much denser with a few closed pinholes. The cell performances are 911 mW cm-2 at the current density of 1.25 A cm-2 and 800 °C by application of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 (CGO) barrier layer and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) cathode.

  16. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  17. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.

    1991-01-01

    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations...

  18. Safety of intradiscal injection and biocompatibility of polyester amide microspheres in a canine model predisposed to intervertebral disc degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Nicole; Mihov, George; Grinwis, Guy C M; van Dijk, Maarten; Schumann, Detlef; Bos, Clemens; Strijkers, Gustav J; Dhert, Wouter J A; Meij, Björn P; Creemers, Laura B.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    Repair of degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) might be established via intradiscal delivery of biologic therapies. Polyester amide polymers (PEA) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, and thereafter intradiscal application of PEA microspheres (PEAMs) in a canine

  19. Safety of intradiscal injection and biocompatibility of polyester amide microspheres in a canine model predisposed to intervertebral disc degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Nicole; Mihov, George; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; van Dijk, Maarten; Schumann, Detlef; Bos, Clemens; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Meij, Björn P.; Creemers, Laura B.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Repair of degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) might be established via intradiscal delivery of biologic therapies. Polyester amide polymers (PEA) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, and thereafter intradiscal application of PEA microspheres (PEAMs) in a canine

  20. California State Implementation Plan; San Diego County Air Pollution Control District; VOC Emissions from Polyester Resin Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California SIP concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel tannase produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as solid support, and its promising role in gallic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abeer E; Fathy, Shadia A; Rashad, Mona M; Ezz, Magda K; Mohammed, Amira T

    2018-02-01

    Tannase is considered one of the most important industrial enzymes that find great applications in various sectors. Production of tannases through solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes is an eco-friendly and cheap technology. Tannase was produced by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as a solid support under SSF. It was purified using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation followed by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration resulting in 64.6% enzyme yield with 1026.12U/mg specific activity and 24.21 purification fold. Pure tannase had molecular weight of 65 KDa and 66.62 KDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. It showed a maximal activity at 35°C having two different pH optima, one of which is acidic (4.5) and the other one is alkaline (8.5). The enzyme was stable in the acidic range of pH (4.0-5.5) for 30min, and thermostable within the temperature range 30-70°C. Using tannic acid, the enzyme had a Km value of 0.77mM and Vmax of 263.20μmolemin -1 ml -1 . The effect of different metal ions on enzymatic activity was evaluated. HPLC analysis data indicated that the purified enzyme could carry out 24.65% tannic acid conversion with 5.25 folds increase in gallic acid concentration within 30min only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quasi-static axial crushes on woven jute/polyester AA6063T52 composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, AE

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-static axial loading have been studied in this paper to determine the behaviour of jute/polyester wrapped on aluminium alloy 6063T52. The filler material also was include into crush box specimen, which is polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) rigid foam at ranging 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities. All specimen profile was fabricated using hand layup techniques and the length of each specimen were fixed at 100 mm as well as diameter and width of the tube at 50.8 mm. The two types of tubular cross-section were studied of round and square thin-walled profiles and the angle of fibre at 450 were analysed for four layers. Thin walled of aluminium was 1.9 mm and end frontal of each specimen of composite were chamfered at 450 to prevent catastrophic failure mode. The specific absorbed energy (SEA) and crush force efficiency (CFE) were analyses for each specimen to see the behaviour on jute/polyester wrapped on metallic structure can give influence the energy management for automotive application. Result show that the four layers’ jute/polyester with filler material show significant value in term of specific absorbed energy compared empty and polyurethane profiles higher 26.66% for empty and 15.19% compared to polyurethane profiles. It has been found that the thin walled square profile of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 27.42% to 13.13% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. An introduce filler material onto thin walled composite profiles gave major advantage increases the mean axial load of 31.87% from 32.94 kN to 48.35 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled round jute/polyester profiles and 31.7% from 23.11 KN to 33.84 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled square jute/polyester profiles. Failure mechanisms of the axially loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of A. oryzae Cutinase: Enhanced Thermostability and Hydrolytic Activity of Synthetic Ester and Polyester Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Gosser, Yuying; Baker, Peter James; Ravee, Yaniv; Lu, Ziying; Alemu, Girum; Li, Huiguang; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Gross, Richard; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2009-01-01

    Cutinases are responsible for hydrolysis of the protective cutin lipid polyester matrix in plants and thus have been exploited for hydrolysis of small molecule esters and polyesters. Here we explore the reactivity, stability, and structure of Aspergillus oryzae cutinase and compare it to the well-studied enzyme from Fusarium solani. Two critical differences are highlighted in the crystallographic analysis of the A. oryzae structure: (i) an additional disulfide bond and (ii) a topologically fa...

  4. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  5. Development auxiliaries for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Fite, F. J.; Radei, S.

    2017-10-01

    High-molecular weight organic compounds known as carriers are widely used to expedite polyester dyeing at atmospheric pressure at 100 °C. However, carriers are usually poorly biodegradable and can partially plasticize fibres. Also, dyeing at temperatures above 100 °C in the absence of a carrier entails using expensive equipment. In this work, we developed an alternative method for dyeing polyester at temperatures below 100 °C that reduces energy expenses, dispenses with the need to invest in new equipment and avoids the undesirable effects of non-biodegradable carriers. The method uses disperse dyes in a microemulsion containing a low proportion of a non-toxic organic solvent and either of two alternative development auxiliaries (coumarin and o-vanillin) that is prepared with the aid of ultrasound.

  6. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ester amide from remewable resources through melt polycondensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs were synthesized from lactic acid and 11-aminoundecanoic acid via melt polycondensation. Molecular weights, chemical structures and thermal properties of the poly(ester amides were characterized in terms of gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively. The PEAs have low molecular weights and display a lower cold crystallization temperature as well as smaller crystallinity by comparison with the pure poly(lactic acid (PLA. The incorporation of the 11-aminoundecanoic acid into the PLA chain not only improved the thermal stability but changed the decomposition process.

  8. Technology change priorities influencing competition quality promotion: Case study of Iran Keaton Polyester Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Nour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the changing world with various customers’ demands the businesses tend to improve their advantages to beat their rivals by means of better quality, lower prices and so. For Iranian polyester market quality is of crucial importance and is achieved through changing and updating technologies. According to highly regarded model of CAPTECH, which is recommended by UNIDO, technology parameters are defined in each phase and not generally as a whole. In the end the biggest gaps are defined. The main goal is to prioritize the main parameters affecting Iranian polyester company's quality. In order to fulfill our goal, 20 high and medium managers were questioned for this paper. The questions were gathered according to UNIDO samples. After a qualitative and quantitative test we concluded that the biggest gap is for supply chain(56.91 and the lowest gap is for combination phase(43.97.

  9. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  10. Preparation of Acetylated Guar Gum – Unsaturated Polyester Composites & Effect of Water on Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D’Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum has seen extensive use in blends, however, its application as a filler in thermoset composites has as yet not been investigated. The effect of the addition of guar gum and its acetyl derivatives on the kinetics of water diffusion in unsaturated polyester composites was studied. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of the composites was studied with respect to the nature of filler, filler concentration and time of immersion. All the mechanical properties were observed to decrease on exposure to water. Further, it was observed that acetylated guar gum, with a degree of substitution of 0.21, showed the best mechanical properties, surpassing the other filled composites and that of the pure unsaturated polyester. Thus, acetylated guar gum showed promise as eco-friendly filler in composite formulation.

  11. Going greener: Synthesis of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters for styrene crosslinked resins with enhanced thermomechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. M. F. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was the development of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs that upon crosslinking with unsaturated monomers (UM could lead to greener unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs with similar thermomechanical properties to commercial fossil based UPR. After the successful synthesis of the biobased UPs, those were crosslinked with styrene (Sty, the most commonly used monomer, and the influence of the chemical structure of the UPs on the thermomechanical characteristics of UPRs were evaluated. The properties were compared with those of a commercial resin (Resipur 9837©. The BioUPRs presented high gel contents and contact angles that are similar to the commercial resin. The thermomechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and it was found that the UPR synthesized using propylene glycol (PG, succinic acid (SuAc and itaconic acid (ItAc presented very close thermomechanical properties compared to the commercial resin.

  12. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering on different polyester substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and different polyester substrates; namely polyarylate (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The influence of the substrate on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of the ITO layers was investigated. The sputtered films exhibited crystallization in the (2 2 2) orientation, with higher mean crystallite size and lower structural distortion onto PET than onto PA, PC or glass substrates. ITO films deposited onto PET showed also higher band gap energy, higher carrier concentration and lower resistivity than the ITO layers onto the other tested substrates. These optical and electrical characteristics have been related to the structural distortion that was found dependent on the specific polyester substrate

  13. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  14. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  15. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R SANJAY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  16. Polymeric blends from post-consumer PET and polyester becoming of glycerol and phthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Brioude, M.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of physical mixture or polymer blends is a very important method to obtain a final product with excellent balance of properties, where one component can compensate for the poor property of another, and is often a modified low cost compared to development and synthesis of a new polymer. PET has become a major waste of post-consumer plastics and aiming to remedy this problem, this work aims to obtain blends from recycled PET and polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid. The material with higher proportion of PET showed better thermal properties, observed by TGA and DSC, with a similar profile of pure PET. In XRD analysis showed a semicrystalline, while the SEM is a smooth surface on all materials, characteristic of pure polyester. The ratio of 50% its surface showed a probable immiscibility of polymers. (author)

  17. Manufacturing of kevlar/polyester composite by resin transfer moulding using conventional and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave heating was incorporated into the resin transfer moulding technique. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mould was used to cure the composite panel. Through the use of microwave heating, the mechanical and physical properties of produced Kevlar fibre/polyester composites were compared to those manufactured by conventional resin transfer moulding. The flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply conventionally cured composites was 45% and 9% higher than the flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply microwaved cured composites, respectively. However, 19% increase in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and 2% increase in compressive strength was observed in 6-ply microwave cured composites. This enhancement in ILSS and compressive strength is attributed to the better interfacial bonding of polyester resin with Kevlar fibres in microwaved cured composite, which was also confirmed via electron microscopy scanning. Furthermore, the microwave cured composite yielded maximum void contents (3%). (author)

  18. Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Todorov, T

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which an anisotropic grating that is due to photoinduced linear and circular birefringence is recorded in the volume of the material and a relief grating appears on the surface. A theoretical...... model is proposed to explain the experimental results, making it possible to understand the influence of the different photoinduced effects. It is shown that at low intensity the polarization properties of the diffraction at these gratings are determined by the interaction of the linear and circular...... photobirefringences, and at larger intensity the influence of the surface relief dominates the effect of the circular anisotropy. Owing to the high recording efficiency of the polyesters, the +/-1-order diffracted waves change the polarization interference pattern during the holographic recording, resulting...

  19. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of sub micron sized fly ash reinforced polyester resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha Kumar, P.; Rajadurai, A.; Muthuramalingam, T.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of particles reinforced resin matrix composites is being increased owing to its lower density and high strength to weight ratio. In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize fly ash particles reinforced polyester resin composite for engine cowling application. The thermal stability and mechanical behaviours such as hardness and flexural strength of the composite with 2, 3 and 4 weight % of reinforcement is studied and analyzed. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates that the higher addition of reinforcement increases the decomposition temperature due to its refractory nature. It is also observed that the hardness increases with higher filler addition owing to the resistance of FA particles towards penetration. The flexural strength is found to increase up to the addition of 3% of FA particles, whereas the polyester resin composite prepared with 4% FA particles addition is observed to have low flexural strength owing to agglomeration of particles.

  20. Hydrodynamic parameters of linear aromatic polyester of 3-phenylglutaric acid and bisphenol A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Schallausky, F.; Reichelt, S.; Lederer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2007), s. 285-300 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0659; GA AV ČR IAA400500703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chain parameters * linear polyester * size exclusion chromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2007

  1. Characterization of polyester composites from recycled polyethylene terephthalate reinforced with empty fruit bunch fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chiachun; Ahmad, Ishak; Heng, Muichin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled PET. → Effect of surface treatment on EFB/UPR was studied. → Treatment on EFB improved the mechanical and thermal properties. → Treatment on EFB also improved fiber-matrix interaction. -- Abstract: Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) which acted as a matrix for the preparation of UPR/empty fruit bunch fibers (EFB) composite. Chemical recycling on fine pieces of PET bottles were conducted through glycolysis process using ethylene glycol. The unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was then prepared by reacting the glycolysed product with maleic anhydride. FTIR analysis of glycolyzed product and prepared UPR showed that cross-links between unsaturated polyester chain and styrene monomer occurred at the unsaturated sites which resulted in the forming of cross-linking network. The preparation of UPR/EFB composite was carried out by adding EFB into prepared UPR matrix. The effects of surface treatment on EFB with sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), silane coupling agent and maleic anhydride (MA) were then studied. The experimental results showed that treated EFB have higher values of tensile and impact strength compared with untreated EFB. The best results were obtained for silane treatment followed by MA and NaOH treatments where the tensile strength was increased by about 21%, 18% and 13% respectively. SEM micrographs of the tensile fracture surfaces of UPR/EFB composite also proved that treatment on EFB has increased the interfacial adhesion between the fiber and UPR matrix compared to the untreated UPR/EFB composite.

  2. Observation of hairpin defects in a nematic main-chain polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.

    1993-04-01

    The conformation of a main-chain liquid crystalline polyester in its oriented nematic phase has been determined by small-angle neutron scattering. The data are fitted by a model of rigid cylinder with orientational fluctuations. For a low degree of polymerization (~9) the chain is almost completely elongated in the direction of the nematic field. For a polymer 3 times longer, the existence of two hairpins is shown at high temperature; this number decreases with decreasing temperature.

  3. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Olivato, J. B.; Grossmann, M. V. E.; Bilck, A. P.; Yamashita, F.; Oliveira, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability) was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA) as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more des...

  4. Side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, F.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report erasable holographic recording with a resolution of at least 2500 lines/mm on unoriented films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters. Recording energies of approximately 1 J/cm2 have been used. We have obtained a diffraction efficiency of approximately 30% with polarization record...... recording of holograms. The holograms can be erased by heating them to approximately 80-degrees-C for approximately 2 min and are available for rerecording....

  5. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, par...

  6. Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccoli, L.; Müller, U.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, September (2017), s. 29-36 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : rammed earth * pseudo-dynamic loads * shear-compression tests * strengthening * polyester fabric strips Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817310000

  7. Polyester-Based, Biodegradable Core-Multishell Nanocarriers for the Transport of Hydrophobic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A. Walker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble, core-multishell (CMS nanocarrier based on a new hyperbranched polyester core building block was synthesized and characterized towards drug transport and degradation of the nanocarrier. The hydrophobic drug dexamethasone was encapsulated and the enzyme-mediated biodegradability was investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The new CMS nanocarrier can transport one molecule of dexamethasone and degrades within five days at a skin temperature of 32 °C to biocompatible fragments.

  8. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  9. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  10. Packed in-tube solid phase microextraction with graphene oxide supported on aminopropyl silica: Determination of target triazines in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffoli, Ana L; Fumes, Bruno H; Lanças, Fernando M

    2018-02-22

    On-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was successfully applied to the determination of selected triazines in water samples. The method based on the employment of a packed column containing graphene oxide (GO) supported on aminopropyl silica (Si) showed that the extraction phase has a high potential for triazines extraction aiming to its physical-chemical properties including ultrahigh specific surface area, good mechanical and thermal stability and high fracture strength. Injection volume and loading time were both investigated and optimized. The method validation using Si-GO to extract and concentrate the analytes showed satisfactory results, good sensitivity, good linearity (0.2-4.0 µg L -1 ) and low detection limits (1.1-2.9 ng L -1 ). The high extraction efficiency was determined with enrichment factors ranging from 1.2-2.9 for the lowest level, 1.3-4.9 intermediate level and 1.2-3.0 highest level (n = 3). Although the analytes were not detected in the real samples evaluated, the method has demonstrated to be efficient through its application in the analysis of spiked triazines in ground and mineral water samples.

  11. Fabrication and tests of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell; Fabricacao e testes de celula a combustivel de oxido solido suportada no anodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, D.Z. de [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dzflorio@ipen.br; Fonseca, F.C.; Franca, Y.V.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Muccillo, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berton, M.A.C.; Garcia, C.M. [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A laboratory setup was designed and put into operation for the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Ceramic single cells were fabricated by low-cost methods, and emphasis was given to the use of ready available raw materials. The whole project consisted of the preparation of the component materials - anode, cathode, and electrolyte - and the buildup of a hydrogen leaking-free sample chamber with platinum leads and current collectors for measuring the electrochemical properties of single SOFCs. Anode-supported single SOFCs of the type (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + NiO) anode / (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) electrolyte / (La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} + ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cathode have been prepared and tested at 700 deg C and 800 deg C after in situ H{sub 2} anode reduction. The main results show that the slurry coating method resulted in single-cells with good reproducibility and reasonable performance, suggesting that this method can be considered for fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  12. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weimin; Liu Jiang; Zhang Yaohui

    2008-01-01

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 ) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3 (LSCF)-La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3-δ (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-μm thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-μm thick La 0.4 Ce 0.6 O 1.8 (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H 2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm -2 at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation

  13. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Weimin [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Liu Jiang [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: jiangliu@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Yaohui [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2008-05-20

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9}) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF)-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-{mu}m thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-{mu}m thick La{sub 0.4}Ce{sub 0.6}O{sub 1.8} (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H{sub 2} as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm{sup -2} at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation.

  14. Tandem mass spectrometry characteristics of polyester anions and cations formed by electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Mark A; Buehner, Rita W; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Vargas, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization of polyesters composed of isophthalic acid and neopentyl glycol produces carboxylate anions in negative mode and mainly sodium ion adducts in positive mode. A tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) study of these ions in a quadrupole ion trap shows that the collisionally activated dissociation pathways of the anions are simpler than those of the corresponding cations. Charge-remote fragmentations predominate in both cases, but the spectra obtained in negative mode are devoid of the complicating cation exchange observed in positive mode. MS/MS of the Na(+) adducts gives rise to a greater number of fragments but not necessarily more structural information. In either positive or negative mode, polyester oligomers with different end groups fragment by similar mechanisms. The observed fragments are consistent with rearrangements initiated by the end groups. Single-stage ESI mass spectra also are more complex in positive mode because of extensive H/Na substitutions; this is also true for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectra. Hence, formation and analysis of anions might be the method of choice for determining block length, end group structure and copolymer sequence, provided the polyester contains at least one carboxylic acid end group that is ionizable to anions.

  15. Preparation and properties of aromatic polyester/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites from polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonardo Moreira dos; Carone, Carlos Leonardo Pandolfo; Einloft, Sandra Mara Oliveira; Ligabue, Rosane Angelica, E-mail: rligabue@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2016-01-15

    The development of polyester based materials with enhanced properties as well as the use of post- consumer plastics as raw material has been an increasing market demand. This work aims the synthesis and characterization of aromatic polyesters/titanium dioxide nanocomposites from PET and using TiO{sub 2} (0, 1, 3 and 5% w/w) as filler by in situ polymerization. The results obtained by DSC, XRD and FTIR analyzes evidenced an interaction between the OH groups on the TiO{sub 2} surface with the ester groups of the polymer leading to decrease of the polymer crystallinity and of hydrophilicity. By SEM images was possible to note a homogeneous distribution of the filler into polymer matrix with 1%w/w TiO{sub 2} (average particle size of 199 nm), however for larger amounts of filler (3 and 5% TiO{sub 2}) revealed the aggregates formation. The results showed an improvement of thermal properties and hardness of the nanocomposites containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles compared to pristine polyester. (author)

  16. Development of sugar palm yarn/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Khalina, A.; Sapuan, S. Mohd; Rahmah, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of fibre hybridization for sugar palm yarn fibre with glass fibre reinforced with unsaturated polyester composites. In this work, unsaturated polyester resin are reinforced with fibre at a ratio of 70:30 wt% and 60:40 wt%. The hybrid composites were characterized in terms of physical (density and water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural and compression) and thermal properties through thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). Density determination showed that density increased with higher wt% of glass fibre. The inherently higher density of glass fibre increased the density of hybrid composite. Resistance to water absorption is improved upon the incorporation of glass fibre and the hybrid composites were found to reach equilibrium absorption at days 4 and 5. As for mechanical performance, the highest tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and compression strength were obtained from 40 wt% of fibres reinforcement with ratio of 50:50 wt% of sugar palm yarn fibre and glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The increase of glass fibre loading had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties to the composites structure due to its superior strength and modulus. The thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved by the increase of onset temperature and the reduction of residues upon increase in temperature.

  17. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordoghli, Bessem [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Khiari, Ramzi, E-mail: khiari_ramzi2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Sakli, Faouzi [Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur [LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO{sub 3}H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  18. The effect of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Chu, Zhaowei; Li, Xiaoming; Ding, Xili; Guo, Meng; Zhao, Haoran; Yao, Jie; Wang, Lizhen; Cai, Qiang; Fan, Yubo

    2017-06-01

    Aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been the most widely used synthetic polymers for developing biodegradable devices as alternatives for the currently used permanent medical devices. The performances during biodegradation process play crucial roles for final realization of their functions. Because physiological and biochemical environment in vivo significantly affects biodegradation process, large numbers of studies on effects of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been launched during last decades. In this review article, we discussed the mechanism of biodegradation and several different mechanical loads that have been reported to affect the biodegradation process. Other physiological and biochemical factors related to mechanical loads were also discussed. The mechanical load could change the conformational strain energy and morphology to weaken the stability of the polymer. Besides, the load and pattern could accelerate the loss of intrinsic mechanical properties of polymers. This indicated that investigations into effects of mechanical loads on the degradation should be indispensable. More combination condition of mechanical loads and multiple factors should be considered in order to keep the degradation rate controllable and evaluate the degradation process in vivo accurately. Only then can the degradable devise achieve the desired effects and further expand the special applications of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

  19. Thread angle dependency on flame spread shape over kenaf/polyester combined fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari Razali, Mohd; Sapit, Azwan; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Nor Anuar Mohamad, Md; Nordin, Normayati; Sadikin, Azmahani; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Khalid, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Understanding flame spread behavior is crucial to Fire Safety Engineering. It is noted that the natural fiber exhibits different flame spread behavior than the one of the synthetic fiber. This different may influences the flame spread behavior over combined fabric. There is a research has been done to examined the flame spread behavior over kenaf/polyester fabric. It is seen that the flame spread shape is dependent on the thread angle dependency. However, the explanation of this phenomenon is not described in detail in that research. In this study, explanation about this phenomenon is given in detail. Results show that the flame spread shape is dependent on the position of synthetic thread. For thread angle, θ = 0°, the polyester thread is breaking when the flame approach to the thread and the kenaf thread tends to move to the breaking direction. This behavior produces flame to be ‘V’ shape. However, for thread angle, θ = 90°, the polyester thread melts while the kenaf thread decomposed and burned. At this angle, the distance between kenaf threads remains constant as flame approaches.

  20. Biodegradable polyesters reinforced with triclosan loaded polylactide micro/nanofibers: Properties, release and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. del Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties and drug release behavior were studied for three biodegradable polyester matrices (polycaprolactone, poly(nonamethylene azelate and the copolymer derived from 1,9-nonanediol and an equimolar mixture of azelaic and pimelic acids reinforced with polylactide (PLA fibers. Electrospinning was used to produce suitable mats constituted by fibers of different diameters (i.e. from micro- to nanoscale and a homogeneous dispersion of a representative hydrophobic drug (i.e. triclosan. Fabrics were prepared by a molding process, which allowed cold crystallization of PLA micro/nanofibers and hot crystallization of the polyester matrices. The orientation of PLA molecules during electrospinning favored the crystallization process, which was slightly enhanced when the diameter decreased. Incorporation of PLA micro/nanofibers led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus and tensile strength, and in general to a decrease in the strain at break. The brittle fracture was clearer when high molecular weight samples with high plastic deformation were employed. Large differences in the release behavior were detected depending on the loading process, fiber diameter size and hydrophobicity of the polyester matrix. The release of samples with the drug only loaded into the reinforcing fibers was initially fast and then became slow and sustained, resulting in longer lasting antimicrobial activity. Biocompatibility of all samples studied was demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays using HEp-2 cell cultures.

  1. 3D printing of new biobased unsaturated polyesters by microstereo-thermal-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Filipa A M M; Costa, Cátia S M F; Fabela, Inês G P; Simões, Pedro N; Serra, Arménio C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Farinha, Dina; Faneca, Henrique; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2014-01-01

    New micro three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs) were prepared by microstereo-thermal-lithography (μSTLG). This advanced processing technique offers indubitable advantages over traditional printing methods. The accuracy and roughness of the 3D structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy, revealing a suitable roughness for cell attachment. UPs were synthesized by bulk polycondensation between biobased aliphatic diacids (succinic, adipic and sebacic acid) and two different glycols (propylene glycol and diethylene glycol) using fumaric acid as the source of double bonds. The chemical structures of the new oligomers were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The thermal and mechanical properties of the UPs were evaluated to determine the influence of the diacid/glycol ratio and the type of diacid in the polyester’s properties. In addition an extensive thermal characterization of the polyesters is reported. The data presented in this work opens the possibility for the use of biobased polyesters in additive manufacturing technologies as a route to prepare biodegradable tailor made scaffolds that have potential applications in a tissue engineering area. (paper)

  2. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohdy, Maged H. [Department of Radiation Chemistry, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: mhzohdy@yahoo.com

    2005-06-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes.

  3. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, Maged H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes

  4. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordoghli, Bessem; Khiari, Ramzi; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Sakli, Faouzi; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. ► The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. ► We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO 3 H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  5. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  6. Construction of 2D transparent micromodels in polyester resin with porosity similar to carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emilio Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic visualization, especially in transparent micromodels, can provide valuable information to understand the transport phenomena at pore scale in different process occurring in porous materials (food, timber, soils, etc.. Micromodels studies focus mainly on the observation of multi-phase flow, which presents a greater proximity to reality. The aim of this study was to study the process of flexography and its application in the manufacture of polyester resin transparent micromodels and its application to carrots. Materials used to implement a flexo station for micromodels construction were thermoregulated water bath, exposure chamber to UV light, photosensitive substance (photopolymer, RTV silicone polyester resin, and glass plates. In this paper, data on size distribution of a particular kind of carrot we used, and a transparent micromodel with square cross-section as well as a Log-normal pore size distribution with pore radii ranging from 10 to 110 µm (average of 22 µm and micromodel size of 10 × 10 cm were built. Finally, it stresses that it has successfully implemented the protocol processing 2D polyester resin transparent micromodels.

  7. Polyurethane coating from prepolymers and Crambe oil polyesters in oxygenates and green solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Elaine R.P.; Messaddeq, Younes; Polito, Wagner Luiz; Matinelli, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The PU coatings are extremely used in areas that require high-performance. For several applications PU resin, the solvent base is commonly used, the problem is the solvents with high content of volatile organic compounds (VCO) like: toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.. In this work, we were synthesized and characterized four kinds of prepolymers with low-VCO from renewable sources such as castor oil and crambe oil with oxygenate and green solvents. The PU prepolymers had been synthesized in the proportions NCO/OH 2:1 and 3:1. The curing process was carried out with atmospheric moisture in the films. Characterization was made from prepolymers, oligomers and polyesters and PU films by FTIR, TGA / DTA, NMR, GPC and GC-FID, besides this the coatings were applied on aluminum and glass plates and, subjected to analysis chamber saline, hardness and adhesion. The results indicated that the reaction occurred between the prepolymers with oligomers or polyesters, because disappearance of the NCO band at 2270 cm"-"1. The PU films showed good thermal stability (> 270 °C), high tensile strength and deformation. Surround the formulations, the PU films with HDI prepolymers showed the best results with polyesters from crambe oil (PEC 02 and PEC 03). (author)

  8. Thermal Aging of Unsaturated Polyester Composite Reinforced with E-Glass Nonwoven Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Milon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out using glass fiber (GF as reinforcing materials with unsaturated polyester matrix to fabricate composite by hand layup technique. Four layers of GF were impregnated by polyester resin and pressed under a load of 5 kg for 20 hours. The prepared composite samples were treated by prolonged exposure to heat for 1 hour at 60-150°C and compared with untreated GF-polyester composite. Different mechanical test of the fabricated composite were investigated. The experiment depicted significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the fabricated composite resulted from the heat treatment. The maximum tensile strength of 200.6 MPa is found for 90°C heat-treated sample. The mechanical properties of the composite do seem to be very affected negatively above 100°C. Water uptake of the composite was carried out and thermal stability of the composite was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and it was found that the composite is stable up to 600°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the characteristic bond in the composite. Finally, the excellent elevated heat resistant capacity of glass-fiber-reinforced polymeric composite shows the suitability of its application to heat exposure areas such as kitchen furniture materials, marine, and electric board.

  9. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Sun, Kaikai; Hu, Xili; Wang, Yujiao; Xu, Xiaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  10. High Throughput Screening of Valganciclovir in Acidic Microenvironments of Polyester Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teilo Schaller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polycaprolactone (PCL, or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants. To investigate the drug release, we established and evaluated a high throughput fluorescence-based quantification screening assay for the detection of valganciclovir. Our protocol allows quantifying as little as 20 ng of valganciclovir in 96-well polypropylene plates and a 50× faster analysis compared to traditional HPLC measurements. This improvement can hence be extrapolated to other polyester matrix thin film formulations using a high-throughput approach. The acidic microenvironment within the polyester matrix was found to protect valganciclovir from degradation with resultant increases in the half-life of the drug in the periocular implant to 100 days. Linear release profiles were obtained using the pure polyester polymers for 10 days and 60 days formulations; however, gross phase separations of PCL and acid-terminated PLGA prevented tuning within these timeframes due to the phase separation of the polymer, valganciclovir, or both.

  11. Dsc cure kinetics of an unsaturated polyester resin using empirical kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of curing of unsaturated polyester resin initiated with benzoyl peroxide was studied. In case of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, isothermal test alone could not predict correctly the curing time of UP resin. Therefore, isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconventional adjustment was used to correctly predict the curing time and temperature of UP resin. Isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconversional adjustment indicated that 97% of UP resin cures in 33 min at 120 degree C. Curing of UP resin through microwaves was also studied and found that 67% of UP resin cures in 1 min at 120 degree C. The crosslinking reaction of UP resin is so fast at 120 degree C that it becomes impossible to predict correctly the curing time of UP resin using isothermal test and the burial of C=C bonds in microgels makes it impossible to be fully cured by microwaves at 120 degree C. The rheological behaviour of unsaturated polyester resin was also studied to observe the change in viscosity with respect to time and temperature. (author)

  12. Solid wood timber products consumption in major end uses in the United States, 1950-2009 : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; James L. Howard

    2011-01-01

    Solid wood timber products provide important raw materials to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping sectors of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new single-family houses and low-rise multifamily residential structures are wood framed and sheathed. Large amounts of solid wood timber products are also used in the construction of new nonresidential buildings, and in...

  13. Modelling of non-catalytic reactors in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor: Dry, regenerative flue gas desulphurization using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-phase dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe the steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In this reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with as downward-flowing dilute solids phase

  14. Nucleation Mechanisms of Aromatic Polyesters, PET, PBT, and PEN, on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: Early Nucleation Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Espinoza-Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation mechanisms of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, and poly(ethylene naphthalate (PEN on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs are proposed, based on experimental evidence, theoretical epitaxy analysis, and semiempirical quantum chemical calculations. In order to elucidate early nucleation stages polyester-coated nanotubes were obtained from highly diluted solutions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM revealed helical morphologies for PET/SWNTs and PEN/SWNTs and the formation of lobules with different orientations for PBT/SWNTs. To explain the morphological behavior one model was proposed based on crystallographic interactions, that is, epitaxy. Theoretical epitaxy calculations indicated that epitaxy is not possible from the strict epitaxy point of view. Instead, aromatic self-assembly mechanism was proposed based on π-π interactions and the chirality of the nanotube. It was proposed that the mechanism implies two steps to produce helical or lobular morphologies with different orientations. In the first step polymer chains were approached, aligned parallel to the nanotube axis and adsorbed due to electrostatic interactions and the flexibility of the molecule. However, due to π-π interactions between the aromatic rings of the polymer and the nanotube, in the second step chains reoriented on the nanotube surface depending on the chirality of the nanotube. The mechanism was supported by semi-empirical calculations.

  15. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  16. Processing of composites based on NiO, samarium-doped ceria and carbonates (NiO-SDCC as anode support for solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Siong Mahmud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available NiO-SDCC composites consisting of NiO mixed with Sm-doped ceria (SDC and carbonates (Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 were sintered at different temperatures and reduced at 550 °C. The influence of reduction on structure of the NiO-SDCC anode support for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs was investigated. Raman spectra of the NiO-SDCC samples sintered at 500, 600 and 700 °C showed that after reducing at 550 °C NiO was reduced to Ni. In addition, SDC and carbonates (Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 did not undergo chemical transformation after reduction and were still detected in the samples. However, no Raman modes of carbonates were identified in the NiO-SDCC pellet sintered at 1000 °C and reduced at 550 °C. It is suspected that carbonates were decomposed at high sintering temperature and eliminated due to the reaction between the CO32– and hydrogen ions during reduction in humidified gases at 550 °C. The carbonate decomposition increased porosity in the Ni-SDCC pellets and consequently caused formation of brittle and fragile structure unappropriated for SOFC application. Because of that composite NiO-SDC samples without carbonates were also analysed to determine the factors affecting the crack formation. In addition, it was shown that the different reduction temperatures also influenced the microstructure and porosity of the pellets. Thus, it was observed that Ni-SDC pellet reduced at 800 °C has higher electrical conductivity of well-connected microstructures and sufficient porosity than the pellet reduced at 550 °C.

  17. Preparation of silica-supported carbon by Kraft lignin pyrolysis, and its use in solid-phase extraction of fluoroquinolones from environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Mandelli, Elettra; Dondi, Daniele; Profumo, Antonella; Vadivel, Dhanalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a carbon-based material for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of fluoroquinolones from waters. It was obtained by pyrolytic deposition of Kraft lignin (LG) on silica particles. Marbofloxacin (MAR) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were chosen as model contaminants. The material was prepared by first adsorbing LG onto silica microparticles, this followed by pyrolytic treatment at 1200 °C for 2 h. Silica-supported carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurement (by BET), thermogravimetric analysis, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The carbon-coated silica particles were then tested as a column packing for SPE of MAR and ENR from spiked tap and river waters. Quantitative adsorption was observed at pH values of ∼7.5 for both drugs. They were eluted with a 70:30 mixture of aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile and then quantified by HPLC coupled to fluorescence detection. Samples spiked with MAR and ENR in the range from 10 to 1000 ng·L"−"1 gave recoveries ranging from 70 to 116% (for n = 3). Good inter-day precision (with RSDs between 7 and 16%) was observed for 20–1000 ng·L"−"1 spikes, also in natural river water. Sample volumes up to 500 mL provided enrichment factors up to 125, and this makes this material useful for determination of the two drugs at environmentally significant levels which are as low as a few ng·L"−"1. The batch-to-batch reproducibility was verified for 3 preparations. The sorbent was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in environmental waters. (author)

  18. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  19. Study on Energy Absorption Capacity of Steel-Polyester Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete Under Uni-axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella Gifta, C.; Prabavathy, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents the energy absorption capacity of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete made with hooked end steel fibers (0.5 and 0.75%) and straight polyester fibers (0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0%). Compressive toughness (energy absorption capacity) under uni-axial compression was evaluated on 100 × 200 mm size cylindrical specimens with varying steel and polyester fiber content. Efficiency of the hybrid fiber reinforcement is studied with respect to fiber type, size and volume fractions in this investigation. The vertical displacement under uni-axial compression was measured under the applied loads and the load-deformation curves were plotted. From these curves the toughness values were calculated and the results were compared with steel and polyester as individual fibers. The hybridization of 0.5% steel + 0.5% polyester performed well in post peak region due to the addition of polyester fibers with steel fibers and the energy absorption value was 23% greater than 0.5% steel FRC. Peak stress values were also higher in hybrid series than single fiber and based on the results it is concluded that hybrid fiber reinforcement improves the toughness characteristics of concrete without affecting workability.

  20. The Degradation of Mechanical Properties in Halloysite Nano clay-Polyester Nano composites Exposed in Seawater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharudin, M.S.; Saharudin, M. Sh.; Wei, J.; Shyha, I.; Inam, F.

    2016-01-01

    Polyester based polymers are extensively used in aggressive marine environments; however, inadequate data is available on the effects of the seawater on the polyester based nano composites mechanical properties. This paper reports the effect of seawater absorption on the mechanical properties degradation of halloysite nano clay-polyester nano composites. Results confirmed that the addition of halloysite nano clay into polyester matrix was found to increase seawater uptake and reduce mechanical properties compared to monolithic polyester. The maximum decreases in microhardness, tensile and flexural properties, and impact toughness were observed in case of 1 wt% nano clay. The microhardness decreased from 107 HV to 41.7 HV (61% decrease). Young s modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.4 GPa (33% decrease). The flexural modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.34 GPa (43% decrease). The impact toughness dropped from 0.71 kJ/m"2 to 0.48 kJ/m"2 (32% decrease). Interestingly, the fracture toughnessκ_1C increased with the addition of halloysite nano clay due to the plasticization effect of the resin matrix. SEM images revealed the significant reduction in mechanical properties in case of 1 wt% reinforcement which is attributed to the degradation of the nano clay-matrix interface influenced by seawater absorption and agglomeration of halloysite nano clay.