Sample records for solid rig

  1. Rig it right! Maya animation rigging concepts

    O'Hailey, Tina


    Rigging a character can be a complicated undertaking. Move from a bi-pedal character to a quad- or poly-pedal and, well, things just got real. Where do you begin? Unlike all of those button-pushing manuals out there, Rig it Right! breaks down rigging so that you can achieve a fundamental understanding of the concept, allowing you to rig more intuitively in your own work. Veteran animation professor Tina O'Hailey will get you up and rigging in a matter of hours with step-by-step tutorials covering multiple animation control types, connection methods, interactive skinning, Blend

  2. The art of rigging

    Biddlecombe, George


    The best manual ever produced on rigging a sailing ship, based on extensively revised and updated 1848 edition prepared by Biddlecombe, Master in the Royal Navy. Complete definition of terms, on-shore operations, process of rigging ships, reeving the running rigging and bending sails, rigging brigs, yachts and small vessels, more. 17 plates.

  3. What Really Rigs Up RIG-I?

    Barik, Sailen


    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1) is an archetypal member of the cytoplasmic DEAD-box dsRNA helicase family (RIG-I-like receptors or RLRs), the members of which play essential roles in the innate immune response of the metazoan cell. RIG-I functions as a pattern recognition receptor that detects nonself RNA as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). However, the exact molecular nature of the viral RNAs that act as a RIG-I ligand has remained a mystery and a matter of debate. In this article, we offer a critical review of the actual viral RNAs that act as PAMPs to activate RIG-I, as seen from the perspective of a virologist, including a recent report that the viral Leader-read-through transcript is a novel and effective RIG-I ligand.

  4. Essays on bid rigging

    Seres, Gyula


    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in industrialize

  5. Cell performance, impedance, and various resistances measurements of an anode-supported button cell using a new pressurized solid oxide fuel cell rig at 1-5 atm and 750-850 °C

    Wu, P. C.; Shy, S. S.


    We report a novel pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) rig that overcomes the stagnation flow problem in classic button cell setups, allowing fuel and air to distribute uniformly over anode and cathode surfaces. Power and impedance measurements of an anode-supported full button cell (ASC; NiO-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-GDC-LSM) operated at p = 1-5 atm and T = 750-850 °C show that both pressurization and increasing temperature enhance the cell performance, which are explained by the Nyquist plots consisted of a high frequency arc with characteristic frequencies (fc) around 100-1000 Hz relating to the cathode activation overvoltage and a low frequency arc with fc around 10-30 Hz corresponding to the anode concentration overvoltage. The activation overvoltage decreases with increasing p and/or T, while the concentration overvoltage decreases with increasing p but rather insensitive to T. We find that the activation overvoltage is the major source for the polarization resistances contributing 63%-82% depending on pressure, temperature, and current density, while the concentration overvoltage is a minor one contributing 18%-37% for the present ASC. These results and the rig should be useful for our understanding and further studies of pressurized SOFCs.

  6. Heisenberg model and Rigged Configurations

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan


    We show a correspondence of all the solutions of the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model for N=12 to the rigged configurations based on the comparison of the set of Takahashi quantum numbers in lexicographical order with the set of riggings of the rigged configurations in co-lexicographical order.

  7. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)


    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  8. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.


    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  9. Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)



    This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

  10. COSL Signs Rig Equipment Contract with US Company


    @@ China Oilfield Services Limited (COSL), the leading integrated oilfield services provider in China for the offshore oil market, has recently signed an equipment purchase contract with the US-based National Oilwell L.P. Under the US$30-million contract, National Oilwell provide four sets of equipment for COSL's new 400-feet jack-up drilling rig under construction, consisting of a drilling system, a mud mixing and solid controlling system,a BOP handling system and a rig jacking system.National Oilwell will provide the drilling system on EPC basis, including its design, construction,equipment supply and commissioning.

  11. PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual

    Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.


    This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

  12. Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document



    This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

  13. Rotary Engine Friction Test Rig Development Report


    5  4.  Friction Rig Development 7  5.  AutoCAD ...Figure 4. Engine friction test rig AutoCAD model. ........................................................................8  Figure 5. dead center. 8 5. AutoCAD Model Development A model of the rotary engine friction test rig was developed to determine the optimal

  14. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    Suchanecki, Z. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]|[Hugo Steinhaus Center and Institute of Mathematics, Wrocl/aw Technical University, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Antoniou, I. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]|[Theoretische Natuurkunde Free University of Brussels; Tasaki, S. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and]|[Institute for Fundamental Chemistry 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho Kyoto 606 (Japan); Bandtlow, O.F. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]|[Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom)


    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Design and Analysis of Tooth Impact Test Rig for Spur Gear

    Ghazali, Wafiuddin Bin Md; Aziz, Ismail Ali Bin Abdul; Daing Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Bin; Ismail, Nurazima Binti; Sofian, Azizul Helmi Bin


    This paper is about the design and analysis of a prototype of tooth impact test rig for spur gear. The test rig was fabricated and analysis was conducted to study its’ limitation and capabilities. The design of the rig is analysed to ensure that there will be no problem occurring during the test and reliable data can be obtained. From the result of the analysis, the maximum amount of load that can be applied, the factor of safety of the machine, the stresses on the test rig parts were determined. This is important in the design consideration of the test rig. The materials used for the fabrication of the test rig were also discussed and analysed. MSC Nastran Patran software was used to analyse the model, which was designed by using SolidWorks 2014 software. Based from the results, there were limitations found from the initial design and the test rig design needs to be improved in order for the test rig to operate properly.

  16. A new concept drilling hoisting systems rigs

    Jan Artymiuk


    Full Text Available In rig constructions two nev designs have been introduced apart from the conventional hoisting system. The first one is the Maritime Hydraulics A.S RamRig© drilling concept, based on hydraulic cylinders as actuators powered by up to 3.4 MW of hydraulic power in a closed loop hydraulic system. This synthesis of the well-known technology allows for the use of integrated active and passive heave compensation, as well as the storing and reuse of energy from the lowering phase of an operation. The RamRig concept makes mechanical brakes and clutches obsolete, since hoisting and lowering of the load is controlled solely by the closed loop hydraulics. This decreases the number of critical mechanical components in the hoisting system to a minimum. Safe handling and emergency shut down of extreme amounts of hydraulic power is taking care of by cartridge valves, which make rerouting of hydraulic power possible with minor losses of transferred effect.The second is a new land rig concept based on a patented rack & pinion drive system with a new generation of rigs which can instantly switch between the workover, drilling and the snubbing operations. The new rig concept has a direct drive, thus no drill line. The mobilization time is reduced as the rig has fewer truck loads, a faster rig up and a higher automation level. One land rig currently under construction will be the world’s first single operator unit, with a full pipe handling capability and a fully automated control system. The rig is fully equipped with the 250 T top drive which can be used for the rotation and snubbing, the purpose designed snubbing slips and other features supporting the multifunctional well operations. The paper will focus on features related to the land rig under construction, and how it may reduce the operational cost and improve the well performance.

  17. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  18. China-made Rigs Enter International Market

    Zhang Yongze; Chen Liren


    @@ Nowadays, China's drilling equipment manufacturing has formed into a sophisticated industrial chain, playing an indispensable role in supporting China's petroleum industry. Especially in recent years, apart from satisfying the requirements of domestic onshore drilling operations,the state-of-the-art drilling equipments like offshore modular drilling rigs, 9000 meter ultra-deep rigs have also been successfully manufactured, this, together with the wholesale export of electric drilling rigs to the overseas market, has ranked China as a primary manufacturer of drilling equipments in the world. China can now wholesale produce series of onshore and offshore drilling equipment with rig production of nearly 200 per year.The production capacity accounts for 20%-25% of the world total. In addition to satisfying domestic market,China made onshore drilling rigs have also gained great competitive advantages in the international market.

  19. 38th annual Reed rig census

    Fitts, R.L.; Crowhurst, M.E. (Market Research and Analysis, Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (US))


    According to this report, sharp and encouraging movement toward a balance between rig supply and demand is becoming apparent. During the past year, contractors reported the number of rigs available for drilling in the U.S. fell by 222 (8.7%). Contractors also reported that rigs meeting the census definition of active increased by 233 (16.1%). Highlights of the 1990 census, presented by the authors, include: The available U.S. fleet now stands at 2,320 rigs, the lowest since 1976. Last year's count was 2,542. The census active count of 1,677 rigs is the highest since 1985 and up from 1,444 last year. Rig utilization increased to 72%, up from the 57% a year ago. The number of rig owners declined from 558 to 500. More than 190 companies have left the drilling business since 1987. About 6.5% of last year's fleet was cannibalized or auctioned as parts.

  20. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G


    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  1. Learning Inverse Rig Mappings by Nonlinear Regression.

    Holden, Daniel; Saito, Jun; Komura, Taku


    We present a framework to design inverse rig-functions - functions that map low level representations of a character's pose such as joint positions or surface geometry to the representation used by animators called the animation rig. Animators design scenes using an animation rig, a framework widely adopted in animation production which allows animators to design character poses and geometry via intuitive parameters and interfaces. Yet most state-of-the-art computer animation techniques control characters through raw, low level representations such as joint angles, joint positions, or vertex coordinates. This difference often stops the adoption of state-of-the-art techniques in animation production. Our framework solves this issue by learning a mapping between the low level representations of the pose and the animation rig. We use nonlinear regression techniques, learning from example animation sequences designed by the animators. When new motions are provided in the skeleton space, the learned mapping is used to estimate the rig controls that reproduce such a motion. We introduce two nonlinear functions for producing such a mapping: Gaussian process regression and feedforward neural networks. The appropriate solution depends on the nature of the rig and the amount of data available for training. We show our framework applied to various examples including articulated biped characters, quadruped characters, facial animation rigs, and deformable characters. With our system, animators have the freedom to apply any motion synthesis algorithm to arbitrary rigging and animation pipelines for immediate editing. This greatly improves the productivity of 3D animation, while retaining the flexibility and creativity of artistic input.

  2. Optical Micro- and Nanofiber Pulling Rig

    Ward, J M; Le, Vu H; Chormaic, S Nic


    We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ~ 99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions greater than 90% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained.

  3. Ergonomic exposure on a drilling rig

    Jensen, Carsten; Jensen, Chris

    , absence from work due to other health problems may not show a similar trend towards lower absenteeism. Sickness absence was reported by Maersk Contractors to have increased among their drilling rig personnel in the Danish Sector of the North Sea from 2000 to 2004 (Steffensen 2005). Their statistics were....... In a relatively old study on American drilling rigs it was indicated that lower back problems was a frequent cause of absence (Clemmer et al. 1991). Most of the incidents causing lower back injuries were associated with heavy lifting or pushing/pulling objects by roustabouts, floorhands, derrickmen and welders...

  4. Design and Characterization of a Centrifugal Compressor Surge Test Rig


    A detailed description of a new centrifugal compressor surge test rig is presented. The objective of the design and development of the rig is to study the surge phenomenon in centrifugal compression systems and to investigate a novel method of surge control by active magnetic bearing servo actuation of the impeller axial tip clearance. In this paper, we focus on the design, initial setup, and testing of the rig. The latter two include the commissioning of the rig and the experimental characte...

  5. Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig

    Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance


    Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

  6. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Roth, M. [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)


    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  7. Largest Contract for Rig Export Wound up Successfully


    @@ In mid-November, the last drilling rig, typed ZJ50DBA,of the 10-rig deal was packed and transported to Uzbekistan from Chuanyou Guanghan Honghua Co Ltd, a drilling equipment producer under Sichuan Petroleum Administration Bureau, putting an end to China's largest contract for export of drilling rigs.

  8. Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) Independent Review

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smiles, Michael D.; George, Mark A.; Ton, Mimi C.; Le, Son K.


    The Chief of the Space Science Project Office at Glenn Research Center (GRC) requested support from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to satisfy a request from the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Associate Administrator and the Planetary Science Division Chief to obtain an independent review of the Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) and the operational controls in place for mitigating any hazard associated with its operation. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  9. Bethe's quantum numbers and rigged configurations

    Anatol N. Kirillov


    Full Text Available We propose a method to determine the quantum numbers, which we call the rigged configurations, for the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model under the periodic boundary condition. Our method is based on the observation that the sums of Bethe's quantum numbers within each string behave particularly nicely. We confirm our procedure for all solutions for length 12 chain (totally 923 solutions.

  10. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali; Harun Mohamad Hafiz; Sariman M.Z.; Mat Yamin A.K.


    Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR) engi...

  11. Computers make rig life extension an option



    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  12. Injecting rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) into wounds only: A significant saving of lives and costly RIG.

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Wilde, Henry


    An increasing number of dog bite victims were being presented to public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh in 2014 amidst virtual non availability of any rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Only a small quantity of equine rabies immunoglobulin (eRIG) was available from the government owned Central Research Institute (CRI) Kasauli. This available eRIG was used in 269 patients as an emergency response and only for local infiltration of severe bite wounds by suspected rabid dogs. This was followed by rabies vaccination, using the WHO approved intra-dermal Thai Red Cross Society vaccination schedule. A subgroup of 26 patients were later identified who had been severely bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs. They were followed for more than one year and all were found to be alive.

  13. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S


    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 110{mu}m. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed.

  14. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    Nikulin Oleg; Shabanov Vitaliy


    The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  15. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    Nikulin Oleg


    Full Text Available The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  16. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.


    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  17. Eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces

    Gomez-Cubillo, F [Dpt. de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail:


    The work reviews some mathematical aspects of spectral properties, eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces, laying emphasis on Lippmann-Schwinger equations and Schroedinger operators.

  18. Who Dominates the Semi-submersible Rig Market?

    Yang Qingxia; Liu Chengming; LiangYuanhua


    Currently, the US and Europe are the centers for the design of semi-submersible rigs.The American company FRIEDE & GOLDMAN was founded in the 1950s. At present, over 100 mobile offshore drilling units and production platforms in the world are designed by this company, which mainly has two types of deepwater semi-submersible rig, F&GExD and MillenniumSA. F&GExD is the semi-submersible rig of the sixth generation and its operational depth can reach up to 3050m. MillenniumSA is semi-submersible rig of the fifth and half generation with an operational depth of 2400m.

  19. Multifunctional Testing Rig for Machinery Safety Equipment

    Vöth Stefan


    Full Text Available At the Centre of Drive and Lifting Technology ZAFT of Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola a new testing device will be available. The device is suitable for testing drivetrain components like safety clutches and hoist safety components like snag protection devices. In focus are continuous tests with regard to fatigue as well as transient tests with regard to switching characteristics. The article gives information on requirements on the testing rig out of the main purpose and out of the given environment. Furthermore concept, main data and engineering design of this equipment are demonstrated. Aspects and first results of the mechanical assembly are shown.

  20. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes


    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of

  1. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes


    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of

  2. The Kieffer dough and gluten extensibility rig - An experimental evaluation

    Dunnewind, B.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Grolle, K.; Vliet, T. van


    Load-extension tests on flour dough are widely used by plant breeders, millers and bakers. The 'Kieffer dough and gluten extensibility rig' is a small-scale version of the Brabender extensograph, in which test pieces of about 0.4 g are extended. With the Kieffer rig, lower strain rates can be applie

  3. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    Dan Davis


    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  4. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  5. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali


    Full Text Available Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR engine mount characterization. MR engine mount was developed to investigate the vibration isolation process. An engine mount test machine was designed to measure the displacement, relative velocity and damper force with respect to current supply to characterize the hysteresis behavior of the damper and as force tracking control of the MR engine mount.

  6. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema


    of lessons learnt from one rig to the next, and the actual situation emerged. Various approaches for transferring knowledge were elicited and analysed with regard to the types of knowledge that were transferred and the context in which they were used. This study indicates factors that should be considered......It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization......, codification or a combination of these two strategies. The characteristics of the business influence the choice of communication channels used for knowledge transfer. This paper presents a case study exploring the transfer of knowledge within and across projects, specifically the transfer of service knowledge...

  7. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema


    It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization......, codification or a combination of these two strategies. The characteristics of the business influence the choice of communication channels used for knowledge transfer. This paper presents a case study exploring the transfer of knowledge within and across projects, specifically the transfer of service knowledge...... in the case of complex machinery. The strategies used for knowledge transfer were analysed and compared with the expected transfer mechanisms, similarities and differences were investigated and are described. A family of four identical rigs for offshore drilling was the selected case. The transfer...

  8. Comparison of filter cleaning performance between VDI and JIS testing rigs for cleanable fabric filter

    Mao, Ning; Yao, Yuping; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Wada, Masashi; Kanaoka, Chikao


    VDI type-1 rig and JIS rig are the two major testing rigs for cleanable fabric filters. We measured the filter cleaning performance using these rigs and the results were compared in order to characterize the two testing methods. The filter performance tests showed that the filter cleaning efficiency measured with VDI type-1 rig is higher than that with JIS rig. During pulse jet cleaning, JIS rig gave a higher peak pressure and a shorter time period of pulse jet compared to VDI type-1 rig. A n...

  9. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    M. Mattetti


    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  10. One analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of sloop rig; Sloop rig no kuriki tokusei no ichikaiseki

    Shinkai, A.; Iyoda, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A sloop which is one form of rigs of sail boats was analyzed of its basic aerodynamic characteristics by using the vortex distribution method. This solution method consists of an algorithm to derive a given pressure distribution on thin sail surface based on the vortex distribution method, and an algorithm to derive sail shapes from the given pressure distribution under a hypothesis of using flexible thin sails. An example of the calculation results showed distribution in an angular distance of pressure difference coefficients which act on each of the two sails, and showed the case where trim angle is changed and seven other parameters are fixed. With respect to control of trim angle which has close correlation with basic performance of the sloop rig, how the increase in the trim angle releases the main sail from aerodynamically adverse effect to which the main sail is subjected was shown. Furthermore, in order to estimate simply the performance of the sloop rig, a series calculation was executed and a chart was prepared which can estimate simply how a maximum thrust can be generated. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Giberti Hermes


    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  12. Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Jansen, Ralph


    The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig is an apparatus for vibration testing of turbomachine blades in a vacuum at rotational speeds from 0 to 40,000 rpm. This rig includes (1) a vertically oriented shaft on which is mounted an assembly comprising a rotor holding the blades to be tested, (2) two actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearings at opposite ends of the shaft, and (3) an actively controlled magnetic thrust bearing at the upper end of the shaft. This rig is a more capable successor to a prior apparatus, denoted the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), that included a vertically oriented shaft with a mechanical thrust bearing at the upper end and a single actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearing at the lower end.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig

    Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert


    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

  14. China-made Oil Rigs Well Sold on International Market


    @@ By the end of July, ChinaPetroleum Technology Development Company (CPTDC), one of CNPC's subsidiaries, has cumulatively sold 26 oil drilling rigs worth more than US$200 million in the past three years.

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.


    ... operate; and (4) Have either bypass piping to its suction side or a throttle valve or orifice on its discharge side. (c) The inlet piping of the test rig must be sized so that— (1) Influent water flows at...

  16. Testing for voter rigging in small polling stations

    Jiménez, Raúl; Klimek, Peter


    Since the 1970s there has been a large number of countries that combine formal democratic institutions with authoritarian practices. Although in such countries the ruling elites may receive considerable voter support they often employ several manipulation tools to control election outcomes. A common practice of these regimes is the coercion and mobilization of a significant amount of voters to guarantee the electoral victory. This electoral irregularity is known as voter rigging, distinguishing it from vote rigging, which involves ballot stuffing or stealing. Here we develop a statistical test to quantify to which extent the results of a particular election display traces of voter rigging. Our key hypothesis is that small polling stations are more susceptible to voter rigging, because it is easier to identify opposing individuals, there are less eye witnesses, and supposedly less visits from election observers. We devise a general statistical method for testing whether voting behavior in small polling station...

  17. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M


    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.

  18. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Bart Hans-Jörg


    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Gastrostomy insertion: comparing the options - PEG, RIG or PIG?

    Laasch, H.-U. E-mail:; Wilbraham, L.; Bullen, K.; Marriott, A.; Lawrance, J.A.L.; Johnson, R.J.; Lee, S.H.; England, R.E.; Gamble, G.E.; Martin, D.F


    AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Technical success was 98%, 100% and 100% for PEG, RIG and PIG, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced stoma infection for orally placed tubes (p=0.02). Ten out of 50 (20%) small-bore RIG tubes blocked. Replacement tubes were required in six out of 50 PEGs (12%), 10 out of 50 RIGs (20%), but no PIGs (p<0.001). No procedure-related complications occurred. The function of radiologically placed tubes was significantly improved with the larger PIG (p<0.001), with similar wound infection rates. PIG was successful in 24 patients where endoscopic insertion could not be performed. Significant endoscopic abnormalities were found in 42 out of 200 PEG patients (21%), all related to peptic disease. Insignificant pathology was found in 8.5%. CONCLUSION: PIG combines advantages of both traditional methods with a higher success and lower re-intervention rate. Endoscopy is unlikely to detect clinically relevant pathology other than peptic disease. PIG is a very effective gastrostomy method; it has better long-term results than RIG and is successful where conventional PEG has failed.

  20. Endurance test for mini-plate fuel rig

    Chung, Heung June; Yang, Sun Kyu; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jeong Soo


    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed by KAERI and fabricated by Daewoo Precision Co. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the fuel rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 6.78 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the fuel rig ranges from 14 to 19 Hz. RMZ (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 7 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 20 {mu}m. Based on the endurance rest results, the appreciable fretting wear for the fuel rig is not observed but the small amount of wear was observed at the interface region between the mini-plates and upper housing cap as well as at the slot regions of a bottom endplate interfacing with the bottom guide arms. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 33 figs.

  1. Design and Characterization of a Centrifugal Compressor Surge Test Rig

    Kin Tien Lim


    Full Text Available A detailed description of a new centrifugal compressor surge test rig is presented. The objective of the design and development of the rig is to study the surge phenomenon in centrifugal compression systems and to investigate a novel method of surge control by active magnetic bearing servo actuation of the impeller axial tip clearance. In this paper, we focus on the design, initial setup, and testing of the rig. The latter two include the commissioning of the rig and the experimental characterization of the compressor performance. The behavior of the compressor during surge is analyzed by driving the experimental setup into surge. Two fundamental frequencies, 21 Hz and 7 Hz, connected to the surge oscillation in the test rig are identified, and the observed instability is categorized according to the intensity of pressure fluctuations. Based on the test results, the excited pressure waves are clearly the result of surge and not stall. Also, they exhibit the characteristics of mild and classic surge instead of deep surge. Finally, the change in the compressor performance due to variation in the impeller tip clearance is experimentally examined, and the results support the potential of the tip clearance modulation for the control of compressor surge. This is the first such demonstration of the feasibility of surge control of a compressor using active magnetic bearings.

  2. RIG-I and dsRNA-induced IFNbeta activation.

    Stéphane Hausmann

    Full Text Available Except for viruses that initiate RNA synthesis with a protein primer (e.g., picornaviruses, most RNA viruses initiate RNA synthesis with an NTP, and at least some of their viral (pppRNAs remain unblocked during the infection. Consistent with this, most viruses require RIG-I to mount an innate immune response, whereas picornaviruses require mda-5. We have examined a SeV infection whose ability to induce interferon depends on the generation of capped dsRNA (without free 5' tri-phosphate ends, and found that this infection as well requires RIG-I and not mda-5. We also provide evidence that RIG-I interacts with poly-I/C in vivo, and that heteropolymeric dsRNA and poly-I/C interact directly with RIG-I in vitro, but in different ways; i.e., poly-I/C has the unique ability to stimulate the helicase ATPase of RIG-I variants which lack the C-terminal regulatory domain.

  3. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

  4. Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication

    Ward, Jonathan M.; O'Shea, Danny G.; Shortt, Brian J.; Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Nic Chormaic, Síle G.


    We describe a reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3-4μm diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO2 laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO2 mirror mounted on a geared stepper motor in order to scan the laser beam across the taper region. We show that this system offers a reliable alternative to more traditional rigs incorporating galvanometer scanners. We have routinely obtained transmission losses between 0.1 and 0.3dB indicating the satisfactory production of adiabatic tapers. The operation of the rig is described in detail and an analysis on the produced tapers is provided. The flexibility of the rig is demonstrated by fabricating prolate dielectric microresonators using a microtapering technique. Such a rig is of interest to a range of fields that require tapered fiber fabrication such as microcavity-taper coupling, atom guiding along a tapered fiber, optical fiber sensing, and the fabrication of fused biconical tapered couplers.

  5. Advances in developing the air-lift drilling technology. Concept of a portal drilling rig - trial of a steerable shaft drilling bit

    Weber, W.


    The Federal Minister of Research and Technology is supporting a project of Wirth GmbH to develop a new drilling rig suitable for drilling deep shafts from the surface through ground of almost any condition, from unstable formations to solid rock. The development of such drilling rig is based on the blind drilling method with air-assisted reverse circulation. - Various concepts of drilling rigs have been developed in accordance with different planning stages of a combined RD-project. Based on the experience of an extensive R and D program a steerable vertical drilling bit has been developed by which deviations from the vertical can be positively corrected. The prototype of this steerable bit with a diameter of 2.1 m has been tested successfully while drilling a well with a depth of more than 200 m in an open pit coal mine.

  6. A durability test rig and methodology for erosion-resistant blade coatings in turbomachinery

    Leithead, Sean Gregory

    A durability test rig for erosion-resistant gas turbine engine compressor blade coatings was designed, completed and commissioned. Bare and coated 17-4PH steel V103-profile blades were rotated at up to 11500 rpm and impacted with Garnet sand for 5 hours at an average concentration of 2.51 gm3of air , at a blade leading edge Mach number of 0.50. The rig was determined to be an acceptable first stage axial compressor representation. Two types of 16 microm-thick coatings were tested: Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Chromium-Aluminum-Titanium Nitride (CrAlTiN), both applied using an Arc Physical Vapour Deposition technique at the National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. A Leithead-Allan-Zhao (LAZ) score was created to compare the durability performance of uncoated and coated blades based on mass-loss and blade dimension changes. The bare blades' LAZ score was set as a benchmark of 1.00. The TiN-coated and CrAlTiN-coated blades obtained LAZ scores of 0.69 and 0.41, respectively. A lower score meant a more erosion-resistant coating. Major modes of blade wear included: trailing edge, leading edge and the rear suction surface. Trailing edge thickness was reduced, the leading edge became blunt, and the rear suction surface was scrubbed by overtip and recirculation zone vortices. It was found that the erosion effects of vortex flow were significant. Erosion damage due to reflected particles was not present due to the low blade solidity of 0.7. The rig is best suited for studying the performance of erosion-resistant coatings after they are proven effective in ASTM standardized testing. Keywords: erosion, compressor, coatings, turbomachinery, erosion rate, blade, experimental, gas turbine engine

  7. The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

    Gawron Bartosz; Białecki Tomasz


    This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig), that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples...

  8. On Improving International Competitiveness of China-Made Drilling Rigs

    Gong Huijuan


    @@ Current state of technology for China made drilling rigs With accelerated oil & gas exploration and development,and the implementation of "going out"strategy in recent years,the manufacturing of drilling equipment has entered a phase of rapid development in China.

  9. Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication

    Ward, Jonathan M.; O'Shea, Danny G.; Shortt, Brian J.; Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Chormaic, Sile G. Nic


    We describe a reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3-4 mu m diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO(2) laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO(2) mirror mounted on a geared ste

  10. Relationships Between Two Approaches: Rigged Configurations and 10-Eliminations

    Kirillov, Anatol N.; Sakamoto, Reiho


    There are two distinct approaches to the study of initial value problem of the periodic box-ball systems. One way is the rigged configuration approach due to Kuniba-Takagi-Takenouchi and another way is the 10-elimination approach due to Mada-Idzumi-Tokihiro. In this paper, we describe precisely interrelations between these two approaches.

  11. DMPD: MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18272355 MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr Opin Immunol. ...2008 Feb;20(1):17-22. Epub 2008 Feb 12. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition.... PubmedID 18272355 Title MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. Authors Takeuchi O, Akira S. Publication Curr Opi

  12. The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

    Gawron Bartosz


    Full Text Available This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig, that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

  13. Development of nanolubricant automotive air conditioning (AAC test rig

    Redhwan A.A.M.


    Full Text Available Nanolubricant been introduced in compressor might improve the performance of automotive air conditioning system. Prior testing of the nanolubricant enhancement performance, an automotive air conditioning (AAC system test rig base on compact car has to be developed; therefore this paper presented the development process of AAC test rig. There are 15 thermocouples, 2 pressure gauges and power analyzer were assembled on the system in order to analyse its performance. The experiment was conducted with four different charged of refrigerant. The charging was based on initial weight charged. At each quantity of refrigerant charge, performance of the AAC system was evaluated by determining three important parameters which is cooling capacity, compressor work and coefficient of performance (COP. The maximum average COP is achieved at 900 RPM is 7.07. The average and maximum COP enhancement of 7.07 % and 13.34 % were achieved by applying SiO2 nanolubricant inside the compressor.

  14. RIG-A New Management Information System for Railway Transportation

    Jian-Bo Wang; Da-Ke He; Yan Xu


    A grid technology together with data warehouse and mediator is used to develop the railway transport management information system (TMIS), which is aiming at managing and publishing all kinds of enterprise resources among dynamic collections of such information systems with heterogeneous architectures and distributed in geography within Chinese Ministry of Railway. As one logical information integration framework and a uniform interface for accessing resources, a prototype named railway information grid (RIG) is proposed. Its main modules and the key technologies, together with its feasibility, are discussed in detail. RIG can not only provide the integral information service and the interoperability of information at the application level, but also bring us such benefits as: easy use, high efficiency, and reasonable total cost of ownership.


    Wojciech HORAK


    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a didactic research rig for investigation and visualization of pressure distribution in an oil film of a journal fluid friction slide bearing. The rig being presented may be used during classes on subjects associated machine design. The paper presents an idea of a specific design, using an asynchronic motor with a long shaft, on which the slide bearing assembly is fixed. The design is elastic and allows many modifications of the construction. The possible modifications are presented in the summary part of the paper. The paper also presents ideas for development of the design, either to enable measurements of additional physical values, or presentation of specific cases of slide bearings operation.

  16. Involvement of zebrafish RIG-I in NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways: insights into functional conservation of RIG-I in antiviral innate immunity.

    Nie, Li; Zhang, Ying-sheng; Dong, Wei-ren; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong


    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical sensor for host recognition of RNA virus infection and initiation of antiviral signaling pathways in mammals. However, data on the occurrence and functions of this molecule in lower vertebrates are limited. In this study, we characterized an RIG-I homolog (DrRIG-I) from zebrafish. Structurally, this DrRIG-I shares a number of conserved functional domains/motifs with its mammalian counterparts, namely, caspase activation and recruitment domain, DExD/H box, a helicase domain, and a C-terminal domain. Functionally, stimulation with DrRIG-I CARD in zebrafish embryos significantly activated the NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways, leading to the expression of TNF-α, IL-8 and IFN-induced Mx, ISG15, and viperin. However, knockdown of TRIM25 (a pivotal activator for RIG-I receptors) significantly suppressed the induced activation of IFN signaling. Results suggested the functional conservation of RIG-I receptors in the NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways between teleosts and mammals, providing a perspective into the evolutionary history of RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immunity.


    Zhang Lujun; Gu Xinyi; Chen Su


    Research has been done on an energy-saving type of hydraulic workover rig. This rig can recover and reuse the potential energy which is released by the pipestring when lowered, and the equipped power of this rig is only one third of an ordinary rig. The structure and theory of this rig are introduced. The mathematical model of lowering the pipestring is established and a simulation analysis is conducted. Through simulation some conclusions are obtained: The lighter the pipestring is, the less velocity of lowering the pipestring is; The smaller the throttle valve path area is, the less velocity of lowering the pipestring is; Different air vessel volumes have no evident effect on the pipestring lowering velocity. The actual measure results prove that the simulation results are right. Finally, the energy-saving effect of this rig is proved by the field test results.

  18. The powerstroke and camshaft of the RIG-I antiviral RNA detection machine.

    O'Neill, Luke A J; Bowie, Andrew G


    The innate immune sensor RIG-I responds to infection by binding to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In this issue of Cell, Kowalinski et al. (2011) and Luo et al. (2011) reveal the structure of RIG-I, and in combination with functional analyses, they show how RIG-I recognizes viral RNA to initiate signaling and a type I interferon response.

  19. Design and Development of High-Velocity Slurry Erosion Test Rig Using CFD

    Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.


    Slurry erosion (SE) is commonly observed in almost all kinds of components and machineries involved in fluid (liquid) transfer and delivery. During design and development phase of these components, test rigs are usually required to evaluate their performance; however, only few detailed designs of test rigs are available for SE investigations. Among the existing designs of SE test rigs, most of them belong to rotary type. In the present study, design of a new type of SE test rig has been proposed, which is simpler in construction and working. This newly designed test rig could possibly eliminate some of the limitations (velocity-concentration interdependence and lack of acceleration distance) found in the existing set-ups. Calibration of the test rig was done for jet velocity and erodent concentration. Commissioning of the rig was undertaken by evaluating the effect of operating parameters (concentration and impingement angle) on the erosion rates of aluminum and cast iron. Results show that the rig was able to capture the traditional responses of ductile and brittle erosion behaviors being observed for these materials. Repeatability of the test rig was ensured, and the results were found to be within the acceptable error limits.

  20. Stag rig Tibetan Village: Hair Changing and Marriage

    'Brug mo skyid


    Full Text Available Marriage in Stag rig Village, Shar lung Township, Khri ka County, Mtsho lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon Province, China is described in the context of the hair dressing ritual, rules of exclusion and inclusion, the process of marriage (spouse selection, free choice marriage, arranged marriage, engagement, drinking contract liquor, bride wealth discussion, choosing a date for the wedding ritual, wedding preparations at the bride and groom's homes, the wedding ritual and banquet, marrying a groom into the bride's home, divorce, and the atmosphere surrounding the bride's arrival.

  1. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (GB)); Mumford, G. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (FR))


    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  2. Test Rig Design and Presentation for a Hydraulic Yaw System

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole


    dynamics under real conditions. The behavior of the system is analyzed with regard to 20 years of operation. This is for example done by applying loads from different design load cases, e.g. normal turbulence, extreme turbulence and different fault scenarios on the turbine. The paper first presents...... an introduction with the current state of the art and problem description, followed by a system description, where the system is designed and dimensioned. Based on the design, results from the test rig are presented and analyzed. Finally a conclusion summing up the design, model and test results is given....

  3. Match Rigging and the Career Concerns of Referees

    Severgnini, Battista; Boeri, Tito


    This paper contributes to the literature on career concerns and corruption by drawing on extensive information on the performance of referees and records from Calciopoli, a judicial inquiry carried out in 2006 on corruption in the Italian football league. Unlike previous studies, we can analyse...... in detail the assignment of the referees to the most important matches, which is an important step in their career. Moreover, we can relate this choice to the performance of referees in previous matches and the evaluations they received in this context. We find that referees involved in match rigging were...

  4. Fuel consumption of the Autark hybrid in test rig

    Hoehn, B.R. [VDI (Germany); Pflaum, H.; Guttenberg, P.


    The Autark Hybrid of the Technical University Munich is a parallel hybrid concept for passenger cars with the aims of saving fuel and reducing exhaust gas emissions. The drive line consists of an electric engine supplied by a 120V-Ni/MH-battery and a diesel engine. Both engines use the same gearbox, a specially developed i{sup 2}-gearbox with continuously variable transmission and wide spreading. In the meantime the concept has been realised and fuel consumption is investigated in a drive line test rig. The paper presents the actual state of fuel measurements along with energetic analysis of drive line operation. (orig.)

  5. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  6. Calibration of stereo rigs based on the backward projection process

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Ma, Yueyang; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin


    High-accuracy 3D measurement based on binocular vision system is heavily dependent on the accurate calibration of two rigidly-fixed cameras. In most traditional calibration methods, stereo parameters are iteratively optimized through the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimal 2D pixel errors, but not the minimal 3D reconstruction errors. To address this problem, a simple method to calibrate a stereo rig based on the backward projection process (BPP) is proposed. The position of a spatial point can be determined separately from each camera by planar constraints provided by the planar pattern target. Then combined with pre-defined spatial points, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo-rig can be optimized by minimizing the total 3D errors of both left and right cameras. An extensive performance study for the method in the presence of image noise and lens distortions is implemented. Experiments conducted on synthetic and real data demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  7. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R


    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  8. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail:


    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  9. Nonlinear Control for Magnetic Bearings in Deployment Test Rigs : Simulation and Experimental Results

    Scherpen, J.M.A.; Kerk, B. van der; Klaassens, J.B.; Lazeroms, M.; Kan, S.Y.


    In this paper three control schemes for a test set-up of a magnetic bearing system for deployment rigs of solar arrays are described. The air gap of the magnet has to be controlled to a constant value independent of the deployment of the solar array. The deployment of the rig has been modeled as a

  10. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan


    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  11. An Insight into Spreadsheet User Behaviour through an Analysis of EuSpRIG Website Statistics

    Croll, Grenville J


    The European Spreadsheet Risks Interest Group (EuSpRIG) has maintained a website almost since its inception in 2000. We present here longitudinal and cross-sectional statistics from the website log in order to shed some light upon end-user activity in the EuSpRIG domain.

  12. Nonlinear Control for Magnetic Bearings in Deployment Test Rigs : Simulation and Experimental Results

    Scherpen, J.M.A.; Kerk, B. van der; Klaassens, J.B.; Lazeroms, M.; Kan, S.Y.


    In this paper three control schemes for a test set-up of a magnetic bearing system for deployment rigs of solar arrays are described. The air gap of the magnet has to be controlled to a constant value independent of the deployment of the solar array. The deployment of the rig has been modeled as a v

  13. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan


    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  14. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder


    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  15. RIG-I Signaling Is Critical for Efficient Polyfunctional T Cell Responses during Influenza Virus Infection.

    Matheswaran Kandasamy


    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I is an innate RNA sensor that recognizes the influenza A virus (IAV RNA genome and activates antiviral host responses. Here, we demonstrate that RIG-I signaling plays a crucial role in restricting IAV tropism and regulating host immune responses. Mice deficient in the RIG-I-MAVS pathway show defects in migratory dendritic cell (DC activation, viral antigen presentation, and priming of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses during IAV infection. These defects result in decreased frequency of polyfunctional effector T cells and lowered protection against heterologous IAV challenge. In addition, our data show that RIG-I activation is essential for protecting epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells from IAV infection. These diverse effects of RIG-I signaling are likely imparted by the actions of type I interferon (IFN, as addition of exogenous type I IFN is sufficient to overcome the defects in antigen presentation by RIG-I deficient BMDC. Moreover, the in vivo T cell defects in RIG-I deficient mice can be overcome by the activation of MDA5 -MAVS via poly I:C treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RIG-I signaling through MAVS is critical for determining the quality of polyfunctional T cell responses against IAV and for providing protection against subsequent infection from heterologous or novel pandemic IAV strains.

  16. RIG-I Signaling Is Critical for Efficient Polyfunctional T Cell Responses during Influenza Virus Infection

    Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Suryawanshi, Amol; Tundup, Smanla; Perez, Jasmine T.; Schmolke, Mirco; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Manicassamy, Balaji


    Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an innate RNA sensor that recognizes the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA genome and activates antiviral host responses. Here, we demonstrate that RIG-I signaling plays a crucial role in restricting IAV tropism and regulating host immune responses. Mice deficient in the RIG-I-MAVS pathway show defects in migratory dendritic cell (DC) activation, viral antigen presentation, and priming of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses during IAV infection. These defects result in decreased frequency of polyfunctional effector T cells and lowered protection against heterologous IAV challenge. In addition, our data show that RIG-I activation is essential for protecting epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells from IAV infection. These diverse effects of RIG-I signaling are likely imparted by the actions of type I interferon (IFN), as addition of exogenous type I IFN is sufficient to overcome the defects in antigen presentation by RIG-I deficient BMDC. Moreover, the in vivo T cell defects in RIG-I deficient mice can be overcome by the activation of MDA5 –MAVS via poly I:C treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RIG-I signaling through MAVS is critical for determining the quality of polyfunctional T cell responses against IAV and for providing protection against subsequent infection from heterologous or novel pandemic IAV strains. PMID:27438481

  17. Nonlinear Control for Magnetic Bearings in Deployment Test Rigs : Simulation and Experimental Results

    Scherpen, J.M.A.; Kerk, B. van der; Klaassens, J.B.; Lazeroms, M.; Kan, S.Y.


    In this paper three control schemes for a test set-up of a magnetic bearing system for deployment rigs of solar arrays are described. The air gap of the magnet has to be controlled to a constant value independent of the deployment of the solar array. The deployment of the rig has been modeled as a v

  18. Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)

    Cannella, F.; Scalise, L.; Olivieri, E.; Memeo, M.; Caldwell, D. G.


    Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers.

  19. DMPD: Function of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17395582 Function of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. Yoneyama M,...nction of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. PubmedID 17395582 Title Function of RIG-I-like receptors in anti

  20. RIG-I mediates innate immune response in mouse neurons following Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    Arshed Nazmi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation associated with Japanese encephalitis (JE is mainly due to the activation of glial cells with subsequent release of proinflammatory mediators from them. The recognition of viral RNA, in part, by the pattern recognition receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I has been indicated to have a role in such processes. Even though neurons are also known to express this receptor, its role after JE virus (JEV infections is yet to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Upon infecting murine neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons with JEV the expression profile of key proinflammatory cyto/chemokines were analyzed by qRT-PCR and bead array, both before and after ablation of RIG-I. Immunoblotting was performed to evaluate the levels of key molecules downstream to RIG-I leading to production of proinflammatory mediators. Changes in the intracellular viral antigen expression were confirmed by intracellular staining and immunoblotting. JEV infection induced neuronal expression of IL-6, IL-12p70, MCP-1, IP-10 and TNF-α in a time-dependent manner, which showed significant reduction upon RIG-I ablation. Molecules downstream to RIG-I showed significant changes upon JEV-infection, that were modulated following RIG-I ablation. Ablation of RIG-I in neurons also increased their susceptibility to JEV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study we propose that neurons are one of the potential sources of proinflammatory cyto/chemokines in JEV-infected brain that are produced via RIG-I dependent pathways. Ablation of RIG-I in neurons leads to increased viral load and reduced release of the cyto/chemokines.

  1. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

    Wenping Xu


    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral

  2. Regulation of Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I Activation by the Histone Deacetylase 6

    Helene Minyi Liu


    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I is a cytosolic pathogen recognition receptor that initiates the immune response against many RNA viruses. Upon RNA ligand binding, RIG-I undergoes a conformational change facilitating its homo-oligomerization and activation that results in its translocation from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to bind its signaling adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Here we show that RIG-I activation is regulated by reversible acetylation. Acetyl-mimetic mutants of RIG-I do not form virus-induced homo-oligomers, revealing that acetyl-lysine residues of the RIG-I repressor domain prevent assembly to active homo-oligomers. During acute infection, deacetylation of RIG-I promotes its oligomerization upon ligand binding. We identify histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 as the deacetylase that promotes RIG-I activation and innate antiviral immunity to recognize and restrict RNA virus infection.

  3. Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production

    E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre


    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

  4. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    Collins, M.W. [Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan (United Kingdom)


    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  5. Development of a low cost test rig for standalone WECS subject to electrical faults.

    Himani; Dahiya, Ratna


    In this paper, a contribution to the development of low-cost wind turbine (WT) test rig for stator fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator is proposed. The test rig is developed using a 2.5kW, 1750 RPM DC motor coupled to a 1.5kW, 1500 RPM self-excited induction generator interfaced with a WT mathematical model in LabVIEW. The performance of the test rig is benchmarked with already proven wind turbine test rigs. In order to detect the stator faults using non-stationary signals in self-excited induction generator, an online fault diagnostic technique of DWT-based multi-resolution analysis is proposed. It has been experimentally proven that for varying wind conditions wavelet decomposition allows good differentiation between faulty and healthy conditions leading to an effective diagnostic procedure for wind turbine condition monitoring.

  6. Stochastic programming of drilling rigs supplies; Programacao estocastica de suprimentos de sondas

    Vieira, Bruno Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    The goal of this work is to use techniques of stochastic programming to reduce logistic costs regarding offshore drilling rigs. This theme is of great interest to Brazilian oil industry since there is an increasing number of wells that need to be perforated so that Brazilian oil production can reach its expected growth over the next ten years (PETROBRAS in particular has an ambitious strategy in this respect). Proper treatment of the uncertainties involved in the deliveries of supplies to offshore drilling rigs is essential, namely, these uncertainties need to be included in the models used in logistic models. Delays in the deliveries of products such as chemicals, perforation fluids and tubes may force drilling rigs to stop their operations what highly increases costs. The daily hiring rates of drilling rigs represent the highest cost in the perforation and completion of a well. (author)

  7. Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig

    Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion


    Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed. (orig.)

  8. Activation of duck RIG-I by TRIM25 is independent of anchored ubiquitin.

    Domingo Miranzo-Navarro

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25, activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-β. We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for

  9. RIG-1 expression is associated with sexual malfunctions of female type 2 diabetic patients

    Batool Hajebrahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D suffer from the malfunctions of the sexual behaviors, and several mechanisms have been proposed to describe these disorders. The innate immunity may be involved in the malfunctions of T2D patients. Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5 and retinoic acid (RA-inducible gene 1 (RIG-1, as the innate immunity receptors, are the responsible molecules for the activation of some intracellular signaling pathways and the induction of inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to examine the molecules which may participate in the induction/stimulation of sexual malfunctions in the female T2D patients. Methods: Sexual functions were evaluated in 41 female T2D patients using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was used to quantify MDA5 and RIG-1 mRNA levels. Results: Results showed that increased RIG-1 mRNA levels were significantly associated with the bad orgasm in the female T2D patients compared to the female patients with good orgasm. Expression of RIG-1 and MDA5 levels were not associated with other sexual functions’ criteria. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that bad orgasm is associated with the increased RIG-1 expression. Consequently, the correlation between inflammation and bad orgasm in a RIG-1 dependent manner is suggested.

  10. Test rig for investigations of force excited and synchrocoupling loaded rotor

    Rauch, Adam


    The main topics of test rig based rotor investigations are: dynamic relations of a rotor bearing foundation system, shaft cracking, torsional simulation of rotor-generator hunting, flexural-torsional coupling of vibrations, and other areas of rotor dynamics including balancing, maintenance and modal analysis of a rotor. The present paper describes a general purpose rotor test rig capable of handling a great number of these areas. The test rig simulates a heavy, power-loaded rotor mounted on a flexible foundation. Five forms of excitation are provided: oscillating or impact torque, impact force, step force, bearing and foundation excitation. They can be combined if necessary. New research facilities offered by the rig are: external flexural force loading, driving torque loading by synchrocoupling with a full recovery of brake energy, bending release of rotor ends by pivoting, and multi-pulse impact force excitation. The most remarkable is the synchroaxle principle, called SAP for short, which is described in detail. Test rig features have been proved to be successful by research of shaft cracking and rotor-foundation vibrations. This presentation concerns only the general description, calculation and application aspects of the rig.

  11. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Natalya Mosunova


    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  12. Simulation of Fluid Flows through the Irradiation Test Rig for DUPIC Mini-element

    Park, Joo Hwan; Yoon, Churl; Lee, Chul Yong; Song, Kee Chan


    The flow characteristic of the irradiation test rigs has been investigated by using a commercial CFD code, CFX-5.7(Ansys Inc.). The test rigs had been developed and fabricated to irradiate the DUPIC mini-elements in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. First, the fluid flow through the DUPIC-2 test rig was calculated and compared with an experimental data. The computed pressure drops across the DUPIC-2 test rig match well with the experimental data. Then, a CFD analysis has been performed for the fluid flow through the newly-designed DUPIC-6 test rig. As results of the prediction, it is estimated that the mass flow rate is 8.0 kg/s under the pressure drop across the DUPIC-6 test rig of 215.5 kPa. The corresponding the maximum vibration displacement is expected to be around 50 {open_square}m, which satisfies the license limit with large margin.

  13. Into the deep : Seabed Rig could help reduce risks in the Arctic

    Macedo, R.


    According to the United States Geological Survey, the Arctic accounts for 13 per cent of the world's undiscovered oil, 30 per cent of the natural gas and 20 per cent of the natural gas liquids. Approximately 84 per cent of the estimated resources are expected to be offshore in harsh physical environments. A Norwegian company is designing a rig that will avoid problems associated with floating ice, icebergs and sub-zero temperatures. The unmanned Seabed Rig AS drilling rig will sit on the ocean floor. Automated and robotized working operations will be controlled remotely from an interactive 3D interface connected to the vessel through an umbilical. The umbilical with power control and mud flow can be disconnected in the event of an emergency, allowing the vessel to abandon the area. Supporters of the technology include Statoil ASA, Convexa, iPark AS, the Norwegian Research Council and Innovasjon Norge. An interactive, computer generated 3-dimensional model will be produced to view the entire rig remotely. Each subsea control system will send continuous feedback to the visualizator, which updates the 3D model in real time on a big screen. Although the rig is suited for operation in Arctic areas and deep waters, it could also be used in traditional drilling. A full-scale prototype of the core of the technology is being developed. The Seabed Rig will require fewer operating personnel and standby vessels. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  14. CFD-Guided Development of Test Rigs for Studying Erosion and Large-Particle Damage of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Maria A. Kuczmarski


    Full Text Available Burner rigs are routinely used to qualify materials for gas turbine applications. The most useful rig tests are those that can replicate, often in an accelerated manner, the degradation that materials experience in the engine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD can be used to accelerate the successful development and continuous improvement of combustion burner rigs for meaningful materials testing. Rig development is typically an iterative process of making incremental modifications to improve the rig performance for testing requirements. Application of CFD allows many of these iterations to be done computationally before hardware is built or modified, reducing overall testing costs and time, and it can provide an improved understanding of how these rigs operate. This paper describes the use of CFD to develop burner test rigs for studying erosion and large-particle damage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs used to protect turbine blades from high heat fluxes in combustion engines. The steps used in this study—determining the questions that need to be answered regarding the test rig performance, developing and validating the model, and using it to predict rig performance—can be applied to the efficient development of other test rigs.

  15. Origin and evolution of the RIG-I like RNA helicase gene family

    Nie Pin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DExD/H domain containing RNA helicases such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 are key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs for detecting nucleotide pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs of invading viruses. The RIG-I and MDA5 proteins differentially recognise conserved PAMPs in double stranded or single stranded viral RNA molecules, leading to activation of the interferon system in vertebrates. They share three core protein domains including a RNA helicase domain near the C terminus (HELICc, one or more caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and an ATP dependent DExD/H domain. The RIG-I/MDA5 directed interferon response is negatively regulated by laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2 and is believed to be controlled by the mitochondria antiviral signalling protein (MAVS, a CARD containing protein associated with mitochondria. Results The DExD/H containing RNA helicases including RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 were analysed in silico in a wide spectrum of invertebrate and vertebrate genomes. The gene synteny of MDA5 and LGP2 is well conserved among vertebrates whilst conservation of the gene synteny of RIG-I is less apparent. Invertebrate homologues had a closer phylogenetic relationship with the vertebrate RIG-Is than the MDA5/LGP2 molecules, suggesting the RIG-I homologues may have emerged earlier in evolution, possibly prior to the appearance of vertebrates. Our data suggest that the RIG-I like helicases possibly originated from three distinct genes coding for the core domains including the HELICc, CARD and ATP dependent DExD/H domains through gene fusion and gene/domain duplication. Furthermore, presence of domains similar to a prokaryotic DNA restriction enzyme III domain (Res III, and a zinc finger domain of transcription factor (TF IIS have been detected by bioinformatic analysis. Conclusion The RIG-I/MDA5 viral surveillance system

  16. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I

    Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph (Rutgers); (RWJ-Med); (UW-MED)


    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including

  17. Hydraulic testing of helium cooled irradiation rigs of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Klein, Christine, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Jackowski, Thomas; Martin, Thomas; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the rig model B by helium gas, which is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures, could be verified by measuring the mean velocity profiles of the rectangular jets are measured using hot-wire anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pressure drop in the test section with rig model B was measured and delivers data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. The pressure drop depends significantly on the pressure level; acceleration resulting from the volumetric expansion of helium gas has to be modeled carefully in simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements with strain gage show the pressure depending deformation of the compartment container without the rig. The results agree well with simulations and approximation calculations. - Abstract: The hydraulic testing of a single 1:1 irradiation rig inside a mock-up container is part of the validation activities which support the engineering design of the High Flux Test Module. Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the irradiation rigs by helium gas is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures. To evaluate the uniform distribution to the different parallel minichannels, the mean velocity profiles of the rectangular jets are measured using hot-wire anemometry. The velocity profiles show a symmetric and constant distribution of the mass flow to the parallel minichannels. The pressure drop in the test section with one of the candidate rig shapes is measured. The pressure drop depends significantly on the entrance pressure level; acceleration resulting from the volumetric expansion of helium gas has to be taken into account in simulations. Measurements with strain gage show the pressure depending deformation of the compartment container without the rig. The results agree

  18. Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2

    Saito, Takeshi; Hirai, Reiko; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Owen, David; Johnson, Cynthia L.; Sinha, Sangita C.; Akira, Shizuo; Fujita, Takashi; Gale, Michael


    RIG-I is an RNA helicase containing caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs). RNA binding and signaling by RIG-I are implicated in pathogen recognition and triggering of IFN-α/β immune defenses that impact cell permissiveness for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we evaluated the processes that control RIG-I signaling. RNA binding studies and analysis of cells lacking RIG-I, or the related MDA5 protein, demonstrated that RIG-I, but not MDA5, efficiently binds to secondary structured HCV RNA to confer induction of IFN-β expression. We also found that LGP2, a helicase related to RIG-I and MDA5 but lacking CARDs and functioning as a negative regulator of host defense, binds HCV RNA. In resting cells, RIG-I is maintained as a monomer in an autoinhibited state, but during virus infection and RNA binding it undergoes a conformation shift that promotes self-association and CARD interactions with the IPS-1 adaptor protein to signal IFN regulatory factor 3- and NF-κB-responsive genes. This reaction is governed by an internal repressor domain (RD) that controls RIG-I multimerization and IPS-1 interaction. Deletion of the RIG-I RD resulted in constitutive signaling to the IFN-β promoter, whereas RD expression alone prevented signaling and increased cellular permissiveness to HCV. We identified an analogous RD within LGP2 that interacts in trans with RIG-I to ablate self-association and signaling. Thus, RIG-I is a cytoplasmic sensor of HCV and is governed by RD interactions that are shared with LGP2 as an on/off switch controlling innate defenses. Modulation of RIG-I/LGP2 interaction dynamics may have therapeutic implications for immune regulation. PMID:17190814

  19. The Design and Manufacturing Report of Non-Instrumented Rig for Dual-cooled Annular Fuel Irradiation Test in HANARO

    Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Lim, Ik Sung; Kim, Sun Ki; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo; Seo, Chul Gyo; Park, Chan Kook


    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit advanced performance in High Performance Fuel Technology Development as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented rig designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO OR hole. This non- instrumented rig was confirmed the compatibility of HANARO and the integrity of rig structure, and satisfied the quality assurance requirements. This non- instrumented rig is adopt to the irradiation test for double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO.

  20. Development of SPND-instrumented rig of HANARO irradiation test of DUPIC fuel

    Lee, C. Y.; Mun, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Kang, K. H.; Jeong, I. H.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel, which was fabricated in the DFDF has been performed at HANARO. For the objectives of this irradiation test, The SPND-instrumented rig was designed and manufactured on the basis of the design specifications of the non-instrumented rig used in the last irradiation test. The newly designed irradiation rig was equipped with three Rh-type SPND sensors around DUPIC mini-elements for estimating the thermal neutron flux in the OR4 hole. Manufacturing of mini-elements and assembly of the irradiation rig were remotely done in the hot cells using the laser welding system and assembling equipments. The DUPIC rig is installed through the guide tube at the HANARO OR4 hole and the thermal neutron flux measured at that location is transmitted to the monitoring system. This irradiation test launched in June, 2001 at the HANARO OR4, and its anticipated discharge burnup is about 7,000 MWd/tHE.

  1. Influenza C virus NS1 protein counteracts RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling

    Vlasak Reinhard


    Full Text Available Abstract The nonstructural proteins 1 (NS1 from influenza A and B viruses are known as the main viral factors antagonising the cellular interferon (IFN response, inter alia by inhibiting the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I signalling. The cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I senses double-stranded RNA and 5'-triphosphate RNA produced during RNA virus infections. Binding to these ligands activates RIG-I and in turn the IFN signalling. We now report that the influenza C virus NS1 protein also inhibits the RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling. Employing luciferase-reporter assays, we show that expression of NS1-C proteins of virus strains C/JJ/50 and C/JHB/1/66 considerably reduced the IFN-β promoter activity. Mapping of the regions from NS1-C of both strains involved in IFN-β promoter inhibition showed that the N-terminal 49 amino acids are dispensable, while the C-terminus is required for proper modulation of the IFN response. When a mutant RIG-I, which is constitutively active without ligand binding, was employed, NS1-C still inhibited the downstream signalling, indicating that IFN inhibitory properties of NS1-C are not necessarily linked to an RNA binding mechanism.

  2. Design and Checkout of a High Speed Research Nozzle Evaluation Rig

    Castner, Raymond S.; Wolter, John D.


    The High Flow Jet Exit Rig (HFJER) was designed to provide simulated mixed flow turbojet engine exhaust for one- seventh scale models of advanced High Speed Research test nozzles. The new rig was designed to be used at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Capabilities were also designed to collect nozzle thrust measurement, aerodynamic measurements, and acoustic measurements when installed at the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig. Simulated engine exhaust can be supplied from a high pressure air source at 33 pounds of air per second at 530 degrees Rankine and nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. In addition, a combustion unit was designed from a J-58 aircraft engine burner to provide 20 pounds of air per second at 2000 degrees Rankine, also at nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. These airflow capacities were designed to test High Speed Research nozzles with exhaust areas from eighteen square inches to twenty-two square inches. Nozzle inlet flow measurement is available through pressure and temperature sensors installed in the rig. Research instrumentation on High Speed Research nozzles is available with a maximum of 200 individual pressure and 100 individual temperature measurements. Checkout testing was performed in May 1997 with a 22 square inch ASME long radius flow nozzle. Checkout test results will be summarized and compared to the stated design goals.

  3. Work over rig itinerary optimization; Otimizacao do itinerario de sondas de intervencao

    Paiva, Ronaldo Oliveira de


    The costs of work over and the loss of revenue in wells waiting work over rigs are very high. This work proposes methods to prioritize these wells in order to minimize the total cost. To determine the work over sequence it is necessary to compare the rig expense with the wells losses. For calculating the wells losses, it is necessary to analyze the monetary influence of the well shutdown in the production curves. In this work, this analysis is made by using a numerical reservoir simulator. Simplified calculation procedures are also presented. The priority of the wells is based on the reduction of the total cost, which consists of the rig costs plus the revenue losses due to work over waiting. There are many algorithms able to determine the ideal rig path. Simple and intuitive algorithms are implemented and compared. The Simulated Annealing algorithm is recommended. This algorithm was implemented to optimize work over rig routes in a brazilian production region. Optimization of the work over sequence carried out in that region in 1996 identified a potential economy of 15% in the production losses, equivalent to 4.000m{sup 3}/year of oil (25.000 b bl/year). (author)

  4. Both RIG-I and MDA5 detect alphavirus replication in concentration-dependent mode

    Akhrymuk, Ivan; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I., E-mail:


    Alphaviruses are a family of positive-strand RNA viruses that circulate on all continents between mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. Despite a significant public health threat, their biology is not sufficiently investigated, and the mechanisms of alphavirus replication and virus–host interaction are insufficiently understood. In this study, we have applied a variety of experimental systems to further understand the mechanism by which infected cells detect replicating alphaviruses. Our new data strongly suggest that activation of the antiviral response by alphavirus-infected cells is determined by the integrity of viral genes encoding proteins with nuclear functions, and by the presence of two cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), RIG-I and MDA5. No type I IFN response is induced in their absence. The presence of either of these PRRs is sufficient for detecting virus replication. However, type I IFN activation in response to pathogenic alphaviruses depends on the basal levels of RIG-I or MDA5. - Highlights: • Both RIG-I and MDA5 detect alphavirus replication. • Alphavirus-induced transcriptional shutoff affects type I IFN induction. • Sensing of alphavirus replication by RIG-I and MDA5 depends on their concentrations. • High basal level of RIG-I and MDA5 allows IFN induction by pathogenic alphaviruses. • This dependence determines the discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro data.

  5. Mechanism of TRIM25 Catalytic Activation in the Antiviral RIG-I Pathway

    Jacint G. Sanchez


    Full Text Available Antiviral response pathways induce interferon by higher-order assembly of signaling complexes called signalosomes. Assembly of the RIG-I signalosome is regulated by K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are synthesized by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM25. We have previously shown that the TRIM25 coiled-coil domain is a stable, antiparallel dimer that positions two catalytic RING domains on opposite ends of an elongated rod. We now show that the RING domain is a separate self-association motif that engages ubiquitin-conjugated E2 enzymes as a dimer. RING dimerization is required for catalysis, TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination, interferon induction, and antiviral activity. We also provide evidence that RING dimerization and E3 ligase activity are promoted by binding of the TRIM25 SPRY domain to the RIG-I effector domain. These results indicate that TRIM25 actively participates in higher-order assembly of the RIG-I signalosome and helps to fine-tune the efficiency of the RIG-I-mediated antiviral response.

  6. An inexpensive heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication

    Ward, J; Shortt, B; Morrissey, M; Deasy, K; Chormaic, S N


    We describe an inexpensive and reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3-4 micron diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO2 laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO2 mirror mounted on an inexpensive geared stepper motor in order to scan the laser beam across the taper region and ensure adiabaticity. We show that this system offers a reliable alternative to more traditional rigs incorporating galvanometer scanners. We have routinely obtained transmission losses between 0.1 and 0.3 dB. The operation of the rig is described in detail and an analysis on the produced tapers is provided. The flexibility of the rig is demonstrated by fabricating prolate dielectric microresonators using the microtapering technique. Such a rig is of interest to a range of fields that require tapered fiber fabrication such as microcavity-taper coupling, atom guiding along a tapered fiber, optical fiber sensing and the ...

  7. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    Flin, Rhona


    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf.

  8. Prion-like behavior of MAVS in RIG-I signaling

    Eva Marie Y Moresco; Diantha La Vine; Bruce Beutler


    Viral infection triggers the innate antiviral response in part through activation of RIG-I,a cytoplasmic sensor of 5'-triphosphorylated and uncapped single- or double-stranded RNA,which are not found among endogenous selfRNA.RIG-I signaling depends on the function of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein,an adapter that links RIG-I,and the related RNA sensor MDA5,to events leading to transcriptional activation by NF-κB and IRF3.In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization of other innate immune signaling adapters,MAVS is positioned at mitochondrial membranes [ 1 ],and to a lesser extent at peroxisomal membranes [2],by virtue of a C-terminal transmembrane domain.

  9. RIG-I knockdown impedes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.

    Mukherjee, Sriparna; Ghosh, Sourish; Nazmi, Arshed; Basu, Anirban


    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a well established pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in neurons infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as reported previously from our laboratory. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection in brain has been shown to decrease the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) which has its implications in neurological sequelae in JE survivors. We have found that ablation of RIG-I both in vivo and in vitro models results in significant decrease in NSPC proliferation post JEV infection. We hypothesize that knockdown of RIG-I diminishes the expression of antiviral molecules resulting in an increase in viral replication, which in turn results in enhancement of the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, hence affecting the proliferation of NSPCs. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. The method of rigged spaces in singular perturbation theory of self-adjoint operators

    Koshmanenko, Volodymyr; Koshmanenko, Nataliia


    This monograph presents the newly developed method of rigged Hilbert spaces as a modern approach in singular perturbation theory. A key notion of this approach is the Lax-Berezansky triple of Hilbert spaces embedded one into another, which specifies the well-known Gelfand topological triple. All kinds of singular interactions described by potentials supported on small sets (like the Dirac δ-potentials, fractals, singular measures, high degree super-singular expressions) admit a rigorous treatment only in terms of the equipped spaces and their scales. The main idea of the method is to use singular perturbations to change inner products in the starting rigged space, and the construction of the perturbed operator by the Berezansky canonical isomorphism (which connects the positive and negative spaces from a new rigged triplet). The approach combines three powerful tools of functional analysis based on the Birman-Krein-Vishik theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators, the theory of singular quadra...

  11. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford


    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  12. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A


    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon β production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1β-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1β production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  13. Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.

    Marie-Line Goulet

    Full Text Available The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFNα-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

  14. Design and Development of Hydraulic Disc Brake Systems for Well Servicing Rig Drawworks

    Gao xiangqian; Zhou Yongxia


    @@ The conventional band brakes have been known to be important but also the most unlnerable part in servicing rig deawworks.. The failures in braking and releasing operations haven't well been avoided. There have evidently existed the problems of difficult operation and inconvenient maintenance in this connection. The use of power-assisted hydraulic cylinders or pneumatic cylinders can not meet the requirements of operations either. Since the late 1980s, we have cooperated with Shengli oilfields and others in the successful design and development of PST25 hydraulic disc brake systems for well servicing rig in a fully closed working state.

  15. China's First 6000 m Electric-Driven Desert Oil Drilling Rig

    CP News


    @@ The newly-developed Model ZJ 60DS electric-driven desert oil drilling rig with a drilling capacity of 6000 m is the first of its kind in China. It is a success of the common efforts given by seven scientific research institutes and manufacturer with the Lanzhou Petroleum Chemical Engineering Machinery General Factory as the main contractor. The drilling rig passes the technical appraisement jointly organized by the Ministry of Machinery Industry of the People's Republic of China and China National Petroleum Corporation in Lanzhou on March 30, 1996.

  16. Design and Demonstration of a Test-Rig for Static Performance-Studies of Permanent Magnet Couplings

    Högberg, Stig; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Bendixen, Flemming Buus


    The design and construction of an easy-to-use test-rig for permanent magnet couplings is presented. Static torque of permanent magnet couplings as a function of angular displacement is measured of permanent magnet couplings through an semi-automated test system. The test-rig is capable of measuring...

  17. A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)

    Bart Patton


    This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

  18. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  19. Computational Analysis of a South African Mobile Trailer-Type Medium Sized Tyre Test Rig

    Sharma, Shikar


    Full Text Available , camber angle, road surface fiction and test speed have been intentionally excluded from the results shown. 6 Figure 6: Lateral acceleration of tyre test rig CG for payload 1 and tyre pressure 1, test speed 1 Figure 7: Lateral acceleration...

  20. A kinematic-freedom analysis of a flexed-knee-stance testing rig.

    Zavatsky, A B


    The Oxford Rig was designed for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human knee-joint specimens during simulated flexed-knee stance, such as occurs when riding a bicycle, rising from a chair, or climbing stairs. It has been asserted, but never proven, that the movements of the 'ankle' and 'hip' assemblies of the Oxford Rig combine to allow a knee specimen its natural six degrees-of-freedom of movement (6 d.o.f.). This paper investigates this claim mathematically using the general mobility criterion for spatial linkages and the basics of screw theory. It is shown that within the physiological range of knee-joint movement and the physical construction of the Rig, the knee specimen is allowed full spatial freedom (6 d.o.f.). The general approach used in this paper could also be applied to the analysis and, in particular, to the design of other rigs used for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human joint specimens.

  1. Comparisons Between Unsteady Aerodynamic Events in a Gas Turbine Generator and an Identical Compressor Rig

    Owen, A. Karl


    Extensive testing done on a T55-L-712 turboshaft engine compressor in a compressor test rig is being followed by engine tests in progress as part of the Army Non-Recoverable Stall Program. Goals include a greater understanding of the gas turbine engine start cycle and compressor/engine operation in the regions 'beyond' the normal compressor stall line (rotating stall/surge). Rig steady state instrumentation consisted of 497 steady state pressure sensors and 153 temperature sensors. Engine instrumentation was placed in similar radial/axial locations and consists of 122 steady state pressure sensors and 65 temperature sensors. High response rig instrumentation consisted of 34 wall static pressure transducers. Rig and engine high response pressure transducers were located in the same axial/radial/circumferential locations in front of the first three stages. Additional engine high response instrumentation was placed in mach probes in front of the engine and on the compressor hub. This instrumentation allows for the generation of detailed stage characteristics, overall compressor mapping, and detailed analysis of dynamic compressor events.

  2. Block Adjustment of Vehicle-borne Multi-camera Rig Images Using Extended Collinearity Equations

    YIN Li


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the extended collinearity equations into aerial triangulation of the vehicle-borne multi-camera rig images to improve the positioning accuracy. The cameras in a multi-camera rig are rigidly fixed and the relative position and orientation parameters among the mono cameras of multi-camera rig can be calibrated accurately, so the extended collinearity equations can be used to extend the imaging unit from a mono camera image to multiple images of multi-camera rigs. Compared with the existing spherical models, including the spherical ideal model and the spherical rigorous model, the extended collinearity equations used in this paper avoid the spherical projection error and fusion error caused by the misalignment of projection centers. Experimental results show that the method omits the processing procedure of model projection and fusion of overlap areas, which avoids the precision loss and complicated processing procedure, and finally obtains more robustness triangulation net, more precise and robust position accuracy.

  3. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef


    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  4. Development and verification of a reciprocating test rig designed for investigation of piston ring tribology

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder


    This paper describes the development and verification of a reciprocating test rig, which was designed to study the piston ring tribology. A crank mechanism is used to generate a reciprocating motion for a moving plate, which acts as the liner. A stationary block acting as the ring package is loaded......, which is suitable for the study of piston ring tribology....

  5. Pattern recognition and signaling mechanisms of RIG-I and MDA5

    Stephanie eReikine


    Full Text Available Most organisms rely on innate immune receptors to recognize conserved molecular structures from invading microbes. Two essential innate immune receptors, RIG-I and MDA5, detect viral double-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm. The inflammatory response triggered by these RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs is one of the first and most important lines of defense against infection. RIG-I recognizes short RNA ligands with 5’-triphosphate caps. MDA5 recognizes long kilobase-scale genomic RNA and replication intermediates. Ligand binding induces conformational changes and oligomerization of RLRs that activate the signaling partner MAVS on the mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes. This signaling process is under tight regulation, dependent on post-translational modifications of RIG-I and MDA5, and on regulatory proteins including unanchored ubiquitin chains and a third RLR, LGP2. Here we review recent advances that have shifted the paradigm of RLR signaling away from the conventional linear signaling cascade. In the emerging RLR signaling model, large multimeric signaling platforms generate a highly cooperative, self-propagating and context-dependent signal, which varies with the subcellular localization of the signaling platform.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L W;


    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the first...

  7. Argentina's YPF outlines plan for sale of rigs


    This paper reports that state owned Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) has unveiled the schedule it plans to follow to privatize oil and gas contract drilling in Argentine. YPF proposes to exit the drilling business by selling state owned drilling rigs, drill pipe, and accessories in a series of auctions beginning next month and lasting through first quarter 1993. YPF intends to open bids Dec. 16 for a completion unit and 30 drilling rigs, several working under contract. Bids will be opened during first quarter 1993 for new and used YPF drill pipe and collars, spare equipment and accessories, and an inventory of fishing tools said to be one of the largest in South America. Winners are to be notified immediately after each auction. YPF plans to hand over by Feb. 1, 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993 are to assume ownership by Mar. 24, 1993.

  8. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immuneresponse. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17667934 Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate imm...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immune...response. PubmedID 17667934 Title Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases a

  9. Discussion on new Technology of Oil Drilling Rig%石油钻机新技术探讨

    宋云; 刘文兵


    分析了石油勘探开发和工程技术的新发展,特别是针对三大钻机技术(水平井钻井技术、欠平衡钻井技术、深井钻井技术),应运而生的新型石油钻井装备。还阐述了与之相关的新型石油钻井装备,如液压钻机、四象限运行的交流变频电驱钻机、模块钻机、快移快装钻机、钻机智能化、钻机顶驱装置等。%Analysis of the new development of petroleum exploration and development and engineering technology, especial⁃ly for the technology of three type rig technology (horizontal well, less balance well ,deep well drilling), model of petroleum drill⁃ing equipment emerge as the times require. Also elaborated the new oil drilling equipment and related, such as the AC frequency conversion rig, hydraulic drilling rig, four quadrant drive rig, modular drilling rig, quickly moving fast drilling rig, drill rig top drive device of intelligent, etc..

  10. Z proteins of New World arenaviruses bind RIG-I and interfere with type I interferon induction.

    Fan, Lina; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian


    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I product (RIG-I) is a cellular sensor of RNA virus infection that regulates the cellular beta interferon (IFN-beta) response. The nucleoproteins (NP) of arenaviruses are reported to antagonize the IFN response by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Here, we demonstrate that the Z proteins of four New World (NW) arenaviruses, Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MAVC), and Sabia virus (SABV), bind to RIG-I, resulting in downregulation of the IFN-beta response. We show that expression of the four NW arenavirus Z proteins inhibits IFN-beta mRNA induction in A549 cells in response to RNA bearing 5' phosphates (5'pppRNA). NW arenavirus Z proteins interact with RIG-I in coimmunoprecipitation studies and colocalize with RIG-I. Furthermore, expression of Z proteins interferes with the interaction between RIG-I and MAVS. Z expression also impedes the nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) and IRF-3 activation. Our results indicate that NW arenavirus Z proteins, but not Z protein of the Old World (OW) arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or Lassa virus, bind to RIG-I and inhibit downstream activation of the RIG-I signaling pathway, preventing the transcriptional induction of IFN-beta.

  11. The 3' untranslated regions of influenza genomic sequences are 5'PPP-independent ligands for RIG-I.

    William G Davis

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I is a key regulator of antiviral immunity. RIG-I is generally thought to be activated by ssRNA species containing a 5'-triphosphate (PPP group or by unphosphorylated dsRNA up to ~300 bp in length. However, it is not yet clear how changes in the length, nucleotide sequence, secondary structure, and 5' end modification affect the abilities of these ligands to bind and activate RIG-I. To further investigate these parameters in the context of naturally occurring ligands, we examined RNA sequences derived from the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR of the influenza virus NS1 gene segment. As expected, RIG-I-dependent interferon-β (IFN-β induction by sequences from the 5' UTR of the influenza cRNA or its complement (26 nt in length required the presence of a 5'PPP group. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by the 3' UTR cRNA sequence or its complement (172 nt exhibited only a partial 5'PPP-dependence, as capping the 5' end or treatment with CIP showed a modest reduction in RIG-I activation. Furthermore, induction of IFN-β by a smaller, U/A-rich region within the 3' UTR was completely 5'PPP-independent. Our findings demonstrated that RNA sequence, length, and secondary structure all contributed to whether or not the 5'PPP moiety is needed for interferon induction by RIG-I.

  12. Innate immunity to RNA virus is regulated by temporal and reversible sumoylation of RIG-I and MDA5.

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Liao, Chen-Yang; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shu, Hong-Bing


    Sensing of viral RNA by the cytosolic receptors RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) leads to innate antiviral response. How RIG-I and MDA5 are dynamically regulated in innate antiviral response is not well understood. Here, we show that TRIM38 positively regulates MDA5- and RIG-I-mediated induction of downstream genes and acts as a SUMO E3 ligase for their dynamic sumoylation at K43/K865 and K96/K888, respectively, before and after viral infection. The sumoylation of MDA5 and RIG-I suppresses their K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation in uninfected or early-infected cells. Sumoylation of the caspase recruitment domains of MDA5 and RIG-I is also required for their dephosphorylation by PP1 and activation upon viral infection. At the late phase of viral infection, both MDA5 and RIG-I are desumoylated by SENP2, resulting in their K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation. These findings suggest that dynamic sumoylation and desumoylation of MDA5 and RIG-I modulate efficient innate immunity to RNA virus and its timely termination.

  13. A Study on the Dynamic Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Test Rig Using 1-Way Fluid-Structure Coupled Analysis

    Yang, Tae-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Joung, Chang-Young; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    1-way fluid-structure coupled analysis is used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the fuel test rig. the motion at the bottom of the test rig is confirmed. The maximum deformation of the test rig is 0.11 mm. The structural integrity of the test rig is performed by using the comparison with the Von-mises stress of the analysis and yield stress of the material. It is evaluated that the motion at the bottom of the test rig is able to cause other structural problem. Using the 2-way fluid-structural coupled analysis, the structural integrity of the test rig will be performed in further paper. The cooling water with specific flow rate was flowed in the nuclear fuel test rig. The structural integrity of the test rig was affected by the vibration. The fluid-induced vibration test had to be performed to obtain the amplitude of the vibration on the structure. Various test systems was developed. Flow-induced vibration and pressure drop experimental tester was developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The vibration test with high fluid flow rate was difficult by the tester. To generate the nuclear fuel test environment, coolant flow simulation system was developed. The scaled nuclear fuel test was able to be performed by the simulation system. The mock-up model of the test rig was used in the simulation system. The mock-up model in the simulation system was manufactured with scaled down full model. In this paper, the fluid induced vibration characteristic of the full model in the nuclear fuel test is studied. The hydraulic pressure on the velocity of the fluid was calculated. The static structure analysis was performed by using the pressure. The structural integrity was assessed using the results of the analysis.

  14. Laboratory facility for testing electric-vehicle batteries Test rig for simulating duty cycles with different discharge modes

    Hamilton, J. A.; Rand, D. A. J.


    A test rig has been designed and constructed to examine the performance of batteries under laboratory conditions that simulate the power characteristics of electric vehicles. Each station in the rig subjects a battery to continuous charge/discharge cycles, with an equalising charge every eighth cycle. The battery discharge follows the current-verse-time profile of a given vehicle operating under a driving schedule normal to road service. The test rig allows both smooth- and pulsed-current discharge to be investigated. Data collection is accomplished either with multi-pen recorders or with a computer-based information logger.

  15. Technology of load-sensitivity used in the hydraulic system of an all-hydraulic core rig

    XIN De-zhong; CHEN Song-ling; WANG Qing-feng


    The existing hydraulic system always have problems of temperature rise, run-ning stability and anti-interference of the implementation components, reliability of hydrau-lic components, maintenance difficulties, and other issues. With high efficiency, energy saving, reliability, easy operating, stable running, anti-interference ability, and other ad-vantages, the load-sensitive hydraulic system is more suitable for coal mine all-hydraulic core rig. Therefore, for the technical development of the coal mine all-hydraulic core rig, the load-sensitive technology employed by the rig should be of great significance.

  16. A distinct role of Riplet-mediated K63-Linked polyubiquitination of the RIG-I repressor domain in human antiviral innate immune responses.

    Hiroyuki Oshiumi

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infections, but several viruses have evolved strategies to escape innate immunity. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor that triggers the signal to induce type I interferon production in response to viral infection. RIG-I activation is regulated by the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain mediated by Riplet and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases. TRIM25 is required for RIG-I oligomerization and interaction with the IPS-1 adaptor molecule. A knockout study revealed that Riplet was essential for RIG-I activation. However the molecular mechanism underlying RIG-I activation by Riplet remains unclear, and the functional differences between Riplet and TRIM25 are also unknown. A genetic study and a pull-down assay indicated that Riplet was dispensable for RIG-I RNA binding activity but required for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I. Mutational analysis demonstrated that Lys-788 within the RIG-I repressor domain was critical for Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination and that Riplet was required for the release of RIG-I autorepression of its N-terminal CARDs, which leads to the association of RIG-I with TRIM25 ubiquitin ligase and TBK1 protein kinase. Our data indicate that Riplet is a prerequisite for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I signaling. We investigated the biological importance of this mechanism in human cells and found that hepatitis C virus (HCV abrogated this mechanism. Interestingly, HCV NS3-4A proteases targeted the Riplet protein and abrogated endogenous RIG-I polyubiquitination and association with TRIM25 and TBK1, emphasizing the biological importance of this mechanism in human antiviral innate immunity. In conclusion, our results establish that Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination released RIG-I RD autorepression, which allowed the access of positive factors to the RIG-I protein.


    Damir Zadravec


    Full Text Available Jack up drilling platforms are offshore drilling units composed by drilling rig situated on naval structure without self propelling device. Jack up drilling rigs are units used for drilling and completion of deep well bores in offshore oil and gas exploration industry or field development. By reaching the theoretical center of gravity and equilibrium while towing and balance of acting forces on the unit while operations on location ensures the stability and safe mode of operations of entire unit. Penetration of legs spud cans in sea bad produced by weight of unit and acting of preload force, depending on geotechnical characteristics, type and bearing capacity of sea bad, and taking in consideration working environmental forces which acts on unit (wind, waves, sea current, ice, snow ensures proper foundation, environmental forces balancing and safe mode of operations (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. A Comparison Study of Magnetic Bearing Controllers for a Fully Suspended Dynamic Spin Rig

    Choi, Benjamin; Johnson, Dexter; Morrison, Carlos; Mehmed, Oral; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a fully suspended magnetic bearing system for the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) that is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the DSR to provide noncontact magnetic suspension and mechanical excitation of the 35 lb vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration. A simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with a special feature for multidirectional radial excitation worked very well to both support and shake the shaft with blades. However, more advanced controllers were developed and successfully tested to determine the optimal controller in terms of sensor and processing noise reduction, smaller rotor orbits, and energy savings for the system. The test results of a variety of controllers we demonstrated up to the rig's maximum allowable speed of 10,000 rpm are shown.

  19. The predictive analysis of wear work-rates in wear test rigs

    Phalippou, C.; Delaune, X.


    Impact and sliding wear in components is classically studied, as far as the wear laws are concerned, in specific wear test rigs that simulate the vibratory motion induced by the flow. In this paper, an experimental and numerical study on the impact forces and wear work-rates of a typical AECL rig is presented. The mode shapes and frequencies are measured and compared with finite element computations. Impact and sliding motions between the wear specimens are calculated and compared to the experimental results. Impact forces, mean values of wear work-rates as well as the specimen relative motions are found to be close to the experimental data. (authors). 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Design and development of a high-speed bearing test rig

    Cockburn, J. A.


    The development of a high-speed test rig, to be used for compiling an experimental data base of bearing signatures for bearings with known faults, is described. This bearing test rig can be adapted to test oil-film bearings as well as rolling element bearings. This is achieved by mounting the test bearing in one of two special test housings, either of which can be mounted onto a common test shaft which can be driven up to 30,000 rpm. The test bearing housing for rolling element bearings can accommodate proximity displacement transducers, accelerometers, thermocouples, and acoustic emission sensors. The test bearing housing for the fluid-film bearings can accommodate the same instrumentation as well as Bourdon tube-type transducers for measuring oil film pressures around the bearing circumference.

  1. Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor

    Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.


    A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.


    Inmaculada Ortigosa


    Full Text Available The operational complexity and performance requirements of modern racing yachts demand the use of advanced applications, such as a decision support system (DSS able to assist crew members during navigation. In this article, the authors describe a near-time computational solver as the main piece of a DSS which analyses and monitors the behaviour of sails and rigging. The solver is made up of two different interconnected tools: an iterative Fluid-Structure Interaction algorithm and an advanced Wireless Sensor Network to monitor rigging. The real-time DSS quantifies crew manoeuvres in physical terms, which are reproduced by a simulation program. It can be used in the design phase of sailing yachts and as an aid for real-time boat performance optimisation and accident prevention. This novel DSS is a useful tool for navigation, especially in races.

  3. Mixed mode properties of CNT reinforced composites using Arcan test rig

    Jacob MUTHU


    Composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes were mechanical tested using Arcan test rig under Mode-I, Mode-II and mixed mode loading conditions to obtain their fracture properties. The butterfly composite specimens were fabricated with 0.02, 0.05 and 0. I wt % CNTs. The polyester/CNT composite was fabricated using VRTM (Vacuum Resin Transfer Molding) where the CNTs were first functionalised to reach an optimum properties. Arcan test rig was designed and fabricated to work with the Shimadzu testing machine. The results show that the functionalised CNTs have improved the fracture behavior by acting as bridge between the cracked face. In addition, the fracture properties were not improved for the higher weight fraction of 0.1 wt% CNTs.

  4. Threshold Assessment of Gear Diagnostic Tools on Flight and Test Rig Data

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.


    A method for defining thresholds for vibration-based algorithms that provides the minimum number of false alarms while maintaining sensitivity to gear damage was developed. This analysis focused on two vibration based gear damage detection algorithms, FM4 and MSA. This method was developed using vibration data collected during surface fatigue tests performed in a spur gearbox rig. The thresholds were defined based on damage progression during tests with damage. The thresholds false alarm rates were then evaluated on spur gear tests without damage. Next, the same thresholds were applied to flight data from an OH-58 helicopter transmission. Results showed that thresholds defined in test rigs can be used to define thresholds in flight to correctly classify the transmission operation as normal.

  5. The Hydraulic Test Procedure for Non-instrumented Irradiation Test Rig of Annular Fuel

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Park, Chan Kook


    This report presents the procedure of pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test for the non-instrumented rig using the irradiation test in HANARO of advanced PWR annular fuel which were designed and fabricated by KAERI. From the out-pile thermal hydraulic tests, confirm the flow rate at the 200 kPa pressure drop and measure the RMS displacement at this time. And the endurance test is confirmed the wear and the integrity of the non-instrumented rig at the 110% design flow rate. This out-pile test perform the Flow-Induced Vibration and Pressure Drop Experimental Tester(FIVPET) facility. The instruments in FIVPET facility was calibrated in KAERI and the pump and the thermocouple were certified by manufacturer.

  6. Emerging complexity and new roles for the RIG-I-like receptors in innate antiviral immunity

    John; S.Errett; Michael; Gale; Jr.


    Innate immunity is critical for the control of virus infection and operates to restrict viral susceptibility and direct antiviral immunity for protection from acute or chronic viral-associated diseases including cancer. RIG-I like receptors(RLRs) are cytosolic RNA helicases that function as pathogen recognition receptors to detect RNA pathogen associated molecular patterns(PAMPs) of virus infection. The RLRs include RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2. They function to recognize and bind to PAMP motifs within viral RNA in a process that directs the RLR to trigger downstream signaling cascades that induce innate immunity that controls viral replication and spread. Products of RLR signaling also serve to modulate the adaptive immune response to infection. Recent studies have additionally connected RLRs to signaling cascades that impart inflammatory and apoptotic responses to virus infection. Viral evasion of RLR signaling supports viral outgrowth and pathogenesis, including the onset of viral-associated cancer.

  7. Optimal Controller Tested for a Magnetically Suspended Five-Axis Dynamic Spin Rig

    Choi, Benjamin B.


    NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch has developed a fully suspended magnetic bearing system for their Dynamic Spin Rig, which performs vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust magnetic bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the Dynamic Spin Rig to provide magnetic excitation as well as noncontact magnetic suspension of the 35-lb vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration (ref. 1). The new system can provide longer run times at higher speeds and larger vibration amplitudes for rotating blades. Also, it was proven that bearing mechanical life was substantially extended and flexibility was increased in the excitation orientation (direction and phasing).

  8. Both RIG-I and MDA5 detect alphavirus replication in concentration-dependent mode.

    Akhrymuk, Ivan; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I


    Alphaviruses are a family of positive-strand RNA viruses that circulate on all continents between mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. Despite a significant public health threat, their biology is not sufficiently investigated, and the mechanisms of alphavirus replication and virus-host interaction are insufficiently understood. In this study, we have applied a variety of experimental systems to further understand the mechanism by which infected cells detect replicating alphaviruses. Our new data strongly suggest that activation of the antiviral response by alphavirus-infected cells is determined by the integrity of viral genes encoding proteins with nuclear functions, and by the presence of two cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), RIG-I and MDA5. No type I IFN response is induced in their absence. The presence of either of these PRRs is sufficient for detecting virus replication. However, type I IFN activation in response to pathogenic alphaviruses depends on the basal levels of RIG-I or MDA5.

  9. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef


    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  10. The Hydraulic Test Report for Non-instrumented Irradiation Test Rig of DUO-Cooled Annular Pellet

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Sun Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Song, Kun Woo


    This report presents the results of pressure drop test and vibration test for non-instrumented rig of Advanced PWR DUO-Fuel Annular Pellet which were designed and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the non-instrumented rig of Advanced PWR DUO-Fuel Annular Pellet corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 8.30 kg/sec. Vibration frequency results for the non-instrumented rig at the pump spin frequency ranges from 19.0 to 32.0 Hz, RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the non-instrumented rig of Advanced PWR DUO-Fuel Annular Pellet is less than 7.25 m, and the maximum displacement is less than 31.27 {mu}m. This test was performed at the FIVPET facility.

  11. Multibody dynamics modelling and system identification of a quarter-car test rig with McPherson strut suspension

    Sandu, Corina; Andersen, Erik R.; Southward, Steve


    In this paper, we develop a multibody dynamics model of a quarter-car test-rig equipped with a McPherson strut suspension and we apply a system identification technique on it. Constrained equations of motion in the Lagrange multiplier form are derived and employed to characterise the dynamic behaviour of the test rig modelled once as a linear system and once as a non-linear system. The system of differential algebraic equations is integrated using a Hilber-Hughes-Taylor integrator. The responses of both models (linear and non-linear) to a given displacement input are obtained and compared with the experimental response recorded using the physical quarter-car test rig equipped with a McPherson strut suspension. The system identification is performed for control purposes. The results, as well as the performance and area of applicability of the test rig models derived, are discussed.

  12. Design of multi-module experiment-rig of vessel electrical propulsion prime mover

    XIE Chun-ling; WANG Yuan-hui


    Combined power plant is widely used in large or medium surface vessel for its predominant performance. It is important to research on using combined power plant as electrical propulsion prime mover for developing the electric propulsion warship.This paper, designs a multi-module experiment-rig and introduces its composition, working principle and disposition scheme,and carried out the dynamic characteristic experiment of the GTD350 gas turbine.

  13. Fully Suspended, Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig With Forced Excitation

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Jansen, Ralph


    The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig, a significant advancement in the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under rotating and nonrotating conditions in a vacuum. The rig has as its critical components three magnetic bearings: two heteropolar radial active magnetic bearings and a magnetic thrust bearing. The bearing configuration allows full vertical rotor magnetic suspension along with a feed-forward control feature, which will enable the excitation of various natural blade modes in bladed disk test articles. The theoretical, mechanical, electrical, and electronic aspects of the rig are discussed. Also presented are the forced-excitation results of a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, unbladed rotor and a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, bladed rotor in which a pair of blades was arranged 180 degrees apart from each other. These tests include the bounce mode excitation of the rotor in which the rotor was excited at the blade natural frequency of 144 Hz. The rotor natural mode frequency of 355 Hz was discerned from the plot of acceleration versus frequency. For nonrotating blades, a blade-tip excitation amplitude of approximately 100 g/A was achieved at the first-bending critical (approximately 144 Hz) and at the first-torsional and second-bending blade modes. A blade-tip displacement of 70 mils was achieved at the first-bending critical by exciting the blades at a forced-excitation phase angle of 908 relative to the vertical plane containing the blades while simultaneously rotating the shaft at 3000 rpm.

  14. The selective footprints of viral pressures at the human RIG-I-like receptor family.

    Vasseur, Estelle; Patin, Etienne; Laval, Guillaume; Pajon, Sandra; Fornarino, Simona; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Quintana-Murci, Lluis


    The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs)--RIG-I, IFIH1 (or MDA5) and LGP2--are thought to be key actors in the innate immune system, as they play a major role in sensing RNA viruses in the cytosol of host cells. Despite the increasingly recognized importance of the RLR family in antiviral immunity, no population genetic studies have yet attempted to compare the evolutionary history of its different members in humans. Here, we characterized the levels of naturally occurring genetic variation in the RLRs in a panel of individuals of different ethnic origins, to assess to what extent natural selection has acted on this family of microbial sensors. Our results show that amino acid-altering variation at RIG-I, particularly in the helicase domain, has been under stronger evolutionary constraint than that at IFIH1 and LGP2, reflecting an important role for RIG-I in sensing numerous RNA viruses and/or functional constraints related to the binding of viral substrates. Such evolutionary constraints have been much more relaxed at IFIH1 and LGP2, which appear to have evolved adaptively in specific human populations. Notably, we identified several mutations showing signatures of positive selection, including two non-synonymous polymorphisms in IFIH1 (R460H and R843H) and one in LGP2 (Q425R), suggesting a selective advantage related to the sensing of RNA viruses by IFIH and to the regulatory functions of LGP2. In light of the fact that some of these mutations have been associated with altered risks of developing autoimmune disorders, our study provides an additional example of the evolutionary conflict between infection and autoimmunity.

  15. Field Trials of the Prototype Pounder Rig, Uganda, 20th August - 13th November 1999.


    A prototype low-cost drilling rig was imported to Uganda in August 1999 and handed over to Mpigi District Government. Field trials of this machine were undertaken between 20 th August and 13 th November 1999. This work was enabled through a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding between the Cranfield University/DFID Low Cost well Drilling Project, the Directorate of Water Development (DWD) of the Government of Uganda, and the local Government of Mpigi District. A total of fo...

  16. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  17. Design of Seismic Test Rig for Control Rod Drive Mechanism of Jordan Research and Training Reactor

    Sun, Jongoh; Kim, Gyeongho; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The reactor assembly is submerged in a reactor pool filled with water and its reactivity is controlled by locations of four control absorber rods(CARs) inside the reactor assembly. Each CAR is driven by a stepping motor installed at the top of the reactor pool and they are connected to each other by a tie rod and an electromagnet. The CARs scram the reactor by de-energizing the electromagnet in the event of a safe shutdown earthquake(SSE). Therefore, the safety function of the control rod drive mechanism(CRDM) which consists of a drive assembly, tie rod and CARs is to drop the CAR into the core within an appropriate time in case of the SSE. As well known, the operability for complex equipment such as the CRDM during an earthquake is very hard to be demonstrated by analysis and should be verified through tests. One of them simulates the reactor assembly and the guide tube of the CAR, and the other one does the pool wall where the drive assembly is installed. In this paper, design of the latter test rig and how the test is performed are presented. Initial design of the seismic test rig and excitation table had its first natural frequency at 16.3Hz and could not represent the environment where the CRDM was installed. Therefore, experimental modal analyses were performed and an FE model for the test rig and table was obtained and tuned based on the experimental results. Using the FE model, the design of the test rig and table was modified in order to have higher natural frequency than the cutoff frequency. The goal was achieved by changing its center of gravity and the stiffness of its sliding bearings.

  18. IFNγ inhibits the cytosolic replication of Shigella flexneri via the cytoplasmic RNA sensor RIG-I.

    Stephanie P Jehl

    Full Text Available The activation of host cells by interferon gamma (IFNγ is essential for inhibiting the intracellular replication of most microbial pathogens. Although significant advances have been made in identifying IFNγ-dependent host factors that suppress intracellular bacteria, little is known about how IFNγ enables cells to recognize, or restrict, the growth of pathogens that replicate in the host cytoplasm. The replication of the cytosolic bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri is significantly inhibited in IFNγ-stimulated cells, however the specific mechanisms that mediate this inhibition have remained elusive. We found that S. flexneri efficiently invades IFNγ-activated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and escapes from the vacuole, suggesting that IFNγ acts by blocking S. flexneri replication in the cytosol. This restriction on cytosolic growth was dependent on interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1, an IFNγ-inducible transcription factor capable of inducing IFNγ-mediated cell-autonomous immunity. To identify host factors that restrict S. flexneri growth, we used whole genome microarrays to identify mammalian genes whose expression in S. flexneri-infected cells is controlled by IFNγ and IRF1. Among the genes we identified was the pattern recognition receptor (PRR retanoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytoplasmic sensor of foreign RNA that had not been previously known to play a role in S. flexneri infection. We found that RIG-I and its downstream signaling adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS--but not cytosolic Nod-like receptors (NLRs--are critically important for IFNγ-mediated S. flexneri growth restriction. The recently described RNA polymerase III pathway, which transcribes foreign cytosolic DNA into the RIG-I ligand 5'-triphosphate RNA, appeared to be involved in this restriction. The finding that RIG-I responds to S. flexneri infection during the IFNγ response extends the range of PRRs that are capable of recognizing

  19. Design and construction of a point-contact spectroscopy rig with lateral scanning capability.

    Tortello, M; Park, W K; Ascencio, C O; Saraf, P; Greene, L H


    The design and realization of a cryogenic rig for point-contact spectroscopy measurements in the needle-anvil configuration is presented. Thanks to the use of two piezoelectric nano-positioners, the tip can move along the vertical (z) and horizontal (x) direction and thus the rig is suitable to probe different regions of a sample in situ. Moreover, it can also form double point-contacts on different facets of a single crystal for achieving, e.g., an interferometer configuration for phase-sensitive measurements. For the later purpose, the sample holder can also host a Helmholtz coil for applying a small transverse magnetic field to the junction. A semi-rigid coaxial cable can be easily added for studying the behavior of Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation. The rig can be detached from the probe and thus used with different cryostats. The performance of this new probe has been tested in a Quantum Design PPMS system by conducting point-contact Andreev reflection measurements on Nb thin films over large areas as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  20. Testing of a new morphing trailing edge flap system on a novel outdoor rotating test rig

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Athanasios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom


    the flap performance in real turbulent inflow and 3) to test the flap system in a realistic size and Reynolds number when comparing with full scale applications.. The rotating test rig consists of a 2.2m blade section attached to a 10m boom and mounted on a 100kW turbine platform. It was installed in June......The morphing trailing edge system or flap system, CRTEF, has been developed over the last 10 years at DTU Wind Energy. After a promising wind tunnel test of the system in 2009 the INDUFLAP project has been carried out from 2011-2014 to transfer the technology from laboratory to industrial...... manufacturing and application. To narrow the gap between wind tunnel testing and full scale prototype testing we developed the rotating test rig. The overall objectives with the rotating test rig are: 1) to test the flap system in a realistic rotating environment with a realistic g-loading; 2) to measure...

  1. Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming


    Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

  2. Comparison of laser welding conditions of Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel for nuclear fuel irradiation rig

    Kim, Kahye; Hong, Jintae; Joung, Changyoung; Heo, Sungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Various materials for Zircaloy-4, SUS 316L, such as Inconel, are used as a survey rig that has been produced for fuel irradiation testing. Precision sensors, thermocouples, LVDT, and SPND should also be assembled. Therefore, a welding device for connecting them is necessary. With a high density of energy, laser welding can be properly used in a deep permeation, and in precisely welding narrow and deep joints. In particular, it has been applied to other fields such as metal welding. Since the technology bears no pores or cavities, resulting in a clean surface after the welding process, it does not require an 'after-process' such as grinding or polishing, which is useful where high water-tightness is required. Therefore, we developed and researched a special fiber laser welding system for the production of a nuclear research rig. Through the above test, the different conditions of laser welding were found for Zircaloy-4 and AISI 316L used for producing a nuclear fuel research rig, performing the most optimal welding conditions according to the properties of the materials in the future.

  3. DHX36 enhances RIG-I signaling by facilitating PKR-mediated antiviral stress granule formation.

    Ji-Seung Yoo


    Full Text Available RIG-I is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase and functions as a critical cytoplasmic sensor for RNA viruses to initiate antiviral interferon (IFN responses. Here we demonstrate that another DExD/H-box RNA helicase DHX36 is a key molecule for RIG-I signaling by regulating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR activation, which has been shown to be essential for the formation of antiviral stress granule (avSG. We found that DHX36 and PKR form a complex in a dsRNA-dependent manner. By forming this complex, DHX36 facilitates dsRNA binding and phosphorylation of PKR through its ATPase/helicase activity. Using DHX36 KO-inducible MEF cells, we demonstrated that DHX36 deficient cells showed defect in IFN production and higher susceptibility in RNA virus infection, indicating the physiological importance of this complex in host defense. In summary, we identify a novel function of DHX36 as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR.

  4. DHX36 enhances RIG-I signaling by facilitating PKR-mediated antiviral stress granule formation.

    Yoo, Ji-Seung; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Ng, Chen Seng; Ouda, Ryota; Onomoto, Koji; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Lai, Janice Ching; Lattmann, Simon; Nagamine, Yoshikuni; Matsui, Tadashi; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi


    RIG-I is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase and functions as a critical cytoplasmic sensor for RNA viruses to initiate antiviral interferon (IFN) responses. Here we demonstrate that another DExD/H-box RNA helicase DHX36 is a key molecule for RIG-I signaling by regulating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, which has been shown to be essential for the formation of antiviral stress granule (avSG). We found that DHX36 and PKR form a complex in a dsRNA-dependent manner. By forming this complex, DHX36 facilitates dsRNA binding and phosphorylation of PKR through its ATPase/helicase activity. Using DHX36 KO-inducible MEF cells, we demonstrated that DHX36 deficient cells showed defect in IFN production and higher susceptibility in RNA virus infection, indicating the physiological importance of this complex in host defense. In summary, we identify a novel function of DHX36 as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR).

  5. Hydraulic and thermal testing of different helium cooled irradiation rig models for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Klein, Christine, E-mail:; Arbeiter, Frederik; Martin, Thomas; Taubmann, Peter


    Highlights: • Two different single 1:1 irradiation rigs inside a mock-up container are presented. • Pressure drops in the single rig minichannels are measured. • Temperature fields are measured under different heater and flow conditions. • Predictability and reproducibility of the cooling flows can be shown. - Abstract: The hydraulic and thermal testing of two different irradiation rig models A and B, differing in the inlet nozzle design, bottom reflector length and steps inside a mock-up container is part of the HFTM validation activities which support the engineering design of the High Flux Test Module. The pressure drops for all models in the test section are measured for overall mass flow rates of 1–12 g/s and different absolute pressures of 1500 hPa and 2500 hPa at the pressure port at the inlet section. The pressure drops in different sections of the experiment and in the single rig minichannels are also measured with additional pressure ports on the surfaces of the rig models. Predictability and reproducibility of the cooling effects of the main cooling channels in the HFTM irradiation zone can be shown. Rig model B with a backward facing step is for high mass flow rates >∼7.5 g/s (this is the operation regime of the HFTM) superior to rig model A. Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the irradiation rigs by helium gas is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures. Temperature fields under different heater and flow conditions have been measured.

  6. Cytosolic 5'-triphosphate ended viral leader transcript of measles virus as activator of the RIG I-mediated interferon response.

    Sébastien Plumet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Double stranded RNA (dsRNA is widely accepted as an RNA motif recognized as a danger signal by the cellular sentries. However, the biology of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses, or Mononegavirales, is hardly compatible with the production of such dsRNA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During measles virus infection, the IFN-beta gene transcription was found to be paralleled by the virus transcription, but not by the virus replication. Since the expression of every individual viral mRNA failed to activate the IFN-beta gene, we postulated the involvement of the leader RNA, which is a small not capped and not polyadenylated RNA firstly transcribed by Mononegavirales. The measles virus leader RNA, synthesized both in vitro and in vivo, was efficient in inducing the IFN-beta expression, provided that it was delivered into the cytosol as a 5'-trisphosphate ended RNA. The use of a human cell line expressing a debilitated RIG-I molecule, together with overexpression studies of wild type RIG-I, showed that the IFN-beta induction by virus infection or by leader RNA required RIG-I to be functional. RIG-I binds to leader RNA independently from being 5-trisphosphate ended; while a point mutant, Q299A, predicted to establish contacts with the RNA, fails to bind to leader RNA. Since the 5'-triphosphate is required for optimal RIG-I activation but not for leader RNA binding, our data support that RIG-I is activated upon recognition of the 5'-triphosphate RNA end. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RIG-I is proposed to recognize Mononegavirales transcription, which occurs in the cytosol, while scanning cytosolic RNAs, and to trigger an IFN response when encountering a free 5'-triphosphate RNA resulting from a mislocated transcription activity, which is therefore considered as the hallmark of a foreign invader.

  7. The influence of chemicals on water quality in a high pressure separation rig

    Johnsen, Einar E.; Hemmingsen, Paal V.; Mediaas, Heidi; Svarstad, May Britt E.; Westvik, Arild


    In the research laboratory of Statoil at Rotvoll, Trondheim, a high pressure experimental rig used for separation and foaming studies has been developed. There have been several studies to ensure that the high pressure separation rig produces reliable and consistent results with regard to the water-in-oil and oil-in-water contents. The results are consistent with available field data and, just as important, consistent when changing variables like temperature, pressure drop and water cut. The results are also consistent when changing hydrodynamic variables like flow velocity and mixing point (using different choke valves) and when using oil with and without gas saturation. At equal experimental conditions, the high pressure separation rig is able to differentiate between separation characteristics of oil and water from different fields and from different wells at the same field. The high pressure separation and foam rig can be used from -10 deg C to 175 deg C and at pressures up to 200 bar. Crude oil and water are studied under relevant process conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, shear, water cut and separation time. In the present work the influence of chemicals on the oil and water quality has been studied. Chemicals have been mixed into the oil and/or water beforehand or added in situ (on-stream; simulated well stream). The amount of oil in the water after a given residence time in the separation cell has been measured. The results from the high pressure rig show that some demulsifiers, with their primary purpose of giving less water in oil, also have influence on the water quality. Improvement of water quality has been observed as well as no effect or aggravation. The experimental results have been compared to results from bottle tests at the field. The results from the bottle tests and from the laboratory are not corresponding, and only a full-scale field test can tell which of them are the correct results, if any. (Experience from corresponding

  8. Analisis Keandalan Struktur Padeye Berdasarkan Konfigurasi Rigging pada Lifting Upper Deck Modul Modec dengan Pendekatan Dinamik

    Iqbal Gayuh Raharjaning Mukti Sumarsono


    Full Text Available Di dalam perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang fabrikasi, lifting merupakan salah satu tahapan terpenting dalam membangun bangunan lepas pantai sehingga diperlukan perhitungan dan analisis tambahan untuk memperhatikan apakah struktur tersebut aman ataupun tidak. Sekenario lifting berdasarkan konfigurasi rigging dapat dibuat untuk menentukan rigging equipment yang tepat. Pada kasus ini, struktur yang di-lifting adalah struktur upper deck dari modul MODEC yang dikerjakan oleh PT. GPS Batam. Deck ini memiliki panjang sekitar 19,5 m dan lebar 9 m. Berat total struktur dengan equipment sebesar 55 ton. Konfigurasi rigging yang akan digunakan ada tiga, yaitu Model A (tanpa spreader bar, Model B (satu spreader bar, dan Model C (dua spreader bar. Dari ketiga konfigurasi tersebut akan diperoleh dimensi padeye yang berbeda- beda. Model A, Model B, dan Model C memiliki diameter hole padeye masing-masing sebesar 74 mm, 65 mm, dan 52 mm. Tegangan dan UC tertinggi sama- sama terjadi pada Model A sebesar 17625,99 psi dan untuk UC sebesar 0,52. Tetapi hal ini berbanding terbalik apabila ditinjau dari daerah lubang. Tegangan ataupun UC yang lebih tinggi jatuh pada Model C yang menggunakan dua spreader bar sebesar 13936,58 psi dan nilai UC sebesar 0,45. Tegangan yang terjadi di attachments maupun sekitar hole dijadikan variabel dalam mencari keandalan yang terjadi pada tiap padeye dengan metode Mean value first order second moment (MVFOSM. Sehingga didapatkan Probality of Failure (PoF pada attachments padeye pada Model A, B, dan C masing- masing sebesar 0,126%, 0,064 %, dan 0,0001 %. Sedangkan PoF pada hole padeye sebesar 0,062% untuk Model A, 0,10 % untuk Model B, dan 0,23% untuk Model C.

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Viroporin 2B Antagonizes RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Effects by Inhibition of Its Protein Expression

    Zhu, Zixiang; Wang, Guoqing; Yang, Fan; Cao, Weijun; Mao, Ruoqing; Du, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiangle; Li, Chuntian; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Shu, Hongbing; Liu, Xiangtao


    ABSTRACT The role of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we showed that RIG-I inhibits FMDV replication in host cells. FMDV infection increased the transcription of RIG-I, while it decreased RIG-I protein expression. A detailed analysis revealed that FMDV leader proteinase (Lpro), as well as 3C proteinase (3Cpro) and 2B protein, decreased RIG-I protein expression. Lpro and 3Cpro are viral proteinases that can cleave various host proteins and are responsible for several of the viral polyprotein cleavages. However, for the first time, we observed 2B-induced reduction of host protein. Further studies showed that 2B-mediated reduction of RIG-I is specific to FMDV, but not other picornaviruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus, enterovirus 71, and coxsackievirus A16. Moreover, we found the decreased protein level of RIG-I is independent of the cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, the induction of cellular apoptosis, or the association of proteasome, lysosome, and caspase pathways. A direct interaction was observed between RIG-I and 2B. The carboxyl-terminal amino acids 105 to 114 and amino acids 135 to 144 of 2B were essential for the reduction of RIG-I, while residues 105 to 114 were required for the interaction. These data suggest the antiviral role of RIG-I against FMDV and a novel antagonistic mechanism of FMDV that is mediated by 2B protein. IMPORTANCE This study demonstrated that RIG-I could suppress FMDV replication during virus infection. FMDV infection increased the transcriptional expression of RIG-I, while it decreased RIG-I protein expression. FMDV 2B protein interacted with RIG-I and induced reduction of RIG-I. 2B-induced reduction of RIG-I was independent of the induction of the cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma or cellular apoptosis. In addition, proteasome, lysosome, and caspase pathways were not involved in this process

  10. Drilling rig noise assessment model vs. field monitoring results Imperial Oil Resources Cold Lake in-situ bitumen development area

    Nixon, J.; MacDonald, T. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada). Cold Lake Projects; Wright, R. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Oil and gas companies in Alberta must comply with the noise-emissions standards in the Noise Control Directive 038 of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Licensees are responsible for risk when choosing sites and designing facilities. As such, they are required to work proactively to minimize potential impacts of new developments and must report existing noise levels. Imperial Oil Resources (IOR) Cold Lake operation is Canada's largest in-situ bitumen development facility which undergoes significant, ongoing development including the addition of up to 10 new multi-well production sites per year. In this study, the following equipment was assessed as a component of the noise impact assessment: the draw works, rotary table and drilling floor operations of a typical pad-drilling rig; the equipment skid for a typical diesel-electric rig, which includes two diesel engines, mud pumps and mud tanks; and, the equipment skid for a typical all electric rig, which includes only the mud pumps and mud tanks. Drilling rig noise measurements taken in 2006 at at two operating drill rigs were compared with 1996 drilling rig noise measurements. Sound level measurements at the U08 and U09 operating drill rigs were completed at distances of 5 m, 10 m, 20 m and 40 m and the measurements were used to calculate sound power levels for the drilling floor. A comparison of predicted sound levels to measured sound levels was then presented. Higher sound power level values in the 2006 measurements were due to equipment noise being centered at the drilling complex as opposed to the rig floor in 1996. The 2006 field monitoring data were then used by HFP Acoustical Consultants to update the predictive model which was provided to IOR in January 2006. The updated sound levels around the electric drilling rigs range from approximately 60 dBA near the edge of the lease up to 83 dBA near the noisiest equipment. It was concluded that the predictions from the model remain conservative and

  11. Two-Speed DCT Electric Powertrain Shifting Control and Rig Testing

    Bo Zhu


    Full Text Available Dual clutch transmissions (DCTs are recognized as being suitable for electric drive applications as they can drive with high efficiency and achieve good shifting comfort. A two-speed DCT electric drivetrain is described in this paper, comprised of only two gear pairs and a final drive gear in the two-speed gearbox. The fundamental shifting control algorithm is provided. On the testing rig of University of Technology, Sydney (UTS powertrain lab, shifting controls and some driving cycle controls were realized. The results demonstrated that the control algorithm functioned well both in transient shifting control process and in the driving cycle conditions.

  12. Roughnecks, rock bits and rigs : the evolution of oil well drilling technology in Alberta, 1883-1970

    Gow, A.


    This book provides a comprehensive review of the evolving technologies related to oil and gas exploration in the province of Alberta. Oil well drilling technology evolved significantly during the era of conventional oil exploration in the province, from 1883 through 1970. Technologies such as drill bits and power sources were developed largely through trial and error to meet the specific needs of individuals working in the oilfield. The competence and resolve to innovate by drill crews was told through accounts of evolution in drilling processes and equipment, along with personal accounts of those who worked on the rigs. The technology of the oilfield was placed into context with a summary of the history and geology of oil and gas in Alberta. The book also presents a considerate view of events in relation to those who invested in the industry, carried out research drilling and serviced the exploration industry. The first part of the book provides the background to the oil and gas industry. Part 2 examines the earliest technology, the standard cable tool drilling rig, the combination rig and some associated developments in drilling. The third part focuses on the rotary drilling rig and the final part outlines the types of challenges faced by the drillers and the hazards of working on Alberta's rigs. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Negative regulation of MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral signaling by the dihydroxyacetone kinase.

    Diao, Feici; Li, Shu; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Min; Xu, Liang-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Peng; Chen, Danying; Zhai, Zhonghe; Zhong, Bo; Tien, Po; Shu, Hong-Bing


    Viral infection leads to activation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor-3 and NF-kappaB, which collaborate to induce type I IFNs. The RNA helicase proteins RIG-I and MDA5 were recently identified as two cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that recognize different species of viral RNAs produced during viral replication. In this study, we identified DAK, a functionally unknown dihydroacetone kinase, as a specific MDA5-interacting protein. DAK was associated with MDA5, but not RIG-I, under physiological conditions. Overexpression of DAK inhibited MDA5- but not RIG-I- or TLR3-mediated IFN-beta induction. Overexpression of DAK also inhibited cytoplasmic dsRNA and SeV-induced activation of the IFN-beta promoter, whereas knockdown of endogenous DAK by RNAi activated the IFN-beta promoter, and increased cytoplasmic dsRNA- or SeV-triggered activation of the IFN-beta promoter. In addition, overexpression of DAK inhibited MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity, whereas DAK RNAi increased cytoplasmic dsRNA-triggered antiviral activity. These findings suggest that DAK is a physiological suppressor of MDA5 and specifically inhibits MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral signaling.

  14. Dynamic Spin Rig Upgraded With a Five- Axis-Controlled Three-Magnetic-Bearing Support System With Forward Excitation

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Mehmed, Oral


    The NASA Glenn Research Center Dynamic Spin Rig is used for experimental evaluation of vibration analysis methods and dynamic characteristics for rotating systems. Measurements are made while rotors are spun and vibrated in a vacuum chamber. The rig has been upgraded with a new active magnetic bearing rotor support and excitation system. This design is expected to provide operational improvements over the existing rig. The rig will be able to be operated in either the old or new configuration. In the old configuration, two ball bearings support the vertical shaft of the rig, with the test article located between the bearings. Because the bearings operate in a vacuum, lubrication is limited to grease. This limits bearing life and speed. In addition, the old configuration employs two voice-coil electromagnetic shakers to apply oscillatory axial forces or transverse moments to the rotor shaft through a thrust bearing. The excitation amplitudes that can be imparted to the test article with this system are not adequate for components that are highly damped. It is expected that the new design will overcome these limitations.


    N. I. KHALID


    Full Text Available This paper reports the work on developing concentric tube-fouling rig, a new fouling deposit monitoring device. This device can detect and quantify the level of fouling deposit formation. It can also functioning as sampler for fouling deposit study, which can be attached at any food processing equipment. The design is initiated with conceptual design. The rig is designed with inner diameter of 7 cm and with tube length of 37 cm. A spiral insert with 34.5 cm length and with 5.4 cm diameter is fitted inside the tube to ensure the fluid flows around the tube. In this work, the rig is attached to the lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer to test its effectiveness and to collect a fouling sample after pasteurization of pink guava puree. Temperature changes are recorded during the pasteurization and the data is used to plot the heat transfer profile. Thickness of the fouling deposit is also measured. The trends for thickness, heat resistance profile and heat transfer profile for concentric tube-fouling rig matched the trends obtained from lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer very well. The findings from this work have shown a good potential of this rig however there is a limitation with spiral insert, which is discussed in this paper.

  16. A Thrust Allocation Method for Efficient Dynamic Positioning of a Semisubmersible Drilling Rig Based on the Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Luman Zhao


    Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.

  17. Estimation of Tree Stem Attributes Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry with a Camera Rig

    Mona Forsman


    Full Text Available We propose a novel photogrammetric method for field plot inventory, designed for simplicity and time efficiency on-site. A prototype multi-camera rig was used to acquire images from field plot centers in multiple directions. The acquisition time on-site was less than two minutes. From each view, a point cloud was generated using a novel, rig-based matching of detected SIFT keypoints. Stems were detected in the merged point cloud, and their positions and diameters were estimated. The method was evaluated on 25 hemi-boreal forest plots of a 10-m radius. Due to difficult lighting conditions and faulty hardware, imagery from only six field plots was processed. The method performed best on three plots with clearly visible stems with a 76% detection rate and 0% commission. Diameters could be estimated for 40% of the stems with an RMSE of 2.8–9.5 cm. The results are comparable to other camera-based methods evaluated in a similar manner. The results are inferior to TLS-based methods. However, our method is easily extended to multiple station image schemas, something that could significantly improve the results while retaining low commission errors and time on-site. Furthermore, with smaller hardware, we believe this could be a useful technique for measuring stem attributes in the forest.

  18. An Optical Fiber Bundle Sensor for Tip Clearance and Tip Timing Measurements in a Turbine Rig

    María Asunción Illarramendi


    Full Text Available When it comes to measuring blade-tip clearance or blade-tip timing in turbines, reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber sensors overcome several traditional limitations of capacitive, inductive or discharging probe sensors. This paper presents the signals and results corresponding to the third stage of a multistage turbine rig, obtained from a transonic wind-tunnel test. The probe is based on a trifurcated bundle of optical fibers that is mounted on the turbine casing. To eliminate the influence of light source intensity variations and blade surface reflectivity, the sensing principle is based on the quotient of the voltages obtained from the two receiving bundle legs. A discrepancy lower than 3% with respect to a commercial sensor was observed in tip clearance measurements. Regarding tip timing measurements, the travel wave spectrum was obtained, which provides the average vibration amplitude for all blades at a particular nodal diameter. With this approach, both blade-tip timing and tip clearance measurements can be carried out simultaneously. The results obtained on the test turbine rig demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the type of sensor used, and suggest the possibility of performing these measurements in real turbines under real working conditions.

  19. An optical fiber bundle sensor for tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a turbine rig.

    García, Iker; Beloki, Josu; Zubia, Joseba; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Illarramendi, María Asunción; Jiménez, Felipe


    When it comes to measuring blade-tip clearance or blade-tip timing in turbines, reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber sensors overcome several traditional limitations of capacitive, inductive or discharging probe sensors. This paper presents the signals and results corresponding to the third stage of a multistage turbine rig, obtained from a transonic wind-tunnel test. The probe is based on a trifurcated bundle of optical fibers that is mounted on the turbine casing. To eliminate the influence of light source intensity variations and blade surface reflectivity, the sensing principle is based on the quotient of the voltages obtained from the two receiving bundle legs. A discrepancy lower than 3% with respect to a commercial sensor was observed in tip clearance measurements. Regarding tip timing measurements, the travel wave spectrum was obtained, which provides the average vibration amplitude for all blades at a particular nodal diameter. With this approach, both blade-tip timing and tip clearance measurements can be carried out simultaneously. The results obtained on the test turbine rig demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the type of sensor used, and suggest the possibility of performing these measurements in real turbines under real working conditions.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Evasion from RIG-I-Dependent Hepatic Innate Immunity

    Helene Minyi Liu


    Full Text Available Exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV usually results in persistent infection that often develops into chronic liver disease. Interferon-alpha (IFN treatment comprises the foundation of current approved therapy for chronic HCV infection but is limited in overall efficacy. IFN is a major effector of innate antiviral immunity and is naturally produced in response to viral infection when viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are recognized as nonself and are bound by cellular pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs. Within hepatocytes, RIG-I is a major PRR of HCV infection wherein PAMP interactions serve to trigger intracellular signaling cascades in the infected hepatocyte to drive IFN production and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. ISGs function to limit virus replication, modulate the immune system, and to suppress virus spread. However, studies of HCV-host interactions have revealed several mechanisms of innate immune regulation and evasion that feature virus control of PRR signaling and regulation of hepatic innate immune programs that may provide a molecular basis for viral persistence.

  1. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.


    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    Galica, M.A.


    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  3. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.


    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  4. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17307033 RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. Bowie AG, Fi...-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. PubmedID 17307033 Title RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self... and non-self RNA. Authors Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA. Publication

  5. Rig-G is a growth inhibitory factor of lung cancer cells that suppresses STAT3 and NF-κB.

    Li, Dong; Sun, Junjun; Liu, Wenfang; Wang, Xuan; Bals, Robert; Wu, Junlu; Quan, Wenqiang; Yao, Yiwen; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Wu, Kaiyin


    The expression of the retinoic acid-induced G (Rig-G) gene, an all trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-inducible gene, was observed in multiple cancer cells, including lung cancer cells. However, whether Rig-G is a tumor suppressor in lung cancer is unknown. Here, we found that ectopic expression of Rig-G can lead to a significant decrease in proliferation of lung cancer cells, resulting in an inhibition of tumor growth. Rig-G knockdown results in a modest increase in cell proliferation, as well as confers an increase in colony formation. Furthermore, transcriptome and pathway analyses of cancer cells revealed a fundamental impact of Rig-G on various growth signaling pathways, including the NF-κB pathway. Rig-G inhibits NF-κB activity by suppressing STAT3 in lung cancer cells. The downregulation of miR21 and miR181b-1 and subsequent activation of PTEN/Akt and CYLD/IκB signaling axis leading to decreased NF-κB activity required to maintain the tumor-inhibiting effect of Rig-G.. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the antitumor effect mechanism of Rig-G, as well as offer a novel strategy for lung cancer therapy.

  6. How to optimize solids control economics, efficiency. [Waste management planning for oil and gas well cuttings

    Robinson, L. (International Drilling Consultants, Houston, TX (United States))


    Solids control efficiency can be more effectively managed using calculations that include desired removal efficiency, the amount of drilled solids in the mud discard stream, the targeted drilled solids concentration and the barrels of drilling fluid that must be added for each barrel of solids discarded. The following discussion shows: how dilution is necessary; how too much dilution creates problems with excessive drilling fluid volumes and excessive drilling fluid wastes; how removal efficiencies affect the drilling fluid costs; and how the dryness of the drilled solids affects drilling fluid and drilling waste costs. Three primary variables--dryness of discarded solids, targeted drilled solids concentration in the drilling fluid and removal efficiency--are important in evaluating a rig solids management system. They all play a role in minimizing drilling fluid and drilling waste costs.

  7. Characterization of rotavirus RNAs that activate innate immune signaling through the RIG-I-like receptors.

    Dina Uzri

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, the first line of defense against viral pathogens is the innate immune response, which is characterized by induction of type I interferons (IFN and other pro-inflammatory cytokines that establish an antiviral milieu both in infected cells and in neighboring uninfected cells. Rotavirus, a double-stranded RNA virus of the Reoviridae family, is the primary etiological agent of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated that rotavirus replication induces a MAVS-dependent type I IFN response that involves both RIG-I and MDA5, two cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors. This study reports the isolation and characterization of rotavirus RNAs that activate IFN signaling. Using an in vitro approach with purified rotavirus double-layer particles, nascent single-stranded RNA (ssRNA transcripts (termed in vitro ssRNA were found to be potent IFN inducers. In addition, large RNAs isolated from rotavirus-infected cells six hours post-infection (termed in vivo 6 hr large RNAs, also activated IFN signaling, whereas a comparable large RNA fraction isolated from cells infected for only one hour lacked this stimulatory activity. Experiments using knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts showed that RIG-I is required for and MDA5 partly contributes to innate immune signaling by both in vitro ssRNA and in vivo 6 hr large RNAs. Enzymatic studies demonstrated that in vitro ssRNA and in vivo 6 hr large RNA samples contain uncapped RNAs with exposed 5' phosphate groups. RNAs lacking 2'-O-methylated 5' cap structures were also detected in the in vivo 6 hr large RNA sample. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that the rotavirus VP3 enzyme, which encodes both guanylyltransferase and methyltransferase activities, is not completely efficient at either 5' capping or 2'-O-methylation of the 5' cap structures of viral transcripts, and in this way produces RNA patterns that activate innate immune signaling through the RIG

  8. Drill-rig noise suppression using the Karhunen-Loéve transform for seismic-while-drilling experiment at Brukunga, South Australia

    Sun, Baichun; Bóna, Andrej; Zhou, Binzhong; King, Andrew; Dupuis, Christian; Kepic, Anton


    Diamond-impregnated drill bits are known to be low energy vibration seismic sources. With the strong interference from the drill rig, it is difficult to obtain the drill-bit wavefield with a surface receiver array. To overcome the challenge of surface wave interference generated from the rig for seismic-while-drilling (SWD), we need to separate the rig- and bit-generated signals. To this end, we apply two wavefield separation methods, the Karhunen-Loéve (KL) transform and the f - k filter, and compare their performance. The applicability of these methods is based on the drill rig and drill bit having different spatial positions. While the drill-bit spatial position changes during the process of drilling, the drill rig remains stationary. This results in the source wavefields from the drill rig and the drill-bit having different characteristics, and allows us to separate and extract the drill-bit signal. We use a synthetic model to compare the KL transform and f - k filter. Both techniques are robust when the noise wavefield has consistent amplitude moveout. However, for changing amplitudes, such as the rig noise, which has an unrepeatable wavefield due to power amplitude variation, we show that the KL transform performs better in such situations. We also show the results of signal analysis of the SWD experiment data acquired from Brukunga, South Australia. We demonstrate the feasibility of the KL transform in separating the coherent noises from the stationary drill rig in a hard rock drilling environment, particularly emphasising the suppression of the surface and direct waves from the rig. The results show that drill-rig noise can be effectively suppressed in the correlation domain.

  9. 75 FR 52033 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...


    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

  10. High Pressure Burner Rig Testing of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si3N4 Turbine Components

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Pastel, Robert T.


    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings are being developed for Si3N4 components for turbine engine propulsion applications. High pressure burner rig testing was used to evaluate the coating system performance and durability. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the coating component systems under the simulated engine environments.

  11. Critical role of an antiviral stress granule containing RIG-I and PKR in viral detection and innate immunity.

    Koji Onomoto

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs function as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA to initiate antiviral responses including type I interferon (IFN production. It has been unclear how RIG-I encounters and senses viral RNA. To address this issue, we examined intracellular localization of RIG-I in response to viral infection using newly generated anti-RIG-I antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that RLRs localized in virus-induced granules containing stress granule (SG markers together with viral RNA and antiviral proteins. Because of similarity in morphology and components, we termed these aggregates antiviral stress granules (avSGs. Influenza A virus (IAV deficient in non-structural protein 1 (NS1 efficiently generated avSGs as well as IFN, however IAV encoding NS1 produced little. Inhibition of avSGs formation by removal of either the SG component or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR resulted in diminished IFN production and concomitant enhancement of viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that transfection of dsRNA resulted in IFN production in an avSGs-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that the avSG is the locus for non-self RNA sensing and the orchestration of multiple proteins is critical in the triggering of antiviral responses.

  12. Influence of twin and multi-rig trawl systems on CPUE in the Danish Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Krag, Ludvig Ahm;


    analyse catchrates of four target species, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectesplatessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), to try and understand how the use of multi-rig trawlshave altered catch rates within the Danish demersal trawl fishery over the last 16...

  13. The Thermal-hydraulic Performance Test Report for the Non-instrumented Irradiation Test Rig of Annular Fuel

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan


    This report presents the results of pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test for the non-instrumented rig using the irradiation test in HANARO of the double cooled annular fuel which were designed and fabricated by KAERI. From the out-pile thermal hydraulic tests, corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.72 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the non-instrumented rig ranges from 5.0 to 10.7 kg/s. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for non-instrumented rig is less than 11.73 m, and the maximum displacement is less than 54.87m. The flow rate for endurance test were 10.5 kg/s, which was 110% of 9.72 kg/s. And the endurance test was carried out for 3 days. The test results found not to the wear and satisfied to the limits of pressure drop, flow rate, vibration and wear in the non-instrumented rig. This test was performed at the FIVPET facility.

  14. Experimental rig for internal heat transfer of condensers; Versuchsstand zur Bestimmung von inneren Waermeuebergaengen bei luftgekuehlten Verfluessigern

    Schiener, Andreas [HKT Huber-Kaelte-Technik GmbH, Halfing (Germany); Roth, Peter [Guentner AG und Co. KG, Fuerstenfeldbruck (Germany); Cibis, Dominik [Europaeische Studienakademie Kaelte-Klima-Lueftung (ESak), Maintal-Bischofsheim (Germany)


    A newly developed experimental rig allows the research of the inner heat transfer coefficient at test items, which are operated as a condenser. With the knowledge of the internal heat transfer it is possible to make statements on the impact of structural properties, such as tube circuiting, fin geometry, fin material or fin coating of heat exchangers. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of piston ring – cylinder liner dry wear using a block-on-ring test rig

    Bihlet, Uffe; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian L.;

    material combinations for piston rings and cylinder liners are examined using a block-on-ring test rig. An accelerated wear test run without lubricant is used. Results show that the morphology of cast iron is an important parameter affecting the wear resistance of the material. It is also demonstrated...

  16. 33 CFR 155.400 - Platform machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other...


    ... Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued in accordance with section 402 of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Platform machinery space drainage... machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other platforms. (a) No...

  17. Non Self-conjugate Strings, Singular Strings and Rigged Configurations in the Heisenberg Model

    Deguchi, Tetsuo


    It is observed that there exists a different kind of string solutions in the isotropic Heisenberg spin 1/2 chain starting from $N=12$, where the central rapidity of the odd strings become complex making the strings non self conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N-2)/2 singular highest weight solutions for M=4, M=5, and for N\\geq 2M and at most (N^2-6N+8)/8 singular solutions for M=6 , M=7 and for N\\geq 2M in an even length chain. Correspondence of the non self conjugate string as well as singular string solutions with the Rigged configurations is also discussed.

  18. Non self-conjugate strings, singular strings and rigged configurations in the Heisenberg model

    Deguchi, Tetsuo; Ranjan Giri, Pulak


    We observe a different type of complex solutions in the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain starting from N = 12, where the central rapidity of some of the odd-length strings becomes complex so that not all the strings self-conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N - 2)/2 singular solutions for M = 4, M = 5 down-spins and at most (N2 - 6N + 8)/8 singular solutions for M = 6, M = 7 down-spins in an even-length chain with N ⩾ 2M. Correspondence of the non self-conjugate string solutions and the singular string solutions to the rigged configurations has also been shown.

  19. Thermal neutron flux measurement using the DUPIC SPND-instrumented rig

    Lee, C. Y.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Jeong, I. H.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel, which was fabricated in the DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility) was performed in HANARO. For the objectives of this irradiation test, the newly designed irradiation rig was equipped with three Rh- type SPND sensors around DUPIC mini-elements for estimating the thermal neutron flux in the OR4 hole. The thermal neutron flux was measured at this location for 5 months the start of the test. The measured data were transmitted to monitoring system. We confirmed that the trend of SPND signal is well agree with that of HANARO power. The measured average thermal neutron flux is 0.45 n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot}s and the average linear power of DUPIC mini-element was estimated to be 33.5 KW/m.

  20. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.


    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  1. Oscillating-Flow Regenerator Test Rig: Hardware and Theory With Derived Correlations for Screens and Felts

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.


    A number of wire mesh and metal felt test samples, with a range of porosities, yield generic correlations for friction factor, Nusselt number, enhanced axial conduction ratio, and overall heat flux ratio. This information is directed primarily toward stirling cycle regenerator modelers, but will be of use to anyone seeking to better model fluid flow through these porous materials. Behind these results lies an oscillating-flow test rig, which measures pumping dissipation and thermal energy transport in sample matrices, and several stages of data-reduction software, which correlate instantaneous values for the above dimensionless groups. Within the software, theoretical model reduces instantaneous quantifies from cycle-averaged measurables using standard parameter estimation techniques.

  2. Rotating Rig Development for Droplet Deformation/Breakup and Impact Induced by Aerodynamic Surfaces

    Feo, A.; Vargas, M.; Sor, A.


    This work presents the development of a Rotating Rig Facility by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in cooperation with the NASA Glenn Research Center. The facility is located at the INTA installations near Madrid, Spain. It has been designed to study the deformation, breakup and impact of large droplets induced by aerodynamic bodies. The importance of these physical phenomena is related to the effects of Supercooled Large Droplets in icing clouds on the impinging efficiency of the droplets on the body, that may change should these phenomena not be taken into account. The important variables and the similarity parameters that enter in this problem are presented. The facility's components are described and some possible set-ups are explained. Application examples from past experiments are presented in order to indicate the capabilities of the new facility.

  3. Risk Management for Complex Calculations: EuSpRIG Best Practices in Hybrid Applications

    Cernauskas, Deborah; VanVliet, Ben


    As the need for advanced, interactive mathematical models has increased, user/programmers are increasingly choosing the MatLab scripting language over spreadsheets. However, applications developed in these tools have high error risk, and no best practices exist. We recommend that advanced, highly mathematical applications incorporate these tools with spreadsheets into hybrid applications, where developers can apply EuSpRIG best practices. Development of hybrid applications can reduce the potential for errors, shorten development time, and enable higher level operations. We believe that hybrid applications are the future and over the course of this paper, we apply and extend spreadsheet best practices to reduce or prevent risks in hybrid Excel/MatLab applications.

  4. Bridge Maintenance Robotic Arm:Mechanical Technique to Reduce the Nozzle Force of a Sandblastine Rig

    Nathan Kirchner; Gavin Paul; D.K. Liu


    This paper describes a mechanical technique to reduce the nozzle reaction force of a sandblasting rig. A theoretical evaluation of the magnitudes and direction of action of typical sandblasting nozzle forces has been conducted and a technique for exploiting available energy in order to reduce the magnitude of the forces at the nozzle has been developed.Experimental results from a variety of tests in different configurations have confirmed the theoretically determined force magnitude's accuracy and shown that forces of up to 106N can be present in typical sandblasting operations. The results have also shown that an up to 77% reduction of force at the nozzle can be achieved by applying the developed mechanicaltechnique.

  5. Development of the Compact Jet Engine Simulator from concept to useful test rig

    Hoedebecke, Blake Louis

    Two Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units were designed for integrated wind tunnel acoustic experiments involving a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) vehicle. To meet the 5.8% scale of the HWB model, Ultra Compact Combustor technology from the Air Force Research Laboratory was used. The CJES units were built and integrated with a control system in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. The combustor liners, plug--vane and flow conditioner components were built in-house at Langley Research Center. The operation of the CJES units was mapped and fixes found for combustor instability tones and rig flow noise. The original concept remained true, but the internal hardware evolved through out the process. The CJES units sucssfully completed the HWB validation test and can be used for acoustic testing or propulsion integration studies that require jet engines.

  6. Light as a key driver of freshwater biofouling surface roughness in an experimental hydrocanal pipe rig.

    Ravizza, Matilde; Giosio, Dean; Henderson, Alan; Hovenden, Mark; Hudson, Monica; Salleh, Sazlina; Sargison, Jane; Shaw, Jennifer L; Walker, Jessica; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf


    Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes.

  7. A New Rig for Testing Textured Surfaces in Pure Sliding Conditions

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran


    for cylinder liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper, a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed axial sliding test. It presents four major components: a rod......, a sleeve, a housing and a stripwound container. The rod and the sleeve are the two surfaces in relative sliding motion; the stripwound container maintains a constant, but adjustable normal pressure, and the housing serves as interface between the sleeve and the container. For carrying out the test, two......-turned rod against a mirror-polished sleeve. Qualitatively, the multifunctional surfaces improve the friction conditions, but a more structured test campaign is required. It is furthermore assessed the repeatability of the test device, in order to rely on the results obtained. Ten repetitions made...

  8. Optimization of inverse model identification for multi-axial test rig control

    Müller Tino


    Full Text Available Laboratory testing of multi-axial fatigue situations improves repeatability and allows a time condensing of tests which can be carried out until component failure, compared to field testing. To achieve realistic and convincing durability results, precise load data reconstruction is necessary. Cross-talk and a high number of degrees of freedom negatively affect the control accuracy. Therefore a multiple input/multiple output (MIMO model of the system, capturing all inherent cross-couplings is identified. In a first step the model order is estimated based on the physical fundamentals of a one channel hydraulic-servo system. Subsequently, the structure of the MIMO model is optimized using correlation of the outputs, to increase control stability and reduce complexity of the parameter optimization. The identification process is successfully applied to the iterative control of a multi-axial suspension rig. The results show accurate control, with increased stability compared to control without structure optimization.

  9. Study on the collision detection method between the 2-arm drill rig arms and the roadway

    Fuxiang ZHANG


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the automation drilling of the improved CMJ2-27 drill, kinematic analysis of the drill rig is conducted aiming the collision between the arms and the roadway during the operation process. By suing the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method, the transformation matrix of coordinate system is obtained, then the coordinates of each joint and the ends are derived. The collision detection approach between the arm and the roadway is given. Theoretical calculation and the motion simulation experiment are conducted by using the detection method for a 88-hole drilling program for a mine. The research results show that the method is feasible and has the characteristics of simple procedures and high efficiency.

  10. Species-specific inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and IFN induction by the influenza A virus NS1 protein.

    Ricardo Rajsbaum

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses can adapt to new host species, leading to the emergence of novel pathogenic strains. There is evidence that highly pathogenic viruses encode for non-structural 1 (NS1 proteins that are more efficient in suppressing the host immune response. The NS1 protein inhibits type-I interferon (IFN production partly by blocking the TRIM25 ubiquitin E3 ligase-mediated Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I, required for its optimal downstream signaling. In order to understand possible mechanisms of viral adaptation and host tropism, we examined the ability of NS1 encoded by human (Cal04, avian (HK156, swine (SwTx98 and mouse-adapted (PR8 influenza viruses to interact with TRIM25 orthologues from mammalian and avian species. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays we show that human TRIM25 binds to all tested NS1 proteins, whereas the chicken TRIM25 ortholog binds preferentially to the NS1 from the avian virus. Strikingly, none of the NS1 proteins were able to bind mouse TRIM25. Since NS1 can inhibit IFN production in mouse, we tested the impact of TRIM25 and NS1 on RIG-I ubiquitination in mouse cells. While NS1 efficiently suppressed human TRIM25-dependent ubiquitination of RIG-I 2CARD, NS1 inhibited the ubiquitination of full-length mouse RIG-I in a mouse TRIM25-independent manner. Therefore, we tested if the ubiquitin E3 ligase Riplet, which has also been shown to ubiquitinate RIG-I, interacts with NS1. We found that NS1 binds mouse Riplet and inhibits its activity to induce IFN-β in murine cells. Furthermore, NS1 proteins of human but not swine or avian viruses were able to interact with human Riplet, thereby suppressing RIG-I ubiquitination. In conclusion, our results indicate that influenza NS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production.

  11. C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors: new points on the oncogenomics map

    Yuzhalin AE


    Full Text Available Anton G Kutikhin, Arseniy E YuzhalinDepartment of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russian FederationAbstract: The group of pattern recognition receptors includes families of Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors. They are key sensors for a number of infectious agents, some of which are oncogenic, and they launch an immune response against them, normally promoting their eradication. Inherited variations in genes encoding these receptors and proteins and their signaling pathways may affect their function, possibly modulating cancer risk and features of cancer progression. There are numerous studies investigating the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near genes encoding Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, cancer risk, and features of cancer progression. However, there is an almost total absence of articles analyzing the correlation between polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors and cancer risk or progression. Nevertheless, there is some evidence supporting the hypothesis that inherited C-type lectin receptor and RIG-I-like receptor variants can be associated with increased cancer risk. Certain C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns of potentially oncogenic infectious agents, and certain polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors may have functional consequences at the molecular level that can lead to association of such single nucleotide polymorphisms with risk or progression of some diseases that may modulate cancer risk, so these gene polymorphisms may affect cancer risk indirectly. Polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors thereby may be correlated with a risk of lung, oral, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancer, as well as nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. Validation of RELAP5 model of experimental test rig simulating the natural convection in MTR research reactors

    Khedr, A.; Abdel-Latif, Salwa H. [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Hadi, Eed A. [Benha Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Shobra Faculty of Engineering; D' Auria, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy)


    In an attempt to understand the built-up of natural circulation in MTR pool type upward flow research reactors after loss of power, an experimental test rig was built to simulate the loop of natural circulation in MTR reactors. The test rig consisting of two vertically oriented branches, in one of them the core is simulated by two rectangular, electrically heated, parallel channels. The other branch simulates the part of the return pipe that participates in the development of core natural circulation. In the first phase of the work, many experimental runs at different conditions of channel's power and branch's initial temperatures are performed. The channel's coolant and surface temperatures were measured. The measurements and their interpretation were published by the first three authors. In the present work the thermal hydraulic behavior of the test rig is complemented by theoretical analysis using RELAP5 Mod 3.3 system code. The analysis consisting of two parts; in the first part RELAP5 model is validated against the measured values and in the second part some of the other not measured hydraulic parameters are predicted and analyzed. The test rig is typically nodalized and an input dick is prepared. In spite of the low pressure of the test rig, the results show that RELAP5 qualitatively predicts the thermal hydraulic behaviour and the accompanied phenomenon of flow inversion of such facilities. Quantitatively, there is a difference between the predicted and measured values especially the channel's surface temperature. This difference may be return to the uncertainties in initial conditions of experimental runs, the position of the thermocouples which buried inside the heat structure, and the heat transfer package in RELAP5.

  13. Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I.

    Gretja Schnell

    Full Text Available Viral infection of mammalian cells triggers the innate immune response through non-self recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in viral nucleic acid. Accurate PAMP discrimination is essential to avoid self recognition that can generate autoimmunity, and therefore should be facilitated by the presence of multiple motifs in a PAMP that mark it as non-self. Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA is recognized as non-self by RIG-I through the presence of a 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp on the viral RNA in association with a 3' poly-U/UC tract. Here we define the HCV PAMP and the criteria for RIG-I non-self discrimination of HCV by examining the RNA structure-function attributes that impart PAMP function to the poly-U/UC tract. We found that the 34 nucleotide poly-uridine "core" of this sequence tract was essential for RIG-I activation, and that interspersed ribocytosine nucleotides between poly-U sequences in the RNA were required to achieve optimal RIG-I signal induction. 5'-ppp poly-U/UC RNA variants that stimulated strong RIG-I activation efficiently bound purified RIG-I protein in vitro, and RNA interaction with both the repressor domain and helicase domain of RIG-I was required to activate signaling. When appended to 5'-ppp RNA that lacks PAMP activity, the poly-U/UC U-core sequence conferred non-self recognition of the RNA and innate immune signaling by RIG-I. Importantly, HCV poly-U/UC RNA variants that strongly activated RIG-I signaling triggered potent anti-HCV responses in vitro and hepatic innate immune responses in vivo using a mouse model of PAMP signaling. These studies define a multi-motif PAMP signature of non-self recognition by RIG-I that incorporates a 5'-ppp with poly-uridine sequence composition and length. This HCV PAMP motif drives potent RIG-I signaling to induce the innate immune response to infection. Our studies define a basis of non-self discrimination by RIG-I and offer insights into the antiviral therapeutic

  14. Roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in Mediating the Inflammatory Response in Mouse Microglia following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection

    Rong Jiang


    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection can cause central nervous system disease with irreversible neurological damage in humans and animals. Evidence suggests that overactivation of microglia leads to greatly increased neuronal damage during JEV infection. However, the mechanism by which JEV induces the activation of microglia remains unclear. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I can recognize double-stranded RNA, and their downstream signaling results in production of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in the inflammatory response caused by JEV infection in the mouse microglial cell line. JEV infection induced the expression of TLR3 and RIG-I and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK. Knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I attenuated activation of ERK, p38MAPK, activator protein 1 (AP-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL-2, which was induced by JEV, was reduced by TLR3 and RIG-I knockdown and inhibitors of phosphorylated ERK and p38MAPK. Furthermore, viral proliferation was increased following knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I. Our findings suggest that the signaling pathways of TLR3 and RIG-I play important roles in the JEV-induced inflammatory response of microglia.

  15. Expression levels of the innate response gene RIG-I and its regulators RNF125 and TRIM25 in HIV-1-infected adult and pediatric individuals.

    Britto, Alan M A; Amoedo, Nívea D; Pezzuto, Paula; Afonso, Adriana O; Martínez, Ana M B; Silveira, Jussara; Sion, Fernando S; Machado, Elizabeth S; Soares, Marcelo A; Giannini, Ana L M


    TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and RLRs (RIG-I-like receptors) mediate innate immune responses by detecting microorganism invasion. RIG-I activation results in the production of interferon (IFN) type 1 and IFN responsive genes (ISGs). As the ubiquitin ligases RNF125 and TRIM25 are involved in regulating RIG-I function, our aim was to assess whether the levels of these three genes vary between healthy and HIV-infected individuals and whether these levels are related to disease progression. Gene expression analyses for RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 were performed for HIV-infected adults and the children's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) were performed in order to quantify the expression levels of RIG-I, RNF125 and TRIM25 from PBMCs purified from control or HIV-infected individuals. Controls express higher levels of the three genes when compared to HIV-infected patients. These expressions are clearly distinct between healthy and progressors, and are reproduced in adults and children. In controls, RNF125 is the highest expressed gene, whereas in progressors, RIG-I is either the highest expressed gene or is expressed similarly to RNF125 and TRIM25. A pattern of expression of RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 genes in HIV patients is evident. The high expression of RNF125 in healthy individuals reflects the importance of keeping RIG-I function off, inhibiting unnecessary IFN production. Consistent with this assumption, RNF125 levels are lower in HIV patients and importantly, the RNF125/RIG-I ratio is lower in patients who progress to AIDS. Our results might help to predict disease progression and unveil the role of poorly characterized host genes during HIV infection.

  16. Retinoic acid-induced gene-I (RIG-I) associates with nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) to negatively regulate inflammatory signaling.

    Morosky, Stefanie A; Zhu, Jianzhong; Mukherjee, Amitava; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B


    Cytoplasmic caspase recruiting domain (CARD)-containing molecules often function in the induction of potent antimicrobial responses in order to protect mammalian cells from invading pathogens. Retinoic acid-induced gene-I (RIG-I) and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) serve as key factors in the detection of viral and bacterial pathogens, and in the subsequent initiation of innate immune signals to combat infection. RIG-I and NOD2 share striking similarities in their cellular localization, both localize to membrane ruffles in non-polarized epithelial cells and both exhibit a close association with the junctional complex of polarized epithelia. Here we show that RIG-I and NOD2 not only colocalize to cellular ruffles and cell-cell junctions, but that they also form a direct interaction that is mediated by the CARDs of RIG-I and multiple regions of NOD2. Moreover, we show that RIG-I negatively regulates ligand-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling mediated by NOD2, and that NOD2 negatively regulates type I interferon induction by RIG-I. We also show that the three main Crohn disease-associated mutants of NOD2 (1007fs, R702W, G908R) form an interaction with RIG-I and negatively regulate its signaling to a greater extent than wild-type NOD2. Our results show that in addition to their role in innate immune recognition, RIG-I and NOD2 form a direct interaction at actin-enriched sites within cells and suggest that this interaction may impact RIG-I- and NOD2-dependent innate immune signaling.

  17. Solid propellants.

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.


    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  18. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of an underplatform damper test rig for turbine applications

    Pesaresi, L.; Salles, L.; Jones, A.; Green, J. S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.


    Underplatform dampers (UPD) are commonly used in aircraft engines to mitigate the risk of high-cycle fatigue failure of turbine blades. The energy dissipated at the friction contact interface of the damper reduces the vibration amplitude significantly, and the couplings of the blades can also lead to significant shifts of the resonance frequencies of the bladed disk. The highly nonlinear behaviour of bladed discs constrained by UPDs requires an advanced modelling approach to ensure that the correct damper geometry is selected during the design of the turbine, and that no unexpected resonance frequencies and amplitudes will occur in operation. Approaches based on an explicit model of the damper in combination with multi-harmonic balance solvers have emerged as a promising way to predict the nonlinear behaviour of UPDs correctly, however rigorous experimental validations are required before approaches of this type can be used with confidence. In this study, a nonlinear analysis based on an updated explicit damper model having different levels of detail is performed, and the results are evaluated against a newly-developed UPD test rig. Detailed linear finite element models are used as input for the nonlinear analysis, allowing the inclusion of damper flexibility and inertia effects. The nonlinear friction interface between the blades and the damper is described with a dense grid of 3D friction contact elements which allow accurate capturing of the underlying nonlinear mechanism that drives the global nonlinear behaviour. The introduced explicit damper model showed a great dependence on the correct contact pressure distribution. The use of an accurate, measurement based, distribution, better matched the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the test rig. Good agreement with the measured frequency response data could only be reached when the zero harmonic term (constant term) was included in the multi-harmonic expansion of the nonlinear problem, highlighting its importance

  19. New Dynamic Spin Rig Capabilities Used to Determine Rotating Blade Dynamics

    Provenza, Andrew J.


    The Dynamic Spin Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to determine the structural response of rotating engine components without the effects of aerodynamic loading. Recently, this rig's capabilities were enhanced through the replacement of grease-lubricated ball bearings with magnetic bearings. Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages--the most important here being that they not only fully support the rotor system, but excite it as well. Three magnetic bearings support the rotor and provide five axes of controlled motion: an x- and y-axis translation at each of two radial bearings and a z-axis translation in the vertical or axial direction. Sinusoidal excitation (most commonly used) can be imparted on the rotor through the radial magnetic bearings in either a fixed or rotating frame of reference. This excitation is added directly to the magnetic bearing control output. Since the rotor is fully levitated, large translations and rotations of the rotor system can be achieved. Some of the capabilities of this excitation system were determined and reported. The accelerations obtained at the tip of a titanium flat plate test article versus the swept sine excitation sent to both radial bearings in phase and perpendicular to the plane containing the two blades are shown. Recent tests required the excitation of fundamental bending and torsional blade resonances at rotor speeds up to 10,000 rpm. Successful fixed synchronous rotation of the excitation signal provided the best detectable blade resonant vibrations at excitation frequencies up to 1100 Hz for the particular blades of interest. A noncontacting laser measurement system was used to collect blade-tip motions. From these data, the amplitude and frequency of the motion could be determined as well as the blade damping properties. Damping could be determined using two methods: (1) free decay and (2) curve fitting the vibration amplitude as a function of frequency in and around the resonance of

  20. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Lorenz, A.


    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  1. Theoretical and Numerical Experiences on a Test Rig for Active Vibration Control of Mechanical Systems with Moving Constraints

    M. Rinchi


    Full Text Available Active control of vibrations in mechanical systems has recently benefited of the remarkable development of robust control techniques. These control techniques are able to guarantee performances in spite of unavoidable modeling errors. They have been successfully codified and implemented for vibrating structures whose uncertain parameters could be assumed to be time-invariant. Unfortunately a wide class of mechanical systems, such as machine tools with carriage motion realized by a ball-screw, are characterized by time varying modal parameters. The focus of this paper is on modeling and controlling the vibrations of such systems. A test rig for active vibration control is presented. An analytical model of the test rig is synthesized starting by design data. Through experimental modal analysis, parametric identification and updating procedures, the model has been refined and a control system has been synthesized.

  2. RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection.

    A M A Nasirudeen

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV infection is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world. The innate immune system is important for the early detection of virus and for mounting a cascade of defense measures which include the production of type 1 interferon (IFN. Hence, a thorough understanding of the innate immune response during DV infection would be essential for our understanding of the DV pathogenesis. A recent application of the microarray to dengue virus type 1 (DV1 infected lung carcinoma cells revealed the increased expression of both extracellular and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors; retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I, melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA-5 and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3. These intracellular RNA sensors were previously reported to sense DV infection in different cells. In this study, we show that they are collectively involved in initiating an effective IFN production against DV. Cells silenced for these genes were highly susceptible to DV infection. RIG-I and MDA5 knockdown HUH-7 cells and TLR3 knockout macrophages were highly susceptible to DV infection. When cells were silenced for only RIG-I and MDA5 (but not TLR3, substantial production of IFN-β was observed upon virus infection and vice versa. High susceptibility to virus infection led to ER-stress induced apoptosis in HUH-7 cells. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the intracellular RNA virus sensors (RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 are activated upon DV infection and are essential for host defense against the virus.

  3. Control Study for Five-axis Dynamic Spin Rig Using Magnetic Bearings

    Choi, Benjamin; Johnson, Dexter; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos; Montague, Gerald


    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a magnetic bearing system for the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) with a fully suspended shaft that is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust magnetic bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the DSR to provide magnetic excitation as well as non-contact mag- netic suspension of a 15.88 kg (35 lb) vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration. For rotor levitation, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with a special feature for multidirectional radial excitation worked well to both support and shake the shaft with blades. However, more advanced controllers were developed and successfully tested to determine the optimal controller in terms of sensor and processing noise reduction, smaller rotor orbits, more blade vibration amplitude, and energy savings for the system. The test results of a variety of controllers that were demonstrated up to 10.000 rpm are shown. Furthermore, rotor excitation operation and conceptual study of active blade vibration control are addressed.

  4. Scientific Drilling with the Sea Floor Drill Rig MeBo

    Gerold Wefer


    Full Text Available In March 2007 the sea floor drill rig MeBo (short for “Meeresboden-Bohrgerät”, ‘sea floor drill rig’ in German returned from a 17-day scientific cruise with the new German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Four sites between 350 m and 1700 m water depth were sampled at the continental slope off Morocco by push coring and rotary drilling. Up to 41.5-m-long sediment cores were recovered from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marls. MeBo bridges the gapbetween conventional sampling methods from standard multipurpose research vessels (gravity corer, piston corer, dredges and drill ships. Most bigger research vessels will be able to support deployment of the MeBo. Since the drill system can be easily transported within 20-ft containers, worldwide operation from vessels of opportunity is possible. With the MeBo a new system is available for marine geosciences that allows the recovery of high quality samples from soft sediments and hard rock from the deep sea withoutrelying on the services of expensive drilling vessels.

  5. Modeling of Laser Vaporization and Plume Chemistry in a Boron Nitride Nanotube Production Rig

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Fay, Catharine C.


    Flow in a pressurized, vapor condensation (PVC) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) production rig is modeled. A laser provides a thermal energy source to the tip of a boron ber bundle in a high pressure nitrogen chamber causing a plume of boron-rich gas to rise. The buoyancy driven flow is modeled as a mixture of thermally perfect gases (B, B2, N, N2, BN) in either thermochemical equilibrium or chemical nonequilibrium assuming steady-state melt and vaporization from a 1 mm radius spot at the axis of an axisymmetric chamber. The simulation is intended to define the macroscopic thermochemical environment from which boron-rich species, including nanotubes, condense out of the plume. Simulations indicate a high temperature environment (T > 4400K) for elevated pressures within 1 mm of the surface sufficient to dissociate molecular nitrogen and form BN at the base of the plume. Modifications to Program LAURA, a finite-volume based solver for hypersonic flows including coupled radiation and ablation, are described to enable this simulation. Simulations indicate that high pressure synthesis conditions enable formation of BN vapor in the plume that may serve to enhance formation of exceptionally long nanotubes in the PVC process.

  6. Perforated mechanism of a water line outlet tee pipe for an oil well drilling rig

    Peng Cheng-hong


    Full Text Available A corroded tee pipe belonging to a 10-in new separator water line outlet installed in an offshore oil well drilling rig was investigated. The configuration of the large corroded pit had the shape of an imperfect horse's hoof with a completely corroded interior and a honeycomb-like cavity. There is a badly corroded pit at the welded seam at the joint connecting the tee pipe and flange. The material strength of the tee pipe meets the requirement of ASTM-A234 Gr. WPR, but its chemical composition does not meet the stipulated requirements. A deformed streamline structure or twin crystal in the ferrite phase can be seen near the surface or sub-surface of the perforated corrosion puncture edge. The micro-hardness is also different from that of the original material. The SEM results show that the puncture appears to have been a mode of quasi-cleavage fractures with secondary cracks along the direction of the crystal grain; thus, the failure has the features of mechanical and chemical corrosion. The corroded surface contains high amounts of O, C, and N, as well as S, Cl, Si, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ti, etc., all of which are corrosion products caused by sea water. The penetrating puncture hole at the turn of the tee pipe is likely the result of cavitation erosion accompanied by chemical/electrochemical corrosion, and the corrosion on the seam connecting the tee pipe and flange is likely the result of electrochemical corrosion.

  7. A radiological survey of the Eğrigöz granitoid, Western Anatolia/Turkey.

    Canbaz Öztürk, B; Yaprak, G; Çam, N F; Candan, O


    A radiological survey of the granitoid areas throughout Western Anatolia was conducted during 2007-14. As a part of this radiological survey, this article presents results obtained from Eğrigöz pluton, which lies in the northeastern region of Western Anatolia. In the investigated area, the activity measurements of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the granitic rock samples and soils have been carried out by means of the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant natural radionuclides in the granite samples appeared in the ranges as follows: (226)Ra, 28-95 Bq kg(-1); (232)Th, 50-122 Bq kg(-1) and (40)K, 782-1365 Bq kg(-1), while the typical ranges of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities in the soil samples were found to be 7-184, 11-174 and 149-1622 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed rocks/soils are calculated. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all those radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h(-1) and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noted in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the data are also used for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides and the corresponding gamma dose rates of the surveyed area.

  8. Heat Flux and Wall Temperature Estimates for the NASA Langley HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig

    Cuda, Vincent, Jr.; Hass, Neal E.


    An objective of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program Flight 2 is to provide validation data for high enthalpy scramjet prediction tools through a single flight test and accompanying ground tests of the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR) tested in the NASA LaRC Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HDCR is a full-scale, copper heat sink structure designed to simulate the isolator entrance conditions and isolator, pilot, and combustor section of the HIFiRE flight test experiment flowpath and is fully instrumented to assess combustion performance over a range of operating conditions simulating flight from Mach 5.5 to 8.5 and for various fueling schemes. As part of the instrumentation package, temperature and heat flux sensors were provided along the flowpath surface and also imbedded in the structure. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the surface heat flux and wall temperature of the Zirconia coated copper wall can be obtained with a water-cooled heat flux gage and a sub-surface temperature measurement. An algorithm was developed which used these two measurements to reconstruct the surface conditions along the flowpath. Determinations of the surface conditions of the Zirconia coating were conducted for a variety of conditions.

  9. A Novel Mobile Testing Equipment for Rock Cuttability Assessment: Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Yasar, Serdar; Yilmaz, Ali Osman


    In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing apparatus was designed and produced for rock cuttability assessment called vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) which was designed specially to fit into hydraulic press testing equipment which are available in almost every rock mechanics laboratory. Rock cutting trials were initiated just after the production of VRCR along with calibration of the measuring load cell with an external load cell to validate the recorded force data. Then, controlled rock cutting tests with both relieved and unrelieved cutting modes were implemented on five different volcanic rock samples with a standard simple-shaped wedge tool. Additionally, core cutting test which is an important approach for roadheader performance prediction was simulated with VRCR. Mini disc cutters and point attack tools were used for execution of experimental trials. Results clearly showed that rock cutting tests were successfully realized and measuring system is delicate to rock strength, cutting depth and other variables. Core cutting test was successfully simulated, and it was also shown that rock cutting tests with mini disc cutters and point attack tools are also successful with VRCR.

  10. Comparison Analysis Between Nevada and TSS Using a Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Test Rig

    Baumeister, Joseph F.; Yuko, James R.


    Thermal analysis in both simple and complex models can require calculating the propagation of radiant energy to and from multiple surfaces. This can be accomplished through simple estimation techniques or complex computationally intense computer modeling simulations. Currently there are a variety of computer analysis techniques used to simulate the propagation of radiant energy, each having advantages and disadvantages. The major objective of this effort was to compare two ray tracing radiation propagation analysis programs (NEVADA and TSS) Net Energy Verification and Determination Analyzer and Thermal Synthesizer System with experimental data. Results from a non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was used to verify the calculated radiant energy propagation from a nozzle geometry that represents an aircraft propulsion nozzle system. In general the programs produced comparable overall results, and results slightly higher then the experimental data. Upon inspection of individual radiation interchange factors, differences were evident and would have been magnified if a more radical model temperature profile was analyzed. Bidirectional reflectivity data (BRDF) was not used do to modeling limitations in TSS. For code comparison purposes, this nozzle geometry represents only one case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages bases on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single case study may be limiting.

  11. Applications of rigged Hilbert spaces in quantum mechanics and signal processing

    Celeghini, E.; Gadella, M.; del Olmo, M. A.


    Simultaneous use of discrete and continuous bases in quantum systems is not possible in the context of Hilbert spaces, but only in the more general structure of rigged Hilbert spaces (RHS). In addition, the relevant operators in RHS (but not in Hilbert space) are a realization of elements of a Lie enveloping algebra and support representations of semigroups. We explicitly construct here basis dependent RHS of the line and half-line and relate them to the universal enveloping algebras of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and su(1, 1), respectively. The complete sub-structure of both RHS and of the operators acting on them is obtained from their algebraic structures or from the related fractional Fourier transforms. This allows us to describe both quantum and signal processing states and their dynamics. Two relevant improvements are introduced: (i) new kinds of filters related to restrictions to subspaces and/or the elimination of high frequency fluctuations and (ii) an operatorial structure that, starting from fix objects, describes their time evolution.

  12. An improved Harmony Search algorithm for optimal scheduling of the diesel generators in oil rig platforms

    Yadav, Parikshit; Kumar, Rajesh; Panda, S.K.; Chang, C.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is music based meta-heuristic optimization method which is analogous with the music improvisation process where musician continue to polish the pitches in order to obtain better harmony. The paper focuses on the optimal scheduling of the generators to reduce the fuel consumption in the oil rig platform. The accurate modeling of the specific fuel consumption is significant in this optimization. The specific fuel consumption has been modeled using cubic spline interpolation. The SFC curve is non-linear and discrete in nature, hence conventional methods fail to give optimal solution. HS algorithm has been used for optimal scheduling of the generators of both equal and unequal rating. Furthermore an Improved Harmony Search (IHS) method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of HS has been employed. The paper also focuses on the impacts of constant parameters on Harmony Search algorithm. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Moreover, the fuel consumption for IHS algorithm is lower when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various engineering optimization problems. (author)

  13. Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) facility checkout and plug nozzle performance test data

    Cummings, Chase B.


    The motivation for development of a supersonic business jet (SSBJ) platform lies in its ability to create a paradigm shift in the speed and reach of commercial, private, and government travel. A full understanding of the performance capabilities of exhaust nozzle configurations intended for use in potential SSBJ propulsion systems is critical to the design of an aircraft of this type. Purdue University's newly operational Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) is a highly capable facility devoted to the testing of subscale nozzles of this type. The high accuracy, six-axis force measurement system and complementary mass flowrate measurement capabilities of the BANR facility make it rather ideally suited for exhaust nozzle performance appraisal. Detailed accounts pertaining to methods utilized in the proper checkout of these diagnostic capabilities are contained herein. Efforts to quantify uncertainties associated with critical BANR test measurements are recounted, as well. Results of a second hot-fire test campaign of a subscale Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) axisymmetric, shrouded plug nozzle are presented. Determined test article performance parameters (nozzle thrust efficiencies and discharge coefficients) are compared to those of a previous test campaign and numerical simulations of the experimental set-up. Recently acquired data is compared to published findings pertaining to plug nozzle experiments of similar scale and operating range. Suggestions relating to the future advancement and improvement of the BANR facility are provided. Lessons learned with regards to test operations and calibration procedures are divulged in an attempt to aid future facility users, as well.

  14. Burner Rig Hot Corrosion of Five Ni-Base Alloys Including Mar-M247

    Nesbitt, James A.; Helmink, R.; Harris, K.; Erickson, G.


    The hot corrosion resistance of four new Ni-base superalloys was compared to that of Mar-M247 by testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 1-hr cycles. While the Al content was held the same as in the Mar-M247, the Cr and Co levels in the four new alloys were decreased while other strengthening elements (Re, Ta) were increased. Surprisingly, despite their lower Cr and Co contents, the hot corrosion behavior of all four new alloys was superior to that of the Mar-M247 alloy. The Mar-M247 alloy began to lose weight almost immediately whereas the other four alloys appeared to undergo an incubation period of 50-150 1-hr cycles. Examination of the cross-sectional microstructures showed regions of rampant corrosion attack (propagation stage) in all five alloys after 300 1-hr cycles . This rampant corrosion morphology was similar for each of the alloys with Ni and Cr sulfides located in an inner subscale region. The morphology of the attack suggests a classic "Type I", or high temperature, hot corrosion attack.

  15. Solid lubricants

    Sliney, Harold E.


    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  16. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  17. Structural dynamics modification for derrick of deep well drilling rig based on experimental modal test and frequency sensitivity analysis

    Hua Jian


    Full Text Available A statically designed derrick of deep oil well drilling rig may have poor dynamic characteristics, which can cause earlier structure failure of the drilling rig and harsh working condition. One such designed derrick is found to vibrate severely in operation while the rotation speed of rotary table is about 120 r/min with the working frequency of 2.0 Hz. To solve this problem, an experimental modal test of the derrick is conducted and the modal frequencies and vibration shapes are obtained. Through comparison of modal frequencies with that of exciting devices, it is found that the severe vibration of the drilling rig is caused by the resonance of second modal frequency (1.96 Hz and the working frequency of rotary table. Based on principles of sensitivity analysis and structural dynamics modification method, the frequency sensitivities of all nodes on the derrick are calculated and compared, and then seven nodes with high-frequency sensitivity are selected on which corresponding mass are added to vary the modal frequency. Result shows that the second modal frequency of the derrick is reduced to 1.42 Hz and is out of the normal working frequency range of rotary table, which demonstrates that the dynamic characteristics of the derrick is improved and severe vibration can be avoided.

  18. Application of SVG in grid electric drilling rig%SVG在网电钻机中的应用

    林鸿元; 马保慧


    介绍了电动钻机使用网电的意义,指出钻机电控系统存在谐波和无功的来源,提出基于SVG技术的治理方案,简述SVG的工作原理,给出了设计要点和配置要点。现场应用的测试结果表明,SVG在网电钻机中的应用性价比高,经济效益显著,值得推广。%The significance of the electric drilling rigs powered by the grid is introduced. The source of producing harmonic and reactive power in the electric control systems of the drilling rigs are pointed out. The control scheme based on the SVG technology is put forward. The working principle of SVG is given. The key points for design and configuration are presented. The practical applications and the testing results show that SVG used in grid electric drilling rig has high performance to price ratio, remarkable economic benefit and is worth being promoted to be widely applied.


    de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Minkiewicz, Julia; Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Carlos; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Keane, Robert W.


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a glial response in which astrocytes become activated and produce inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for regulation of glial-innate immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the activation of retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-like receptors (RLRs) and their involvement in regulating inflammation following SCI. We show that astrocytes express two intracellular RLRs: RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). SCI and stretch injury of cultured astrocytes stimulated RLR signaling as determined by phosphorylation of IRF3 leading to production of type I interferons (IFNs). RLR signaling stimulation with synthetic RNA resulted in RLR activation, phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, two hallmarks of reactive astrocytes. Moreover, mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MUL1), an RLR inhibitor, decreased production of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin following RIG-I signaling stimulation. Our findings identify a role for RLR signaling and type I IFN in regulating astrocyte innate immune responses after SCI. PMID:22161971

  20. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    Valéryane Dupuis-Maurin

    Full Text Available Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1 is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen.

  1. RIG-I is required for VSV-induced cytokine production by murine glia and acts in combination with DAI to initiate responses to HSV-1.

    Crill, Emma K; Furr-Rogers, Samantha R; Marriott, Ian


    A defining feature of viral central nervous system (CNS) infection is the rapid onset of severe neuroinflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying glial responses to replicative neurotropic viruses are only now becoming apparent with the discovery of a number of cytosolic sensors for viral nucleic acids. We have described the expression by murine and human glial cells of two disparate pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors (DAI), receptors for viral RNA and DNA moieties, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrate the functional significance of RIG-I expression in primary murine microglia and astrocytes. Our data indicate that murine glial immune responses to a model neurotropic RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, are RIG-I dependent and independent of levels of DAI expression or RNA polymerase III activity. In contrast, maximal glial inflammatory and antiviral responses to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are dependent on the expression of both RIG-I and DAI, and require RNA polymerase III activity. These findings indicate that the RNA sensor, RIG-I, acts in parallel with DAI in an RNA polymerase III-dependent manner to initiate glial responses to HSV-1. We therefore suggest that RIG-I plays a significant role in the detection of both RNA and DNA pathogens by microglia and astrocytes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rig mode option for semi-submersible drilling platform%深水半潜式钻井平台钻机选型

    岳吉祥; 綦耀光; 肖文生; 杨磊; 陈军


    深水钻机是半潜式钻井平台关键设备,如何选择,配置深水钻机系统是设计与建造我国第六代半潜式钻井平台首要问题.从深水钻机并行和离线操作能力与配置、作业效率、可变载荷及专利影响等方面论证了深水海洋钻机模式选型问题.常规深水海洋钻机、离线钻机和双井架钻机结构特点、应用情况以及离线操作配置分析表明,离线作业配置越完整全面,作业效率提升越大.以甘特图和深水钻井实例详细分解、探讨双井架钻机作业机理,即在工序之间进行并行作业和工序内进行离线作业.对比分析3种深水海洋钻机钻单井、钻多井及完井作业效率,发现双井架钻机相对离线钻机和常规钻机可大幅度提高作业效率,但双井架钻机系统质量增加,且受专利影响,成本增加.采用增量净现值模型综合各种影响因素分析表明:双井架钻机总体优干离线钻机.图7表5参17%Mode option of deepwater rigs can affect the configuration and construction of the 6~(th) generation semi-submersible drilling platform in China. This paper assesses the mode option of deepwater rigs through analyzing different kinds of rigs off line operation ability and offline configuration, working efficiency, variable deck load (VDL) and patent influence. The analysis of design,application and offline configuration of three types of rigs-single rigs, offline rigs and dual derrick rigs, reveals the relation between offline configuration and work efficiency, that is, the more complete offline equipments are, the greater the work efficiency can be improved. The mechanism of dual derrick rigs is demonstrated by Gantt chart decomposing the whole drilling procedure of a deepwater exploration well, which is current operation and offline operation. Comparing the operation efficiency of the three-type deepwater rigs in drilling single wells, multiple wells and wells completion shows that dual derrick rigs

  3. Challenges in licensing the industrial double-rig trawl fisheries in Brazil

    Paulo Ricardo-Pezzuto


    Full Text Available Bottom trawling is important in Brazilian fisheries and is currently highly multi-specific due to the overexploitation of the original targets; unselective fishing method; very large permitted fishing area and the country's high marine biodiversity. Fishing licensing in Brazil was modified in 2012 and is now based in five criteria: target species; "expected by-catch"; "incidental catches"; fishing method and area of operation. Licenses of trawling fleets exhibit, therefore, dozens of species catchable under the first three criteria. In this paper, we analyze industrial double-rig trawling fleets targeting shrimps and demersal fishes, in order to verify in what extent the new system adhere to the current fishing reality, giving new information to improve the current management regime. A total of 4,194 trips from 191 vessels were studied between 2008 and 2010 in southern Brazil. In spite of depending economically on their targets, the fleets are formally authorized to catch a high percentage of species in common (41 to 71%, and the actual landings revealed an even greater overlapping among them (71 to 82%. Vessels licensed to catch demersal fishes obtained nearly 50% of their revenue from items not included in their licenses. It was concluded that the current system encourages excessive effort concentrations over fishing resources, as they can be legally caught by most vessels irrespective of their licenses. It is suggested that licensing should move from a species-based to a spatial-based approach, by defining smaller management areas according to the respective species assemblages. Landing composition would be, therefore, mostly a biological and technological consequence, making management more reasonable and workable under a multi-specific and mega-diverse scenario.

  4. Solid consistency

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge


    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  5. Both STING and MAVS fish orthologs contribute to the induction of interferon mediated by RIG-I.

    Stéphane Biacchesi

    Full Text Available Viral infections are detected in most cases by the host innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, the sensors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, which induce the production of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN. Recent identification in mammalian and teleost fish of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, and their mitochondrial adaptor: the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS protein, also called IPS-1, highlight their important role in the induction of IFN at the early stage of a virus infection. More recently, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER adaptor: the stimulator of interferon genes (STING protein, also called MITA, ERIS and MPYS, has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both non-self-cytosolic RNA and dsDNA. In this study, we cloned STING cDNAs from zebrafish and showed that it was an ortholog to mammalian STING. We demonstrated that overexpression of this ER protein in fish cells led to a constitutive induction of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. STING-overexpressing cells were almost fully protected against RNA virus infection with a strong inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication. In addition, we found that together with MAVS, STING was an important player in the RIG-I IFN-inducing pathway. This report provides the demonstration that teleost fish possess a functional RLR pathway in which MAVS and STING are downstream signaling molecules of RIG-I. The Sequences presented in this article have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers: Zebrafish STING (HE856619; EPC STING (HE856620; EPC IRF3 (HE856621; EPC IFN promoter (HE856618.

  6. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J


    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV.

  7. Multiscale characterization of White Etching Cracks (WEC) in a 100Cr6 bearing from a thrust bearing test rig

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Guzmán, F. Gutiérrez; Dahl, Kristian Vinter


    was carried out on a FE8 test rig using cylindrical roller thrust bearings made of martensitic 100Cr6 steel. The resulting WECs were investigated with several characterisation techniques. Ultrasonic measurements showed the WEC were mainly located in the region of the overrolled surface in which negative slip...... occurs, which agrees with hypotheses based on an energetic approach for a prognosis. SEM orientation contrast imaging of the area around WEC revealed an inhomogeneous structure with varied grain sizes and a large amount of defects. Microstructure characterization around the WEA using EBSD showed...

  8. Desenvolvimento de rigging e movimento para cães em Animação 3D

    Pinheiro, Ricardo Miranda


    Esta dissertação tem como objetivo principal abordar, no âmbito do cinema de animação 3D, a elaboração de rigging e movimento para personagens caninos. Desta forma, o objeto de estudo foca-se em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de personagens caninas, tendo como ponto de partida o estudo da anatomia óssea e muscular canina. Depois de analisada a anatomia, será necessário transferir esses conhecimentos para o ambiente 3D. O estudo da anatomia muscular irá permitir-nos iniciar o processo d...

  9. Continuous structural monitoring of oil rig sub-sea structures for flooded member detection using underwater ultrasound

    Mijarez, R. [Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas; Gaydecki, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Burdekin, M. [Fatigue Monitoring Bureau, Macclesfield (United Kingdom)


    An underwater ultrasound system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a subsea structure and powered by seawater, transmits underwater ultrasound chirpencoded signals to a real-time digital signal processing monitoring system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure 1 ton in weight, with dimensions of 7 m x 0.5 m x 16 mm, completely immersed in seawater showed excellent performance using a central excitation frequency of 38 kHz, over distances of 100 m. (orig.)

  10. Wear mechanism of disc-brake block material for new type of drilling rig

    Xinhua WANG; Simin WANG; Siwei ZHANG; Deguo WANG


    To improve friction and wear performance and service life of the disc-brake pair material of a drilling rig, a new type of asbestos-free frictional material with better performance for disc-brake blocks is developed, and its wear mechanism is investigated by friction and wear experiments. Topography and ele-mentary components of the brake block's wear surface are analyzed by employing SEM and EDAX patterns, revealing its tribological behaviour and wear mechan-ism. When the frictional temperature is lower, the surface film of the brake block is thinner, dense, smooth with plasticity, and divided into the mixture area, Fe-abundant area, carbon-abundant area and spalling area. The mixture area consists of various constituents of frictional pairs without ploughing and rolling trace. The Fe-abundant area mainly consists of iron and other constituents. The carbon-abundant area is the zone where graphite and organic fibre are comparatively gathered, while the spalling area is the zone where the surface film is spalled and its surface is rough and uneven, with a loose and denuded state. During the period of high frictional temperature, the frictional surface is also divided into the mixture area, Fe-abundant area and spalling area. In this case, the mixture area consists of abrasive dust from friction pairs, and the surface film is distributed with crumby hard granules, exiguous oxide, carbide granules and sheared slender fibre. The Fe-abundant area is mostly an oxide layer of iron with a flaky distribution. Fracture and spalling traces as well as an overlapping structure of multilayer surface films can be easily found on the surface film. The components of the spalling area are basically the same as that of the matrix. At the beginning of wear, the hard peaks from the friction surface of the disc-brake plough on the surface of the brake block. With increasing frictional temperature, the friction surface begins to soften and expand, and oxidized wear occurs at the same

  11. Materials and boiler rig testing to support chemical cleaning of once-through AGR boilers

    Tice, D.R.; Platts, N.; Raffel, A.S. [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom); Rudge, A. [British Energy Generation Ltd. (United Kingdom)


    reagent being chosen. This paper describes the results of the latter two activities: additional materials testing necessary to support a full scale plant clean and the trial clean on a model boiler rig replicating a single boiler tube together with the pre- and post-clean thermohydraulic behaviour. (authors)


    Kachinskaya V.V.


    Full Text Available Тhe structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization


    V. V. Kachinskaya


    Full Text Available Тhe structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization

  14. Water Well Drilling Rig Status Quo and Development Trend in China%国内水井钻机的现状及发展趋势



    The paper has introduced development history of water well drilling rigs briefly and general situation,technical features at present. Through performance comparison of home and abroad,analyzed technological gap of rotary table water well rigs between Chi-na and abroad. Combined with fully hydraulic top drive water well rig technical characteristics,have advised to develop multifunction-al fully hydraulic top drive water well rig can greatly narrow the gap,thus the development orientation of water well rig in China.%简要介绍了水文水井钻机的发展历史,以及我国现阶段水井钻机的概况及技术特点,通过与国外钻机的性能对比,分析了我国转盘式水井钻机在技术上与国外的差距,结合全液压动力头水井钻机的技术特点,提出了研制多功能全液压动力头水井钻机,可以大大缩短我国与国外在技术上的差距,这也是当前各国水井钻机的发展方向。

  15. A unique laboratory test rig reduces the need for offshore tests to combat calcium naphthenate deposition in oilfield process equipment.

    Mediaas, Heidi; Grande, Knut; Hustad, Britt-Marie; Hoevik, Kim Reidar; Kummernes, Hege; Nergaard, Bjoern; Vindstad, Jens Emil


    Producing and refining high-TAN crude oils introduces a number of challenges, among which calcium naphthenate deposition in process facilities is the most serious production issue. Until recently, the only option for studying chemicals and process parameters in order to prevent naphthenate deposition has been field tests. Statoil has now developed a small scale pilot plant where these experiments can be performed in the laboratory at Statoil's Research and Technology Center in Trondheim, Norway. The results from the pilot plant are in full agreement with the extensive naphthenate experience obtained from almost 9 years operation of the Heidrun oilfield. The design and operational procedures for this test facility are based on the recent discovery by Statoil and ConocoPhillips of the ARN acid. The ARN acid is a prerequisite for calcium naphthenate deposition. The new continuous flow pilot plant, the Naphthenate Rig, is used to develop new environmental friendly naphthenate inhibitors and to optimize process operating conditions. Since it operates on real crudes the need for field tests in qualifying new naphthenate inhibitors is reduced. To the best of our knowledge, the rig is the first of its kind in the world. (Author)


    Feri Diana


    Full Text Available Rig RAISIS adalah salah satu pengeboran milik P.T Apexindo Pratama Duta Tbk (APEX yang disewa oleh P.T TOTAL untuk memperpanjang kontraknya selama beberapa tahun. Rig RAISIS ini adalah bangunan offshore yang sudah lama berdiri namun perlu direnovasi. Untuk merenovasi diperlukan konsultan bangunan maritim yang salah satunya ditangani oleh P.T Terafulk Megantara Design. Dalam hal ini mereka masih menggunakan perhitungan secara manual. Maka untuk merencanakan penerangan dengan mudah dibuatlah program perhitungan lampu menggunakan program Visual Basic. Program ini dirancang menggunakan beberapa menu perhitungan berdasarkan dua formula, yaitu formula yang sudah lama diterapkan di PT Terafulk Megantara Design dan formula secara teoritis. Langkah menggunakan program ini adalah dengan memasukkan dimensi ruangan, iluminasi, dan luminasi maka akan muncul hasil luas ruangan dan jumlah lampu berdasarkan tipe lampu yang sudah dipilih. Program ini bisa digunakan untuk menghitung jumlah lampu berdasarkan 2 class yaitu ABS dan BKI. Berdasarkan 2 class yang sudah dihitung maka class ABS mempunyai jumlah lampu lebih banyak dibandingkan ruangan yang menggunakan class BKI. Program ini juga lebih cepat digunakan oleh perancang dengan waktu 45 menit dibandingkan menggunakan perhitungan manual yang memakan waktu 1,5 jam saat menghitung Deck Level 31.

  17. Investigation of the 4-Quadrant behaviour of a mixed flow diffuser pump with CFD-methods and test rig evaluation

    Höller, S.; Benigni, H.; Jaberg, H.


    The complete pump characteristics including its 4-quadrant behaviour are of essential interest for off-design operations such as a pump trip. At this exceptional load case the pump enters the dissipation mode and moves further into the turbine mode while the direction of rotation and the flow direction will change. The time-consuming and expensive experimental investigation of the 4-quadrant behaviour requires a specific test rig, allowing the flow direction as well as the rotational direction of the investigated pump to be reverted. By measuring the pump performance (head and efficiency) at variable positive and negative discharge and rotation the complete pump characteristics are evaluated. Nowadays CFD- analysis allows for the reliable prediction of the hydraulic performance of a pump near the design point. However, abnormal operating conditions lead to complex and unsteady flow phenomena inside the pump. Besides steady-state calculations in the normal operating conditions quite comprehensive transient CFD-investigations are required to simulate the whole pump characteristics accurately. The present study focuses on the comparison of the results obtained on the test rig and by numerical methods and shows a remarkably good agreement between them. It can be shown that it is possible to reliably simulate the 4-quadrant behaviour of a mixed flow diffuser pump based on CFD-methods. Furthermore an exemplary waterhammer calculation shows the successful application of the numerically calculated 4- quadrant behaviour.

  18. Experimental analysis of control loops with different delay times in the supply air system of a radiator test rig

    Chen, Yongpan; Zhao, Tianyi [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Jili; Lu, Zhen [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Hui [Beijing Siemens Cerberus Electronics Ltd, Beijing 100085 (China)


    The test rig of low-temperature hot-water radiator is a typical multi-input multi-output (MIMO) thermal system with large time delay. Aiming at the control of the supply air temperature and the temperature of the environmental chamber in the test rig, the paper carries out the fuzzy control experiments and PI control experiments based on adjusting the electric heater in the supply air system, in which there are two control loops with various delay time. The experiments researched two types of fuzzy control methods which are the basic fuzzy control (BFC), and the self-organizing rules fuzzy control (SORFC) with zero initial control rules. For the control loop of supply air temperature with short delay time, PI control performs better with fast convergence speed and small overshoot than the BFC and the SORFC. The convergence speed of the BFC method is lower than other two control methods. For the control loop of chamber temperature with long delay time, the SORFC has a satisfied control performance with less overshoot and stable error than the BFC and PI control. (author)

  19. Processing of genome 5' termini as a strategy of negative-strand RNA viruses to avoid RIG-I-dependent interferon induction.

    Matthias Habjan

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is critically dependent on the rapid production of interferon in response to intruding viruses. The intracellular pathogen recognition receptors RIG-I and MDA5 are essential for interferon induction by viral RNAs containing 5' triphosphates or double-stranded structures, respectively. Viruses with a negative-stranded RNA genome are an important group of pathogens causing emerging and re-emerging diseases. We investigated the ability of genomic RNAs from substantial representatives of this virus group to induce interferon via RIG-I or MDA5. RNAs isolated from particles of Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Lassa virus, and Rift Valley fever virus strongly activated the interferon-beta promoter. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that interferon induction depended on RIG-I, but not MDA5, and phosphatase treatment revealed a requirement for the RNA 5' triphosphate group. In contrast, genomic RNAs of Hantaan virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Borna disease virus did not trigger interferon induction. Sensitivity of these RNAs to a 5' monophosphate-specific exonuclease indicates that the RIG-I-activating 5' triphosphate group was removed post-transcriptionally by a viral function. Consequently, RIG-I is unable to bind the RNAs of Hantaan virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Borna disease virus. These results establish RIG-I as a major intracellular recognition receptor for the genome of most negative-strand RNA viruses and define the cleavage of triphosphates at the RNA 5' end as a strategy of viruses to evade the innate immune response.

  20. Effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 on rotavirus replication and gene expressions of RIG-I signalling molecule in porcine rotavirus-infected IPEC-J2 cells.

    Zhao, Ye; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Jie; Han, Guoquan; Liang, Xiaofang; Chen, Daiwen


    The study evaluated whether a 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) supplementation decreases the replication of rotavirus by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signalling pathway in a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The results show that IPEC-J2 cells express high baseline levels of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), which converts inactive 25D3 to the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Porcine rotavirus (PRV) infection alone resulted in a significant increase in CYP27B1 mRNA, which augmented the production of active vitamin D. Physiological concentrations of 25D3 were found to decrease PRV replication in IPEC-J2 cells. RIG-I plays an important role in the recognition of double-stranded RNA virus by host cells. Upon recognition, RIG-I triggers a series of signalling molecules such as interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) leading to the expression of type I interferons (IFN-β). Active 25D3 that was generated by PRV-infected IPEC-J2 cells led to an increased expression of toll-like receptors 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, IPS-1, IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes 15 (ISG15) with important innate immune functions. Inhibiting CYP27B1 also failed to increase RIG-I, IPS-1, IFN-β and ISG15 mRNA expression. These observations suggest that 25D3 can directly inhibit PRV in IPEC-J2 cells, which requires this active form of vitamin D. The anti-rotavirus effect of 25D3 is mediated at least in part by RIG-I signalling pathways in IPEC-J2 cells.

  1. A New Design of the Universal Test Rig to Measure the Wear Characterizations of Polymer Acetal Gears (Spur, Helical, Bevel, and Worm)

    Samy Yousef; Osman, T. A.; Khattab, M.; Bahr, Ahmed A.; Ahmed M. Youssef


    This work aims to study the wear characterization of common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel, and worm) using a new TS universal test rig, in order to obtain reliable results and as a reference when compared with acetal nanocomposite gears later. The TS universal test rig consists of three different units that are connected by a main driver shaft and a pair of constantly meshing metal spur gears, which transfer power to the bevel and worm test units. The first unit is used ...

  2. Exonuclease domain of the Lassa virus nucleoprotein is critical to avoid RIG-I signaling and to inhibit the innate immune response.

    Reynard, Stéphanie; Russier, Marion; Fizet, Alexandra; Carnec, Xavier; Baize, Sylvain


    Lassa virus (LASV), which causes a viral hemorrhagic fever, inhibits the innate immune response. The exonuclease (ExoN) domain of its nucleoprotein (NP) is implicated in the suppression of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling. We show here that a LASV in which ExoN function has been abolished strongly activates innate immunity and that this effect is dependent on RIG-I signaling. These results highlight the key role of NP ExoN function in the immune evasion that occurs during LASV infection.

  3. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.


    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.


    丁云磊; 孙英杰; 王晓旭; 胡跃; 费荣梅; 丁铲


    The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a group of cytosolic RNA helicase proteins that can identify viral RNA as non-self via binding to pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs within RNA ligands. This interaction then leads to triggering of an innate antiviral response within the infected cells through RLR induction of downstream effector molecules such as type I interferon (IFN) and other proinflammatory cytokines that serve to induce antiviral and inflammatory gene expression. In this paper, the composition of the RLR signaling pathway and regulation of ubiquitination reaction are described briefly. The mechanisms of viruses targeting RLR pathways to escape from the immune response are also summarized. Furthermore, the signaling crosstalk between RLR pathways and NOD-like receptor (NLR) pathways are introduced. Understanding the pivotal role of RLRs in immune regulation and signaling crosstalk in antiviral immunity may provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for the control of virus infection and immunity.%模式识别受体(pattern-recognition receptors,PRRs)中的RIG-I样受体(RIG-I like receptors,RLRs)是细胞质中一类RNA解旋酶,它们可以通过其RNA配体结合病原相关分子模式(pathogen associated molecular pattern,PAMP),识别非自身的病毒RNA。被感染的细胞中,这种相互作用可以通过触发RLRs以及下游信号分子的活化,最终导致I型干扰素的产生和炎性因子的产生,细胞做出抗病毒免疫应答。本文简单介绍了RLR信号通路的组成及其泛素化调控,总结了病毒逃避RLR通路信号转导的机制,最后阐述了NOD样受体(NOD-like receptors,NLRs)通路对RLR通路的影响。通过对RLR信号通路分子在抗病毒免疫调节中的作用了解,可以为控制病毒的感染和免疫调节提供一个新的思路。

  5. Micro-pyrolysis of technical lignins in a new modular rig and product analysis by GC-MS/FID and GC x GC-TOFMS/FID

    Windt, Michael; Meier, Dietrich; Marsman, Jan Henk; Heeres, Hero Jan; de Koning, Sjaak


    A new offline-pyrolysis rig has been designed to allow multifunctional experiments for preparative and analytical purposes. The system conditions can be set and monitored, e.g. temperature, its gradients and heat flux. Some special features include ( I) high heating rates up to 120 degrees C/s with

  6. 5'PPP-RNA induced RIG-I activation inhibits drug-resistant avian H5N1 as well as 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza virus replication

    García-Sastre Adolfo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza viruses, including avian H5N1 with pandemic potential, 1918 and 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic viruses to currently used antiviral agents, neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 Ion channel blockers, underscores the importance of developing novel antiviral strategies. Activation of innate immune pathogen sensor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I has recently been shown to induce antiviral state. Results In the present investigation, using real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and plaque assay we show that 5'PPP-containing single stranded RNA (5'PPP-RNA, a ligand for the intracytoplasmic RNA sensor, RIG-I can be used as a prophylactic agent against known drug-resistant avian H5N1 and pandemic influenza viruses. 5'PPP-RNA treatment of human lung epithelial cells inhibited replication of drug-resistant avian H5N1 as well as 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza viruses in a RIG-I and type 1 interferon dependant manner. Additionally, 5'PPP-RNA treatment also inhibited 2009 H1N1 viral replication in vivo in mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5'PPP-RNA mediated activation of RIG-I can suppress replication of influenza viruses irrespective of their genetic make-up, pathogenicity, and drug-sensitivity status.

  7. Aging Jack-Up Rig Fleet in Need of 200 NewbuUds BY ROB ALMEIDA ON JUNE 22,2012-6-26


    At the 25th annual Marine Money conference in New York this week, Andreas Stubsrud, Head of Research at Pareto Securities, predicted a need for 200 new jack up rigs as nearly half of the 450 jack ups worldwide approach their 40th birthdays by 2020.

  8. Micro-pyrolysis of technical lignins in a new modular rig and product analysis by GC-MS/FID and GC x GC-TOFMS/FID

    Windt, Michael; Meier, Dietrich; Marsman, Jan Henk; Heeres, Hero Jan; de Koning, Sjaak

    A new offline-pyrolysis rig has been designed to allow multifunctional experiments for preparative and analytical purposes. The system conditions can be set and monitored, e.g. temperature, its gradients and heat flux. Some special features include ( I) high heating rates up to 120 degrees C/s with

  9. Characterisation of a refurbished 1½ stage turbine test rig for flowfield mapping behind blading with non-axisymmetric contoured endwalls

    Snedden, Glen C


    Full Text Available to performing tests on blading featuring non-axisymmetric endwalls in a lowspeed, rotating environment. The test rig has been refurbished in such a way as to dramatically improve the measurement standards and to provide the highest degree of commonality...

  10. Experimental Analysis of Mast Lifting and Bending Forces on Vibration Patterns Before and After Pinion Reinstallation in an OH-58 Transmission Test Rig

    Huff, Edward M.; Lewicki, David G.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Decker, Harry; Barszez, Eric; Zakrajsek, James J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    As part of a collaborative research program between NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Army Laboratory, a series of experiments is being performed in GRC's 500 HP OH-58 Transmission Test Rig facility and ARC's AH-I Cobra and OH-58c helicopters. The findings reported in this paper were drawn from Phase-I of a two-phase test-rig experiment, and are focused on the vibration response of an undamaged pinion gear operating in the transmission test rig. To simulate actual flight conditions, the transmission system was run at three torque levels, as well as two mast lifting and two mast bending levels. The test rig was also subjected to disassembly and reassembly of the main pinion housing to simulate the effect of maintenance operations. An analysis of variance based on the total power of the spectral distribution indicates the relative effect of each experimental factor, including Wong interactions with torque. Reinstallation of the main pinion assembly is shown to introduce changes in the vibration signature, suggesting the possibility of a strong effect of maintenance on HUMS design and use. Based on these results, further research will be conducted to compare these vibration responses with actual OH58c helicopter transmission vibration patterns.

  11. Inlet flow test calibration for a small axial compressor rig. Part 2: CFD compared with experimental results

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.


    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the compressor inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and inlet guide vane (IGV) angle settings were established, for which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were made for selected flow conditions established during the test. Good agreement between the CFD and test data were obtained for these test conditions.

  12. In Situ Measurement of Discomfort Curves for Seated Subjects in a Car on the Four-Post Rig

    T. Ibicek


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure and quantify perceived intensity of discomfort due to vibration in a vehicle in situ considering complete vehicle dynamic behaviour. The shaker table based discomfort curves or the road test results may not accurately and universally indicate the true level of human discomfort in a vehicle. A new experimental method, using a seated human in a car on the four-post rig simulator, is proposed to quantify discomfort. The intensity of perception to vibration decreased with decreasing input and increasing frequency; the rate of change is different from the published literature; the difference is large for angular modes of inputs. Vehicle dynamic response is used to inform and analyse the results. The repeatability of the method and the fact that they are in situ measurements may eventually help reduce reliance on the road tests. Furthermore, discomfort curves obtained, subsequently, can be used in predictive models.

  13. Efficient thermal cycling of solar panels in solar simulation facilities with a multi-panel test rig

    Brinkmann, P. W.; Reimann, J.


    It is shown that efficient thermal cycling tests under vacuum can be performed at reduced costs to cover the requirements for qualifications and acceptance testing of solar panels. A suitable test rig was developed which allows simultaneous testing of up to 3 solar panels with a dimension of 1.3 m x 1.7 m each. The tests can be performed in an existing solar simulation facility with a beam diameter of only 2.4 m. This means that a close simulation of orbital conditions can be achieved, including severe eclipse conditions with rapid temperature changes. Chamber dimensions, descriptions of suspension devices, and other data needed by potential users are given.

  14. Development of ZJ50/3150LDB-1 Drilling Rig%ZJ50/3150LDB-1型钻机研制

    温晓莉; 田建新; 赵学锋; 齐国忠


    In order to adapt to the needs of the modern drilling rig, based on summing up the features of the original ZJ50/3150LDB drilling rig,ZJ50/3150LDB-1 drilling rig is developed. It features in operational safety,simple structure,reliable performance. In the situation of having no use for stringing,it can implemented one stringing,and double lifting;the dog house is lifted together with rear substructure;high and low speed of drawworks drum is adopted with electric control,so the speed of clutch on off is quick;the rotary table is driven dependently. ZJ50/3150LDB-1 drilling rig is a great market potential for development drilling rig.%为适应现代钻井的需要,在总结ZJ50/3150LDB型钻机特点的基础上,研制了ZJ50/3150LDB-1型钻机.该钻机操作安全,结构简单,性能稳定可靠;能够在不倒绳的情况下实现1次穿绳、2次起升;司钻偏房与前台底座一起起升;绞车高、低速采用电控摘开、挂合,反应速度快;转盘采用电机独立驱动,是一种具有市场发展潜力的钻机.

  15. Construction of pCMV-Myc-RIG-I-2CARD vector and its expression and localization in HeLa cells%RIG-I蛋白2CARD结构域真核表达载体的构建及其在HeLa细胞中的表达定位

    张丽丽; 程丽鑫; 张华; 曹宏伟; 杨琦; 闫江翠; 张雅婷; 陈宁; 丁筠; 邹德华; 李兴志; 郑亮


    Objective To construct pCMV-Myc-RIG-I-2CARD vector and give its expression and localization in HeLa cells.Methods Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) as the pattern recognition receptor, can participate in the MAVS-mediated NF-κB innate anti-viral immune response. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) is two repeatable caspase activation recruiting areas on the N-terminal of RIG-I. In the processes virus infection, 2CARD domain plays important roles in recognizing and priming immune response. In this study, 2CARD gene was amplified with PCR method, and then was inserted into pCMV-Myc plasmid. The obtained pCMV-Myc-RIG-I-2CARD was transfected into HeLa cells, and the expression of 2CARD gene was confirmed by Western Blot and immunofluorescent. Results The result showed that the 2CARD fusion protein was successfully expressed in HeLa cells. Conclusions This research constructs the pCMV-Myc-RIG-I-2CARD vector, through 2CARD fusion protein successfully expressed in HeLa cells, establishes a foundation to further studies of interactions between virus and RIG-I.%目的:构建 RIG-I 蛋白2CARD 结构域真核表达载体及其在 HeLa 细胞中的表达定位。方法 RIG-I是一种模式识别受体,它能够参与由 MAVS 介导的 NF-κB 天然抗病毒免疫反应。2CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain,CARD)结构域是视黄酸诱导基因-I(Retinoin acid inducible gene I,RIG-I)N 端的2个串联重复的半胱天冬酶激活招募区,在病毒侵染细胞过程中,2CARD 结构域发挥了识别并启动机体免疫应答的功能。本研究通过 PCR 获取2CARD 片段酶切后,与 pCMV-Myc 载体连接后转染 HeLa 细胞,在 HeLa 细胞中表达,并应用 Western Blot 和免疫荧光进行鉴定。结果2CARD 基因在HeLa 细胞中成功表达。结论本研究成功构建了 pCMV-Myc-RIG-I-2CARD 真核表达载体,通过将 RIG-I分子中负责信号转导的2CARD 在 HeLa 中表达,为研究病毒与 RIG-I 的互作关系奠定一定的基础。

  16. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses RIG-I initiated innate antiviral responses in the human lung.

    Wenxin Wu

    Full Text Available Influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I is believed to play an important role in the recognition of, and response to, influenza virus and other RNA viruses. Our study focuses on the hypothesis that pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus alters the influenza-induced proinflammatory response and suppresses host antiviral activity. We first compared the innate response to a clinical isolate of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus, OK/09, a clinical isolate of seasonal H3N2 virus, OK/06, and to a laboratory adapted seasonal H1N1 virus, PR8, using a unique human lung organ culture model. Exposure of human lung tissue to either pandemic or seasonal influenza virus resulted in infection and replication in alveolar epithelial cells. Pandemic virus induces a diminished RIG-I mRNA and antiviral cytokine response than seasonal virus in human lung. The suppression of antiviral response and RIG-I mRNA expression was confirmed at the protein level by ELISA and western blot. We performed a time course of RIG-I and interferon-β (IFN-β mRNA induction by the two viruses. RIG-I and IFN-β induction by OK/09 was of lower amplitude and shorter duration than that caused by PR8. In contrast, the pandemic virus OK/09 caused similar induction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, at both the transcriptional and translational level as PR8 in human lung. Differential antiviral responses did not appear to be due to a difference in cellular infectivity as immunohistochemistry showed that both viruses infected alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. These findings show that influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses anti-viral immune responses in infected human lung through inhibition of viral-mediated induction of the pattern recognition receptor, RIG-I, though proinflammatory cytokine induction was unaltered. This immunosuppression of the host antiviral response by pandemic virus may have contributed to the more

  17. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang


    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  18. Structural design for automatic smart hydraulic workover rig%自动化智能液压修井机结构设计

    牛文杰; 白永涛; 余焱群; 王晓斌; 王运安; 闫成新


    Conventional minor workover operations involving workover rigs are characterized by prolonged working durations, low degrees of automation, high labor intensities and poor operation safety performances. To solve these problems, an innovative automatic smart hydraulic workover rig was developed. With the control mode by combining “PLC/Manual automatic coupling control multiple components through coordination + man/machine offline operations”, all key systems of the workover rig can work in well-coordinated manner to facilitate automatic and unmanned minor workover operations in oilfields. Instead of horizontal arrangement of pipe-string on the ground in conventional workover operations, the new workover rig works in a mode that pipe-strings are placed vertically near the wellhead and two joints are tripped out simultaneously. Furthermore, the new workover rig may also be used for tripping of one joint in one trip with conventional horizontal placement of pipe string on the ground. Compared with conventional operations, the new workover rig can reduce the operation time by approximately 20%-30%. Fully driven by hydraulic system and with hydraulic accumulator system newly deployed, the new workover rig can save energy through configuration of driving modes with variable loads. In addition to facilitate remote control, the new workover rig mcan effectively enhance safety performance of workover operations.%针对目前传统修井机小修作业存在的作业周期长、作业自动化程度低、人工劳动强度大、作业安全性差等问题,设计了一款新型自动化智能液压修井机,通过“‘PLC 程控/人控’多单元协调自动耦合控制+人机离线操控”的控制方式使修井机的各个关键系统相互协同作业,实现油田小型修井作业过程的自动化、无人化操作。该修井机改变了传统修井作业过程中管柱地面卧排的放置方式,采用管柱井口立放、双立根同时起下的工作

  19. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation via AC-29-2C Combining Test Rig Damage Progression Data with Fielded Rotorcraft Data

    Dempsey, Paula J.


    This is the final of three reports published on the results of this project. In the first report, results were presented on nineteen tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig on spiral bevel gear sets designed to simulate helicopter fielded failures. In the second report, fielded helicopter HUMS data from forty helicopters were processed with the same techniques that were applied to spiral bevel rig test data. Twenty of the forty helicopters experienced damage to the spiral bevel gears, while the other twenty helicopters had no known anomalies within the time frame of the datasets. In this report, results from the rig and helicopter data analysis will be compared for differences and similarities in condition indicator (CI) response. Observations and findings using sub-scale rig failure progression tests to validate helicopter gear condition indicators will be presented. In the helicopter, gear health monitoring data was measured when damage occurred and after the gear sets were replaced at two helicopter regimes. For the helicopters or tails, data was taken in the flat pitch ground 101 rotor speed (FPG101) regime. For nine tails, data was also taken at 120 knots true airspeed (120KTA) regime. In the test rig, gear sets were tested until damage initiated and progressed while gear health monitoring data and operational parameters were measured and tooth damage progression documented. For the rig tests, the gear speed was maintained at 3500RPM, a one hour run-in was performed at 4000 in-lb gear torque, than the torque was increased to 8000 in-lbs. The HUMS gear condition indicator data evaluated included Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS) or Diagnostic Algorithm 1(DA1), + 3 Sideband Index (SI3) and + 1 Sideband Index (SI1). These were selected based on their sensitivity in detecting contact fatigue damage modes from analytical, experimental and historical helicopter data. For this report, the helicopter dataset was reduced to

  20. Statics of deformable solids

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH


    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  1. UBXN1 Interferes with Rig-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting MAVS

    Penghua Wang


    Full Text Available RNA viruses are sensed by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, which signal through a mitochondria-associated adaptor molecule, MAVS, resulting in systemic antiviral immune responses. Although RLR signaling is essential for limiting RNA virus replication, it must be stringently controlled to prevent damage from inflammation. We demonstrate here that among all tested UBX-domain-containing protein family members, UBXN1 exhibits the strongest inhibitory effect on RNA-virus-induced type I interferon response. UBXN1 potently inhibits RLR- and MAVS-induced, but not TLR3-, TLR4-, or DNA-virus-induced innate immune responses. Depletion of UBXN1 enhances virus-induced innate immune responses, including those resulting from RNA viruses such as vesicular stomatitis, Sendai, West Nile, and dengue virus infection, repressing viral replication. Following viral infection, UBXN1 is induced, binds to MAVS, interferes with intracellular MAVS oligomerization, and disrupts the MAVS/TRAF3/TRAF6 signalosome. These findings underscore a critical role of UBXN1 in the modulation of a major antiviral signaling pathway.

  2. Studi Pengaruh Gerak Semi-submersible Drilling Rig dengan Variasi Pre-tension Mooring Line terhadap Keamanan Drilling Riser

    Arda Arda


    Full Text Available Analisis terhadap sistem tambat pada anjungan pengeboran semi-submersible drilling rig perlu dilakukan sebelum dilakukannya operasi di lapangan untuk mengetahui perencanaan sistem tambat yang tepat dan aman. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisa perilaku gerak semi-submersible dengan variasi pre-tension mooring line untuk mengetahui berapa besar pre-tension minimal yang harus digunakan agar operasi pengeboran di lingkungan laut Natuna dapat berjalan dengan aman. Variasi pre-tension yang digunakan adalah sebesar 400kN-2000kN dengan penambahan sebesar 400kN. Karakteristik gerakan semi-submersible diprediksi dengan menghitung RAO free floating dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain frekuensi. Kemudian dilakukan analisa simulasi sistem lengkap (platform, mooring dan drilling riser dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain waktu. Hasil yang didapat yakni nilai maksimum tegangan mooring line memenuhi batas kriteria API-RP2SK untuk semua variasi pre-tension dengan safety factor terkecil 2.44. Sudut flex joint drilling riser yang terjadi melewati batas kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-800kN yang mencapai 6.20 untuk sudut maksimum dan 4.80 untuk sudut rata-rata. Tegangan von Mises yang terjadi pada drilling riser melebihi kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-1200kN karena nilainya mencapai 369 MPa (0.82 yield stress.

  3. Effect of Adding a Regenerator to Kornhauser's MIT "Two-Space" (Gas-Spring+Heat Exchanger) Test Rig

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Gidugu, Praveen


    This study employed entropy-based second law post-processing analysis to characterize the various thermodynamic losses inside a 3-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger+regenerator) operating under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow. The 3- space solution domain is adapted from the 2-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger) in Kornhauser's MIT test rig by modifying the heat exchanger space to include a porous regenerator system. A thermal nonequilibrium model which assumes that the regenerator porous matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location and time during the cycle is employed. An important and primary objective of this study is the development and application of a thermodynamic loss post-processor to characterize the major thermodynamic losses inside the 3-space model. It is anticipated that the experience gained from thermodynamic loss analysis of the simple 3-space model can be extrapolated to more complex systems like the Stirling engine. It is hoped that successful development of loss post-processors will facilitate the improvement of the optimization capability of Stirling engine analysis codes through better understanding of the heat transfer and power losses. It is also anticipated that the incorporation of a successful thermal nonequilibrium model of the regenerator in Stirling engine CFD analysis codes, will improve our ability to accurately model Stirling regenerators relative to current multidimensional thermal-equilibrium porous media models.

  4. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    Christian Schröder


    Full Text Available Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  5. Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig

    Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.


    Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

  6. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.


    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  7. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Pak Kin Wong


    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  8. A decision support system to dynamic management of the scheduling workover rigs for onshore Potiguar Basin; Um sistema de apoio a decisao para o gerenciamento dinamico das sondas de producao terrestre da Bacia Potiguar

    Maia, Rosiery S.; Bittencourt, Valnaide [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia da Computacao e Automacao (DCA); Aloise, Daniel [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica; Aloise, Dario J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Moura, Luiz S.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil)


    The onshore Potiguar basin has nowadays around 5.000 artificial lifting petroleum wells, distributed into 80 fields located on the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara, representing approximately 8% of the national oil production. For that, well maintenance service, realized by Workover Rigs, is essential to preserve the oil productivity of the reservoirs on these fields. However, as the number of rigs is lower than to the number of wells needing maintenance, the task of administrating the management of such equipment according to the demand created by the wells, generates an optimization problem. The decision for a rig intervention on a well depends on parameters such as flow rate, depth, wasted time on intervention, distance from the rig to the next well, type of operation, rig capacity, environmental risks, etc. The objective of this paper is to present an interactive Computational System for Support Decision to the optimized management of the wells attended by the rig fleet. Generically, the software has the following components: dynamic heuristical algorithms, meta heuristical Variable Neighborhood Search, with local search mechanisms, interconnection algorithm, database and graphical user interface. This paper contains knowledge in operational search and optimization, software engineering, database and user interface. (author)

  9. The regulation mechanism of RIG-Ⅰ-like receptors in antiviral innate immune responses%抗病毒天然免疫反应中RIG-Ⅰ样受体调控机制新进展

    刘殿波; 孙莉; 张百灵; 闫飞; 陈忠斌


    宿主免疫细胞和相关的组织细胞能够通过表达病原模式识别受体(pattern recognition receptor, PRR)即 Toll样受体(Toll-like receptor,TLR)、核苷酸寡聚化域样受体(NOD-like receptor,NLR)、维A酸诱导基因Ⅰ样受体(RIG-Ⅰ-like receptor,RLR)检测病毒及其他病原微生物,并将感染信号级联放大,诱发抗病毒天然免疫反应.由于PRR成员识别病原的特异性和机制各具特色,使有关PRR的鉴定及其诱发天然免疫反应的分子机制研究更加具有挑战性,特别是细胞质病原识别受体--RLR引发的信号通路研究已经成为细胞生物学与免疫学领域的热点之一.最新研究发现,泛素化、去泛素化及干扰素刺激基因(interferon stimulating gene,ISG)化等翻译后修饰对RLR介导的抗病毒天然免疫反应具有重要调控作用,成为许多病毒逃逸机体防御系统的主要分子机制.并且最近研究发现了一个新的RLR信号通路中抗病毒免疫分子STING(也称为MITA/MPYS/ERIS),为揭示复杂的抗病毒天然免疫反应提供了新思路.

  10. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    Braithwaite, E R


    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  11. Development of a Wind Turbine Test Rig and Rotor for Trailing Edge Flap Investigation: Static Flap Angles Case

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Johnson, David A.


    One of the strategies used to improve performance and increase the life-span of wind turbines is active flow control. It involves the modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine blade by means of moveable aerodynamic control surfaces. Trailing edge flaps are relatively small moveable control surfaces placed at the trailing edge of a blade's airfoil that modify the lift of a blade or airfoil section. An instrumented wind turbine test rig and rotor were specifically developed to enable a wide-range of experiments to investigate the potential of trailing edge flaps as an active control technique. A modular blade based on the S833 airfoil was designed to allow accurate instrumentation and customizable settings. The blade is 1.7 meters long, had a constant 178mm chord and a 6° pitch. The modular aerodynamic parts were 3D printed using plastic PC-ABS material. The blade design point was within the range of wind velocities in the available large test facility. The wind facility is a large open jet wind tunnel with a maximum velocity of 11m/s in the test area. The capability of the developed system was demonstrated through an initial study of the effect of stationary trailing edge flaps on blade load and performance. The investigation focused on measuring the changes in flapwise bending moment and power production for different trailing edge flap spanwise locations and deflection angles. The relationship between the load reduction and deflection angle was linear as expected from theory and the highest reduction was caused by the flap furthest from the rotor center. Overall, the experimental setup proved to be effective in measuring small changes in flapwise bending moment within the wind turbine blade and will provide insight when (active) flap control is targeted.

  12. Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig

    Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.


    The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

  13. Advanced industrial gas turbine technology readiness demonstration program. Phase II. Final report: compressor rig fabrication assembly and test

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Smith, J. D.


    The results of a component technology demonstration program to fabricate, assemble and test an advanced axial/centrifugal compressor are presented. This work was conducted to demonstrate the utilization of advanced aircraft gas turbine cooling and high pressure compressor technology to improve the performance and reliability of future industrial gas turbines. Specific objectives of the compressor component testing were to demonstrate 18:1 pressure ratio on a single spool at 90% polytropic efficiency with 80% fewer airfoils as compared to current industrial gas turbine compressors. The compressor design configuration utilizes low aspect ratio/highly-loaded axial compressor blading combined with a centrifugal backend stage to achieve the 18:1 design pressure ratio in only 7 stages and 281 axial compressor airfoils. Initial testing of the compressor test rig was conducted with a vaneless centrifugal stage diffuser to allow documentation of the axial compressor performance. Peak design speed axial compressor performance demonstrated was 91.8% polytropic efficiency at 6.5:1 pressure ratio. Subsequent documentation of the combined axial/centrifugal performance with a centrifugal stage pipe diffuser resulted in the demonstration of 91.5% polytropic efficiency and 14% stall margin at the 18:1 overall compressor design pressure ratio. The demonstrated performance not only exceeded the contract performance goals, but also represents the highest known demonstrated compressor performance in this pressure ratio and flow class. The performance demonstrated is particularly significant in that it was accomplished at airfoil loading levels approximately 15% higher than that of current production engine compressor designs. The test results provide conclusive verification of the advanced low aspect ratio axial compressor and centrifugal stage technologies utilized.

  14. Solid state physics

    Burns, Gerald


    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  15. Theoretical solid state physics

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  16. Triggering of the dsRNA sensors TLR3, MDA5, and RIG-I induces CD55 expression in synovial fibroblasts.

    Olga N Karpus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD55 (decay-accelerating factor is a complement-regulatory protein highly expressed on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS. CD55 is also a ligand for CD97, an adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptor abundantly present on leukocytes. Little is known regarding the regulation of CD55 expression in FLS. METHODS: FLS isolated from arthritis patients were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands. Transfection with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C and 5'-triphosphate RNA were used to activate the cytoplasmic double-stranded (dsRNA sensors melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I. CD55 expression, cell viability, and binding of CD97-loaded beads were quantified by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD55 was expressed at equal levels on FLS isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis. CD55 expression in RA FLS was significantly induced by IL-1β and especially by the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C. Activation of MDA5 and RIG-I also enhanced CD55 expression. Notably, activation of MDA5 dose-dependently induced cell death, while triggering of TLR3 or RIG-I had a minor effect on viability. Upregulation of CD55 enhanced the binding capacity of FLS to CD97-loaded beads, which could be blocked by antibodies against CD55. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of dsRNA sensors enhances the expression of CD55 in cultured FLS, which increases the binding to CD97. Our findings suggest that dsRNA promotes the interaction between FLS and CD97-expressing leukocytes.

  17. DEAD/H BOX 3 (DDX3) helicase binds the RIG-I adaptor IPS-1 to up-regulate IFN-beta-inducing potential.

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa


    Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) are members of the DEAD box helicases, and recognize viral RNA in the cytoplasm, leading to IFN-beta induction through the adaptor IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) (also known as Cardif, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein or virus-induced signaling adaptor). Since uninfected cells usually harbor a trace of RIG-I, other RNA-binding proteins may participate in assembling viral RNA into the IPS-1 pathway during the initial response to infection. We searched for proteins coupling with human IPS-1 by yeast two-hybrid and identified another DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase, DDX3 (DEAD/H BOX 3). DDX3 can bind viral RNA to join it in the IPS-1 complex. Unlike RIG-I, DDX3 was constitutively expressed in cells, and some fraction of DDX3 is colocalized with IPS-1 around mitochondria. The 622-662 a.a DDX3 C-terminal region (DDX3-C) directly bound to the IPS-1 CARD-like domain, and the whole DDX3 protein also associated with RLR. By reporter assay, DDX3 helped IPS-1 up-regulate IFN-beta promoter activation and knockdown of DDX3 by siRNA resulted in reduced IFN-beta induction. This activity was conserved on the DDX3-C fragment. DDX3 only marginally enhanced IFN-beta promoter activation induced by transfected TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) or I-kappa-B kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon). Forced expression of DDX3 augmented virus-mediated IFN-beta induction and host cell protection against virus infection. Hence, DDX3 is an antiviral IPS-1 enhancer.

  18. Study on Drill Rig Scheme Design Expert System%钻机方案设计专家系统的研究

    冯晓东; 冉恒谦; 陈庆寿; 袁明昕


    The expert system is one of the most important and most active branches of the AI field. It is very significant of its application in the mechanical design to drive the mechanical design process to advance in the automatic and AI direction. Some problems with the study on the drill rig design expert system are reviewed. The main objects and tasks of the drill rig design expert system and their realized methods are discussed. The study is also made on the knowledge presentation; knowledge acquisition and knowledge derivation method proper for the requirements of the drill rig design expert system.%专家系统是人工智能领域中最重要而且有活力的分支之一,它在机械设计领域中的应用,对于推动机械设计过程向自动化及智能化方向的发展,具有极其重要的现实意义。论述了钻机设计专家系统研究中的一些主要问题,探讨了钻机设计专家系统要完成的主要目标和任务以及实现方法,并研究了适合于钻机设计专家系统要求的知识表示、知识获取和知识推理方法。

  19. 海洋钻井平台泥浆系统综述%Summarization of Mud System on Offshore Drilling Rig



    Drilling mud system was a whole set of core system on offshore drilling rigs. Drilling mud was the necessary working medium for drilling operation. A drilling mud system included 5 major systems: bulk material system ,mud mixing system,high pressure mud system,low pressure mud suction system and low pressure mud processing system. The design of the system was closely related to the requirement of drilling operation ,and would greatly influence the general arrangement of the offshore drilling rigs. This article introduced the composing and mayor function of the mud systems,preliminarily discussed the key elements in mud system designing for offshore drilling rigs.%钻井泥浆系统是钻井平台在钻井作业时所依赖的一整套核心系统. 钻井泥浆是钻井作业时必不可少的一种工作介质.钻井平台的泥浆系统主要包括:散装材料储存输送系统、泥浆混合系统、高压泥浆系统、低压泥浆吸入系统和低压泥浆净化处理系统.泥浆系统的设计与平台的钻井作业要求密切相关,同时也对钻井平台的总体布置有重大影响.介绍了钻井平台泥浆系统的组成和主要功能,初步探讨了泥浆系统设计的基本要素.

  20. Sensors, motes, and smart dust : WirelessHART sensors are finding application in gas plants, well rigs and soon may be embraced by entire cities

    Chandler, G.


    The WirelessHART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) is wireless communication system designed to address the needs of the process industry. The sensor system can be used in applications that were previously not practical or possible, such as in drilling rigs and gas plants. The wireless aspect is an important new innovation that delivers key economic benefits. For some temperature measurements in industrial plants, it is not always feasible to run wires all the way up the stack. The wireless solution consists of wireless gateways and field devices that receive and condition data from sensors that measure temperatures, pressures, flow rates, vibration, and other process parameters. The same devices also relay the measurement data to the gateway. Up to 100 devices can be linked wirelessly to a gateway, which passes on the process information to the control system of the plant, drilling rig, or other industrial facility. Multiple networks can be bridged using Wi-Fi. Once deployed, the technology optimizes itself. The system is also useful for determining temperatures and pressures on the mud tanks at drilling rigs and blowout preventers. The system is being used in highly automated and multi-process plants like refineries and upgraders where numerous sensors are needed. Savings on the wireless installations allow a company to afford the installation of more sensors in places they previously could not cost-effectively deploy wired sensors, thereby resulting in improved productivity, safety, and reduced plant downtimes. Talisman Energy's Teepee Creek sour gas plant near Grande Prairie Alberta uses the WirelessHART network to measure temperatures, pressure, differential pressure, tank levels, and valve positions. 4 figs.

  1. Rhodiola inhibits dengue virus multiplication by inducing innate immune response genes RIG-I, MDA5 and ISG in human monocytes.

    Diwaker, Drishya; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly; Singh, S B


    Recognition of virus infection by retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG) I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein (MDA) 5, which are RNA helicases, and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) 15 activates cascades of signal transduction pathways leading to production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines that orchestrate the elimination of the viruses. However, it has been demonstrated that RNA-helicase-mediated innate immunity plays an essential role in defending the host from infection. In our efforts to identify plant-derived antivirals that selectively enhance ISG- and RNA-helicase-mediated antiviral immune responses, we identified a plant, rhodiola, that significantly promoted ISG, RIG-I and MDA 5 gene expression and an antiviral immune response against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Rhodiola induced interferon (IFN) β and other cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, in infected cells. It was also found that rhodiola upregulated phosphorylated eIF-2α, PKR and NF-kB in infected cells. In addition, the number of NK cells was also increased by rhodiola treatment in dengue-virus-infected human PBMCs. Treatment with a crude extract of rhodiola (RAE) resulted in effects in the 20 % range, which is similar to the magnitude of the same effects observed in DENV infections. Taken together, our results imply that rhodiola induces pharmacological modulation of RIG-I, MDA 5 and ISG signal transduction pathways in favor of the induction of a beneficial antiviral immune response against dengue virus, which can be a novel therapeutic strategy for management of infection.

  2. 6臂液压伞形钻架研制及应用%Development and Application of Six Boom Hydraulic Umbrella Drilling Rig

    马维清; 马银; 何磊; 孙会贞; 武振海


    According to the engineering conditions and technical requirements of the mine auxiliary shaft in Sishanling Iron Mine ,the paper provided the technical parameters of the six boom hydraulic umbrella drilling rig and had a study on the design plan of the main system and parts .A trial was con‐ducted on the engineering application .With the development of the suspension system in the umbrella drilling rig ,the location fixing problem of the six boom hydraulic umbrella drilling rig in the large cross section shaft sinking face was solved .With the improvement on the compressed-air and water system ,the problems were solved on water quantity too high to clean the drilling cutting ,which was affected to the construction of the shaft sinking face .With the improvement on the rotary mechanism of the hydraulic rock drill ,the failure rate of the rock drill was reduced .According to the engineering actual application conditions ,the paper analyzed the shortages existed in the six boom hydraulic um‐brella drilling rig and provided the improved proposals.%根据思山岭铁矿副井工程条件及技术要求,提出了6臂液压伞形钻架技术参数,对主要系统及部件的设计方案进行了研究,并进行了工程应用试验。通过研制伞形钻架悬吊系统,解决了6臂液压伞形钻架在大断面立井工作面的就位固定问题;对气水系统进行改进,解决了排渣用水量过大,影响工作面施工的问题;对液压凿岩机旋转机构进行改进,降低了凿岩机故障率。根据工程实际应用情况,分析了6臂液压伞形钻架存在的不足之处,提出了改进建议。

  3. Bioindication of air pollution by the reaction of pollen grains Тaraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg (on example of the Kryvyi Rig

    Віталій Миколайович Гришко


    Full Text Available Influence of various level of pollution of Kryvyi Rig on pollen viability of Taraxacum officinale Wigg seeds was studied. Gametocidal influence of pollution is shown in gradual increase to 50 % of impractical pollen at the high level of pollution and increase more than twice of amount of the sterile grains induced by this factor. Also depending on the level of pollution the amount of morphologically changed pollen increases and at high level is noted the formation of a lentiform abnormal form

  4. The rigged Hilbert space approach to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation: II. The analytic continuation of the Lippmann-Schwinger bras and kets

    Madrid, Rafael de la [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    The analytic continuation of the Lippmann-Schwinger bras and kets is obtained and characterized. It is shown that the natural mathematical setting for the analytic continuation of the solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is the rigged Hilbert space rather than just the Hilbert space. It is also argued that this analytic continuation entails the imposition of a time asymmetric boundary condition upon the group time evolution, resulting in a semigroup time evolution. Physically, the semigroup time evolution is simply a (retarded or advanced) propagator.

  5. Seasonal and pandemic influenza H1N1 viruses induce differential expression of SOCS-1 and RIG-I genes and cytokine/chemokine production in macrophages.

    Ramírez-Martínez, Gustavo; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Jiménez-Alvarez, Luis; Espinosa, Enrique; Ortíz-Quintero, Blanca; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa; Herrera, María Teresa; Canché-Pool, Elsy; Mendoza, Criselda; Bañales, José L; García-Moreno, Sara A; Morán, Juan; Cabello, Carlos; Orozco, Lorena; Aguilar-Delfín, Irma; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero, Sandra; Suratt, Benjamin T; Selman, Moisés; Zúñiga, Joaquín


    Infection with pandemic (pdm) A/H1N1 virus induces high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in blood and lungs of experimental animals and humans. To compare the involvement of seasonal A/PR/8/34 and pdm A/H1N1 virus strains in the regulation of inflammatory responses, we analyzed the changes in the whole-genome expression induced by these strains in macrophages and A549 epithelial cells. We also focused on the functional implications (cytokine production) of the differential induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, SOCS-3, retinoid-inducible gene (RIG)-I and interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1) genes by these viral strains in early stages of the infection. We identified 130 genes differentially expressed by pdm A/H1N1 and A/PR/8/34 infections in macrophages. mRNA levels of SOCS-1 and RIG-I were up-regulated in macrophages infected with the A/PR/8/34 but not with pdm A/H1N1 virus. mRNA levels of SOCS-3 and IFNAR1 induced by A/PR/8/34 and pdm A/H1N1 strains in macrophages, as well as in A549 cells were similar. We found higher levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, CCL3, CCL5, CCL4 and CXCL8 (p < 0.05) in supernatants from cultures of macrophages infected with the pdm A/H1N1 virus compared to those infected with the A/PR/8/34 strain, coincident with the lack of SOCS-1 and RIG-I expression. In contrast, levels of INF-α were higher in cultures of macrophages 48h after infection with the A/PR/8/34 strain than with the pdm A/H1N1 virus. These findings suggest that factors inherent to the pdm A/H1N1 viral strain may increase the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting SOCS-1 and modifying the expression of antiviral immunity-related genes, including RIG-I, in human macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LNG燃气动力修井机开发及应用%Development and Application of LNG Powered Workover Rig

    史永庆; 曲永哲; 刘世峰; 邢付顺; 黄勇


    The current domestic workover rigs are usually diesel powered, which present economic and envi⁃ronmental issues like high costs and high pollution emissions�Liquefied natural gas ( LNG) , as a high⁃quality and highly efficient low⁃carbon energy, is considered to be an ideal alternative fuel for vehicle engine�The composition of LNG powered workover rig, and working principle of LNG supply system and fueling system have been intro⁃duced�Comparative analysis on the power, economy and environmental protection of LNG powered workover rig has been conducted�Field application results show that, all the performance indicators of LNG powered workover rig met the needs of oil field workover operations�Workover operation on a single well saved fuel costs by 34%, re⁃duced emissions of harmful gases by about 85%, reduced carbon emissions by about 95%, achieving energy⁃sav⁃ing and environmentally friendly workover operation, presenting good economic and social benefits.%国内修井机大多采用柴油作为动力,存在修井作业成本高以及污染排放量大等经济和环保问题。液化天然气( LNG)作为一种优质、高效的新型低碳能源,被认为是较理想的车用发动机代用燃料。阐述了LNG燃气动力修井机的组成、燃气供气系统及燃料加注系统工作原理,对比分析了LNG燃气动力修井机的动力性、经济性和环保性。现场应用结果表明, LNG燃气动力修井机各项性能指标均满足油田现场修井作业需求,单井节省燃料费用34%,有害气体排放减少约85%,综合碳排放减少约95%,实现了修井作业低能耗、环保型生产,具有良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  7. Development and use of a new burner rig facility to mimic service loading conditions of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Mauget Florent


    Full Text Available Performing representative experiments of in-service operating conditions of Ni-based superalloys used as high pressure turbine blades in aeroengines is a challenging issue due to the complex environmental, mechanical and thermal solicitations encountered by those components. A new burner rig test facility called MAATRE (French acronym for Mechanics and Aerothermics of Cooled Turbine Blades has been developed at ENSMA – Pprime Institute to mimic as close as possible those operating conditions. This new test bench has been used to perform complex non-isothermal creep tests representative of thermomechanical solicitations seen by some sections of HP turbine blades during engine certification procedure.

  8. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  9. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors.

    Li, Jian; Kong, Ming; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin; Fan, Ying


    The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within -3%-8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  10. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Jian Li


    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  11. What Are Solid Fats?

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  12. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.

  13. Laser cooling of solids

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  14. Solid State Division

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  15. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  16. Solid state phenomena

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista


    Qiu Jinghui


    The author gives a dual characterization of solid cones in locally convex spaces.From this the author obtains some criteria for judging convex cones to be solid in various inds of locally convex spaces. Using a general expression of the interior of a solid cone,the author obtains a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for convex cones to be solid in the framework of Banach spaces. In particular, the author gives a dual relationship between solid cones and generalized sharp cones. The related known results are improved and extended.

  18. A New Design of the Universal Test Rig to Measure the Wear Characterizations of Polymer Acetal Gears (Spur, Helical, Bevel, and Worm

    Samy Yousef


    Full Text Available This work aims to study the wear characterization of common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel, and worm using a new TS universal test rig, in order to obtain reliable results and as a reference when compared with acetal nanocomposite gears later. The TS universal test rig consists of three different units that are connected by a main driver shaft and a pair of constantly meshing metal spur gears, which transfer power to the bevel and worm test units. The first unit is used to test the bevel gears, the second unit is used to test the spur and helical gears, and the third unit is used to test the worm gears. The loading mechanism is similarly designed to block the brake mechanism. Hobbing and milling machines were used to machine an injection-moulded polymer flanges and produce the tested gears. All gear pairs, except the worm gear, have identical gear ratios. The experiments were performed at speed 1420 rpm and the torque was 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear rates (in the form of weight loss of spur gears were consistent with the previous results and the other gear types had larger wear rates.

  19. Structural strength analysis of lift-arm of rotary drilling rig%旋挖钻机动臂结构强度分析

    郭雄华; 许怡赦; 康辉梅


    动臂是旋挖钻机的一个主要构件,在动臂变幅、钻进和提钻等工况下均是主要承力构件.文中分别对动臂变幅、钻进和提钻工况下,旋挖钻机以最不利的姿势作业,且承受最大载荷时动臂的结构强度进行分析,为动臂的结构设计及优化设计等提供了理论基础.%Lift-arm is not only a major component of the rotary drilling rig, but also the major load-bearing component in the working conditions as lift-arm luffing, drilling and drill-lifting etc.In this paper, the structure strength of the lift-arm was analyzed when the rotary drilling rig operates in the most unfavorable posture and withstands the maximum load under the working conditions as lift arm luffing, drilling and drill-lifting individually, therefore providing a theoretical basis for the structural design and optimization of the lift-arm.

  20. Determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to burner rig test targets comparable in size to cross-stream jet diameter

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.


    Two sets of experiments have been performed to be able to predict the convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to a cylindrical target whose height and diameter are comparable to, but less than, the diameter of the circular cross-stream jet, thereby simulating the same geometric configuration as a typical burner rig test specimen located in the cross-stream of the combustor exit nozzle. The first set exploits the naphthalene sublimation technique to determine the heat/mass transfer coefficient under isothermal conditions for various flow rates (Reynolds numbers). The second set, conducted at various combustion temperatures and Reynolds numbers, utilized the temperature variation along the surface of the above-mentioned target under steady-state conditions to estimate the effect of cooling (dilution) due to the entrainment of stagnant room temperature air. The experimental information obtained is used to predict high temperature, high velocity corrosive salt vapor deposition rates in burner rigs on collectors that are geometrically the same. The agreement with preliminary data obtained from Na2SO4 vapor deposition experiments is found to be excellent.

  1. Application of PPM-3 in electric control system of oil drilling rigs%PPM-3在钻机电控系统中的应用

    张联国; 田斌; 王文军; 张格立


    介绍了电源保护及电能管理器PPM-3的基本原理和主要功能,结合在石油钻机数字发电系统中的工程应用,给出了PPM-3在CAT发电机组并网及负荷分配应用中的参数设置,并对运行数据进行测试比较,为石油钻机动力控制提供了一种新的思路。%The basic principle and main functions of the PPM-3 power protector and power energy administrator are introduced. Combined with the engineering applications in the digital generating systems for the oil drilling rigs, the parameters setting of the PPM-3 in the grid connection and load distribution of the CAT generator sets are presented, the operating data are tested and compared, and it provides a new method of the power configuration for the oil drilling rigs.

  2. Solids fluidizer-injector

    Bulicz, T.R.


    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  3. Solid Base Catalysis

    Ono, Yoshio


    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  4. Development Suggestion and the Ptoblem on Auto Conttol Technology of Dtilling Rig%石油钻机自动化技术的问题及发展建议

    于兴军; 魏培静; 张青锋; 徐炜华; 何鸿; 王峰林


    Absttact:The problems of domestic drilling rig during the working were analyzed,such as the cou-pling control between the drawworks and the disk brake,the soft torque control of rotary system, human design of driller control room.Meanwhile,compared with some performance characteristics of foreign advanced drilling rig,the difference of rig auto control technology between the domestic rig and overseas rig was summarized.The aspects was expounded,which the domestic rig needs to be upgraded,such as pipe handing technology,integration controltechnology.At last,some sug-gestions of the subsequent works on this promotion are put forward.%分析了我国石油钻机在绞车与盘刹耦合控制、旋转系统软转矩控制、司钻房人性化设计等方面存在的问题。通过与国外先进钻机的相关性能特点进行对比,找出了我国石油钻机自动化技术与国外钻机的主要差距,对国内钻井装备在管柱自动输送及排放、集成控制等方面亟待升级的技术进行了阐述,并对研究的具体工作提出了几点建议。

  5. Solid state video cameras

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  6. Solid propellant rocket motor

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)


    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  7. 基于金属磁记忆的钻具无损评价技术%Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Drilling Rig Based on Metal Magnetic Memory

    于润桥; 徐长英


    During drilling operations,drilling rigs must bear tensile,distortion,bending and other stress.At the same time,drilling rigs subject to corrosion and erosion of the mud,and have very harsh conditions of service.In order to improve the efficiency of production and safety,the situation of drilling damaged and expected life must be seriously tested.For avoiding the accident of drilling tools in the well effectively,based on the metal magnetic memory technique,an evaluating approach,which was suitable for the actual use of drilling tools,was brought out to evaluate the usage condition of the serviced drill and examine out the drill that can continue to use or not.The relationship between drillings magnetic signal and stress level was built up through theoretic deduction and local experiments.The stress factor model was developed base on the fracture mechanic principle.The attempt was carried out through using the FAD chart,and the results show that the testing method offers a guidance of drilling rigs evaluation.%石油钻具在钻井作业中,要承受拉、扭、压弯等多种应力作用,同时受到泥浆的冲刷和腐蚀,服役条件十分苛刻。为了提高生产安全效率,对钻具的损伤情况和预期寿命有必要做认真检测。基于金属磁记忆检测技术,提出一种适合钻井现场使用的钻具适用性评价方法,用以评价在役钻具的使用状况,检测出不能继续使用的钻具,从而有效避免井下钻具事故的发生。通过理论推导与现场试验建立了钻具磁记忆检测信号与应力水平的试验关系,用断裂力学原理建立钻具的应力强度因子模型,利用FAD图对钻具的无损评价进行初步尝试,现场试验表明该方法对钻具的评价具有指导意义。

  8. Understanding solid state physics

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  9. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    V. V. Kachinskaya


    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  10. Experiments for the determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer to burner rig test targets comparable in size to jet stream diameter

    Santoro, G. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.


    The application of a recently formulated vapor transport theory to predict deposition rates of corrosive salts from alkali-seeded combustion gases of a small-capacity, high-velocity, atmospheric-pressure burner rig was hampered by the relatively large dimensions of the cylindrical deposit collector compared to the diameter of the combustion gas stream. The relative dimensions lead to a highly nonadiabatic combustion gas flow around the collector and necessitate two series of experiments. In the first series, mass transfer coefficients are determined by utilizing the naphthalene sublimation technique. The second series of experiments determines the dilution effect on the sodium species concentrations due to the entrainment of ambient air. This second series involves the measurement of the temperature variation along the surface of the collector under steady state conditions. Vapor deposition rates are determined exploiting this information and the results are found to compare favorably with experimentally obtained rates.

  11. Quantum Physics and Signal Processing in Rigged Hilbert Spaces by means of Special Functions, Lie Algebras and Fourier and Fourier-like Transforms

    Celeghini, Enrico


    Quantum Mechanics and Signal Processing in the line R, are strictly related to Fourier Transform and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. We discuss here the addition of a new discrete variable that measures the degree of the Hermite functions and allows to obtain the projective algebra io(2). A Rigged Hilbert space is found and a new discrete basis in R obtained. The operators {O[R]} defined on R are shown to belong to the Universal Enveloping Algebra UEA[io(2)] allowing, in this way, their algebraic discussion. Introducing in the half-line a Fourier-like Transform, the procedure is extended to R^+ and can be easily generalized to R^n and to spherical reference systems.

  12. Optimization of dry reforming of methane over Ni/YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Guerra, Cosimo; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Brandon, Nigel P.


    This work investigates the catalytic properties of Ni/YSZ anodes as electrodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) to be operated under direct dry reforming of methane. The experimental test rig consists of a micro-reactor, where anode samples are characterized. The gas composition at the reactor outlet is monitored using a mass spectrometer. The kinetics of the reactions occurring over the anode is investigated by means of Isotherm reactions and Temperature-programmed reactions. The effect of the variation of temperature, gas residence time and inlet carbon dioxide-methane volumetric ratio is analyzed. At 800 °C, the best catalytic performance (in the carbon safe region) is obtained for 1.5 dry reforming and cracking reactions, respectively. In other ranges, dry reforming and reverse water gas shift are the dominant reactions and the inlet feed reaches almost the equilibrium condition provided that a sufficient gas residence time is obtained.

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I Homolog Mediates Antiviral RNA Interference Downstream of Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Viral Small Interfering RNAs

    Coffman, Stephanie R.; Lu, Jinfeng; Guo, Xunyang; Zhong, Jing; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Li, Wan-Xiang; Lu, Rui; Maduro, Morris


    ABSTRACT Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection. However, it remains unclear if DRH-1 acts analogously to initiate antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen to characterize antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy, we uncovered four loss-of-function alleles of drh-1, three of which caused mutations in the helicase and C-terminal domains conserved in RLRs. Deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed an abundant population of Dicer-dependent virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in drh-1 single and double mutant animals after infection with Orsay virus, a positive-strand RNA virus. These findings provide further genetic evidence for the antiviral function of DRH-1 and illustrate that DRH-1 is not essential for the sensing and Dicer-mediated processing of the viral dsRNA replicative intermediates. Interestingly, vsiRNAs produced by drh-1 mutants were mapped overwhelmingly to the terminal regions of the viral genomic RNAs, in contrast to random distribution of vsiRNA hot spots when DRH-1 is functional. As RIG-I translocates on long dsRNA and DRH-1 exists in a complex with Dicer, we propose that DRH-1 facilitates the biogenesis of vsiRNAs in nematodes by catalyzing translocation of the Dicer complex on the viral long dsRNA precursors. PMID:28325765

  14. 跨输送带履带钻机研制与应用%Application and Development of Track-Mounted Drilling Rig with Acrossing Transportation Belt

    邬迪; 姚克; 陈亮


    According to the different problems which had encountered in boring construction,such as taking a long time to azimuth angle adjustment,movement and persistent,great labour intensity,low working efficiency,the authors studied these problems using modular design method then track-mounted drilling rig with the effect of acrossing transportation belt had been designed. The industrial test showed that the rig had many merits such as large adjustable range of inclination,depression angle and azimuth angle,the ability of working in the construction condition of stride across transportation belt and short auxiliary time of construction.Therefore,it was suitable for working with high efficiently in the special gateway condition,such as haulage roadway.%针对钻孔施工中遇到的钻机方位角调整、移动、稳固等辅助工作占用时间长、劳动强度大、综合钻进效率低等问题,在现有履带钻机的基础上,采用模块化设计方法,对钻机整体布置方式、钻机方位角调节方式、钻机快速稳固方式等进行研究,设计了具有跨输送带功能的履带钻机。工业性试验表明,钻机具有跨输送带施工功能,移动稳固辅助时间短,方位角调节方便,适合在运输巷等特殊巷道条件下高效工作。

  15. Mobile Digital Recording: Adequacy of the iRig and iOS Device for Acoustic and Perceptual Analysis of Normal Voice.

    Oliveira, Gisele; Fava, Gaetano; Baglione, Melody; Pimpinella, Michael


    To determine whether the iRig and iOS device recording system is comparable with a standard computer recording system for digital voice recording. Thirty-seven vocally healthy adults, between ages 20 and 62, with a mean age of 33.9 years, 13 males and 24 females, were recruited. Recordings were simultaneously digitalized in an iPad and iPhone using a unidirectional condenser microphone for smartphones/tablets (iRig Mic, IK Multimedia) and in a computer laptop (Dell-Inspiron) using a unidirectional condenser microphone (Samson-CL5) connected to a preamplifier with phantom power. Both microphones were lined up at an equal fixed distance from the subject's mouth. Speech tasks consisted of a sustained vowel "ah" at comfortable pitch/loudness, counting from 1 to 10, and a glissando "ah" from a low to a high note. The samples captured on the iOS devices were transferred via SoundCloud in WAV format, and analyzed using the Praat software. The acoustic parameters measured were mean, min, and max F0, SD F0, jitter local, jitter rap, jitter ppq5, jitter ddp, shimmer local, shimmer local-dB, shimmer apq3, shimmer apq5, shimmer apq11, shimmer dda, NHR, and HNR. There were no statistically significant differences for any parameter and speech task analyzed for both iOS devices as compared with the gold standard computer/preamp system (all P values > 0.050). In addition, there were no statistical differences in the perceptual identification of the recordings among devices (P device may provide reliable digital recording of normal voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RIG-I Helicase-Independent Pathway in Sendai Virus-Activated Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Preventing Lung Metastasis of AT6.3 Prostate Cancer

    Tomonori Kato


    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV, and proposed a new concept, “immunostimulatory virotherapy,” for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the efficacies of thismethod: 1 inmore clinically relevant situations including metastatic diseases, 2 on other tumor types and other animal species, and 3 on the related molecular/cellular mechanisms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the efficacy of vaccinating DCs activated by fusion gene-deleted nontransmissible rSeV on a rat model of lung metastasis using a highly malignant subline of Dunning R-3327 prostate cancer, AT6.3. rSeV/dF-green fluorescent protein (GFP-activated bone marrow-derived DCs (rSeV/dF-GFP-DC, consistent with results previously observed in murine DCs. Vaccination of rSeV/dF-GFP-DC was highly effective at preventing lung metastasis after intravenous loading of R-3327 tumor cells, compared with the effects observed with immature DCs or lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs. Interestingly, neither CTL activity nor DC trafficking showed any apparent difference among groups. Notably, rSeV/dF-DCs expressing a dominant-negative mutant of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I (rSeV/dF-RIGIC-DC, an RNA helicase that recognizes the rSeV genome for inducing type I interferons, largely lost the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without any impairment of antitumor activity. These results indicate the essential role of RIG-I-independent signaling on antimetastatic effect induced by rSeV-activated DCs and may provide important insights to DC-based immunotherapy for advanced malignancies.

  17. Modification of Bushing Test Rig and Research of Variable Inlet Guide Vane Bushings For Further Development of PM304 Bushings

    Yanke, Anne


    PS304 is a high temperature solid lubricant coating comprised of a nickel-chrome binder, chrome oxide hardener, barium-calcium fluoride high temperature lubricant, and silver as the low temperature lubricant. This coating is used to lubricate Oil-Free Foil Air Bearings as they experience friction and wear during start up and shut down. The coating deposition process begins with undercutting the shaft. This area is then sandblasted to provide a rough surface for the coating to adhere to. The coating powder is then sent through the plasma spray gun and a reasonably thick layer is applied to the undercut area of the shaft. The coating is then ground down even with the surface of the shaft and gets a nice polished finish. The foil air bearings use the solid lubricant, as mentioned above, during start up and shut down. During normal operating conditions, generally above 2000RPM, the bearings utilize air as their lubricant. Foil air bearings are comprised of a thin top foil and a corrugated bump foil. They have an interference fit with the shaft before operation. As the air gets "trapped" between the top foil and the shaft, it presses the top foil against the bump foil, in turn compressing the bumps. As the bumps compress, it allows for the air to separate the top foil from the shaft, therefore, utilizing the trapped air as its lubricant.

  18. Applied mechanics of solids

    Bower, Allan F


    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  19. Multifunctional solid/solid phononic crystal

    Swinteck, N.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A. C.; Croënne, C.; Bringuier, S.; Deymier, P. A.


    A two-dimensional, solid/solid phononic crystal (PC) comprised a square array of steel cylinders in epoxy is shown to perform a variety of spectral, wave vector, and phase-space functions. Over a range of operating frequencies, the PC's elastic band structure shows uniquely shaped equifrequency contours that are only accessible to excitations of longitudinal polarization. Under this condition, the PC is shown to behave as (1) an acoustic wave collimator, (2) a defect-less wave guide, (3) a directional source for elastic waves, (4) an acoustic beam splitter, (5) a phase-control device, and (6) a k-space multiplexer. Wave vector diagrams and finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to authenticate the above mentioned capabilities.

  20. Low-Dimensional Solids

    Bruce, Duncan W; O'Hare, Dermot


    With physical properties that often may not be described by the transposition of physical laws from 3D space across to 2D or even 1D space, low-dimensional solids exhibit a high degree of anisotropy in the spatial distribution of their chemical bonds. This means that they can demonstrate new phenomena such as charge-density waves and can display nanoparticulate (0D), fibrous (1D) and lamellar (2D) morphologies. Low-Dimensional Solids presents some of the most recent research into the synthesis and properties of these solids and covers: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles; Inorganic Nanotubes and Nanowir

  1. Applications in solid mechanics

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.


    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  2. Solid propellant motor

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)


    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  3. The solid state maser

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D


    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    Nemova, Galina


    Parallel to advances in laser cooling of atoms and ions in dilute gas phase, which has progressed immensely, resulting in physics Nobel prizes in 1997 and 2001, major progress has recently been made in laser cooling of solids. I compare the physical nature of the laser cooling of atoms and ions with that of the laser cooling of solids. I point out all advantages of this new and very promising area of laser physics. Laser cooling of solids (optical refrigeration) at the present time can be lar...

  5. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Hershaft, Alex


    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.


    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  8. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  9. Gases, liquids and solids

    Tabor, David


    It has been tradional to treat gases, liquids and solids as if they were completely unrelated material. However, this book shows that many of their bulk properties can been explained in terms of intermolecular forces.

  10. Solid model design simplification

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.


    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  11. Organic Molecular Solids

    Schwoerer, Marcus


    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  12. Solid State Research


    intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model . The solid line is a fit of RsM = a + b(f,T)Hrf 2 to the results in the Meissner region...model the results: low-field weak links, intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model The solid line is a fit of R1 M-- a + b (f T) Hff

  13. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin


    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  14. Solid Mathematical Marbling.

    Lu, Shufang; Jin, Xiaogang; Jaffer, Aubrey; Gao, Fei; Mao, Xiaoyang


    Years of research have been devoted to computer-generated two-dimensional marbling. However, three-dimensional marbling has yet to be explored. In this paper, we present mathematical marbling of three-dimensional solids which supports a compact random-access vector representation. Our solid marbling textures are created by composing closed-form 3D pattern tool functions. These tool functions are an injection function and five deformation functions. The injection function is used to generate basic patterns, and the deformation functions are responsible for transforming the basic pattern into complex marbling effects. The resulting representation is feature preserving and resolution-independent. Our approach can render high-quality images preserving both the sharp features and the smooth color variations of a solid texture. When implemented on the GPU, our representation enables efficient color evaluation during the real-time solid marbling texture mapping. The color of a point in the volume space is computed by the 3D pattern tool functions from its coordinates. Our method consumes very little memory because only the mathematical functions and their corresponding parameters are stored. In addition, we develop an intuitive user interface and a genetic algorithm to facilitate the solid marbling texture authoring process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through various solid marbling textures and 3D objects carved from them.

  15. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga


    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  16. Mini-CORK observatories using the MeBo seafloor drill rig - a new development for long-term data acquisition and sampling in shallow boreholes

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Renken, J.; Zabel, M.; Wefer, G.


    State of the art technology for long-term monitoring of fluid migration within the sea floor is the sealing of a borehole with a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) after sensor installation and/or fluid sampling devices within the drill string. However, the combined used of a drilling vessels and a remotely operated drilling (ROV) required for a CORK installation in the deep sea is a costly exercise that limits the number of monitoring stations installed. Robotic sea floor drill rigs are a cost effective alternative for shallow drillings down to 50-100 m below sea floor. Here we present a Mini-CORK system that is developed for installation with the sea floor drill rig MeBo. This rig was developed at MARUM Research Centre, University of Bremen in 2005 and can sample the sea floor in water depths up to 2000 m. The MeBo is deployed on the seabed and remotely controlled from the vessel. All required drill tools for wire-line core drilling down to 70 m below sea floor are stored on two rotating magazines and can be loaded below the top drive drill head for assembling the drill string. For one of the upcoming cruises with RV Sonne offshore Japan (Nankai Trough accretionary prism), MeBo will be used for the first time to place observatories. Two different designs have been developed. The first, relatively simple long-term device resembles a MeBo drill rod in its geometry, and contains a pressure and temperature transducer in the borehole plus an identical pair of transducers for seafloor reference. The device also contains a data logger, battery unit, and an acoustic modem so that data can be downloaded at any time from a ship of opportunity. The key element at the base of the observatory rod is a seal at the conical thread to separate the borehole hydraulically from the overlying water body. It is realized by an adapter, which also contains a hotstab hydraulic connection and an electrical connection. The second observatory device is a seafloor unit, which replaces

  17. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.


    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  18. 岩心钻机提下钻机械手的液压系统设计%Design of Hydraulics System for Hoisting and Lowering Manipulator of Core Drill Rig



    分析岩心钻机提下钻工艺,确定了机械手在提下钻工作中的任务和具体的动作顺序,设计了提下钻机械手的液压系统,对自动化、智能化岩心钻机的发展与应用具有一定的意义。%The process of core drill rig hoist and lower drill pipe was analyzed. The task and specific actions in order of manipula-tor in the hoisting and lowering process were determined. Then the hydraulics system for hoisting and lowering manipulator was de-signed. The research has certain value for development and application of automatic and intelligent core drill rig.

  19. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.


    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  20. Crawler mud pump truck for drill rig used in coal mine and application%煤矿坑道钻机用履带式泥浆泵车及其应用

    李栋; 姚克; 张占强; 方鹏; 许超


    Underground rig is the main equipment for gas extraction in coal mine, mud pump is a necessity for drill rig. The research and manufacture of the crawler mud pump truck BLY 260/9 will make the underground drill rig relocate conveniently and operate safely, and also make the corollary equipment highly integrated. This kind of mud pump truck adopts crawler structure and integrates accessory devices on a platform which features the independent power to guarantee the walking. The field tests in Chengzhuang mine and Sihe mine of Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group show that the matching of mud pump truck and tunnel drilling rig, especially for directional drilling, has dvanced and reliable technology solutions, good effect in drilling gas drainage borehole, can provide an effective solution for drilling equipment configuration.%为实现煤矿坑道钻机钻进时搬迁便捷、作业安全、配套设备高度集成化,研制了煤矿坑道钻机用BLY 260/9型履带式泥浆泵车。泵车采用整体履带式结构,将钻机配套用附属装置集成到有动力、可自主行走的履带平台上。在晋煤集团成庄矿和寺河矿的现场试验表明,泥浆泵车配套坑道钻机尤其是定向钻机,技术方案先进可靠,瓦斯抽采钻孔施工效果良好,为煤矿坑道钻机的设备配置提供了一种有效的解决方法。

  1. 石油钻机司钻房 HVAC 系统设计与分析%System Design and Analysis of HVAC System Design and Analysis of Driller Roon in Oil Rig

    樊春明; 孔美虹; 韩俊; 张文英; 王长怀; 李永国


    介绍了石油钻机司钻房HVAC系统组成、工作原理、关键参数确定和主要部件设计及选型。%It introduces the composition, working theory, determination of key parameters, de-sign and selection of the main components of HVAC system of driller roon in oil rig .

  2. ZDY6000LD(B) full hydraulic truck-mounted tunnel drilling rig%ZDY6000LD(B)履带式全液压坑道钻机



    In order to meet the high requirements of integral drill rig, all hydraulic track rig ZDY6000LD(B) is developed and produced by using new structure and new technology as well as new industrial design. The configuration of the rig is compact and reasonable, its structure is new, its maneuverability is strong, it can move fast and conveniently, its drilling efficiency is high, its technological adaptability is strong. It can drill gas drainage borehole through layers and along layers, borehole for water detection and drainage as well as borehole for grouting in floor. The paper introduced the main technical specifications, structure, characteristics of hydraulic system, drilling test of the rig.%为满足煤矿对整体式钻机提出的更高要求,采用新技术和工业设计方法,研制出ZDY6000LD(B)履带式全液压坑道钻机。该钻机布局紧凑合理,结构新颖,机动性强,井下移动快捷方便,钻进效率高,工艺适应性强,可用于瓦斯抽采穿层钻孔、瓦斯抽采顺层钻孔和探放水以及底板注浆等钻孔施工。介绍了该钻机的主要技术参数、钻机结构、液压系统与型式试验。

  3. Apoptosis, Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like Receptors Are Pathways Jointly Induced by Diverse Respiratory Bacterial and Viral Pathogens

    Martínez, Isidoro; Oliveros, Juan C.; Cuesta, Isabel; de la Barrera, Jorge; Ausina, Vicente; Casals, Cristina; de Lorenzo, Alba; García, Ernesto; García-Fojeda, Belén; Garmendia, Junkal; González-Nicolau, Mar; Lacoma, Alicia; Menéndez, Margarita; Moranta, David; Nieto, Amelia; Ortín, Juan; Pérez-González, Alicia; Prat, Cristina; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; Regueiro, Verónica; Rodriguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Solís, Dolores; Yuste, José; Bengoechea, José A.; Melero, José A.


    Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health. Cells were also activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototypical pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Patterns of differentially expressed cellular genes shared by the indicated pathogens were searched by microarray analysis. Most of the commonly up-regulated host genes were related to the innate immune response and/or apoptosis, with Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors among the top 10 signaling pathways with over-expressed genes. These results identify new potential broad-spectrum targets to fight the important human infections caused by the bacteria and viruses studied here. PMID:28298903

  4. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement (1,2). This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle...... strength and Leg Extensor Power Rig (LEPR) is a tool for measuring muscle power. OBJECTIVES: To test the inter-tester reliability of the HHD in hip abduction and the LEPR in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) patients. METHODS: Two groups each consisting 20 subjects were included. Mean age was 68.4 years. All...... the two testers (p=0.62) and the two tests (0.14); ICC=0.91 (95% CI: 0.79;0.96); LOA=±34Watt. CONCLUSION: The relative reliability was acceptable for both HHD and LEPR. The absolute reliability showed that a change in the muscle strength/power above 18 Newton or 34 Watt can be counted as a real change...

  5. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Mikkelsen, Søren Søndergaard

    Background: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement. This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle strength...... and Leg Extensor Power Rig (LEPR) is a tool for measuring muscle power. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the inter-tester reliability of the HHD and the LEPR in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) patients. Materials and Methods: Two groups each consisting 20 subjects were included. Mean age was 68.4 years. All...... between the two testers (p=0.62) and the two tests (0.14); ICC=0.91 (95% CI: 0.79;0.96); LOA=±34Watt. Conclusions: The relative reliability was acceptable for both HHD and LEPR. The absolute reliability showed that a change in the muscle strength/power above 18 Newton or 34 Watt can be counted as a real...

  6. The Basic Design of the Fire and Gas System for Workover Rig%海洋平台修井机火气系统基本设计

    邓忠彬; 罗小昌; 李浩; 彭程; 吴群英


    为实现修井机发生火灾或气体泄漏时,系统能发出报警信号,及时关闭相关电源和暖通设备,启动消防设备进行相关处置,同时与平台中控火气盘进行通讯、显示并进行相应处理,开发火气系统,基本设计包含对火气系统的组成、功能和接口进行相应的规定,对修井机火气系统在海洋石油钻井平台上推广使用提出相应的建议.%When fire accident or gas leakage happens, the alarm system will discrete sampling, turn of the related power source, heating and ventilation device.It will also contact with the fire control panel of the platform and start the fire control ap-paratus to deal with the accident.The basic design of fire and gas system includes basic provisions of composing, function and connector of the system.The working principle and basic design of the fire and gas system is introduced, and some suggestions a-bout promoting the use of the fire and gas system of the workover rig on the offshore oil drilling platform are put forward.

  7. Control of a flexible rotor active magnetic bearing test rig:a characteristic model based all-coefficient adaptive control approach

    Long DI; Zongli LIN


    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have found a wide range of applications in high-speed rotating machinery industry. The instability and nonlinearity of AMBs make controller designs difficult, and when AMBs are coupled with a flexible rotor, the resulting complex dynamics make the problems of stabilization and disturbance rejection, which are critical for a stable and smooth operation of the rotor AMB system, even more difficult. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control dominates the current AMB applications in the field. Even though PID controllers are easy to implement, there are critical performance limitations associated with them that prevent the more advanced applications of AMBs, which usually require stronger robustness and performance offered by modern control methods such as H-infinity control andμ-synthesis. However, these advanced control designs rely heavily on the relatively accurate plant models and uncertainty characterizations, which are sometimes difficult to obtain. In this paper, we explore and report on the use of the characteristic model based all-coefficient adaptive control method to stabilize a flexible rotor AMB test rig. In spite of the simple structure of such a characteristic model based all-coefficient adaptive controller, both simulation and experimental results show its strong performance.

  8. HSCARG negatively regulates the cellular antiviral RIG-I like receptor signaling pathway by inhibiting TRAF3 ubiquitination via recruiting OTUB1.

    Yanyan Peng


    Full Text Available RIG-I like receptors (RLRs recognize cytosolic viral RNA and initiate innate immunity; they increase the production of type I interferon (IFN and the transcription of a series of antiviral genes to protect the host organism. Accurate regulation of the RLR pathway is important for avoiding tissue injury induced by excessive immune response. HSCARG is a newly reported negative regulator of NF-κB. Here we demonstrated that HSCARG participates in innate immunity. HSCARG inhibited the cellular antiviral response in an NF-κB independent manner, whereas deficiency of HSCARG had an opposite effect. After viral infection, HSCARG interacted with tumor necrosis receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3 and inhibited its ubiquitination by promoting the recruitment of OTUB1 to TRAF3. Knockout of HSCARG attenuated the de-ubiquitination of TRAF3 by OTUB1, and knockdown of OTUB1 abolished the effect of HSCARG. HSCARG also interacted with Ikappa-B kinase epsilon (IKKε after viral infection and impaired the association between TRAF3 and IKKε, which further decreased the phosphorylation of IKKε and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3, thus suppressed the dimerization and nuclear translocation of IRF3. Moreover, knockdown of TRAF3 dampened the inhibitory effect of IFN-β transcription by HSCARG, suggesting that TRAF3 is necessary for HSCARG to down-regulate RLR pathway. This study demonstrated that HSCARG is a negative regulator that enables balanced antiviral innate immunity.

  9. Improvement of Brake System of XJ-650 Workover Rig%XJ-650型修井机绞车制动系统改进



    The working principle of hydraulic disc brake system of the hydraulic disc brake system is described in this paper.The problem of the existence of the pneumatic control belt brake for the XJ-650 type of the well is put forward.The hydraulic disc brake system of the workover rig is a-dapted for technological reformation,which is suitable for workover operation in deep and com-plex well conditions,and the construction of the labor intensity is decreased,security is obviously enhanced.%简述了修井机液压盘式刹车系统的工作原理。指出现有 XJ-650型修井机的气控带式刹车存在的问题。采用液压盘式刹车系统对该修井机进行技术改造,适应深井、复杂工况井等修井作业要求,并且使施工的劳动强度下降,安全性明显增强。

  10. Acting nasty in the face of failure? Longitudinal observations of "hard-to-manage" children playing a rigged competitive game with a friend.

    Hughes, C; Cutting, A L; Dunn, J


    Peer problems are almost universal among children with disruptive behavior disorders, and have been linked to social information processing deficits that lead to heightened threat responses. This 2-year longitudinal study uses direct observations to examine the real-life significance of this finding. Forty "hard-to-manage" children and 40 typically developing control children were filmed at ages 5 and 7 playing a rigged competitive game in which they experienced a clear threat of losing. Group differences in negative behavior (hard-to-manage > controls) were stable over time and independent of verbal ability. Predictors of individual differences in negative behavior were also examined. Previous studies with this sample have shown that at 4 years of age, the hard-to-manage children displayed elevated frequencies of violent pretend play, coupled with poor performance on tests of executive function and theory of mind. In this study, 4-year-olds whose pretend play indicated a preoccupation with violence were more likely to respond negatively to the threat of losing a competitive game at age 5 and at age 7. Four-year-olds who performed poorly on tests of theory of mind and executive function showed higher rates of negative behavior at age 5 but not age 7. These findings highlight just a few of the multiple paths leading to peer problems among children with disruptive behavior problems.

  11. Solid phases of tenoxicam.

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Leza, María G; Bachiller, Carmen M


    In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of four polymorphic forms of tenoxicam; they are, three 1:1 stoichiometric solvates with acetonitrile, dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and an amorphous phase obtained by recrystallization in various solvents. Polymorph IV and solvates with dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide are reported for the first time in this paper. In addition, three solvates were crystallized in acetone, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl alcohol. These solid forms were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, optical microscopy, and elemental analysis. Solid-state properties, intrinsic dissolution rate, and dissolution kinetics from formulated tablets are also provided.

  12. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    Matsuura, T


    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  13. Optical properties of solids

    Wooten, Frederick


    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  14. Solid-state circuits

    Pridham, G J


    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  15. Solid state theory

    Harrison, Walter A


    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  16. Hybrid elastic solids

    Lai, Yun


    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton tunneling in solids

    Kondo, J.


    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  18. Local Solid Shape

    Jan Koenderink


    Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  19. Solid State Research


    width at half-maximum measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb substrates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from...Rowe N. R. Newbury A. Sanchez-Rubio C. A. Primmerman Bermuda Grass Smut Spores WhitET 0 12 3 4 5 6 Ratio (PMT1 / PMT2) Figure 1-4...measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb sub- strates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from [10]. [9],[10

  20. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    Ertl, Gerhard


    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  1. SolidWorks : opetuspaketti

    Myllymäki, Vesa


    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia tehdä opetusvideoita SolidWorks -ohjelman käyttämisestä. Tähän tarkoitukseen löydettiin menetelmään sopiva ohjelma, CamStudio, jota sitten sovellettiin käytännössä. Camstudio ja SolidWorks ohjelmia hyödyntäen luotiin videoita kolmiulotteisista mallinnusprosesseista. Menetelmä toimi, mutta sen käyttökelpoisuuteen liittyi ongelmia. Videoden laatu on heikko, mutta sen parantaminen merkitsisi suurempaa tiedostokokoa, mikä voi tuottaa tietokantaongelmia. ...

  2. A drilling parameter detection method based on hydraulic top-driving rig%一种基于全液压动力头钻机的钻进参数检测方法

    邵春; 张杰; 鄢泰宁


    针对与深孔钻机相配套的钻进参数检测仪(钻参仪)滞后发展的问题,提出一种适合全液压动力头钻机的全面钻进参数检测方法,并对钻具悬重、钻压、功率、扭矩、孔深、机械钻速、流量等主要钻进参数的检测机理进行了阐述。利用此方法,开发出了一套全液压动力头钻机高精度钻参仪系统,野外应用表明,提出的检测方法切实可行。%Aiming at the delayed development of drilling parameter detector for long range drilling rigs, the paper put forward a drilling parameter detection method suitable to drilling by hydraulic top-driving rig, described the detection mechanism of the main drilling parameters such as tool weight, weigh on bit, power, torque, hole depth, penetrating rate and flow. Based on the method, a set of drilling parameter detection system for hydraulic top-driving rig has been developed. The results of field application showed that the proposed detection method is feasible.

  3. Solid state physics

    Brewster, Hilary D


    Solid state physics is an exhaustive introductory text for the students of physics. Keeping in mind, this book has been prepared to present the subject-matter in an easily understandable way without sacrificing the essential details and principles an yet avoiding redundant matter and unnecessary complications. This book is expected to meet adequately the need of the students for whom it is meant.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell


    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  5. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  6. Solid-phase microextraction

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  7. Local solid shape

    Koenderink, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan


    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is cate

  8. Solid-State Devices.

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell


    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  10. Solid-Waste Management

    Science Teacher, 1973


    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  11. Physical properties of solids

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.


    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  12. Luminescence and the solid state

    Ropp, Richard C


    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  13. M-Solidity Testing Systems

    K. Denecke; S.L. Wismath


    A set S of hypersubstitutions is called an M-solidity testing system for a class of varieties if it is possible to determine all M-solid varieties in the class using only the hypersubstitutions from S. If S is a minimal such set, we will call it an M-solidity basis for the class. In this paper, we relate solidity testing systems to the Galois connection between hypersubstitutions and varieties, and present a number of examples of solidity testing systems for several different types of varieties, including examples of the existence of finite M-solidity bases for various classes.

  14. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    Lombard, Matt


    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  15. MC90Y煤层气车载专用钻机液压控制系统%Research on the Hydraulic Control System for the Mcg0Y CBM Truck-mounted Rig

    纪友哲; 闵庆利; 王金宏


    To make a further improvement of the automation level of coal bed methane (CBM) drilling rig, reduce the driller operation to the minimum and improve the self-checking capacity of equipment, the MC90Y CBM truck-mounted drilling rig was developed. The rig adopts the electro-hydraulic control mode and centralized control of the PLC controller. The hiosting and rotating system uses the proportional volumetric pump for velocity regula- tion. The auxiliary system adopts the constant pressure variable displacement pump to supply power. The hoisting system adopts the balance valve loop design to achieve a smooth operation in positive load, negatiye load and varia- ble load. The handle orientation control is adopted to reduce the operating complexity of the driller. The operation of the hoisting and rotating system is optimized. The control system has the functions of self-check, monitoring and self-locking protection, improving the safety and protection capacity of the rig. The testing and the field application show that the drilling rig is simple in operation, desirable in control and smooth in operation.%为进一步提高煤层气钻机的自动化水平,尽量减少司钻的操作,提高设备自检能力,研制了MC90Y煤层气车载专用钻机。该钻机采用电液控制方式,PLC控制器集中控制,起升和旋转系统使用比例容积泵调速,辅助系统采用恒压变量泵提供动力;起升系统采用平衡阀回路设计,实现了正载荷、负载荷和变载荷情况下的平稳运行;采用手柄方位辨识控制,降低司钻的操作复杂性,优化起升和旋转系统的运行;控制系统具有自检、监测和自锁保护等功能,提高了钻机的安全保护能力。测试及现场应用结果表明,该钻机操作便捷,可控性好,运行平稳。

  16. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Cooke, Gary A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  17. The plasma-solid transition

    Celebonovic, V


    Using a criterion proposed by Salpeter and standard solid-state physics,we have determined conditions for the occurence of the plasma-solid transition.Possible astrophysical applications are discussed.

  18. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos



    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  19. An Analysis of Artificial Reef Fish Community Structure along the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Shelf: Potential Impacts of "Rigs-to-Reefs" Programs.

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Artificial structures are the dominant complex marine habitat type along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GOM shelf. These habitats can consist of a variety of materials, but in this region are primarily comprised of active and reefed oil and gas platforms. Despite being established for several decades, the fish communities inhabiting these structures remain poorly investigated. Between 2012 and 2013 we assessed fish communities at 15 sites using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs. Fish assemblages were quantified from standing platforms and an array of artificial reef types (Liberty Ships and partially removed or toppled platforms distributed over the Texas continental shelf. The depth gradient covered by the surveys (30-84 m and variability in structure density and relief also permitted analyses of the effects of these characteristics on fish richness, diversity, and assemblage composition. ROVs captured a variety of species inhabiting these reefs from large transient piscivores to small herbivorous reef fishes. While structure type and relief were shown to influence species richness and community structure, major trends in species composition were largely explained by the bottom depth where these structures occurred. We observed a shift in fish communities and relatively high diversity at approximately 60 m bottom depth, confirming trends observed in previous studies of standing platforms. This depth was also correlated with some of the largest Red Snapper captured on supplementary vertical longline surveys. Our work indicates that managers of artificial reefing programs (e.g., Rigs-to-Reefs in the GOM should carefully consider the ambient environmental conditions when designing reef sites. For the Texas continental shelf, reefing materials at a 50-60 m bottom depth can serve a dual purpose of enhancing diving experiences and providing the best potential habitat for relatively large Red Snapper.

  20. Acoustics of solids

    Beltzer, Abraham I


    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  1. Edge remap for solids

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  2. Thin Solid Oxide Cell


    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  3. Amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

    Vranić, Edina


    Amorphous forms are, by definition, non-crystalline materials which possess no long-range order. Their structure can be thought of as being similar to that of a frozen liquid with the thermal fluctuations present in a liquid frozen out, leaving only "static" structural disorder. The amorphous solids have always been an essential part of pharmaceutical research, but the current interest has been raised by two developments: a growing attention to pharmaceutical solids in general, especially polymorphs and solvates and a revived interest in the science of glasses and the glass transition. Amorphous substances may be formed both intentionally and unintentionally during normal pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The properties of amorphous materials can be exploited to improve the performance of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but these properties can also give rise to unwanted effects that need to be understood and managed in order for the systems to perform as required.

  4. Solid State Laser


    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  5. Fracture of brittle solids

    Lawn, Brian


    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  6. Thin Solid Oxide Cell


    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  7. Amorphous Solid Water:

    Wenzel, Jack; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Rice, Stuart A.


    The structure factor of amorphous solid D2O deposited from the vapor at 10°K has been obtained by measuring the neutron diffraction spectrum in the wave vector transfer from 0.8 to 12.3 reciprocal angstroms. The results indicate that the phase investigated is amorphous and has a liquiid-like stru......The structure factor of amorphous solid D2O deposited from the vapor at 10°K has been obtained by measuring the neutron diffraction spectrum in the wave vector transfer from 0.8 to 12.3 reciprocal angstroms. The results indicate that the phase investigated is amorphous and has a liquiid...

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Resources



    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  9. Solid waste handling

    Parazin, R.J.


    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  10. Solid-state memcapacitor

    Martinez, J; Di Ventra, M.; Pershin, Yu. V.


    We suggest a possible realization of a solid-state memory capacitive (memcapacitive) system. Our approach relies on the slow polarization rate of a medium between plates of a regular capacitor. To achieve this goal, we consider a multi-layer structure embedded in a capacitor. The multi-layer structure is formed by metallic layers separated by an insulator so that non-linear electronic transport (tunneling) between the layers can occur. The suggested memcapacitor shows hysteretic charge-voltag...

  11. Diffusion in nanocrystalline solids

    Chadwick, Alan V.


    Enhanced atomic migration was an early observation from experimental studies into nanocrystalline solids. This contribution presents an overview of the available diffusion data for simple metals and ionic materials in nanocrystalline form. It will be shown that enhanced diffusion can be interpreted in terms of atomic transport along the interfaces, which are comparable to grain boundaries in coarse-grained analogues. However, the method of sample preparation is seen to play a major role in...

  12. Solid state magnetism

    Crangle, John


    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  13. Interstellar Solid Hydrogen

    Lin, Ching Yeh; Walker, Mark A


    We consider the possibility that solid molecular hydrogen is present in interstellar space. If so cosmic-rays and energetic photons cause ionisation in the solid leading to the formation of H6+. This ion is not produced by gas-phase reactions and its radiative transitions therefore provide a signature of solid H2 in the astrophysical context. The vibrational transitions of H6+ are yet to be observed in the laboratory, but we have characterised them in a quantum-theoretical treatment of the molecule; our calculations include anharmonic corrections, which are large. Here we report on those calculations and compare our results with astronomical data. In addition to the H6+ isotopomer, we focus on the deuterated species (HD)3+ which is expected to dominate at low ionisation rates as a result of isotopic condensation reactions. We can reliably predict the frequencies of the fundamental bands for five modes of vibration. For (HD)3+ all of these are found to lie close to some of the strongest of the pervasive mid-in...

  14. Thermal Fluid-Solid Interaction Model and Experimental Validation for Hydrostatic Mechanical Face Seals

    HUANG Weifeng; LIAO Chuanjun; LIU Xiangfeng; SUO Shuangfu; LIU Ying; WANG Yuming


    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  15. Computer prediction system on solid/solid reaction kinetics


    A computer software system of kinetic predication of solid/solid reaction, KinPreSSR, was developed using Visual C++ and FoxPro. It includes two main modules, REACTION and DIFFUSION. KinPreSSR deals with the kinetics on the diffusion in solids as well as solid/solid reactions. The REACTION module in KinPreSSR was mainly described, which has organized the commonly recognized kinetic models, parameters, and employed both numerical and graphical methods for data analyses. The proper combination between the kinetic contents and the analytical methods enables users to use KinPreSSR for the evaluation and prediction of solid/solid reactions interested. As an example to show some of functions of KinPreSSR, the kinetics analysis for the reaction between SrCO3 and TiO2 powders to form SrTiO3 with a series of kinetic data from isothermal measurements was demonstrated.

  16. Measurements of solids concentration and axial solids velocity in gas-solid two-phase flows.

    Nieuwland, J.J.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.


    Several techniques reported in the literature for measuring solids concentration and solids velocity in (dense) gas-solid two-phase flow have been briefly reviewed. An optical measuring system, based on detection of light reflected by the suspended particles, has been developed to measure local soli

  17. Theory of Solid Surfaces.


    A~ —~ on 022 CAMBRIDGE UNIV (ENGLAND) CAVEND ISH LAB —. FIG 20/12 —“1THEORY OF SOLID SURFACES .(U) MAY 76 ~J C INKS ON, P W ANDERSON AF AFOSR...A~ D. ~ tLC .7~ ~~~~~~~ I In f or ~a t i oL O f f i c e r 111111 __________ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _________________ - -ii~ s ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Abstract

  18. Atomic mechanics of solids

    MacPherson, A K


    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  19. Solid medical waste

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius


    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar......-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins...

  20. Physics of solids

    Ketterson, John B


    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  1. Solid state physics

    Grosso, Giuseppe


    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  2. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Paquet, P.


    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  3. Solid state physics

    Burns, Gerald


    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  4. Solid phase transformations II

    Čermák, J


    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  5. Solid state devices


    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  6. Laser Cooling of Solids


    observed in a range of glasses and crystals doped with Yb3+ (ZBLANP [19–22], ZBLAN [23,24], CNBZn [9,25] BIG [25, 26], KGd(WO4)2 [9], KY(WO4)2 [9], YAG [27...Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN , Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007). [40] C. W. Hoyt, Laser Cooling in Thulium-doped Solids, Ph. D., optical refrigeration research has been confined to glasses and crystals doped with rare- earth elements and direct-band semiconductors such as

  7. Solid State Research.


    Diadiuk, M.C. Plonko. and D.L. Hovey (to be published in AppI . Phys. Lett., January 1985). 3. CA-f. Cox. III (unpublished). 4. D. Yap and L.M. Johnson... AppI . Opt. 23. 2991 (1984). 5. L.M. Johnson and D. Yap. AppI . Opt. 23. 2988 (1984). 6. Solid State Research Report. Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1983...drift current. 21. A. Carenco, L. Menegaux, and N.T. Lenh, Appi . Phys. Lett. 40, 653 (1982). 22. F.J. Leonberger, J.P. Donnelly, and C.O. Bozler

  8. Hopping transport in solids

    Pollak, M


    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  9. Solid phase transformations

    Čermák, J


    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  10. Theoretical approach of disc brake system optimum design for drilling rigs%钻机盘式刹车系统优化设计的理论探讨

    吕瑞典; 伍开松; 罗井泉


    The applied forces to braking disc and braking plier for discbrake system of drilling rigs are analyzed.Then the basic relationships of the consuming energy on the friction faces, forces and other factors are deduced.The expressions of energy transformation for disc brake system of drilling rigs are derived on the basis of the principle of energy conservation. By further analysis of the operating requirements of the disc brake system and main failure forms during braking periods, the theoretical curves of temperature change and consuming power changes are proposed.At case the optimum design model of the disc brake system for drilling rigs is established, and also some things related to the model are discussed.%分析了钻机盘式刹车系统中刹车盘和刹车钳的受力状态,导出了其受力和摩擦面上耗散功率等因素之间的基本关系式。根据能量守恒原理又推导了钻机盘式刹车系统的能量转换表达式。通过进一步分析盘式刹车系统的使用要求和刹车过程中失效的主要形式,提出了刹车盘摩擦表面温度变化的理想曲线和耗散功率变化的理想曲线。建立了钻机盘式刹车系统的优化设计模型,并进行了分析讨论。

  11. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo


    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  12. Offshore Platform Modular Drilling Rig Driller Control Room Layout Based on Humanized Design%基于人性化设计的海洋钻井平台司钻控制房布局



    Based on the survey of driller control room layout of the domestic and international offshore platform modular drilling rig (hereinafter referred to as modular drilling rig).The modular drilling rig driller control room layout problems in our country are pointed out,and the "people-oriented" design concept in industrial design are introduced into the design of offshore platform device.This paper puts forward the specific humanized design method,that is determine the users' cognition for driller operation by full investigation,and establish Chinese digital human model as the design basis to meet the need of human body physiology.And then according to the ergonomics theory and considering the human psychological cognition,determine the humanized operation space by means of computer-aided ergonomics design.This research lays the foundation for establishing the design specification of China-made modular drilling rig driller control room layout.%在对国内外海洋平台模块钻机(以下简称模块钻机)司钻控制房的布局调查基础上,指出我国模块钻机司钻控制房布置存在的问题,将工业设计中“以人为本”的设计理念引入海洋平台设备设计中.本文提出了具体的人性化设计方法,即对用户进行充分的调查以寻找用户对司钻操作的认知,建立中国数字人体模型作为满足人体生理需要的设计依据,根据人机工程学理论并考虑人的心理认知,通过计算机辅助人机设计确定人性化操作空间,为建立国产模块钻机司钻控制房布局设计规范奠定基础.

  13. 旋翼试验台传动系统振动分析与实验%Vibration analysis and experiment on transmission system of a rotor test rig

    苏勋文; 刘晋浩; 王少萍


    Transfer Matrix Method(TMM)was used to analyze the vibration characteristics of a helicopter test rig. The torsional vibration natural frequencies and the modal shapes were obtained.Each order natural frequency and the relationship between the lateral vibration and support stiffness of the test rig transmission were obtained.By experiment, vibrations in three directions were measured.After the rotor runs over the resonance of the test rig at a speed of 960 r/min,the test rig will run in a steady state for about 2~3 seconds and then the vibration goes to diverge.The frequency of the spindle speed leading to vibration divergence is just right the 1st order natural frequency of the lateral vibration.Based on the vibration analysis,it is concluded that the vibration divergence is related to the support stiffness of the transmission.Two methods for dealing with this malfunction were given.%利用传递矩阵方法分析直升机旋翼试验台传动系统振动特性。获得传动系统扭转振动模态及各阶模态振型、传动系统横向振动各阶固有频率及横向振动与试验台支撑刚度关系。实验测量旋翼试验台三向振动,旋翼转速经试验台共振区达960 r/min 并稳定运行2~3 s 后试验台振动发散,该回转频率对应横向振动一阶固有频率。经分析知振动发散与试验台主轴支撑刚度有关,并给出解决此类故障两种方法。

  14. When War Rigs the Vote

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt


    This paper investigates the effect of intrastate conflict on electoral manipulation. Using a rationalist bargaining model, it produces a hypothesis stating that actors in post-conflict elections will have increased incentive to reallocate seats through manipulation. To test this causal claim a new...... take on the regression discontinuity design is developed and applied to discontinuities in the seat shares of the largest parties in parliament in all of the world’s parliamentary elections from 1975 till 2010. The paper documents that while other covariates appear randomly distributed around the 50...... % seat threshold critical for obtaining absolute majority, the intensity of intrastate conflict before each election exhibits a large, positive jump right at the cut-off. This is interpreted as evidence of conflict having a substantial, manipulation-inducing effect on the largest parties in parliament...

  15. When War Rigs the Vote

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt


    take on the regression discontinuity design is developed and applied to discontinuities in the seat shares of the largest parties in parliament in all of the world’s parliamentary elections from 1975 till 2010. The paper documents that while other covariates appear randomly distributed around the 50...... – in the aftermath of war they tend to tamper with election results in order to gain absolute majority....

  16. Position sensitive solid state detectors

    Schnatterly, S.E.; Husk, D.


    Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described.

  17. A remote and autonomous continuous monitoring ultrasonic system for flood detection in sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs

    Mijarez-Castro, Rito


    This thesis presents a novel and autonomous continuous monitoring system for flood detection in the hollow sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs. The technique offers an alternative to underwater nondestructive testing methods based on ultrasound and x-rays, which have been used to detect the presence of seawater in these applications, often with divers or remote operating vehicles. The research consists of theoretical and experimental work necessary for the development of an integral system that can be used in new fixed offshore oil rig designs. The system employs a single piezoelectric transducer which can be permanently attached to the inner wall of every sub-sea structure and which is powered by a normally inert seawater battery. Upon activation, the sensor transmits ultrasonic chirp or tone encoded pulses in the range of 21 k Hz to 42 k Hz, to a monitoring system at deck level for decoding and identifying flooded members. Two approaches to the system were considered during the investigation, depending on the communication channel exploited. These were based on either using the seawater as a propagation medium or using the steel structure as a wave-guide. A system based on theoretical models was built and field experiments were conducted using a purpose built jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness. This structure was flooded by complete immersion in seawater. Results obtained using water as communication medium and a frequency in the order of 38 k Hz yielded an attenuation figure of 0.4 d B m{sub -}1 over 100 m, since losses were predominantly geometric. In contrast, using the tubular structure as a wave-guide and axis symmetric guided waves as the excitation, a gross attenuation figure of 1.3 d B m{sub -}1 was attained. In the straight parts of the structure, the attenuation ranged from 0.3 d B m{sub -} 1 to 0.6 d B m{sub -}1. The modes most likely to have been excited within the structure were L(0,5) - L(0

  18. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa


    Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..


    Revesz, A.


    From the analysis of optical properties of noncrystalline (nc) and the corresponding crystalline solids with predominantly covalent bonds a bonding order parameter, F, is derived. This parameter reveals differences between nc solids which are characterized by similar degree of short-range-order as, e.g., amorphous Si (F ≤ 0.8) and vitreous SiO2 (F ≈ 1). Both the optical and electrical properties indicate that, in contrast to amorphous solids, the electronic states in vitreous solids may remai...

  20. History of solid state batteries

    Owens, Boone B.; Munshi, M. Z.


    Historically, batteries have combined liquid electrolytes with solid electrodes because solid electrolytes were too resistive and could not accommodate the volumetric changes associated with the cell reactions. Solid materials utilized as battery electrolytes include: (1) simple ionic salts - silver iodide; (2) double salt compounds - rubidic silver iodide; (3) dispersed phase solid electrolytes - LiI (AL2)3); (4) ceramic compounds - Sodium - Beta - Al2)3; (5) in-situ formed electrolytes - Lithium iodide; (6) glasses - LiI-Li2S-P2S5; (7) polymer electrolytes - (PEO)8LiClO4). Commercialization has been limited because of performance and cost factors.

  1. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    Smart, Lesley E


    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  2. The electronic structures of solids

    Coles, B R


    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  3. Solid on liquid deposition

    Charmet, J., E-mail: jerome.charmet@he-arc.c [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Banakh, O.; Laux, E.; Graf, B.; Dias, F.; Dunand, A.; Keppner, H. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, G.; Textor, M. [BioInterface group, ETHZ, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, ETH Hoenggerberg HCI H 525 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Noell, W.; Rooij, N.F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Neels, A.; Dadras, M.; Dommann, A.; Knapp, H. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Rue Jacquet-Droz 1, 2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Borter, Ch.; Benkhaira, M. [COMELEC SA, Rue de la Paix 129, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)


    A process for the deposition of a solid layer onto a liquid is presented. The polymer poly-di-chloro-para-xylylene, also known as Parylene C, was grown on low vapour pressure liquids using the conventional low pressure chemical vapour deposition process. A reactor was built and a process developed to enable the deposition of Parylene C at atmospheric pressure over high vapour pressure liquids. It was used to deposit Parylene C over water among others. In all cases Parylene C encapsulated the liquid without influencing its initial shape. The results presented here show also that the Parylene C properties are not affected by its growth on liquid templates and the roughness of the Parylene C surface in contact with the liquid during the deposition is extremely low.

  4. Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Risø National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 °C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6A/cm2 with app. 30% H2 + 70% H2O in the inlet...... it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US$/kg H2 with an electricity price of 1.3 US¢/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test ofabout two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 °C, -0.5 A/cm2 with 50 vol% H2 the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h...

  5. Atomistic Properties of Solids

    Sirdeshmukh, Dinker B; Subhadra, K G


    The book deals with atomistic properties of solids which are determined by the crystal structure, interatomic forces and atomic displacements influenced by the effects of temperature, stress and electric fields. The book gives equal importance to experimental details and theory. There are full chapters dedicated to the tensor nature of physical properties, mechanical properties, lattice vibrations, crystal structure determination and ferroelectricity. The other crystalline states like nano-, poly-, liquid- and quasi crystals are discussed. Several new topics like nonlinear optics and the Rietveld method are presented in the book. The book lays emphasis on the role of symmetry in crystal properties. Comprehensiveness is the strength of the book; this allows users at different levels a choice of chapters according to their requirements.

  6. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  7. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.


    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  8. A solid fuel

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.


    A solid fuel is proposed which consists of cylindrical or prismatic pieces, whose surfaces (Pv) are equipped with greater than or equal to one channel, while the pieces themselves have greater than or equal to 1 through opening; the ratio of the total surface to the surface of the channels is within 95 to 5 to 60 to 40. The presence of the channels and the through openings facilitates the feeding of air to the surface of the fuel, providing in such a way, better ignition, the propagation of the flames and the completeness of combustion of the solid fuels based on carbonaceous materials. The optimal composition of the proposed fuel is: 70 to 95 percent carbonaceous base (coal, coke, charcoal, graphite, petroleum coke and so on), 1 to 25 percent desulfurizing additive (carbonate, hydroxide or nitrate of sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium, 0 to 15 percent combustion accelerator (oxidizers: nitrates of potassium and barium, potassium perchlorate, oxides of magnesium, iron or manganese, aluminum powder and so on), 0 to 10 percent forming additive (bentonite, talc, kaolin and so on) and 0.5 to 5 percent binder (pitch, resin, pulp, cement and so on). The optimal characteristics of the combustion process are reached at a weight of a single piece of fuel of approximately 20 grams, a seeming density of less than or equal to 1.3 grams per cubic centimeter, a cross section surface area of 25 to 1,600 square millimeters and a filling density with combustion of less than or equal to 0.8 grams per cubic centimeter.

  9. Solvent selection for solid-to-solid synthesis

    Ulijn, R.V.; Martin, de L.; Gardossi, L.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Moore, B.D.; Halling, P.J.


    Thermolysin catalyzed solid-to-solid synthesis of the model peptide Z-L-Phe-L-Leu-NH2 is practically feasible in water and a range of organic solvents with different physicochemical properties. Excellent overall conversions were obtained in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, 2-propanol

  10. Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals

    Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.


    Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.

  11. The application of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction%旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的应用



    以某跨河桥梁段施工为例,分析了该工程的施工技术难点,从测量放样、埋设护筒、泥浆制备等方面,介绍了旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的工艺流程,并探讨了施工中的注意事项,指出旋挖钻机与冲击钻机联合使用,缩短了工期,提高了工程效益。%Taking a across river bridge segment construction as an example,this paper analyzed the construction technical difficulties of the engi-neering,from the measuring lofting,embedding liners,slurry preparation and other aspects,introduced the process ofrotary drilling rig and per-cussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction,and discussed the matters needing attention in construction,pointed out that the combination use of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill,shortened the time limit for a project,improved the engineering benefit.

  12. On the Rig Electrical Control System Using DC Contactor Safety Improvements%浅析钻机电控系统直流接触器使用安全性能的改进



    针对石油钻机直流电控系统中使用的国产直流接触器,在系统正常运行时所出现的主触头温度过高等问题,提出改进方案或措施。电控系统的正常运行验证,国产直流接触器性能安全、使用效果好,为国产化直流接触器在石油钻机直流电控系统中的使用和推广奠定了基础。%Domestic oil rig DC DC contactor control system used during normal system operation occurs when the temperature is too high the main contacts and other issues,improve programs or measures submitted through normal operation to verify the electronic control system,and achieved good security,using the results for the localization of the oil rig in the DC contactors DC control system use and promotion of the foundation.

  13. Risk Prevention and Control on Installation of the Workover Rig%简论修井机安装使用中的风险防范与控制

    李小鹏; 张再生


    Workover rig and drifting machine are the most commonly equipment in underground work .Improper operation ,e‐quipment aging ,equipment defects and safety hazards cannot be eliminated in time ,which can cause equipment damage or person‐al injury .Taking the XJ750 workover rig as an example ,this paper discusses workover machine installation ,commissioning and operation procedures and specifications and risk prevention and control measures are also discussed .%修井机和通井机是井下作业中最常用的设备。操作不当、设备老化、设备缺陷和安全隐患不能及时消除,都会造成设备毁坏或人身伤亡。以X J750修井机为例,浅谈修井机安装、调试及作业的操作程序和规范,探讨存在的风险的防范和控制措施。

  14. Development of Multi-function Hydraulic Part Test Rig%某型飞机多功能液压部件特性测试装置的研制

    李生杰; 田剑波; 曹丹青; 王鸿鑫; 俞兴民


    针对某型飞机液压系统的研制,构建了基于阻燃磷酸酯基液压油的多功能液压部件特性测试装置,包括泵源部分、测试台架、测试控制系统等,可对飞机发动机驱动泵、电动泵、能源转换装置、伺服阀、液压作动筒等多种部件进行测试,装置与阻燃磷酸酯基液压油相容,实现了机电系统集成及自动化测试.%In qrder to fulfill the development requirement of some type of aircraft, a multi-function hydraulic part test rig was built, including pump system, test bench, test control system, etc. it could test aircraft engine-driven pumps, electric pumps, power transfer units, servo valves, hydraulic actuators and so on. This test rig has good compatibility with fire resistant phosphate ester oil, and it has realized automated test and good integration between mechanical and electrical systems.

  15. Scalability study of solid xenon

    Yoo, J; Jaskierny, W F; Markley, D; Pahlka, R B; Balakishiyeva, D; Saab, T; Filipenko, M


    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employed a cryostat cooled by liquid nitrogen combined with a xenon purification and chiller system. A modified {\\it Bridgeman's technique} reproduces a large scale optically transparent solid xenon.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;


    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  17. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    Jacob, J


    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  18. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  19. Scalability study of solid xenon

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.


    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employed a cryostat cooled by liquid nitrogen combined with a xenon purification and chiller system. A modified {\\it Bridgeman's technique} reproduces a large scale optically transparent solid xenon.

  20. Glass for Solid State Devices

    Bailey, R. F.


    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil


    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  2. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing


    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 °C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire.

  3. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  4. Sheared solid materials

    Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami


    We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.

  5. Advanced mechanics of solids

    Bruhns, Otto T


    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  6. Solid state research

    McWhorter, Alan L.


    The Solid State division of Lexington Lincoln Lab reports on its progress for this quarter. The areas of study are: Time Dye Laser Using Integrated Optics; GaP Microlenses by Mass Transport; A New OMVPE Reactor for Growth of InP and Related Alloys; Microchannel Heat Sinks for Two-Dimensional High Power-Density Diode Laser Arrays; Novel Scalloped-Mirror Diffraction-Coupled Laser Arrays; Three-Mirror Ti:Al2O3 Ring Laser Cavity; Femtosecond TiAl2O3 Injection-Seeded Laser; End-Pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgA11O19 Lasers; Single Frequency Mixing of Frequency Modulated Laser Radiation; Vertical Rotating Disk OMVPE Reactor; New Electron Beam Lithography System; Dry Etching Induced Damage on Vertical Sidewalls of GaAs Channels; Homoepitaxial Semiconducting Diamond; 420 X 420 CCD Frame Transfer Imager; Technique for Monolithically Integrating GaAs/AlGaAs Lasers of Different Wavelengths; Superconducting Thin Films of BiSrCaCuO; and Nb Thin Film Capacitors for Superconductive Circuits.

  7. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura


    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  8. Gasification of carbonaceous solids

    Coates, Ralph L.


    A process and apparatus for converting coal and other carbonaceous solids to an intermediate heating value fuel gas or to a synthesis gas. A stream of entrained pulverized coal is fed into the combustion stage of a three-stage gasifier along with a mixture of oxygen and steam at selected pressure and temperature. The products of the combustion stage pass into the second or quench stage where they are partially cooled and further reacted with water and/or steam. Ash is solidified into small particles and the formation of soot is suppressed by water/steam injections in the quench stage. The design of the quench stage prevents slag from solidifying on the walls. The products from the quench stage pass directly into a heat recovery stage where the products pass through the tube, or tubes, of a single-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger and steam is generated on the shell side and utilized for steam feed requirements of the process.

  9. Solid State Ultracapacitor

    Rolin, Terry D.


    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles. One area that NASA wishes to advance is energy storage and delivery. Currently, space vehicles use rechargeable batteries that utilize silver zinc or lithium ion electrochemical processes. These current state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries cannot be rapidly charged, contain harmful chemicals, and suffer from early wear-out mechanisms. A solid state ultracapacitor is an EEE part that offers significant advantages over current electrochemical and electrolytic devices. The objective of this research is to develop an internal barrier layer ultracapacitor (IBLC) using novel dielectric materials as a battery replacement with a focus on these advantages: longer life, lower mass-toweight ratio, rapid charging, on-demand pulse power, improved on-pad standby time without maintenance, and environmental friendliness. The approach is unique in two areas. A deposition technique is used that has been shown to produce a more uniformly coated nanoparticle than sol-gel, which has resulted in colossal permittivities. These particles are then distributed in an ink formulation developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and deposited utilizing a 3D aerosol jet technique. This additive manufacturing technique controls layer thickness, resulting in extremely large capacitance and energy density.

  10. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail:; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  11. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  12. Solid-solid transition of the size-polydisperse hard-sphere system

    Yang, Mingcheng; Ma, Hongru


    The solid-solid coexistence of a polydisperse hard sphere system is studied by using the Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that for large enough polydispersity the solid-solid coexistence state is more stable than the single-phase solid. The two coexisting solids have different composition distributions but the same crystal structure. Moreover, there is evidence that the solid-solid transition terminates in a critical point as in the case of the fluid-fluid transition.

  13. Friction and Wear Characteristics of a Modified Composite Solid Lubricant Plasma Spray Coating

    Stanford, M. K.; DellaCorte, C.


    LCR304 is a solid lubricant coating composed of Ni-10Cr, Cr2O3, BaF2-CaF2 and Ag and developed for dimensional stability in high temperature air. This coating is a modification of PS304, which differs in that the Ni-Cr constituent contains 20wt% Cr. The tribological characteristics of LCR304 were evaluated by pin-on-disk and foil air bearing rig testing from 25 to 650 C and compared to previous test results with PS304. For both tests, the friction coefficient decreased as temperature increased from 25 to 650 C. Wear generally decreased with increasing temperature for all pin-on-disk tests. LCR304 coated components produced the least wear of Inconel X-750 counterface materials at 427 and 650 C. These results indicate that the LCR304 coating has potential as a replacement for PS304 in, for example, low cycle (minimum wear) applications where dimensional stability is imperative.

  14. Solid tumor cytogenetics: current perspectives.

    Nanjangud, Gouri; Amarillo, Ina; Rao, P Nagesh


    Conventional cytogenetics in conjunction with Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) continues to remain an important and integral component in the diagnosis and management of solid tumors. The ability to effectively detect the vast majority of clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations with a rapid-to-acceptable turnaround time makes them the most cost-effective screening/detection tool currently available in modern pathology. In this review, we describe a representative set of solid tumors in which chromosomal analysis and/or FISH plays a significant role in the routine clinical management of solid tumors.

  15. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    Weiss, Richard J


    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  16. The Oxford solid state basics

    Simon, Steven H


    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  17. Vibration Analysis and Reduction of a Marine Diesel Engine in Rig Test%船用柴油机在台架试验中振动分析与减振优化

    张文春; 段树林; 张宇


    With the development of low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines in high power and lightweight direc-tion, the transverse vibration of the engines with long or super-long stroke and less cylinders becomes significant. Such a problem becomes considerably serious in rig tests. This article focused on the overlarge vibration of the 5S60ME_C marine diesel engine in the rig test. The transient load of the structural components was computed based on the multi-flexible-body dynamics. A dynamic finite element (FE) model was established and analyzed. Its results were compared with the measure-ment data in the testing. On this basis, the optimal design of the foundation of the test rig was done. The results show that the lateral resonance occurs at the 2nd order modal of H vibration mode, and the resonance can be avoided by adding diagonal braces to the foundation.%随着船用低速二冲程柴油机往大功率、轻量化方向发展,长冲程、超长冲程少缸数的机型横振问题逐渐暴露出来,而在台架试验中该问题尤为突出。针对5S60 ME_C船用柴油机在台架试验中出现的振动超标问题,在柔性多体动力学基础上计算出结构固定件受到的瞬态荷载,利用有限元方法建立模型进行动力学求解,对比试验数据得到准确的分析模型,并在此基础上对台架试验的基础座进行了优化设计。结果表明,柴油机在第2阶H型模态下发生横向共振,通过增加斜向支架能够避免柴油机在指定的测试工况下发生共振。

  18. 海洋平台钻机底座焊缝的交流电磁场检测%Detection of Critical Welds of Ocean Platform Drilling Rig Substructure Using Alternating Current Field Measurement Technique

    葛运春; 张翼; 冷建成; 周国强; 吴泽民


    A new method using alternating current field measurement(ACFM)has been proposed in order to nondestructively inspect the critical welds of the in-service offshore platform drilling rig substructure with coatings. The detection principle of ACFM method is first introduced and is compared and analyzed with other nondestructive testing methods for surface defects,including MT and ET.Based on the structural characteristics and the special working environment of the platform drilling rig substructure,the corresponding ACFM detection system is presented,which is applied successfully to test surface or sub-surface defects of the critical welds of the rig substructure,and the scanning methods and signal recognition for the longitudinal and transversal cracks are emphatically discussed.At last,the general process and detection procedure of engineering application using ACFM method are summarized systematically,providing a good reference for ACFM inspection of other engineering structures.%为了对带有涂层的在役海洋平台钻机底座焊缝进行检测,使用了交流电磁场(ACFM)检测方法。介绍了 ACFM 检测的基本原理,并与磁粉检测、涡流检测等表面缺陷检测方法进行了对比分析。基于平台底座结构及其所处环境的特点,确定了将 ACFM 检测系统成功应用于底座关键焊缝的表面或近表面缺陷检测,重点探讨了纵向裂纹和横向裂纹的 ACFM 扫描方法和信号识别。总结了 ACFM 现场工程应用的一般流程和检测程序,对其他工程结构的 ACFM 检测具有很好的借鉴意义。

  19. Design of electric control system of offshore drilling rig and its key technologies%海洋钻机电气控制系统设计及关键技术

    刘曙光; 蔡运恒; 贾晨辉; 陶亚敏


    针对海洋钻机作业过程中存在着送钻控制自动化程度低、缺乏柔性扭矩的预测与控制、软泵控制技术未实现工程化、海浪升沉补偿技术依赖进口等技术问题,根据海洋钻井平台的特殊作业环境和结构特点,给出了海洋钻机电气传动控制系统的基本构成,并以70DBF 电驱动钻机为例设计了海洋钻机的动力控制系统、传动控制系统和 PLC 网络控制系统。同时,对其关键技术,如自动送钻、软扭矩、软泵控制、谐波治理、主动升降补偿技术等进行讨论。实际运行结果显示,此电控系统运行可靠,可满足海上7000m 海洋钻机的生产需要。%In view of some technical problems existing in the process of offshore drilling opera -tions ,such as low degree of automation in drilling process ,lack of prediction and control of soft torque ,without soft pump control technology and the waves heave compensation technolo-gy ,according to the special working environment and structural characteristics of the marine drilling platform ,the basic construction of electric drive control system for offshore rigs is giv -en .Taking 70DBF electric drive rig as an example ,the designs of the control system ,drive control system of power and PLC netwok control system are also given .Besides ,the key tech-nology is discussed ,which includes auto-drilling ,soft torque , soft pump control , harmonic handling and active heave compensation .Results indicate that the electric control system per-forms well and meets the demand of 7 000m marine drilling rig production .

  20. Solid state physics at ISOLDE

    Deicher, M; Wichert, T


    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics and in materials science for decades. Besides their classical applications as tracers for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed gamma gamma angular correlation, beta -NMR, and emission channeling make use of nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted alpha or beta particles) to gain microscopic information on structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as clean ion beams at ISOL facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive to the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. This overview will browse through ongoing solid state physics experiments with radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. A wide variety of problems is under study, involving bulk properties, surfaces and interfaces in many different systems like semiconductors, superconduc...