Sample records for solid propellant mechanical

  1. Nonsteady Combustion Mechanisms of Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn


    .... The individual tasks which we are studying will pursue solid propellant decomposition under unsteady conditions, nonsteady aspects of gas phase flame structure measurements, numerical modeling...

  2. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.


    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  3. Effective Mechanical Property Estimation of Composite Solid Propellants Based on VCFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lei Shen


    Full Text Available A solid rocket motor is one of the critical components of solid missiles, and its life and reliability mostly depend on the mechanical behavior of a composite solid propellant (CSP. Effective mechanical properties are critical material constants to analyze the structural integrity of propellant grain. They are estimated by a numerical method that combines the Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM and the homogenization method in the present paper. The correctness of this combined method has been validated by comparing with a standard finite element method and conventional theoretical models. The effective modulus and the effective Poisson’s ratio of a CSP varying with volume fraction and component material properties are estimated. The result indicates that the variations of the volume fraction of inclusions and the properties of the matrix have obvious influences on the effective mechanical properties of a CSP. The microscopic numerical analysis method proposed in this paper can also be used to provide references for the design and the analysis of other large volume fraction composite materials.

  4. High burn rate solid composite propellants (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  5. Studies on Decomposition and Combustion Mechanism of Solid Fuel Rich Propellants (United States)


    thrust to cruise at supersonic speed. This was followed by the test of large diameter ramjet called burner test vehicle (BTV). Advanced low volume...propellant surface. Vernekar et al (43) found that in pressed AP-Al pellets , maximum burn rate is obtained at intermediate metal content. Jain et al...conjunction with high pressure window strand burner . They found that the propellant combustion was irregular and regression rate varied from 0.3 to 3

  6. Structure of Partially Premixed Flames and Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn


    The combustion of solid rocket propellants of advanced energetic materials involves a complex process of decomposition and condensed phase reactions in the solid propellant, gaseous flame reactions...

  7. Development of hydrazinium nitroformate based solid propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöyer, H.F.R.; Schnorhk, A.J.; Korting, P.A.O.G.; Lit, P.J. van; Mul, J.M.; Gadiot, G.; Meulenbrugge, J.J.


    The development of new high-performance propellant combinations requires the establishment of safety and handling characteristics and thermodynamic decomposition and explosive properties. This paper addresses the early development phases of a new composite solid propellant based on HNF as oxidizer

  8. Propellant selection for ramjets with solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, R H; Lips, H


    Ramjet propulsion using solid propellant for post-boost acceleration of missiles exhibits several favorable properties, brought about by heterogeneous combustion. A simplified theory for calculating the performance of possible propellants is presented, and they are classified with respect to maximum fuel-specific impulse. The optimal choice of fuel, from a system standpoint, must consider volume constraints, and defines the requirements for motor geometry.

  9. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  10. A novel kind of solid rocket propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, R.E. [Berlin University of Technology (Germany). Rocket Technology at the Aerospace Institute (ILR)


    Cryogenic Solid Propellants (CSPs) combine the simplicity of conventional solid propulsion with the high performance of liquid propulsion. By introducing materials that require cooling for remaining solid, CSPs offer an almost unlimited choice of propellant constituents that mights be selected with respect to specific impulse, density or environmental protection. The prize to be paid for these advantages is the necessity of constant cooling and the requirement of special design features that provide combustion control by moving from deflagration to hybrid like boundary layer combustion. This is achieved by building the solid propellant grains out of macroscopic elements rather than using the quasi homogeneous mixture of conventional composites. The elements may be coated, providing protection and support. Different elements may be designed for individual tasks and serve as modules for ignition, sustained combustion, gas generation, combustion efficiency enhancement, etc. Modular dissected grains offer many new ways of interaction inside the combustion chamber and new degrees of freedom for the designer of such `multiple internal hybrid grains`. At a preliminary level, a study finished in Germany 1997 demonstrated large payload gains when the US space Shuttle and the ARIANE 5 boosters were replaced by CSP-boosters. A very preliminary cost analysis resulted in development costs in the usual magnitude (but not in higher ones). Costs of operation were identified as crucial, but not established. Some experimental work in Germany is scheduled to begin in 1998, almost all details in this article (and many more that were not mentioned - most prominent cost analyses of CSP development and operations) wait for deeper analysis and verification. Actually, a whole new world new of world of chemical propulsion awaits exploration. The topic can be looked up and discussed at the web site of the Advanced Propulsion Workshop of the International Academy of Astronautics. The author

  11. Electric Propellant Solid Rocket Motor Thruster Results Enabling Small Satellites


    Koehler, Frederick; Langhenry, Mark; Summers, Matt; Villarreal, James; Villarreal, Thomas


    Raytheon Missile Systems has developed and tested true on/off/restart solid propellant thrusters which are controlled only by electrical current. This new patented class of energetic rocket propellant is safe, controllable and simple. The range of applications for this game changing technology includes attitude control systems and a safe alternative to higher impulse space satellite thrusters. Described herein are descriptions and performance data for several small electric propellant solid r...

  12. Crusader solid propellant best technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bader, G. [Fire Support Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Dolecki, M. [Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ (United States); Krupski, S. [Benet Weapons Lab., Watervliet Arsenal, NY (United States); Zangrando, R. [Close Combat Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)


    The goal of the Solid Propellant Resupply Team is to develop Crusader system concepts capable of automatically handling 155mm projectiles and Modular Artillery Charges (MACs) based on system requirements. The system encompasses all aspects of handling from initial input into a resupply vehicle (RSV) to the final loading into the breech of the self-propelled howitzer (SPH). The team, comprised of persons from military and other government organizations, developed concepts for the overall vehicles as well as their interior handling components. An intermediate review was conducted on those components, and revised concepts were completed in May 1995. A concept evaluation was conducted on the finalized concepts, from both a systems level and a component level. The team`s Best Technical Approach (BTA) concept was selected from that evaluation. Both vehicles in the BTA have a front-engine configuration with the crew situated behind the engine-low in the vehicles. The SPH concept utilizes an automated reload port at the rear of the vehicle, centered high. The RSV transfer boom will dock with this port to allow automated ammunition transfer. The SPH rearm system utilizes fully redundant dual loaders. Active magazines are used for both projectiles and MACs. The SPH also uses a nonconventional tilted ring turret configuration to maximize the available interior volume in the vehicle. This configuration can be rearmed at any elevation angle but only at 0{degree} azimuth. The RSV configuration is similar to that of the SPH. The RSV utilizes passive storage racks with a pick-and-place manipulator for handling the projectiles and active magazines for the MACs. A telescoping transfer boom extends out the front of the vehicle over the crew and engine.

  13. Integral performance optimum design for multistage solid propellant rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongtao (Shaanxi Power Machinery Institute (China))


    A mathematical model for integral performance optimization of multistage solid propellant rocket motors is presented. A calculation on a three-stage, volume-fixed, solid propellant rocket motor is used as an example. It is shown that the velocity at burnout of intermediate-range or long-range ballistic missile calculated using this model is four percent greater than that using the usual empirical method.

  14. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan


    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  15. Advanced technologies available for future solid propellant grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepenier, J. [SNPE Propulsion, St Medard en Jalles (France); Fonblanc, G. [SNPE Propulsion, Vert le Petit (France). Centre de Recherche de Bouchet


    Significant advances have been made during the last decade in several fields of solid propulsion: the advances have enabled new savings in the motor development phase and in recurring costs, because they help limit the number of prototypes and tests. The purpose of the paper is to describe the improvements achieved by SNPE in solid grain technologies, making these technologies available for new developments in more efficient and reliable future SRMs: new energetic molecules, new solid propellants, new processes for grain manufacturing, quick response grain design tools associated with advanced models for grain performance predictions. Using its expertise in chemical synthesis, SNPE develops new molecules to fit new energetic material requirements. Tests based on new propellant formulations have produced good results in the propellant performance/safety behavior ratio. New processes have been developed simultaneously to reduce the manufacturing costs of the new propellants. In addition, the grain design has been optimized by using the latest generation of predictive theoretical tools supported by a large data bank of experimental parameters resulting from over 30 years' experience in solid propulsion: computer-aided method for the preliminary grain design; advanced models for SRM operating and performance predictions. All these technologies are available for industrial applications in future developments of solid propellant grains. (author)

  16. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu


    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  17. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN


    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  18. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)


    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  19. Concept and performance study of turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shichang


    This study proposes a turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (TSPR) propulsion system that integrates a turbocharged system consisting of a solid propellant (SP) air turbo rocket (ATR) and the fuel-rich gas generator of a solid propellant ramjet (SPR). First, a suitable propellant scheme was determined for the TSPR. A solid hydrocarbon propellant is used to generate gas for driving the turbine, and a boron-based fuel-rich propellant is used to provide fuel-rich gas to the afterburner. An appropriate TSPR structure was also determined. The TSPR's thermodynamic cycle was analysed to prove its theoretical feasibility. The results showed that the TSPR's specific cycle power was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR and thermal efficiency was slightly less than that of SP-ATR. Overall, TSPR showed optimal performance in a wide flight envelope. The specific impulses and specific thrusts of TSPR, SP-ATR, and SPR in the flight envelope were calculated and compared. TSPR's flight envelope roughly overlapped that of SP-ATR, its specific impulse was larger than that of SP-ATR, and its specific thrust was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR. Attempts to improve the TSPR off-design performance prompted our proposal of a control plan for off-design codes in which both the turbocharger corrected speed and combustor excess gas coefficient are kept constant. An off-design performance model was established by analysing the TSPR working process. We concluded that TSPR with a constant corrected speed had wider flight envelope, higher thrust, and higher specific impulse than TSPR with a constant physical speed determined by calculating the performance of off-design TSPR codes under different control plans. The results of this study can provide a reference for further studies on TSPRs.

  20. Developments on HNF based high performance and green solid propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Vliet, L.D. van; Welland-Veltmans, W.H.M.; Ciucci, A.


    Worldwide developments are ongoing to develop new and more energetic composite solid propellant formulations for space transportation and military applications. Since the 90's, the use of HNF as a new high performance oxidiser is being reinvestigated. Within European development programmes,

  1. Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen


    area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.

  2. Burning properties and mechanical integrity of aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de


    Conventional gun propellants exhibit the phenomenon of nitrocellulose (NC) decomposition. Besides an effect on thermal stability of propellants, decomposition of NC has an effect on the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. Enhanced grain fracture may lead to unacceptable changes of the

  3. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta


    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  5. MEMS-Based Solid Propellant Rocket Array Thruster (United States)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Hosokawa, Ryuichiro; Tokudome, Shin-Ichiro; Hori, Keiichi; Saito, Hirobumi; Watanabe, Masashi; Esashi, Masayoshi

    The prototype of a solid propellant rocket array thruster for simple attitude control of a 10 kg class micro-spacecraft was completed and tested. The prototype has 10×10 φ0.8 mm solid propellant micro-rockets arrayed at a pitch of 1.2 mm on a 20×22 mm substrate. To realize such a dense array of micro-rockets, each ignition heater is powered from the backside of the thruster through an electrical feedthrough which passes along a propellant cylinder wall. Boron/potassium nitrate propellant (NAB) is used with/without lead rhodanide/potassium chlorate/nitrocellulose ignition aid (RK). Impulse thrust was measured by a pendulum method in air. Ignition required electric power of at least 3 4 W with RK and 4 6 W without RK. Measured impulse thrusts were from 2×10-5 Ns to 3×10-4 Ns after the calculation of compensation for air dumping.

  6. Specific Impulses Losses in Solid Propellant Rockets (United States)


    the solid we go back to the wall flux. Platinum film thermometric probes [77, 78], developed for somewhat similar problems, were used without succ...AS: E Paper 63-41A 207, 1964. [83) A.D. KIDEIR .A XU - J.A. CAHILL - The density of liquid aluminium oxide. J. Inovg. luc.. Chem. vol.14, no 3-4, p...IELLOR - I. GLL.ASIJ - Augo.nted ignition effi ciency for aluminium . Combustion Science rand Tcchnology, vol. I, p. 437, 1970. [90s EIJ. IJJ tBAU

  7. Longitudinal acoustic instabilities in slender solid propellant rockets : linear analysis


    García Schafer, Juan Esteban; Liñán Martínez, Amable


    To describe the acoustic instabilities in the combustion chambers of laterally burning solid propellant rockets the interaction of the mean flow with the acoustic waves is analysed, using multiple scale techniques, for realistic cases in which the combustion chamber is slender and the nozzle area is small compared with the cross-sectional area of the chamber. Associated with the longitudinal acoustic oscillations we find vorticity and entropy waves, with a wavelength typically small compared ...

  8. Working-cycle processes in solid-propellant rocket engines (Handbook). Rabochie protsessy v raketnykh dvigateliakh tverdogo topliva /Spravochnik/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkov, A.A.; Panin, S.D.; Rumiantsev, B.V.


    Physical and mathematical models of processes taking place in solid-propellant rocket engines and gas generators are presented in a systematic manner. The discussion covers the main types of solid propellants, the general design and principal components of solid-propellant rocket engines, the combustion of a solid-propellant charge, thermodynamic calculation of combustion and outflow processes, and analysis of gasdynamic processes in solid-propellant rocket engines. 40 refs.

  9. High-Pressure Burning Rate Studies of Solid Rocket Propellants (United States)


    monopropellant burning rate. The self-de§agration rates of neat AP are plotted in Fig. 2 for both pressed pellets and single crystals. There is agreement...rate data from various investigators: 1 ¡ [2]; pressed pellets : 2 ¡ [3], 3 ¡ [4], and 4 ¡ [2]; and single crystals: 5 ¡ [5], and 6 ¡ [6]. Line ¡ AP...7]. Strand or window burners have had more use in the solid propellant community. There are numerous types and styles of combustion vessels, but they

  10. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckmaster, John


    ..., the combustion of heterogeneous propellants containing aluminum, the use of a genetic algorithm to optimally define false-kinetics parameters in propellant combustion modeling, the calculation of fluctuations...

  11. Mixing and combustion enhancement of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet (United States)

    Liu, Shichang; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Gen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang


    Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet is a new concept engine that combines the advantages of both solid rocket ramjet and Air Turbo Rocket, with a wide operation envelope and high performance. There are three streams of the air, turbine-driving gas and augment gas to mix and combust in the afterburner, and the coaxial intake mode of the afterburner is disadvantageous to the mixing and combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out mixing and combustion enhancement research. In this study, the numerical model of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet three-dimensional combustion flow field is established, and the numerical simulation of the mixing and combustion enhancement scheme is conducted from the aspects of head region intake mode to injection method in afterburner. The results show that by driving the compressed air to deflect inward and the turbine-driving gas to maintain strong rotation, radial and tangential momentum exchange of the two streams can be enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency of mixing and combustion in the afterburner. The method of injecting augment gas in the transverse direction and making sure the injection location is as close as possible to the head region is beneficial to improve the combustion efficiency. The outer combustion flow field of the afterburner is an oxidizer-rich environment, while the inner is a fuel-rich environment. To improve the efficiency of mixing and combustion, it is necessary to control the injection velocity of the augment gas to keep it in the oxygen-rich zone of the outer region. The numerical simulation for different flight conditions shows that the optimal mixing and combustion enhancement scheme can obtain high combustion efficiency and have excellent applicability in a wide working range.

  12. Solid Propellant Microthruster Design, Fabrication, and Testing for Nanosatellites (United States)

    Sathiyanathan, Kartheephan

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a solid propellant microthruster (SPM), which is a two-dimensional matrix of millimeter-sized rockets each capable of delivering millinewtons of thrust and millinewton-seconds of impulse to perform fine orbit and attitude corrections. The SPM is a potential payload for nanosatellites to increase spacecraft maneuverability and is constrained by strict mass, volume, and power requirements. The dimensions of the SPM in the millimeter-scale result in a number of scaling issues that need consideration such as a low Reynolds number, high heat loss, thermal and radical quenching, and incomplete combustion. The design of the SPM, engineered to address these issues, is outlined. The SPM fabrication using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf materials and standard micromachining is presented. The selection of a suitable propellant and its customization are described. Experimental results of SPM firing to demonstrate successful ignition and sustained combustion are presented for three configurations: nozzleless, sonic nozzle, and supersonic nozzle. The SPM is tested using a ballistic pendulum thrust stand. Impulse and thrust values are calculated and presented. The performance values of the SPM are found to be consistent with existing designs.

  13. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant. (United States)

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan


    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH 2 , a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH 2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H 2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H 2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH 2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  14. Effect of ammonium perchlorate grain sizes on the combustion of solid rocket propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegab, A.; Balabel, A. [Menoufia Univ., Menoufia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering


    The combustion of heterogeneous solid rocket propellant consisting of ammonium perchlorate (AP) particles was discussed with reference to the chemical and physical complexity of the propellant and the microscopic scale of the combustion zone. This study considered the primary flame between the decomposition products of the binder and the AP oxidizer; the primary diffusion flame from the oxidizer; density and conductivity of the AP and binder; temperature-dependent gas-phase transport properties; and, an unsteady non-planer regression surface. Three different random packing disc models for the AP particles imbedded in a matrix of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadience (HTPB) fuel-binder were used as a base of the combustion code. The models have different AP grain sizes and distribution with the fuel binder. A 2D calculation was developed for the combustion of heterogeneous solid propellant, accounting for the gas phase physics, the solid phase physics and an unsteady non-planar description of the regressing propellant surface. The mathematical model described the unsteady burning of a heterogeneous propellant by simultaneously solving the combustion fields in the gas phase and the thermal field in the solid phase with appropriate jump condition across the gas/solid interface. The gas-phase kinetics was represented by a two-step reaction mechanism for the primary premixed flame and the primary diffusion flame between the decomposition products of the HTPB and the oxidizer. The essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme was used to describe the propagation of the unsteady non-planer regression surface. The results showed that AP particle size has a significant effect on the combustion surface deformation as well as on the burning rate. This study also determined the effect of various parameters on the surface propagation speed, flame structure, and the burning surface geometry. The speed by which the combustion surface recedes was found to depend on the exposed pressure

  15. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F


    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  16. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  17. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.


    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  18. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design (United States)


    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  19. Non-linear analysis of solid propellant burning rate behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junye Wang [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hanzhou (China)


    The parametric analysis of the thermal wave model of the non-steady combustion of solid propellants is carried out under a sudden compression. First, to observe non-linear effects, solutions are obtained using a computer under prescribed pressure variations. Then, the effects of rearranging the spatial mesh, additional points, and the time step on numerical solutions are evaluated. Finally, the behaviour of the thermal wave combustion model is examined under large heat releases (H) and a dynamic factor ({beta}). The numerical predictions show that (1) the effect of a dynamic factor ({beta}), related to the magnitude of dp/dt, on the peak burning rate increases as the value of beta increases. However, unsteady burning rate 'runaway' does not appear and will return asymptotically to ap{sup n}, when {beta}{>=}10.0. The burning rate 'runaway' is a numerical difficulty, not a solution to the models. (2) At constant beta and m, the amplitude of the burning rate increases with increasing H. However, the increase in the burning rate amplitude is stepwise, and there is no apparent intrinsic instability limit. A damped oscillation of burning rate occurs when the value of H is less. However, when H>1.0, the state of an intrinsically unstable model is composed of repeated, amplitude spikes, i.e. an undamped oscillation occurs. (3) The effect of the time step on the peak burning rate increases as H increases. (Author)

  20. Characterization of a Green Solid Electric Propellant Microthruster for Small Spacecraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Solid Electric Propellants is an emerging topic of research with major implications in the field of space propulsion from the micro to macro...

  1. Construction and design of solid-propellant rocket engines. Konstruktsiia i proektirovanie raketnykh dvigatelei tverdogo topliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrutdinov, I.K.; Kotel' nikov, A.V.


    Methods for assessing the durability of different components of solid-propellant rocket engines are presented. The following aspects of engine development are discussed: task formulation, parameter calculation, construction scheme selection, materials, and durability assessment. 45 references.

  2. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy (United States)

    Gill, W.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Donaldson, A. B.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.; Bystrom, E.; Haug, A.; Sharp, L.; Surmick, D. M.


    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified.

  3. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, W; Cruz-Cabrera, A A; Bystrom, E; Donaldson, A B; Haug, A; Sharp, L; Lim, J; Sivathanu, Y; Surmick, D M


    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified

  4. A stochastic pocket model for aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallier, Stany [SNPE Materiaux Energetiques, Vert le Petit (France)


    A new model is derived to estimate the size and fraction of aluminum agglomerates at the surface of a burning propellant. The basic idea relies on well-known pocket models in which aluminum is supposed to aggregate and melt within pocket volumes imposed by largest oxidizer particles. The proposed model essentially relaxes simple assumptions of previous pocket models on propellant structure by accounting for an actual microstructure obtained by packing. The use of statistical tools from stochastic geometry enables to determine a statistical pocket size volume and hence agglomerate diameter and agglomeration fraction. Application to several AP/Al propellants gives encouraging results that are shown to be superior to former pocket models. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Seismic tests at the HDR facility using explosives and solid propellant rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, P.; Steinhilber, H.


    In blast tests the HDR reactor building and its mechanical equipment were subjected to earthquake-type excitations through the soil and the foundation. A series of six tests was carried out, two tests being made with HDR facility under operating conditions (BWR conditions, 285 0 C, 70 bar). The charges were placed in boreholes at a depth of 4 to 10 m and a distance of 16 to 25 m from the reactor building. The tests with solid propellant rockets were made in order to try a new excitation technique. The rockets used in these tests were of compact design and had a short combustion period (500 ms) at high constant thrust (100 kN per combustion chamber). These rockets were fixed to the concrete dome of the building in such a way that the thrust generated during the combustion of the propellant resulted in an impulsive load acting on the building. This type of excitation was selected with a view to investigating the global effects of the load case 'aircraft impact' on the building and the mechanical equipment. In the four tests made so far, up to four rockets were ignited simultaneously, so that the maximum impulse was 2 x 10 5 Ns. The excitation level can be markedly increased by adding further rockets. This excitation technique was characterised by excellent reproducibility of the load parameters. (orig./HP)

  6. Simulation technique on combustion of solid propellant; Kotai suishin`yaku nensho no simyureshon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Akihide.; Bazaki, Hakobu.; Douke, Kiyotaka. [Asahi Chemical Industry Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Oita Plant


    The burning area of propellant grain is one of the most important parameter in conducting of design on solid rocket performance. However, it has been difficult to calculate the burning area of propellant grain with precise and speed by geometrical way since most of propellant configuration have been adopted as complicated. In the present study, the simulation system was developed and produced, which was adapted `particle chasing method` to and made ot compute the burning area transition. Moreover, the reliability on computation by the system was check up on. It was found that the discrepancy of calculation between by the geometrical way and by the system was less than 1%. (author)

  7. Studies on Flame Spread with Sudden Expansions of Ports of Solid Propellant Rockets under Elevated Pressure.


    B.N. Raghunandan; N.S. Madhavan; C. Sanjeev; V.R.S. Kumar


    A detailed experimental study on flame spread over non-uniform ports of solid propellant rockets has been carried out. An idealised. 2-dimensional laboratory motor was used for the experimental study with the aid of cinephotography. Freshly prepared rectangular HTPB propellant with backward facing step was used as the specimenfor this study. It has been shown conclusively that under certain conditions of step location. step height and port height which govern the velocity of gases at the step...

  8. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.


    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  9. Modeling and simulation of the debonding process of composite solid propellants (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xu, Jin-sheng; Han, Long; Chen, Xiong


    In order to study the damage evolution law of composite solid propellants, the molecular dynamics particle filled algorithm was used to establish the mesoscopic structure model of HTPB(Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) propellants. The cohesive element method was employed for the adhesion interface between AP(Ammonium perchlorate) particle and HTPB matrix and the bilinear cohesive zone model was used to describe the mechanical response of the interface elements. The inversion analysis method based on Hooke-Jeeves optimization algorithm was employed to identify the parameters of cohesive zone model(CZM) of the particle/binder interface. Then, the optimized parameters were applied to the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to simulate the damage evolution process for AP particle and HTPB matrix, including the initiation, development, gathering and macroscopic crack. Finally, the stress-strain simulation curve was compared with the experiment curves. The result shows that the bilinear cohesive zone model can accurately describe the debonding and fracture process between the AP particles and HTPB matrix under the uniaxial tension loading.

  10. Homogenization Issues in the Combustion of Heterogeneous Solid Propellants (United States)

    Chen, M.; Buckmaster, J.; Jackson, T. L.; Massa, L.


    We examine random packs of discs or spheres, models for ammonium-perchlorate-in-binder propellants, and discuss their average properties. An analytical strategy is described for calculating the mean or effective heat conduction coefficient in terms of the heat conduction coefficients of the individual components, and the results are verified by comparison with those of direct numerical simulations (dns) for both 2-D (disc) and 3-D (sphere) packs across which a temperature difference is applied. Similarly, when the surface regression speed of each component is related to the surface temperature via a simple Arrhenius law, an analytical strategy is developed for calculating an effective Arrhenius law for the combination, and these results are verified using dns in which a uniform heat flux is applied to the pack surface, causing it to regress. These results are needed for homogenization strategies necessary for fully integrated 2-D or 3-D simulations of heterogeneous propellant combustion.

  11. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics (United States)


    and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling. Other topics are the instabilities of smolder waves, premixed flame...instabilities in narrow tubes, and flames supported by a spinning porous plug burner . Much of this work has been reported in the high-quality archival...perchlorate in fuel binder, the combustion of model propellant packs of ellipses and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling

  12. Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee L. Pourpoint


    Full Text Available Aluminum-water reactions have been proposed and studied for several decades for underwater propulsion systems and applications requiring hydrogen generation. Aluminum and water have also been proposed as a frozen propellant, and there have been proposals for other refrigerated propellants that could be mixed, frozen in situ, and used as solid propellants. However, little work has been done to determine the feasibility of these concepts. With the recent availability of nanoscale aluminum, a simple binary formulation with water is now feasible. Nanosized aluminum has a lower ignition temperature than micron-sized aluminum particles, partly due to its high surface area, and burning times are much faster than micron aluminum. Frozen nanoscale aluminum and water mixtures are stable, as well as insensitive to electrostatic discharge, impact, and shock. Here we report a study of the feasibility of an nAl-ice propellant in small-scale rocket experiments. The focus here is not to develop an optimized propellant; however improved formulations are possible. Several static motor experiments have been conducted, including using a flight-weight casing. The flight weight casing was used in the first sounding rocket test of an aluminum-ice propellant, establishing a proof of concept for simple propellant mixtures making use of nanoscale particles.

  13. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T


    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  14. Application of transient burning rate model of solid propellant in electrothermal-chemical launch simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie Ni


    Full Text Available A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley's modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.

  15. Development of efficient finite elements for structural integrity analysis of solid rocket motor propellant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, R.; Nageswara Rao, B.


    Solid propellant rocket motors (SRM) are regularly used in the satellite launch vehicles which consist of mainly three different structural materials viz., solid propellant, liner, and casing materials. It is essential to assess the structural integrity of solid propellant grains under the specified gravity, thermal and pressure loading conditions. For this purpose finite elements developed following the Herrmann formulation are: twenty node brick element (BH20), eight node quadrilateral plane strain element (PH8) and, eight node axi-symmetric solid of revolution element (AH8). The time-dependent nature of the solid propellant grains is taken into account utilizing the direct inverse method of Schepary to specify the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The developed elements are tested considering various problems prior to implementation in the in-house software package (viz., Finite Element Analysis of STructures, FEAST). Several SRM configurations are analyzed to assess the structural integrity under different loading conditions. Finite element analysis results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained earlier from MARC software. -- Highlights: • Developed efficient Herrmann elements. • Accuracy of finite elements demonstrated solving several known solution problems. • Time dependent structural response obtained using the direct inverse method of Schepary. • Performed structural analysis of grains under gravity, thermal and pressure loads

  16. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  17. Cu–Co–O nano-catalysts as a burn rate modifier for composite solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chaitanya Kumar Rao


    Full Text Available Nano-catalysts containing copper–cobalt oxides (Cu–Co–O have been synthesized by the citric acid (CA complexing method. Copper (II nitrate and Cobalt (II nitrate were employed in different molar ratios as the starting reactants to prepare three types of nano-catalysts. Well crystalline nano-catalysts were produced after a period of 3 hours by the calcination of CA–Cu–Co–O precursors at 550 °C. The phase morphologies and crystal composition of synthesized nano-catalysts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR methods. The particle size of nano-catalysts was observed in the range of 90 nm–200 nm. The prepared nano-catalysts were used to formulate propellant samples of various compositions which showed high reactivity toward the combustion of HTPB/AP-based composite solid propellants. The catalytic effects on the decomposition of propellant samples were found to be significant at higher temperatures. The combustion characteristics of composite solid propellants were significantly improved by the incorporation of nano-catalysts. Out of the three catalysts studied in the present work, CuCo-I was found to be the better catalyst in regard to thermal decomposition and burning nature of composite solid propellants. The improved performance of composite solid propellant can be attributed to the high crystallinity, low agglomeration and lowering the decomposition temperature of oxidizer by the addition of CuCo-I nano-catalyst.

  18. Solid propellant ignition motors for LH_2/LOX rocket engine system


    ARAKI, Tetsuo; AKIBA, Ryojiro; HASHIMOTO, Yasunari; AIHARA, Kenji; TOMITA, Etsu; YASUDA, Seiichi; 荒木, 哲夫; 秋葉, 鐐二郎; 橋本, 保成; 相原, 賢二; 富田, 悦; 安田, 誠一


    Solid propellant ignition motors are used in the series of experiments of the 10 ton LH_2/LOX engine featured by the channel wall thrust chamber, This paper presents design specification, experiments and results obtained by actual applications of those ignition motors.

  19. Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors (United States)

    Sforzini, R. H.


    A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

  20. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  1. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Brandon C.; Sippel, Travis R.; Pfeil, Mark A.; Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F.


    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I_S_P). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I_S_P by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  2. Workshop Report: Fundamental Reactions in Solid Propellant Combustion (United States)


    combustion conditions. 6. What effect might a pressure-induced phase transition to a polymorph other than 6- HMX have on the pressure slope break during...pure HMX as well. Nevertheless, it is recommended that the high pressure polymorphs of HMX and RDX be determined. It was also felt that there...plateau burning phenomena E. Solid phase, surface, gas phase reactions F. Phase transitions : melting, vaporization, polymorphs G. Flame

  3. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy. (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F


    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.


    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Perederey


    Full Text Available The paper reveals one of possible methods for higher productivity and reliability of building self-propelled pneumopunchers which are intended for making holes in soil while using trenchless method and constructing various engineering communications under car, tram and rail lines, airport runways. A new design of building pneumopuncher with increased productivity due to higher speed for hole formation in soil and its reliability has been presented in the paper. A formula for determination of displacement increment for a new pneumopuncher in comparison with the conventional one has been obtained in the paper. The paper describes a design and operation principal of the building self-propelled pneumopuncher which is equipped with a locking mechanism with the purpose to neutralize action of soil elastic forces and reactive repulsive force. The locking mechanism keeps the pneumopuncher in the hole. The pneumopuncher consists of a body with anvil, movable hammer, a manifold which is set in axial deepening of the hammer, a nut and a locking mechanism. Improvement of operational pneumopuncher reliability is attained due to the fact that the locking mechanism is made in the form of two coaxially positioned inner and outer cups having a common basis. A piston is installed in the middle of the inner cup, a spring is fixed over the piston and a rod with a breaking shoe is positioned at the end. Height of the inner cup is less the outer cup height and there is an annular cavity between them which is connected with a chamber. The chamber is formed by the piston, the inner cup and the manifold. The annular cavity through an opening in the inner cup wall, two sylphons, a channel in the nut end and an opening in the vertical wall of the manifold are connected with a chamber of operating stroke. The sylphons are placed between the outer cup and the nut, between the nut and the manifold. Differential equations for movement of pneumopuncher in soil have been

  6. Safety test of an improved multihundred watt FSA: launch abort, solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabourn, C.M.


    This safety test consisted of exposing a simulant-fueled Improved Multihundred Watt Fuel Sphere Assembly, containing a Pt-3008 sphere holding the fuel simulant, to a single proximity fire of UTP-3001 solid rocket propellant for 10.5 min. The graphite outside shell sustained only minor abrasion damage. It was covered on one side with a heavy deposit of alumina from the fire mixed with silica from the test bed. The Pt-3008 shell had small amounts of carbon, alumina, and silica deposited on its surface but sustained no other damage. The PT-3008 sphere was not breached, and therefore the fuel sphere assembly would not release fuel in a solid-propellant fire of a launch abort. 12 figures

  7. Particle size determination in small solid propellant rocket motors using the diffractively scattered light method.


    Cramer, Robert Grewelle.


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A dual beam apparatus was developed which simultaneously measured particle size (D32) at the entrance and exit of an exhaust nozzle of a small solid propellant rocket motor. The diameters were determined using measurements of dif fractiveiy scattered laser power spectra. The apparatus was calibrated by using spherical glass beads and aluminum oxide powder. Measurements were successfully made at both locations. Because of...

  8. The development of the micro-solid propellant thruster array with improved repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daeban; Kwon, Sejin; Lee, Jongkwang


    This paper presents the development of a micro-solid propellant thruster array with improved repeatability. The repeatability and low performance variation of each thruster unit with a high ignition success rate is essential in micro-solid propellant thruster array. To date, the study on the improvement of the repeatability has not yet been reported. As the first step for this study, we propose a new type of micro igniter, using a glass wafer called the heater-contact micro igniter. This igniter is also designed to improve the ignition characteristics of a glass-based micro igniter. The prototype of the igniter array is designed and fabricated to establish its fabrication process and to conduct its performance evaluation. Through the firing test, the performance of the heater-contact micro igniter is verified. The 5 × 5 sized micro-solid propellant thruster array is designed and fabricated applying the developed heater-contact igniter. The measured average thrust of each thruster unit is 2.542 N, and calculated standard deviation is 0.369 N. The calculated average total impulse and its standard deviation are 0.182 and 0.04 mNs, respectively. Based on these results, the improvement of repeatability is verified. Finally, the ignition control system of the micro-thruster array is developed. (paper)

  9. Study of combustion properties of a solid propellant by highly time-resolved passive FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yan; Liu, Bingping; Wang, Junde [Laboratory of Advanced Spectroscopy, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014 (China)


    With a time resolution of 0.125 s and a spectral resolution of 4 cm{sup -1}, emission spectra of the combustion process of a solid propellant were recorded by highly time-resolved passive FTIR. Some gaseous combustion products, such as H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and HCl, were distinguished by the characteristic emission band of each molecule. The equation for flame temperature calculation based on the diatomic molecule emission fine structure theory was improved through judicious utilization of the spectral running number 'm' which makes the temperature measurement simpler and faster. Some combustion information of the solid propellant had been given including the characteristic spectral profile, the distribution of the absolute spectral energy, the distribution of the combustion flame temperature, and the concentration distributions of HCl and NO versus burning time. The results will provide theoretical and experimental bases for improving the formula and raising combustion efficiency of solid propellant, and developing the design of rocket motor, infrared guidance and antiguidance systems. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Experimental study on composite solid propellant material burning rate using algorithm MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunaipragasam Selvakumaran


    Full Text Available In rocketry application, now-a-days instead of monopropellants slowly composite propellants are introduced. Burning rate of a solid state composite propellant depends on many factors like oxidizer-binder ratio, oxidizer particle size and distribution, particle size and its distribution, pressure, temperature, etc. Several researchers had taken the mass varied composite propellant. In that, the ammonium perchlorate mainly varied from 85 to 90%. This paper deals with the oxidizer rich propellant by allowing small variation of fuel cum binder ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by mass. Since the percent of the binder is very less compared to the oxidizer, the mixture remains in a powder form. The powder samples are used to make a pressed pellet. Experiments were conducted in closed window bomb set-up at pressures of 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2. The burning rates are calculated from the combustion photography (images taken by a high-speed camera. These images were processed frame by frame in MATLAB, detecting the edges in the images of the frames. The burning rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit from MATLAB and observed that the burn rate increases with the mass variation of constituents present in solid state composite propellant. The result indicates a remarkable increase in burn rate of 26.66%, 20%, 16.66%, and 3.33% for Mix 1, 2, 3, 4 compared with Mix 5 at 7 MN/m2. The percentage variations in burn rate between Mix 1 and Mix 5 at 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2 are 25.833%, 32.322%, and 26.185%, respectively.

  11. Hot-Spot Ignition Mechanisms for Explosives and Propellants (United States)

    Field, J. E.; Bourne, N. K.; Palmer, S. J. P.; Walley, S. M.


    This paper describes the response of explosives to stress and impact and in particular the mechanisms of `hot-spot' production. Samples in the form of single crystals, powder layers, pressed pellets, gels, polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) and propellants have been studied. Techniques used include a drop-weight facility with transparent anvils which allows photography at microsecond framing intervals, an instrumented drop-weight machine, a miniaturized Hopkinson bar system for high strain rate property measurement, laser speckle for studying the deformation and fracture of PBXs, an automated system for analysing speckle patterns and heat sensitive film for recording the positions and temperatures of hot spots. Polishing and staining methods have been developed to observe the microstructure of PBXs and failure during quasi-static loading. Ignition, when it occurred, took place at local hot-spot sites. Evidence is discussed for a variety of ignition mechanisms including adiabatic shear of the explosive, adiabatic heating of trapped gases during cavity collapse, viscous flow, friction, fracture and shear of added particles and triboluminescent discharge.

  12. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L


    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  13. The use of image analysis for the study of interfacial bonding in solid composite propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the framework of this research, the program Image Pro Plus was applied for determining the polymer–oxidizer interactions in HTPB-based composite propellants. In order to improve the interactions, different bonding agents were used, and their efficiency was analyzed. The determination of the quantity, area and radius of non-bonded oxidizer crystals is presented. The position of formed cracks in the specimen and their area has a great influence on the mechanical properties of composite propellant. The preparation of the composite propellant in order to enable the photographing of their structure by means of stereoscopic and metallographic microscopes with the digital camera is also described as well.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crida, Aurelien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, Julien


    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after ∼10 4 -10 5 years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m -2 . The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  15. Impact initiation of explosives and propellants via statistical crack mechanics (United States)

    Dienes, J. K.; Zuo, Q. H.; Kershner, J. D.


    A statistical approach has been developed for modeling the dynamic response of brittle materials by superimposing the effects of a myriad of microcracks, including opening, shear, growth and coalescence, taking as a starting point the well-established theory of penny-shaped cracks. This paper discusses the general approach, but in particular an application to the sensitivity of explosives and propellants, which often contain brittle constituents. We examine the hypothesis that the intense heating by frictional sliding between the faces of a closed crack during unstable growth can form a hot spot, causing localized melting, ignition, and fast burn of the reactive material adjacent to the crack. Opening and growth of a closed crack due to the pressure of burned gases inside the crack and interactions of adjacent cracks can lead to violent reaction, with detonation as a possible consequence. This approach was used to model a multiple-shock experiment by Mulford et al. [1993. Initiation of preshocked high explosives PBX-9404, PBX-9502, PBX-9501, monitored with in-material magnetic gauging. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Detonation Symposium, pp. 459-467] involving initiation and subsequent quenching of chemical reactions in a slab of PBX 9501 impacted by a two-material flyer plate. We examine the effects of crack orientation and temperature dependence of viscosity of the melt on the response. Numerical results confirm our theoretical finding [Zuo, Q.H., Dienes, J.K., 2005. On the stability of penny-shaped cracks with friction: the five types of brittle behavior. Int. J. Solids Struct. 42, 1309-1326] that crack orientation has a significant effect on brittle behavior, especially under compressive loading where interfacial friction plays an important role. With a reasonable choice of crack orientation and a temperature-dependent viscosity obtained from molecular dynamics calculations, the calculated particle velocities compare well with those measured using

  16. Characteristic Evaluation of a Shrouded Propeller Mechanism for a Magnetic Actuated Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available Medical microrobots have been widely used in clinical applications, particularly the spiral type locomotion mechanism, which was recently considered one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for the next medical microrobot to perform tasks such as capsule endoscopy and drug delivery. However, limits in clinical applications still exist. The spiral action of the microrobot while being used for diagnosis may lead to pain or even damage to the intestinal wall due to the exposed mechanisms. Therefore, a new locomotive mechanism, named the shrouded propeller mechanism, was proposed to achieve a high level of medical safety as well as effective propulsive performance in our study. The shrouded propeller mechanism consists of a bare spiral propeller and a non-rotating nozzle. To obtain a high effective propulsive performance, two types of screw grooves with different shapes including the cylindrical screw groove and the rectangular screw groove with different parameters were analyzed using the shrouded model. Two types of magnetic actuated microrobots with different driving modes, the electromagnetic (three-pole rotor actuated microrobot and the permanent magnet (O-ring type magnet actuated microrobot were designed to evaluate the performance of the electromagnetic actuation system. Based on experimental results, the propulsive force of the proposed magnetic actuated microrobot with a shrouded propeller was larger than the magnetic actuated microrobot with a bare spiral propeller under the same parameters. Additionally, the shrouded propeller mechanism as an actuator can be used for other medical microrobots for flexible locomotion.

  17. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K


    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  19. Test data from small solid propellant rocket motor plume measurements (FA-21) (United States)

    Hair, L. M.; Somers, R. E.


    A program is described for obtaining a reliable, parametric set of measurements in the exhaust plumes of solid propellant rocket motors. Plume measurements included pressures, temperatures, forces, heat transfer rates, particle sampling, and high-speed movies. Approximately 210,000 digital data points and 15,000 movie frames were acquired. Measurements were made at points in the plumes via rake-mounted probes, and on the surface of a large plate impinged by the exhaust plume. Parametric variations were made in pressure altitude, propellant aluminum loading, impinged plate incidence angle and distance from nozzle exit to plate or rake. Reliability was incorporated by continual use of repeat runs. The test setup of the various hardware items is described along with an account of test procedures. Test results and data accuracy are discussed. Format of the data presentation is detailed. Complete data are included in the appendix.

  20. Dynamic analysis of solid propellant grains subjected to ignition pressurization loading (United States)

    Chyuan, Shiang-Woei


    Traditionally, the transient analysis of solid propellant grains subjected to ignition pressurization loading was not considered, and quasi-elastic-static analysis was widely adopted for structural integrity because the analytical task gets simplified. But it does not mean that the dynamic effect is not useful and could be neglected arbitrarily, and this effect usually plays a very important role for some critical design. In order to simulate the dynamic response for solid rocket motor, a transient finite element model, accompanied by concepts of time-temperature shift principle, reduced integration and thermorheologically simple material assumption, was used. For studying the dynamic response, diverse ignition pressurization loading cases were used and investigated in the present paper. Results show that the dynamic effect is important for structural integrity of solid propellant grains under ignition pressurization loading. Comparing the effective stress of transient analysis and of quasi-elastic-static analysis, one can see that there is an obvious difference between them because of the dynamic effect. From the work of quasi-elastic-static and transient analyses, the dynamic analysis highlighted several areas of interest and a more accurate and reasonable result could be obtained for the engineer.

  1. Mathematical modelling in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofonea, Mircea; Steigmann, David


    This book presents new research results in multidisciplinary fields of mathematical and numerical modelling in mechanics. The chapters treat the topics: mathematical modelling in solid, fluid and contact mechanics nonconvex variational analysis with emphasis to nonlinear solid and structural mechanics numerical modelling of problems with non-smooth constitutive laws, approximation of variational and hemivariational inequalities, numerical analysis of discrete schemes, numerical methods and the corresponding algorithms, applications to mechanical engineering numerical aspects of non-smooth mechanics, with emphasis on developing accurate and reliable computational tools mechanics of fibre-reinforced materials behaviour of elasto-plastic materials accounting for the microstructural defects definition of structural defects based on the differential geometry concepts or on the atomistic basis interaction between phase transformation and dislocations at nano-scale energetic arguments bifurcation and post-buckling a...

  2. Finite element analysis of propellant of solid rocket motor during ship motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qu


    Full Text Available In order to simulate the stress and strain of solid rocket motors (SRMs, a finite element analysis model was established. The stress spectra of the SRM elements with respect to time in the case that the vessel cruises under a certain shipping condition were obtained by simulation. According to the analysis of the simulation results, a critical zone was confirmed, and the Mises stress amplitudes of the different critical zones were acquired. The results show that the maximum stress and strain of SRM are less than the maximum tensile strength and elongation, respectively, of the propellant. The cumulative damage of the motor must also be evaluated by random fatigue loading.

  3. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II. (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.


    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  4. Effects of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant. (United States)

    Liu, Leili; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyao; Tian, Siyu


    MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 were prepared, and their structure and hydrogen storage properties were determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analyzer. The effects of MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant were subsequently studied. Results indicated that MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 can decrease the thermal decomposition peak temperature and increase the total released heat of decomposition. These compounds can improve the effect of thermal decomposition of the propellant. The burning rates of the propellant increased using Mg-based hydrogen storage materials as promoter. The burning rates of the propellant also increased using MgH 2 instead of Al in the propellant, but its explosive heat was not enlarged. Nonetheless, the combustion heat of MgH 2 was higher than that of Al. A possible mechanism was thus proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, Zdenek


    Highlights: → Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). → Generalized logarithmic strain. → Consistent linearization. → Incremental principle of virtual power. → Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.

  6. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk


    Roč. 326, č. 8 (2011), s. 1983-1997 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : solid mechanics * Lagrangian system * time-discrete approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2011

  7. Propelling Ariane. The Vulcain engines and the solid propellant engines; Propulser Ariane. Les moteurs Vulcain et les moteurs a propergol solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The development of the Vulcain program was ensured thanks to a European cooperation with an ESA (European Space Agency) financing. The CNES (European Centre for Space Studies) has ensured the technical and financial direction of the program and gave the control of the development to the SEP. The manufacturing of the Vulcain engine is managed under the Arianespace contract, in charge of the marketing of the Ariane 5 launcher. The overall engineering of the engine and its tests were carried out by the SEP in Vernon (France) and Lampoldshausen (Germany) test facilities. SEP has also developed and built the hydrogen turbo-pump, the gas generator and its feeding valves. Several companies are involved in the development of this engine: DASA for the combustion chamber, Fiat Avio for the oxygen turbo-pump, Volvo Aero Corp. for the divergent and the hydrogen and oxygen turbines, Techspace Aero for the chamber injection valves and the drain and hot gases valves, Microtechnica for the electro-valves and check valves, SPE for the firing and start-up equipments, Avica for the feeding lines, Devtec for the supports, and MAN for the cardan and the thermal protection. This paper describes the functioning principle of the Vulcain engine, and of the two solid propellant fuel acceleration stages of the Ariane 5 launcher. Some future projects of the SEP are also described: the dual liquid-fuels engine and the plasma engine. (J.S.)

  8. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA


    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  9. Development of a computerized analysis for solid propellant combustion instability with turbulence (United States)

    Chung, T. J.; Park, O. Y.


    A multi-dimensional numerical model has been developed for the unsteady state oscillatory combustion of solid propellants subject to acoustic pressure disturbances. Including the gas phase unsteady effects, the assumption of uniform pressure across the flame zone, which has been conventionally used, is relaxed so that a higher frequency response in the long flame of a double-base propellant can be calculated. The formulation is based on a premixed, laminar flame with a one-step overall chemical reaction and the Arrhenius law of decomposition with no condensed phase reaction. In a given geometry, the Galerkin finite element solution shows the strong resonance and damping effect at the lower frequencies, similar to the result of Denison and Baum. Extended studies deal with the higher frequency region where the pressure varies in the flame thickness. The nonlinear system behavior is investigated by carrying out the second order expansion in wave amplitude when the acoustic pressure oscillations are finite in amplitude. Offset in the burning rate shows a negative sign in the whole frequency region considered, and it verifies the experimental results of Price. Finally, the velocity coupling in the two-dimensional model is discussed.

  10. Computation of turbulent reacting flow in a solid-propellant ducted rocket (United States)

    Chao, Yei-Chin; Chou, Wen-Fuh; Liu, Sheng-Shyang


    A mathematical model for computation of turbulent reacting flows is developed under general curvilinear coordinate systems. An adaptive, streamline grid system is generated to deal with the complex flow structures in a multiple-inlet solid-propellant ducted rocket (SDR) combustor. General tensor representations of the k-epsilon and algebraic stress (ASM) turbulence models are derived in terms of contravariant velocity components, and modification caused by the effects of compressible turbulence is also included in the modeling. The clipped Gaussian probability density function is incorporated in the combustion model to account for fluctuations of properties. Validation of the above modeling is first examined by studying mixing and reacting characteristics in a confined coaxial-jet problem. This is followed by study of nonreacting and reacting SDR combustor flows. The results show that Gibson and Launder's ASM incorporated with Sarkar's modification for compressible turbulence effects based on the general curvilinear coordinate systems yields the most satisfactory prediction for this complicated SDR flowfield.

  11. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal... (United States)


    ... and vehicles with certain electronic equipment when transported by aircraft or vessel. When an... vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.220 Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical...

  12. Mechanics of solids and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, F.


    This book is a comprehensive treatise on the mechanics of solids and fluids, with a significant application to structural mechanics. In reading through the text, I can not help being impressed with Dr. Ziegler's command of both historical and contemporary developments of theoretical and applied mechanics. The book is a unique volume which contains information not easily found throughout the related literature. The book opens with a fundamental consideration of the kinematics of particle motion, followed by those of rigid body and deformable medium .In the latter case, both small and finite deformation have been presented concisely, paving the way for the constitutive description given later in the book. In both chapters one and two, the author has provided sufficient applications of the theoretical principles introduced. Such a connection between theory and appication is a common theme throughout every chapter, and is quite an attractive feature of the book

  13. A multilayered thick cylindrical shell under internal pressure and thermal loads applicable to solid propellant rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renganathan, K.; Nageswara Rao, B.; Jana, M.K. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India). Structural Engineering Group


    A solid propellant rocket motor can be considered to be made of various circumferential layers of different properties. A simple procedure is described here to obtain an analytical solution for the general case of multilayered thick cyclindrical shell for internal pressure and thermal loads. This analytical procedure is useful in the preliminary design analysis of solid propellant rocket motors. Since solid propellant material is of viscoelastic behaviour an approximate viscoelastic solution methodology for the multilayered shell is described for estimation of time dependent solutions of propellant grain in a rocket motor. The analytical solution for a two layer reinforced thick cylindrical shell available in the literature is shown to be a special case of the present analytical solution. The results from the present analytical solution for multilayers is found to be in good agreement with FEA results. (orig.) [German] Der grundlegende Aufbau von Feststoffraketenmotoren kann auf einen Zylinder aus mehreren Schichten mit unterschiedlichen Eigenschaften zurueckgefuehrt werden. Eine einfache Berechnungsprozedur fuer die analytische Loesung des allgemeinen Falles eines mehrschichtigen Zylinders unter innerem Druck und thermischer Belastung wird hier vorgestellt. Diese analytische Methodik ist fuer den Auslegungsprozess von Feststoffraketenmotoren von grundlegender Bedeutung. Das viskoelastische Fliessverhalten des festen Brennstoffes, das den zeitlichen Ablauf des Verbrennungsprozesses wesentlich bestimmt, wird durch ein Naeherungsverfahren gut erfasst. Ein in der Literatur enthaltenes spezielles Ergebnis fuer einen zweischaligen verstaerkten Zylinder ergibt sich als Sonderfall der hier vorgestellten Methodik. Die analytisch erhaltenen Loesungen fuer mehrschichtige Aufbauten sind in guter Uebereinstimmung mit mittels der FEM ermittelten Ergebnisse. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  15. Quantity Distance for the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building for Solid Propellant Fueled Launchers (United States)

    Stover, Steven; Diebler, Corey; Frazier, Wayne


    The NASA KSC VAB was built to process Apollo launchers in the 1960's, and later adapted to process Space Shuttles. The VAB has served as a place to assemble solid rocket motors (5RM) and mate them to the vehicle's external fuel tank and Orbiter before rollout to the launch pad. As Space Shuttle is phased out, and new launchers are developed, the VAB may again be adapted to process these new launchers. Current launch vehicle designs call for continued and perhaps increased use of SRM segments; hence, the safe separation distances are in the process of being re-calculated. Cognizant NASA personnel and the solid rocket contractor have revisited the above VAB QD considerations and suggest that it may be revised to allow a greater number of motor segments within the VAB. This revision assumes that an inadvertent ignition of one SRM stack in its High Bay need not cause immediate and complete involvement of boosters that are part of a vehicle in adjacent High Bay. To support this assumption, NASA and contractor personnel proposed a strawman test approach for obtaining subscale data that may be used to develop phenomenological insight and to develop confidence in an analysis model for later use on full-scale situations. A team of subject matter experts in safety and siting of propellants and explosives were assembled to review the subscale test approach and provide options to NASA. Upon deliberations regarding the various options, the team arrived at some preliminary recommendations for NASA.

  16. Simulation of two-dimensional interior ballistics model of solid propellant electrothermal-chemical launch with discharge rod plasma generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie Ni


    Full Text Available Instead of the capillary plasma generator (CPG, a discharge rod plasma generator (DRPG is used in the 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun to improve the ignition uniformity of the solid propellant. An axisymmetric two-dimensional interior ballistics model of the solid propellant ETC gun (2D-IB-SPETCG is presented to describe the process of the ETC launch. Both calculated pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord well with the experimental results. The feasibility of the 2D-IB-SPETCG model is proved. Depending on the experimental data and initial parameters, detailed distribution of the ballistics parameters can be simulated. With the distribution of pressure and temperature of the gas phase and the propellant, the influence of plasma during the ignition process can be analyzed. Because of the radial flowing plasma, the propellant in the area of the DRPG is ignited within 0.01 ms, while all propellant in the chamber is ignited within 0.09 ms. The radial ignition delay time is much less than the axial delay time. During the ignition process, the radial pressure difference is less than 5  MPa at the place 0.025 m away from the breech. The radial ignition uniformity is proved. The temperature of the gas increases from several thousand K (conventional ignition to several ten thousand K (plasma ignition. Compare the distribution of the density and temperature of the gas, we know that low density and high temperature gas appears near the exits of the DRPG, while high density and low temperature gas appears at the wall near the breech. The simulation of the 2D-IB-SPETCG model is an effective way to investigate the interior ballistics process of the ETC launch. The 2D-IB-SPETC model can be used for prediction and improvement of experiments.

  17. Mechanical Slosh Models for Rocket-Propelled Spacecraft (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abram; Yang, Lee; Powers. Joseph; Hall, Charles


    Several analytical mechanical slosh models for a cylindrical tank with flat bottom are reviewed. Even though spacecrafts use cylinder shaped tanks, most of those tanks usually have elliptical domes. To extend the application of the analytical models for a cylindrical tank with elliptical domes, the modified slosh parameter models are proposed in this report by mapping an elliptical dome cylindrical tank to a flat top/bottom cylindrical tank while maintaining the equivalent liquid volume. For the low Bond number case, the low-g slosh models were also studied. Those low-g models can be used for Bond number > 10. The current low-g slosh models were also modified to extend their applications for the case that liquid height is smaller than the tank radius. All modified slosh models are implemented in MATLAB m-functions and are collected in the developed MST (Mechanical Slosh Toolbox).

  18. Determination of the Basis for Temperature Compensation in ETC Ignited Solid Propellant Guns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A; Beyer, R. A


    A series of experiments and reanalysis of previously published results has led to the discovery of the key interaction between the plasma of an electrothermal igniter and the gun propellant in large caliber cannon...

  19. Aluminum agglomeration involving the second mergence of agglomerates on the solid propellants burning surface: Experiments and modeling (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Xin; Rezaiguia, Hichem; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhixin; Liu, Peijin


    The agglomeration of aluminum particles usually occurs on the burning surface of aluminized composite propellants. It leads to low propellant combustion efficiency and high two-phase flow losses. To reach a thorough understanding of aluminum agglomeration behaviors, agglomeration processes, and particles size distribution of Al/AP/RDX/GAP propellants were studied by using a cinephotomicrography experimental technique, under 5 MPa. Accumulation, aggregation, and agglomeration phenomena of aluminum particles have been inspected, as well as the flame asymmetry of burning agglomerates. Results reveals that the dependency of the mean and the maximum agglomeration diameter to the burning rate and the virgin aluminum size have the same trend. A second-time mergence of multiple agglomerates on the burning surface is unveiled. Two typical modes of second mergence are concluded, based upon vertical and level movement of agglomerates, respectively. The latter mode is found to be dominant and sometimes a combination of the two modes may occur. A new model of aluminum agglomeration on the burning surface of composite propellants is derived to predict the particulates size distribution with a low computational amount. The basic idea is inspired from the well-known pocket models. The pocket size of the region formed by adjacent AP particles is obtained through scanning electron microscopy of the propellant cross-section coupled to an image processing method. The second mergence mechanism, as well as the effect of the burning rate on the agglomeration processes, are included in the present model. The mergence of two agglomerates is prescribed to occur only if their separation distance is less than a critical value. The agglomerates size distribution resulting from this original model match reasonably with the experimental data. Moreover, the present model gives superior results for mean agglomeration diameter compared to common empirical and pocket models. The average prediction

  20. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space (United States)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.


    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  1. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket (United States)

    Heitkotter, Robert H


    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  2. Hazard Studies for Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (Etude des Risque pour les Moteurs-Fusees a Propergols Solides) (United States)


    Combustion Through Granulated Propellant to Predict Transition to Detonation," University of Illinois, Urbana . IL, Final Report, October 19"/6-September...Vol). i, p. 258, 15 -1 9) July 1985 (Albuquerque, NM). F. A. Williams. ’Asymptotic Methods in Ignition Theory," Memoria del VII Congreso de Ia Academia

  3. U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center Grain Evaluation Software to Numerically Predict Linear Burn Regression for Solid Propellant Grain Geometries (United States)



  4. Mechanical power, thrust power and propelling efficiency: relationships with elite sprint swimming performance. (United States)

    Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Swaine, Ian; Zamparo, Paola


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between mechanical power, thrust power, propelling efficiency and sprint performance in elite swimmers. Mechanical power was measured in 12 elite sprint male swimmers: (1) in the laboratory, by using a whole-body swimming ergometer (W' TOT ) and (2) in the pool, by measuring full tethered swimming force (F T ) and maximal swimming velocity (V max ): W' T  = F T  · V max . Propelling efficiency (η P ) was estimated based on the "paddle wheel model" at V max . V max was 2.17 ± 0.06 m · s -1 , η P was 0.39 ± 0.02, W' T was 374 ± 62 W and W' TOT was 941 ± 92 W. V max was better related to W' T (useful power output: R = 0.943, P swimming performance. The ratio W' T /W' TOT (0.40 ± 0.04) represents the fraction of total mechanical power that can be utilised in water (e.g., η P ) and was indeed the same as that estimated based on the "paddle wheel model"; this supports the use of this model to estimate η P in swimming.

  5. Hydrodynamics and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled catalytic micromotors: model and experiment. (United States)

    Li, Longqiu; Wang, Jiyuan; Li, Tianlong; Song, Wenping; Zhang, Guangyu


    The hydrodynamic behavior and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled micromotors are studied theoretically and experimentally. A hydrodynamic model to describe bubble growth and detachment is proposed to investigate the mechanism of a self-propelled conical tubular catalytic micromotor considering bubble geometric asymmetry and buoyancy force. The growth force caused by the growth of the bubble surface against the fluid is the driving force for micromotor motion. Also, the buoyancy force plays a primary role in bubble detachment. The effect of geometrical parameters on the micromotor velocity and drag force is presented. The bubble radius ratio is investigated for different micromotor radii to determine its hydrodynamic behavior during bubble ejection. The average micromotor velocity is found to be strongly dependent on the semi-cone angle, expelling frequency and bubble radius ratio. The semi-cone angle has a significant effect on the expelling frequency for conical tubular micromotors. The predicted results are compared to already existing experimental data for cylindrical micromotors (semi-cone angle δ = 0°) and conical micromotors. A good agreement is found between the theoretical calculation and experimental results. This model provides a profound explanation for the propulsion mechanism of a catalytic micromotor and can be used to optimize the micromotor design for its biomedical and environmental applications.

  6. Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob


    This expanded second edition presents in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Building on the novel pedagogy of fusing concepts covered in traditional undergraduate courses in rigid-body statics and deformable body mechanics, rather than simply grafting them together, this new edition develops further the authors’ very original treatment of solid mechanics with additional figures, an elaboration on selected solved problems, and additional text as well as a new subsection on viscoelasticity in response to students’ feedback. Introduction to Solid Mechanics: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, offers a holistic treatment of the depth and breadth of solid mechanics and the inter-relationships of its underlying concepts. Proceeding from first principles to applications, the book stands as a whole greater than the sum of its parts.  .

  7. Design and Fabrication of a 200N Thrust Rocket Motor Based on NH4ClO4+Al+HTPB as Solid Propellant (United States)

    Wahid, Mastura Ab; Ali, Wan Khairuddin Wan


    The development of rocket motor using potassium nitrate, carbon and sulphur mixture has successfully been developed by researchers and students from UTM and recently a new combination for solid propellant is being created. The new solid propellant will combine a composition of Ammonium perchlorate, NH4ClO4 with aluminium, Al and Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene, HTPB as the binder. It is the aim of this research to design and fabricate a new rocket motor that will produce a thrust of 200N by using this new solid propellant. A static test is done to obtain the thrust produced by the rocket motor and analyses by observation and also calculation will be done. The experiment for the rocket motor is successful but the thrust did not achieve its required thrust.

  8. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric and ferroelectric solids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Daining


    Fracture Mechanics of Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Solids presents a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric/ferroelectric materials, which includes the theoretical analysis, numerical computations and experimental observations. The main emphasis is placed on the mechanics description of various crack problems such static, dynamic and interface fractures as well as the physical explanations for the mechanism of electrically induced fracture. The book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of solid mechanics, applied physics, material science and mechanical engineering. Dr. Daining Fang is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China; Dr. Jinxi Liu is a professor at the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, China.

  9. Mars Ascent Vehicle-Propellant Aging (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Rousseau, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob


    This project is to develop and test a new propellant formulation specifically for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) for the robotic Mars Sample Return mission. The project was initiated under the Planetary Sciences Division In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program and is continuing under the Mars Exploration Program. The two-stage, solid motor-based MAV has been the leading MAV solution for more than a decade. Additional studies show promise for alternative technologies including hybrid and bipropellant options, but the solid motor design has significant propellant density advantages well suited for physical constraints imposed while using the SkyCrane descent stage. The solid motor concept has lower specific impulse (Isp) than alternatives, but if the first stage and payload remain sufficiently small, the two-stage solid MAV represents a potential low risk approach to meet the mission needs. As the need date for the MAV slips, opportunities exist to advance technology with high on-ramp potential. The baseline propellant for the MAV is currently the carboxyl terminated polybutadiene (CTPB) based formulation TP-H-3062 due to its advantageous low temperature mechanical properties and flight heritage. However, the flight heritage is limited and outside the environments, the MAV must endure. The ISPT program competed a propellant formulation project with industry and selected ATK to develop a new propellant formulation specifically for the MAV application. Working with ATK, a large number of propellant formulations were assessed to either increase performance of a CTPB propellant or improve the low temperature mechanical properties of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant. Both propellants demonstrated potential to increase performance over heritage options, but an HTPB propellant formulation, TP-H-3544, was selected for production and testing. The test plan includes propellant aging first at high vacuum conditions, representative of the Mars transit

  10. Pulsed plasma solid propellant microthruster for the synchronous meteorological satellite. Task 4: Engineering model fabrication and test report (United States)

    Guman, W. J. (Editor)


    Two flight prototype solid propellant pulsed plasma microthruster propulsion systems for the SMS satellite were fabricated, assembled and tested. The propulsion system is a completely self contained system requiring only three electrical inputs to operate: a 29.4 volt power source, a 28 volt enable signal and a 50 millsec long command fire signal that can be applied at any rate from 50 ppm to 110 ppm. The thrust level can be varied over a range 2.2 to 1 at constant impulse bit amplitude. By controlling the duration of the 28 volt enable either steady state thrust or a series of discrete impulse bits can be generated. A new technique of capacitor charging was implemented to reduce high voltage stress on energy storage capacitors.

  11. A parallel solution-adaptive scheme for predicting multi-phase core flows in solid propellant rocket motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, J.S.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gottlieb, J.J.


    The development of a parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the governing equations for multi-phase (gas-particle) core flows in solid propellant rocket motors (SRM). An Eulerian formulation is used to described the coupled motion between the gas and particle phases. A cell-centred upwind finite-volume discretization and the use of limited solution reconstruction, Riemann solver based flux functions for the gas and particle phases, and explicit multi-stage time-stepping allows for high solution accuracy and computational robustness. A Riemann problem is formulated for prescribing boundary data at the burning surface. Efficient and scalable parallel implementations are achieved with domain decomposition on distributed memory multiprocessor architectures. Numerical results are described to demonstrate the capabilities of the approach for predicting SRM core flows. (author)

  12. Trinitromethyl Heterocyclic Oxidizers as a Solid Propellant Ingredient Final Report CRADA No TC02146.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Racoveanu, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), to develop a synthesis of two novel energetic heterocyclic oxidizers as possible replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP) in rocket propellant formulations. This CRADA resulted from the award of the Phase I Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) from DOD. The CRADA consisted of two phases. The goal for Phase 1 was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNP. Phase 2 is optional (based on the success of Phase 1) and the goal of Phase 2 (optional) was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNT. Phase 2 tasks would be performed based on the successful results of Phase 1.

  13. Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob


    This textbook presents for the first time in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Since the turn of the millennium, it has become common in engineering schools to combine the traditional undergraduate offerings in rigid-body statics (usually called “statics”) and deformable body mechanics (known traditionally as “strength of materials” or, more recently, “mechanics of materials”) into a single, introductory course in solid mechanics. Many textbooks for the new course sequentially meld pieces of existing, discrete books—sometimes, but not always, acknowledging the origin—into two halves covering Statics and Mechanics of Materials. In this volume, Professors Lubliner and Papadopoulos methodically combine the essentials of statics and mechanics of materials, illustrating the relationship of concepts throughout, into one "integrated" text. This book also: ·         Offers thorough...

  14. Investigation of the Failure Mechanism of HTPB/AP/Al Propellant by In-situ Uniaxial Tensile Experimentation in SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramshorst, M.C.J. van; Benedetto, G.L. di; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der


    The failure mechanism of a propellant consisting of hydroxyl terminated poly-butadiene filled with ammonium perchlorate and aluminum (HTPB/AP/Al) was determined by performing in-situ uniaxial tensile tests in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental test plan contained uniaxial tensile

  15. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Mixers for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt(trademark) submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt(trademark) mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described

  16. Solid mechanics theory, modeling, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Albrecht


    This textbook offers an introduction to modeling the mechanical behavior of solids within continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. To illustrate the fundamental principles, the book starts with an overview of the most important models in one dimension. Tensor calculus, which is called for in three-dimensional modeling, is concisely presented in the second part of the book. Once the reader is equipped with these essential mathematical tools, the third part of the book develops the foundations of continuum mechanics right from the beginning. Lastly, the book’s fourth part focuses on modeling the mechanics of materials and in particular elasticity, viscoelasticity and plasticity. Intended as an introductory textbook for students and for professionals interested in self-study, it also features numerous worked-out examples to aid in understanding.

  17. On the mechanism of energy transfer in the plasma-propellant interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwitzky, Andrew J.; Keidar, Michael; Boyd, Iain D. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2140 (United States)


    A coupled plasma sheath/ablation model is developed for electrothermal chemical gun applications. By combining a commonly employed collisional sheath model with a previous ablation model, the convective heat flux as a function of time to the propellant bed is determined for two potential electrothermal chemical gun propellants, XM39 and JA2. It is found that the convective heat flux varies smoothly from a nearly collisionless to a fully collisional regime over the short duration of the plasma pulse. The possibility of determining an accurate estimate of the amount of heat flux to the propellant bed due to radiation from the bulk plasma presents itself. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Solid Propellant Subscale Burning Rate Analysis Methods for US and Selected NATO Facilities (United States)


    impossibility of the center of a particle lying closer than its radius from a solid boundary, * Due to surface tension and sedimentation (tends to level...34 effect (for bottom cast or bayonet cast grains) may consist of sedimentation of larger particles against the walls during casting flow, with the...February 2000. 91 Ratti A., "Metodi di Riduzione Dati Balistici per i Boosters a Propellente Solido di Ariane-4 e di Ariane-5," M.Sc. Thesis in Aerospace

  19. Simple-1: Development stage of the data transmission system for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model (United States)

    Yarce, Andrés; Sebastián Rodríguez, Juan; Galvez, Julián; Gómez, Alejandro; García, Manuel J.


    This paper presents the development stage of a communication module for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model. The communication module was named. Simple-1 and this work considers its design, construction and testing. A rocket model Estes Ventris Series Pro II® was modified to introduce, on the top of the payload, several sensors in a CanSat form factor. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed and fabricated from Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components and assembled in a cylindrical rack structure similar to this small format satellite concept. The sensors data was processed using one Arduino Mini and transmitted using a radio module to a Software Defined Radio (SDR) HackRF based platform on the ground station. The Simple-1 was tested using a drone in successive releases, reaching altitudes from 200 to 300 meters. Different kind of data, in terms of altitude, position, atmospheric pressure and vehicle temperature were successfully measured, making possible the progress to a next stage of launching and analysis.

  20. Determining solid-fluid interface temperature distribution during phase change of cryogenic propellants using transient thermal modeling (United States)

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.


    Control of boil-off of cryogenic propellants is a continuing technical challenge for long duration space missions. Predicting phase change rates of cryogenic liquids requires an accurate estimation of solid-fluid interface temperature distributions in regions where a contact line or a thin liquid film exists. This paper described a methodology to predict inner wall temperature gradients with and without evaporation using discrete temperature measurements on the outer wall of a container. Phase change experiments with liquid hydrogen and methane in cylindrical test cells of various materials and sizes were conducted at the Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two types of tests were conducted. The first type of testing involved thermal cycling of an evacuated cell (dry) and the second involved controlled phase change with cryogenic liquids (wet). During both types of tests, temperatures were measured using Si-diode sensors mounted on the exterior surface of the test cells. Heat is transferred to the test cell by conduction through a helium exchange gas and through the cryostat sample holder. Thermal conduction through the sample holder is shown to be the dominant mode with the rate of heat transfer limited by six independent contact resistances. An iterative methodology is employed to determine contact resistances between the various components of the cryostat stick insert, test cell and lid using the dry test data. After the contact resistances are established, inner wall temperature distributions during wet tests are calculated.

  1. Localization and solitary waves in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Champneys, A R; Thompson, J M T


    This book is a collection of recent reprints and new material on fundamentally nonlinear problems in structural systems which demonstrate localized responses to continuous inputs. It has two intended audiences. For mathematicians and physicists it should provide useful new insights into a classical yet rapidly developing area of application of the rich subject of dynamical systems theory. For workers in structural and solid mechanics it introduces a new methodology for dealing with structural localization and the related topic of the generation of solitary waves. Applications range from classi

  2. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.


    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  3. Prilling and Coating of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN Solid Green Propellant in Toluene Mixture Using Ultrasound Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman


    Full Text Available Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN in its generic form has a long needle shaped structure, which hinders higher solid loading. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to optimize its crystal morphology into octagonal shapes. Moreover, the low critical humidity level of ADN renders it unusable in a humid climate. Hence, encapsulation with a hydrophobic polymer is necessary. In the present work, ADN was synthesized by nitration of potassium sulfamate with mixed acid nitration. The product was then mixed with toluene, graphene, citryl ammonium butyl, Cab-o-sil, and coating polymer (Polystyrene or HTPB and treated with ultrasound to obtain semi-spherical ADN-coated particles. The method offers a reduction in operating temperature and elimination of ADN melting in the shape-altering process. In addition, the ADN product has a similar particle size and thermal stability compared to those in a conventional ADN melt-prilling method. The ADN product investigated under SEM confirms the particle morphological change from long needles into semi-spherical shapes. The particle size obtained, in the micrometer range, is ideal for higher theoretical maximum density. Furthermore, the ultrasound-treated ADN particles show significant reduction in moisture absorption, from 68% to 16% at 65% relative humidity. The DSC result shows no degradation of thermal stability of the coated particles.

  4. Operating instabilities in big solid propellant engines; Instabilites de fonctionnement dans les moteurs a propergol solide de grande taille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallier, S.; Guery, J.F.; Godfroy, F. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion/ Centre de Recherches du Boucher, 91 - Vert le Petit (France); Lebreton, P.; Ribereau, D.; Cloutet, P. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion, 33 - Medard en Jalles (France)


    Some solid rocket motors (SRM) may exhibit instabilities during operation. Different kind of instabilities ore liable to occur depending on size or operating conditions. In extreme cases, instabilities may involve overage pressure shift sometimes leading to motor failure. In large SRM's, such as the ones used for space or strategic propulsion, instabilities become apparent as a thrust oscillation implying vibrations which can turn out to be severe for carrying load. In any cases, instabilities are unwanted and should be predicted as early as conception. Active research on instabilities on large SRM's showed they are dominated by some coupling between chamber acoustics and hydrodynamic instability. The latter arises from some vortex shedding stemming either from surface instability or unstable shear layers. Earlier, predictions were based on theoretical developments such as linear acoustic balance. Although still in use for a rough estimation, this approach has progressively been replaced by numerical simulations which now show supremacy for tackling complex geometries or flow patterns. However, simulations need to use adapted schemes and must also be assessed by numerous validations. This validation step is crucial to insure quality and trust for CFD. Indeed the flow inside an actual motor involves complex physics and only pressure is measured due to severe ambient conditions- Hence, CFD is often the only way to get an insight into the flow validation procedure is sustained by experimental data obtained either in large scale motors sub-scale motors or cold flow sub-scale facility. Cold flow experiments make the opportunity to use advanced measurement techniques (such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry or Particle Image Velocimetry) and contribute to enhanced validations, although the flow may differ from an actual motor flow. However, there is still some work left to bring CFD to a reliable prediction tool able to deal with arbitrary geometry or operating

  5. Asymptotic methods in mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Svetlana M; Smirnov, Andrei L; Tovstik, Petr E; Vaillancourt, Rémi


    The construction of solutions of singularly perturbed systems of equations and boundary value problems that are characteristic for the mechanics of thin-walled structures are the main focus of the book. The theoretical results are supplemented by the analysis of problems and exercises. Some of the topics are rarely discussed in the textbooks, for example, the Newton polyhedron, which is a generalization of the Newton polygon for equations with two or more parameters. After introducing the important concept of the index of variation for functions special attention is devoted to eigenvalue problems containing a small parameter. The main part of the book deals with methods of asymptotic solutions of linear singularly perturbed boundary and boundary value problems without or with turning points, respectively. As examples, one-dimensional equilibrium, dynamics and stability problems for rigid bodies and solids are presented in detail. Numerous exercises and examples as well as vast references to the relevant Russi...

  6. Simulation based engineering in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S


    This book begins with a brief historical perspective of the advent of rotating machinery in 20th century Solid Mechanics and the development of the discipline of the Strength of Materials. High Performance Computing (HPC) and Simulation Based Engineering Science (SBES) have gradually replaced the conventional approach in Design bringing science directly into engineering without approximations. A recap of the required mathematical principles is given. The science of deformation, strain and stress at a point under the application of external traction loads is next presented. Only one-dimensional structures classified as Bars (axial loads), Rods (twisting loads) and Beams (bending loads) are considered in this book. The principal stresses and strains and von Mises stress and strain that used in design of structures are next presented. Lagrangian solution was used to derive the governing differential equations consistent with assumed deformation field and solution for deformations, strains and stresses were obtai...

  7. Development and Characterization of a Novel Additive Manufacturing Technology Capable of Printing Propellants with High Solids Loadings (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ever since rockets have been around, there has been a demand to improve propulsion systems by increasing propellant performance in order to reduce production time...

  8. Investigation of the NACA 4-(3)(8)-045 Two-blade Propellers at Forward Mach Numbers to 0.725 to Determine the Effects of Compressibility and Solidity on Performance (United States)

    Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis


    As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.

  9. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks (United States)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.


    Yuzhnoye SDO developed several generations of launch vehicles and spacecraft that are characterized by weight perfection, optimal cost, accuracy of output geometrical characteristics, stable strength characteristics, high tightness. The main structural material of launch vehicles are thermally welded non-strengthened aluminium- magnesium alloys. The aluminium-magnesium alloys in the annealed state have insufficiently high strength characteristics. Considerable increase of yield strength of sheets and plates can be reached by cold working but in this case, plasticity reduces. An effective way to improve strength of aluminium-magnesium alloys is their alloying with scandium. The alloying with scandium leads to modification of the structure of ingots (size reduction of cast grain) and formation of supersaturated solid solutions of scandium and aluminium during crystallization. During subsequent heatings (annealing of the ingots, heating for deformation) the solid solution disintegrates with the formation of disperse particles of Al3Sc type, that cause great strengthening of the alloy. High degree of dispersion and density of distribution in the matrix of secondary Al3Sc particles contribute to the considerable increase of the temperature of recrystallization of deformed intermediate products and to the formation of stable non-recrystallized structure. The alloying of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium increases their strength and operational characteristics, preserves their technological and corrosion properties, improves weldability. The alloys can be used within the temperature limits ­196-/+150 0C. The experimental structures of propellant tanks made of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium have been manufactured and tested. It was ascertained that the propellant tanks have higher margin of safety during loading with internal pressure and higher stability factor of the shrouds during loading with axial compression force which is caused by higher value

  10. MIR/NIR/FIR characterization of poly-ammo and poly-bamo and their precursors as energetic binders to Be used in solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Irineu S. de; Diniz, Milton F.; Kawamoto, Aparecida M.; Dutra, Rita C.L. [Divisao de Quimica (AQI) Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE) do Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 Campus do CTA - Vila das Acacias, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos - SP (Brazil); Keicher, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institut Chemische Technologie (ICT), Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7, 76327 Pfinztal (Germany)


    To establish the relation between structure and properties of composite solid propellants it is important to know the structure of the elastomeric binder that has been used in the system. Therefore this study is focused on the characterization of polymers containing energetic groups that has been synthesized at ICT. The characterization uses the wide spectral band of infrared, NIR/MIR/FIR. This gives an identification of the analytical bands and allows quantitative and kinetic studies of these compounds. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Presentation of an approach for the analysis of the mechanical response of propellant under a large spectrum of loadings: numerical and mechanical issues (United States)

    Fanget, Alain


    Many authors claim that to understand the response of a propellant, specifically under quasi static and dynamic loading, the mesostructural morphology and the mechanical behaviour of each of its components have to be known. However the scale of the mechanical description of the behaviour of a propellant is relative to its heterogeneities and the wavelength of loading. The shorter it is, the more important the topological description of the material is. In our problems, involving the safety of energetic materials, the propellant can be subjected to a large spectrum of loadings. This presentation is divided into five parts. The first part describes the processes used to extract the information about the morphology of the meso-structure of the material and presents some results. The results, the difficulties and the perspectives for this part will be recalled. The second part determines the physical processes involved at this scale from experimental results. Taking into account the knowledge of the morphology, two ways have been chosen to describe the response of the material. One concerns the quasi static loading, the object of the third part, in which we show how we use the mesoscopic scale as a base of development to build constitutive models. The fourth part presents for low but dynamic loading the comparison between numerical analysis and experiments.

  12. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm


    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  13. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL


    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  14. Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene


    Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).

  15. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.


    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  16. Structure Formation Mechanisms during Solid Ti with Molten Al Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L; Pronichev, D; Trunov, M


    The study discuses advantages and disadvantages of previously proposed mechanisms of the formation of structure between solid Ti and molten Al and presents a new mechanism based on the reviewed and experimental data. The previously proposed mechanisms were classified into three groups: mechanisms of precipitation, mechanisms of destruction and mechanisms of chemical interaction between intermetallics and melt. The reviewed mechanisms did not explain the formation of heterogeneous interlayer with globular aluminide particles and thin layers of pure Al, while the present study reveals variation in the solid Ti/molten Al reaction kinetics during various phases of laminated metal-intermetallic composite formation. The proposed mechanism considers formed during composite fabrication thin oxide interlayers between Ti and Al evolution and its impact on the intermetallic compound formation and explains the initial slow rate of intermetallic interlayer formation and its subsequent acceleration when the oxide foils are ruptured. (paper)

  17. New Propellants and Cryofuels (United States)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.


    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  18. Mechanisms of bacterial metals removal from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.


    The Great Lakes area sediments are contaminated with varying amounts of heavy metals and polychlorinated organic matter. With respect to the bioremediation of metallic contents of these sediments, it was shown that a number of microorganisms exist which can effectively solubilize heavy metals. The basic reaction mechanisms of bioleaching processes were discussed and the effects of semiconductor character of the sulfide substrate explained. A special emphasis was made to comment on INEL's bioremediation capability. 37 refs

  19. New diffusion mechanism for high temperature diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Adda, Y.


    A new atomic transport mechanism in solids at high temperatures has been discovered by Molecular Dynamics computer simulation. It can be described as a ring sequence of atomic replacements induced by unstable Frenkel pairs. This transport process takes place without stable defects, the atomic migration occurring indeed by simultaneous creation and migration of unstable defects. Starting from the analysis of this mechanism in different solids at high temperature (CaF 2 , Na, Ar) and in irradiated copper by subthreshold collisions, we discuss the role of this mechanism on various diffusion controlled phenomena and also on the atomic processes of defect creation

  20. 75 FR 12148 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part... (United States)


    ... propeller pitch by regulating oil pressure to the propeller pitch change mechanism. Changes in governor oil..., the propeller governor cannot control oil pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism. This... proposing this AD to prevent loss of propeller pitch control, damage to the propeller governor, and internal...

  1. General aspects of solid on liquid growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, E; Charmet, J; Haquette, H; Banakh, O; Jeandupeux, L; Graf, B; Keppner, H


    Liquids, in general, tend to have a lower density as solids and therefore it is not straightforward to deposit solid over liquids in a way that the liquid becomes hermetically sealed under the solid layer. The authors review that several phenomena that can easily be observed in nature are only due to particular anomalies and solid on liquid is rather an exception as the rule. Natural solid on liquid systems are lacking of thermal, mechanical or chemical stability. It is not surprising, that one is not at all used thinking about to e.g. replace the gate oxide in a thin film transistor by a thin film of oil, or, to find in other microsystems functional liquids between a stack of thin solid films. However, once this becomes a serious option, a large variety of new Microsystems with new functionalities can be easily designed. In another paper (this conference and [1]) the authors pioneered that the polymer Parylene (poly(p-xylylene)) can be deposited on liquids coming already quite close to the above mentioned vision. In this paper the authors ask if one can synthesize other solid on liquid systems and surprisingly conclude, based on experimental evidence, that solid on liquid deposition seems to rather be the rule and not the exception.

  2. Uranium mine venting during operation of self-propelled Diesel engine mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemer, M.


    A draft directive has been issued for the ventilation of uranium mines which takes into consideration the concentration of radon daughter products, radon volume activity as well as the concentration of harmful wastes emitted by the Diesel engines of mining mechanisms. The mathematical relations are given for the calculation of the required amount of pure mine winds. Also listed are the technical requirements for ventilation, dust emission and the control and maintenance of mining mechanisms. (M.D.)

  3. Fundamentals of the mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo Maria


    This distinctive textbook aims to introduce readers to the basic structures of the mechanics of deformable bodies, with a special emphasis on the description of the elastic behavior of simple materials and structures composed by elastic beams.  The authors take a deductive rather than inductive approach and start from a few first, foundational principles.  A wide selection of exercises, many with hints and solutions, are provided throughout and organized in a way that will allow readers to form a link between abstract mathematical concepts and real-world applications. The text begins with the definition of bodies and deformations, keeping the kinematics of rigid bodies as a special case; the authors also distinguish between material and spatial metrics, defining each one in the pertinent space.  Subsequent chapters cover observers and classes of possible changes; forces, torques, and related balances, which are derived from the invariance under classical changes in observers of the power of the external ...

  4. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.


    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  5. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism. (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A


    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  6. Process for the leaching of AP from propellant (United States)

    Shaw, G. C.; Mcintosh, M. J. (Inventor)


    A method for the recovery of ammonium perchlorate from waste solid rocket propellant is described wherein shredded particles of the propellant are leached with an aqueous leach solution containing a low concentration of surface active agent while stirring the suspension.

  7. Office of Naval Research: Solid and Structural Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belytschenko, T.; Murphy, W.P.; Bernitsas, M.M.


    The goal of this report is to pursue a new paradigm for basic research in Solid and Structural Mechanics in order to serve the needs of the Navy of the 21st century. The framework for the report was established through meetings of the committee with Navy engineers and Office of Naval Research...

  8. Multiscale methods in computational fluid and solid mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, de R.; Hulshoff, S.J.; Lenz, S.; Munts, E.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Wall, W.; Wesseling, P.; Onate, E.; Periaux, J.


    First, an attempt is made towards gaining a more systematic understanding of recent progress in multiscale modelling in computational solid and fluid mechanics. Sub- sequently, the discussion is focused on variational multiscale methods for the compressible and incompressible Navier-Stokes

  9. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.46 Example Problems Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael


    Presented in this document are tests that exist in the Sierra/SolidMechanics example problem suite, which is a subset of the Sierra/SM regression and performance test suite. These examples showcase common and advanced code capabilities. A wide variety of other regression and verification tests exist in the Sierra/SM test suite that are not included in this manual.

  10. Experimental analysis of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The booklet presents abstracts of papers from the Euromech Colloqium No. 152 held from Sept. 20th to 24th, 1982 in Wuppertal, Federal Republic of Germany. All the papers are dealing with Experimental Analysis of Nonlinear Problems in Solid Mechanics. (RW)

  11. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System (United States)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia


    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  12. Granular deformation mechanisms in semi-solid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlay, C.M.; Dahle, A.K.; Nagira, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Nogita, K.; Uesugi, K.; Yasuda, H.


    Deformation mechanisms in equiaxed, partially solid Al-15 wt.% Cu are studied in situ by coupling shear-cell experiments with synchrotron X-ray radiography. Direct evidence is presented for granular deformation mechanisms in both globular and equiaxed-dendritic samples at solid fractions shortly after crystal impingement. It is demonstrated that dilatancy, arching and jamming occur at the crystal scale, and that these can cause stick-slip flow due to periodic dilation and compaction at low displacement rate. Granular deformation is found to be similar in globular and equiaxed-dendritic samples if length is scaled by the crystal size and packing is considered to occur among crystal envelopes. Rheological differences between the morphologies are discussed in terms of the competition between crystal rearrangement and crystal deformation.

  13. Friction mechanisms and interfacial slip at fluid-solid interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, L


    We present series of experiments based on near field laser velocimetry, developed to characterize the friction mechanisms at fluid-solid interfaces. For polymers, entangled polymer melts are sheared against smooth solid surfaces, covered by surface attached polymer chains of the same chemical species, having a controlled surface density. Direct measurements of the interfacial velocity and of the shear force allow identification of the molecular mechanisms of friction. Depending on the value of the inverse of the shear rate experienced by the polymer compared to the reptation time, the transition between a regime of high and a regime of low friction observed when increasing the shear rate can be related to disentanglement or to the extraction of the surface chains from the bulk polymer. Surfaces with adjusted friction properties can thus be designed by choosing chain anchored length and surface density. For simple fluids, the direct measurements of the interfacial velocity show that, contrary to the usual hypo...

  14. Mechanisms of elastic wave generation in solids by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deemer, B.; Murphy, J.; Claytor, T.


    This study is directed at understanding the mechanisms of acoustic signal generation by modulated beams of energetic ions as a function of ion energy. Interaction of ions with solids initiates a range of processes including sputtering, ion implantation, ionization, both internal and external, as well as thermal deposition in the solid. Accumulated internal stress also occurs by generation of dislocations resulting from, inelastic nuclear scattering of the incident ion beam. With respect to elastic wave generation, two potential mechanisms are thermoelastic induced stress and momentum transfer. The latter process includes contributions of momentum transfer from the incident beam and from ions ejected via sputtering. Other aspects of the generation process include the potential for shock wave generation since the mean particle velocity for a wide range of ion energies exceeds the velocity of sound in solids. This study seeks to distinguish the contribution of these mechanisms by studying the signature, angular distribution and energy dependence of the elastic wave response in the time domain and to use this information to understand technologically important processes such as implantation and sputtering

  15. Solid tumors are poroelastic solids with a chemo-mechanical feedback on growth. (United States)

    Ambrosi, D; Pezzuto, S; Riccobelli, D; Stylianopoulos, T; Ciarletta, P


    The experimental evidence that a feedback exists between growth and stress in tumors poses challenging questions. First, the rheological properties (the "constitutive equations") of aggregates of malignant cells are still a matter of debate. Secondly, the feedback law (the "growth law") that relates stress and mitotic-apoptotic rate is far to be identified. We address these questions on the basis of a theoretical analysis of in vitro and in vivo experiments that involve the growth of tumor spheroids. We show that solid tumors exhibit several mechanical features of a poroelastic material, where the cellular component behaves like an elastic solid. When the solid component of the spheroid is loaded at the boundary, the cellular aggregate grows up to an asymptotic volume that depends on the exerted compression. Residual stress shows up when solid tumors are radially cut, highlighting a peculiar tensional pattern. By a novel numerical approach we correlate the measured opening angle and the underlying residual stress in a sphere. The features of the mechanobiological system can be explained in terms of a feedback of mechanics on the cell proliferation rate as modulated by the availability of nutrient, that is radially damped by the balance between diffusion and consumption. The volumetric growth profiles and the pattern of residual stress can be theoretically reproduced assuming a dependence of the target stress on the concentration of nutrient which is specific of the malignant tissue.

  16. Parametric study on vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrullah, S., E-mail: [Center of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamed, N.M. [Center of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Shaharun, M.S. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Naz, M.Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)


    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) process parameters on growth mechanism, morphology and purity of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanotubes were produced in a vertical FBCVD reactor by catalytic decomposition of ethylene over Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported nano-iron catalyst buds at different flow rates. FESEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TGA thermograms were used to elaborate the growth parameters of the as grown MWCNTs. As the growth process was driven by the process temperatures well below the iron-carbon eutectic temperature (1147 °C), the appearance of graphite platelets from the crystallographic faces of the catalyst particles suggested a solid form of the catalyst during CNT nucleation. A vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth mechanism was predicted for nucleation of MWCNTs with very low activation energy. The nanotubes grown at optimized temperature and ethylene flow rate posed high graphitic symmetry, purity, narrow diameter distribution and shorter inter-layer spacing. In Raman and TGA analyses, small I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio and residual mass revealed negligible ratios of structural defects and amorphous carbon in the product. However, several structural defects and impurity elements were spotted in the nanotubes grown under unoptimized process parameters. - Graphical abstract: Arrhenius plot of relatively pure MWCNTs grown over Al2O3 supported nano-iron buds. - Highlights: • Vapor–solid–solid growth mechanism of MWCNTs was studied in a vertical FBCVD reactor. • MWCNTs were grown over Al2O3 supported nano-iron buds at very low activation energy. • FBCVD reactor was operated at temperatures well below the iron-carbon eutectic point. • Ideally graphitized structures were obtained at a process temperature of 800 °C. • Tube diameter revealed a narrow distribution of 20–25 nm at the optimum temperature.

  17. Parametric study on vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrullah, S.; Mohamed, N.M.; Shaharun, M.S.; Naz, M.Y.


    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) process parameters on growth mechanism, morphology and purity of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanotubes were produced in a vertical FBCVD reactor by catalytic decomposition of ethylene over Al_2O_3 supported nano-iron catalyst buds at different flow rates. FESEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TGA thermograms were used to elaborate the growth parameters of the as grown MWCNTs. As the growth process was driven by the process temperatures well below the iron-carbon eutectic temperature (1147 °C), the appearance of graphite platelets from the crystallographic faces of the catalyst particles suggested a solid form of the catalyst during CNT nucleation. A vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth mechanism was predicted for nucleation of MWCNTs with very low activation energy. The nanotubes grown at optimized temperature and ethylene flow rate posed high graphitic symmetry, purity, narrow diameter distribution and shorter inter-layer spacing. In Raman and TGA analyses, small I_D/I_G ratio and residual mass revealed negligible ratios of structural defects and amorphous carbon in the product. However, several structural defects and impurity elements were spotted in the nanotubes grown under unoptimized process parameters. - Graphical abstract: Arrhenius plot of relatively pure MWCNTs grown over Al2O3 supported nano-iron buds. - Highlights: • Vapor–solid–solid growth mechanism of MWCNTs was studied in a vertical FBCVD reactor. • MWCNTs were grown over Al2O3 supported nano-iron buds at very low activation energy. • FBCVD reactor was operated at temperatures well below the iron-carbon eutectic point. • Ideally graphitized structures were obtained at a process temperature of 800 °C. • Tube diameter revealed a narrow distribution of 20–25 nm at the optimum temperature.

  18. Development of a Low Strain-Rate Gun Propellant Bed Compression Test and its Use in Evaluating Mechanical Response (United States)


    compression may be expected, as there will be minimal void spaces remaining into which fragmentation or plastic flow is possible. This behaviour is...Universal gas constant (8.314 J.K-1.mol-1) r Radial position ro Outer die radius ri Inner die radius SA Surface Area SR Secret Research relatively simple to perform and is reported to provide good indications with respect to propellant bed behaviour during the first stages of

  19. Tissue Acoustoelectric Effect Modeling From Solid Mechanics Theory. (United States)

    Song, Xizi; Qin, Yexian; Xu, Yanbin; Ingram, Pier; Witte, Russell S; Dong, Feng


    The acoustoelectric (AE) effect is a basic physical phenomenon, which underlies the changes made in the conductivity of a medium by the application of focused ultrasound. Recently, based on the AE effect, several biomedical imaging techniques have been widely studied, such as ultrasound-modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound current source density imaging. To further investigate the mechanism of the AE effect in tissue and to provide guidance for such techniques, we have modeled the tissue AE effect using the theory of solid mechanics. Both bulk compression and thermal expansion of tissue are considered and discussed. Computation simulation shows that the muscle AE effect result, conductivity change rate, is 3.26×10 -3 with 4.3-MPa peak pressure, satisfying the theoretical value. Bulk compression plays the main role for muscle AE effect, while thermal expansion makes almost no contribution to it. In addition, the AE signals of porcine muscle are measured at different focal positions. With the same magnitude order and the same change trend, the experiment result confirms that the simulation result is effective. Both simulation and experimental results validate that tissue AE effect modeling using solid mechanics theory is feasible, which is of significance for the further development of related biomedical imaging techniques.

  20. Introduction to electronic relaxation in solids: mechanisms and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.


    The fluctuations of electronic magnetic moments in solids may be investigated by several techniques, either electronic or nuclear. This paper is an introduction of the most frequently encountered paramagnetic relaxation mechanisms (phonons, conduction electrons, exchange or dipolar interactions) in condensed matter, and to the different techniques used for measuring relaxation frequencies: electronic paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, measurement of longitudinal ac susceptibility and γ-γ perturbed angular correlations. We mainly focus our attention on individual ionic fluctuation spectra, the majority of the experimental work refered to concerning rare earth systems [fr

  1. Virtual work and shape change in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Frémond, Michel


    This book provides novel insights into two basic subjects in solid mechanics: virtual work and shape change. When we move a solid, the work we expend in moving it is used to modify both its shape and its velocity. This observation leads to the Principle of Virtual Work. Virtual work depends linearly on virtual velocities, which are velocities we may think of. The virtual work of the internal forces accounts for the changes in shape. Engineering provides innumerable examples of shape changes, i.e., deformations, and of velocities of deformation. This book presents examples of usual and unusual shape changes, providing with the Principle of Virtual Work various and sometimes new equations of motion for smooth and non-smooth (i.e., with collisions) motions: systems of disks, systems of balls, classical and non-classical small deformation theories, systems involving volume and surface damage, systems with interactions at a distance (e.g., solids reinforced by fibers), systems involving porosity, beams with third ...

  2. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri


    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  3. Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids Bars and Beams

    CERN Document Server

    H Allen, David


    Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids: Bars and Beams introduces the theory of beams and bars, including axial, torsion, and bending loading and analysis of bars that are subjected to combined loadings, including resulting complex stress states using Mohr’s circle. The book  provides failure analysis based on maximum stress criteria and introduces design using models developed in the text. Throughout the book, the author emphasizes fundamentals, including consistent mathematical notation. The author also presents the fundamentals of the mechanics of solids in such a way that the beginning student is able to progress directly to a follow-up course that utilizes two- and three-dimensional finite element codes imbedded within modern software packages for structural design purposes. As such, excessive details included in the previous generation of textbooks on the subject are obviated due to their obsolescence with the availability of today’s finite element software packages. This book also:...

  4. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste. (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin


    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled release systems containing solid dispersions: strategies and mechanisms. (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Park, Jun Bom; Lee, Beom-Jin


    In addition to a number of highly soluble drugs, most new chemical entities under development are poorly water-soluble drugs generally characterized by an insufficient dissolution rate and a small absorption window, leading to the low bioavailability. Controlled-release (CR) formulations have several potential advantages over conventional dosage forms, such as providing a uniform and prolonged therapeutic effect to improve patient compliance, reducing the frequency of dosing, minimizing the number of side effects, and reducing the strength of the required dose while increasing the effectiveness of the drug. Solid dispersions (SD) can be used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and to sustain the drug release by choosing an appropriate carrier. Thus, a CR-SD comprises both functions of SD and CR for poorly water-soluble drugs. Such CR dosage forms containing SD provide an immediately available dose for an immediate action followed by a gradual and continuous release of subsequent doses to maintain the plasma concentration of poorly water-soluble drugs over an extended period of time. This review aims to summarize all currently known aspects of controlled release systems containing solid dispersions, focusing on the preparation methods, mechanisms of action and characterization of physicochemical properties of the system.

  6. Solid state amorphisation in binary systems prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Bonyuet, D.; D'Angelo, L.; Villalba, R.


    In the present work a detailed study of amorphisation in different systems prepared by mechanical alloying under the same experimental conditions was carried out, milling up to 50 and 100 h in some cases. The systems studied were: AlTi, AlNi, AlFe, FeNi, FeCo, NiMo, NiW, NiCo, MoW, CoMo. These systems were chosen to study the effect of Al-transition metal, transition metal-transition metal and also systems with large and small negative heat of mixing, different and similar crystal structures, atomic sizes and diffusion coefficients. Calculations based on the Miedema model for alloy formation and amorphisation on all the alloys studied were performed. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the systems based on Fe (FeNi, FeCo and FeAl) did not amorphised, even after milling for 100 h, and formed a stable solid solution with a nanometric grain size of 7 nm. The systems NiMo, NiW, MoW and CoMo (systems with small negative heat of mixing), showed amorphisation after 50 h of milling. NiAl and TiAl form an intermediate amorphous phase after around 20 h of milling and with further milling they recrystallize into a fcc solid solution. Agreement between the theoretical calculations based on the Miedema model and the experimental results was found in most of the systems.

  7. Full-field measurements and identification in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grediac, Michel


    This timely book presents cutting-edge developments by experts in the field on the rapidly developing and scientifically challenging area of full-field measurement techniques used in solid mechanics - including photoelasticity, grid methods, deflectometry, holography, speckle interferometry and digital image correlation. The evaluation of strains and the use of the measurements in subsequent parameter identification techniques to determine material properties are also presented. Since parametric identification techniques require a close coupling of theoretical models and experimental measurements, the book focuses on specific modeling approaches that include finite element model updating, the equilibrium gap method, constitutive equation gap method, virtual field method and reciprocity gap method. In the latter part of the book, the authors discuss two particular applications of selected methods that are of special interest to many investigators: the analysis of localized phenomenon and connections between mi...

  8. Stochastic upscaling in solid mechanics: An excercise in machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsourelakis, P.S.


    This paper presents a consistent theoretical and computational framework for upscaling in random microstructures. We adopt an information theoretic approach in order to quantify the informational content of the microstructural details and find ways to condense it while assessing quantitatively the approximation introduced. In particular, we substitute the high-dimensional microscale description by a lower-dimensional representation corresponding for example to an equivalent homogeneous medium. The probabilistic characteristics of the latter are determined by minimizing the distortion between actual macroscale predictions and the predictions made using the coarse model. A machine learning framework is essentially adopted in which a vector quantizer is trained using data generated computationally or collected experimentally. Several parallels and differences with similar problems in source coding theory are pointed out and an efficient computational tool is employed. Various applications in linear and non-linear problems in solid mechanics are examined

  9. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William


    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  10. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 Verification Tests Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.


    Presented in this document is a small portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra / SolidMechanics (Sierra / SM) verification test suite. Most of these tests are run nightly with the Sierra / SM code suite, and the results of the test are checked versus the correct analytical result. For each of the tests presented in this document, the test setup, a description of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra / SM code results to the analytic solution is provided. Mesh convergence is also checked on a nightly basis for several of these tests. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems. Additional example problems are provided in the Sierra / SM Example Problems Manual. Note, many other verification tests exist in the Sierra / SM test suite, but have not yet been included in this manual.

  11. Perancangan Propeler Self-Propelled Barge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Teguh kurniawan


    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyampaikan suatu penelitian tentang perancangan propeler yang optimal beserta pemilihan daya mesin yang efisien pada self-propelled barge dengan memperhitungkan besarnya nilai tahanan dari barge tersebut. Dengan penambahan sistem propulsi, diharapkan barge dapat beroperasi dengan lebih efisien dibandingkan saat barge beroperasi menggunakan sistem towing atau ditarik tug boat. Perhitungan tahanan barge dilakukan menggunakan metode Holtrop dan Guldhammer-Harvald sehingga dapat diperhi-tungkan geometri dan jenis propeler yang optimal beserta daya mesin yang efisien untuk barge. Propeler yang dianalisis adalah propeler tipe B-Troost Series, sedangkan variasi yang dilakukan untuk perencanaan propeler pada kajian ini adalah variasi putaran propeler pada rentang antara 310-800 rpm, serta variasi jumlah daun pada rentang tiga, empat, lima, dan enam. Besarnya nilai tahanan self-propelled barge untuk metode Holtrop adalah 105.91 kilonewton, sedangkan hasil per-hitungan dari metode Guldhammer-Harvald didapatkan nilai sebesar 109.14 kilonewton. Tipe propeler yang dipilih setelah dilakukan uji kavitasi adalah tipe Troost Series B4-40, dengan diameter sebesar 2.1 m, efisiensi sebesar 0.421, pitch ratio se-besar 0.591, dengan putaran propeler 400 rpm. Daya mesin yg dibutuhkan barge pada kondisi maksimum (BHPMCR sebesar 1669.5 HP. Dengan mempertimbangkan daya tersebut, maka dipilih mesin jenis Caterpillar tipe Marine 3516B yang mem-punyai daya maksimum sebesar 1285 kilowatt atau 1722.5 horsepower dengan putaran mesin sebesar 1200 rpm

  12. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu


    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  13. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  14. Significance of Strain in Formulation in Theory of Solid Mechanics (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.


    The basic theory of solid mechanics was deemed complete circa 1860 when St. Venant provided the strain formulation or the field compatibility condition. The strain formulation was incomplete. The missing portion has been formulated and identified as the boundary compatibility condition (BCC). The BCC, derived through a variational formulation, has been verified through integral theorem and solution of problems. The BCC, unlike the field counterpart, do not trivialize when expressed in displacements. Navier s method and the stiffness formulation have to account for the extra conditions especially at the inter-element boundaries in a finite element model. Completion of the strain formulation has led to the revival of the direct force calculation methods: the Integrated Force Method (IFM) and its dual (IFMD) for finite element analysis, and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF) in elasticity. The benefits from the new methods in elasticity, in finite element analysis, and in design optimization are discussed. Existing solutions and computer codes may have to be adjusted for the compliance of the new conditions. Complacency because the discipline is over a century old and computer codes have been developed for half a century can lead to stagnation of the discipline.

  15. Changing of ballistic parameters from aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Driel, C.A. van


    The various properties of an SB and a DB gun propellant were investigated before and after artificial ageing. It was found that the decrease of nitrocellulose (NC) molecular weight, due to ageing of gun propellants, leads to a decrease of the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. The effect

  16. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul


    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... propeller, have efficiency increases of a reasonable magnitude in both open-water and behind-ship conditions....

  17. A research on polyether glycol replaced APCP rocket propellant (United States)

    Lou, Tianyou; Bao, Chun Jia; Wang, Yiyang


    Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing it with black powder. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. For traditional APCP, ingredients normally used are ammonium peroxide, aluminum, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB), curing agency and other additives, the greatest disadvantage is that the fuel is too expensive. According to the price we collected in our country, a single kilogram of this fuel will cost 200 Yuan, which is about 35 dollars, for a fan who may use tons of the fuel in a single year, it definitely is a great deal of money. For this reason, we invented a new kind of APCP fuel. Changing adhesive agency from cross-linked htpb to cross linked polyether glycol gives a similar specific thrust, density and mechanical property while costs a lower price.

  18. On the Motion of solids in modified quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.


    In this paper we apply the unified dynamics of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber to the translational and rotational motion of solids in three dimensions. We show that, in a certain approximation, the rotational equations can formally be reduced to the translational ones already known. We point out that the rotation of solids as well as their translation are practically of classical nature without any observable quantum effects

  19. Design and simulation on the morphing composite propeller (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chen, Fanlong; Li, Qinyu; Liu, Liwu; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong


    As one of the most crucial part of the unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), the composite propeller plays an important role on the UUV's performance. As the composite propeller behaves excellent properties in hydroelastic facet and acoustic suppression, it attracts increasing attentions all over the globe. This paper goes a step further based on this idea, and comes up with a novel concept of "morphing composite propeller" (MCP) to improve the performance of the conventional composite propeller (CCP) to anticipate the improved propeller can perform better to propel the UUV. Based on the new concept, a novel MCP is designed. Each blade of the propeller is assembled with an active rotatable flap (ARF) to change the blade's local camber with flap rotation. Then the transmission mechanism (TM) has been designed and housed in the propeller blade to push the ARF. With the ARF rotating, the UUV can be propelled by different thrusts under certain rotation velocities of the propeller. Based on the design, the Fluent is exploited to analyze the fluid dynamics around the propeller. Finally, based on the design and hydrodynamic analysis, the structural response for the novel morphing composite propeller is calculated. The propeller blade is simplified and layered with composite materials. And the structure response of an MCP is obtained with various rotation angle under the hydrodynamic pressure. This simulation can instruct the design and fabrication techniques of the MCP.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Ice Impacts on Azimuth Propeller (United States)


    uniformity as one solid object, though the built-on process is recognized as well. The number of blades for this propeller varies to control cavitation ...Figure 7). The CRP allows the hydrodynamic advantage of regaining lost rotational energy from the first propeller, which is the speeds flow through and accelerates it past the propellers. Decelerating duct slows the flow and allows for greatly reduced cavitation and

  1. Mechanical behavior and microstructure during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Weiwei; Luo Shoujing


    Mechanical behavior during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content is researched in this paper. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and rare earth elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains globular before the compression. Here, several groups of true strain-true stress curves with different variables during compression are given to make comparisons of their mechanical behaviors. Liquid paths were the most essential to deformation, and its variation during compression depends on the strain rate. Here, thixotropic strength is defined as the true stress at the first peak in the true stress-true strain curve

  2. Vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism driven by an epitaxial match between solid Au Zn alloy catalyst particle and Zn O nano wire at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Leonardo C.; Tonezzer, Matteo; Ferlauto, Andre S.; Magalhaes-Paniago, Rogerio; Oliveira, Sergio; Ladeira, Luiz O.; Lacerda, Rodrigo G.


    Nowadays, the growth of nano materials, like nano wires and nano tubes, is one of the key research areas of nano technology. However, a full picture of the growth mechanism of these quasi-one dimensional systems still needs to be achieved if these materials are to be applied electronics, biology and medicinal fields. Nevertheless, in spite of considerable advances on the growth of numerous nano wires, a clear understanding of the growth mechanism is still controversial and highly discussed. The present work provides a comprehensive picture of the precise mechanism of Zn O vapor-solid-solid (VSS) nano wire growth at low temperatures and gives the fundamental reasons responsible. We demonstrate by using a combination of synchrotron XRD and high resolution TEM that the growth dynamics at low temperatures is not governed by the well-known vapor-liquid solid (VLS) mechanisms. A critical new insight on the driving factor of VSS growth is proposed in which the VSS process occurs by a solid diffusion mechanism that is driven by a preferential oxidation process of the Zn inside the alloy catalyst induced by an epitaxial match between the Zn O(10-10) plane and the γ-Au Zn(222) plane. We believe that these results are not only important for the understanding of Zn O nano wire growth but could also have significant impact on the understanding of growth mechanisms of other nano wire systems. (author)

  3. Phase nucleation and evolution mechanisms in heterogeneous solids (United States)

    Udupa, Anirudh

    Phase nucleation and evolution is a problem of critical importance in many applications. As the length scales are reduced, it becomes increasingly important to consider interfacial and micro-structural effects that can be safely ignored at larger length scales owing to randomness. The theory of phase nucleation has been addressed usually by the classical nucleation theory, which was originally derived for single component fluid systems, after making an assumption of equilibrium. The criterion has not been rigorously derived for solids, which are far from equilibrium due to dissipation by multiple physical drivers. In this thesis, a thermodynamically sound nucleation criterion is derived for systems with multiple interacting physical phenomena and multiple dissipating mechanisms. This is done, using the tools of continuum mechanics, by determining the change in free energy upon the introduction of a new nucleus into the system. The developed theory is demonstrated to be a generalization of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The developed theory is then applied to the problem of electromigration driven void nucleation, a serious reliability concern for the microelectronics industry. The void grows and eventually severs the line making the chip nonfunctional. There are two classes of theories at present in the electromigration literature to address the problem of void nucleation, the vacancy supersaturation theory and the entropic dissipation theory, both of which are empirical and based on intuition developed from experimental observations. When the developed theory was applied to the problem of electromigration, it was found to be consistent with the vacancy supersaturation theory, but provided the correct energetic quantity, the chemical potential, which has contribution from both the vacancy concentration as well as the hydrostatic stress. An experiment, consisting of electromigration tests on serpentine lines, was developed to validate the developed

  4. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes. (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A


    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  5. Annual report OF THE Solids Mechanics Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Research on branching and stability in plasticity and fracture; rock mechanics; damage and fatigue; expertsystems; and soil mechanics is presented. Nuclear waste disposal in geological formations is considered [fr

  6. Energy barriers and mechanisms in solid-solid polymorphic transitions exhibiting cooperative motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ende, J.A.; Ensing, B.; Cuppen, H.M.


    Understanding solid–solid polymorphic transitions within molecular crystals on the molecular scale is a challenging task. It is, however, crucial for the understanding of transitions that are thought to occur through cooperative motion, which offer an interesting perspective for future applications.

  7. Propellant Preparation Laboratory Complex (Area1-21) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-21 is an explosion resistant complex of nine cells built into the side of a granite ridge. Three solid propellant cutting cells are housed in the...

  8. Adsorbed Polymer Nanolayers on Solids: Mechanism, Structure and Applications (United States)

    Sen, Mani Kuntal

    In this thesis, by combining various advanced x-ray scattering, spectroscopic and other surface sensitive characterization techniques, I report the equilibrium polymer chain conformations, structures, dynamics and properties of polymeric materials at the solid-polymer melt interfaces. Following the introduction, in chapter 2, I highlight that the backbone chains (constituted of CH and CH2 groups) of the flattened polystyrene (PS) chains preferentially orient normal to the weakly interactive substrate surface via thermal annealing regardless of the initial chain conformations, while the orientation of the phenyl rings becomes randomized, thereby increasing the number of surface-segmental contacts (i.e., enthalpic gain) which is the driving force for the flattening process of the polymer chains even onto a weakly interactive solid. In chapter 3, I elucidate the flattened structures in block copolymer (BCP) thin films where both blocks lie flat on the substrate, forming a 2D randomly phase-separated structure irrespective of their microdomain structures and interfacial energetics. In chapter 4, I reveal the presence of an irreversibly adsorbed BCP layer which showed suppressed dynamics even at temperatures far above the individual glass transition temperatures of the blocks. Furthermore, this adsorbed BCP layer plays a crucial role in controlling the microdomain orientation in the entire film. In chapter 5, I report a radically new paradigm of designing a polymeric coating layer of a few nanometers thick ("polymer nanolayer") with anti-biofouling properties.

  9. On two possible mechanisms of metallic island remotion from solid surface at heavy multicharged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, I.V.; Geguzin, Ya.E.; Monastyrenko, V.E.


    Two mechanisms of energy transfer from a moving ion to a metallic island film on a solid surface are described. A particular case when the energy transfer quantity is enough to remove an island from the solid surface breaking adhesion bond is considered. One mechanism is 'shaking off', another one is a 'jumping up' mechanism. The essence of the first mechanism is that an ion bombarding the surface excites a cylindrical shock wave with a front that can 'shake off' islands from the solid surface along the ion trajectory when it reaches the surface. An island is heated in pulsed mode, and during thermal expansion it should push off the substrate, and so it jumps up. The pure case of such mechanism is observed when an ion transverses an island and transfers energy to the latter one that is defined by the quantity of ion energy losses in the island

  10. Annual report of the Solids Mechanics Laboratory, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Research on the plasticity of metals and soils; fracture mechanics; shell stability and deformation; homogenization; rheology of rocks as a function of temperature; rheology of wood; similitude in dynamics and quasi-statics; anchoring; vibrothermography; calculation of the stability of underground structures; composite materials; soil reinforcement; and wave propagation is presented [fr

  11. Finite element procedures for coupled linear analysis of heat transfer, fluid and solid mechanics (United States)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.


    Coupled finite element formulations for fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and solid mechanics are derived from the conservation laws for energy, mass, and momentum. To model the physics of interactions among the participating disciplines, the linearized equations are coupled by combining domain and boundary coupling procedures. Iterative numerical solution strategy is presented to solve the equations, with the partitioning of temporal discretization implemented.

  12. kinematic design of lift-tipping mechanism for small solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. A number of small waste collection trucks such as tricycles are in use in a number of developing countries. The use of such technology has been popular in a country like Ghana. This paper presents a design of lift-tipping mechanism for small solid waste collection trucks. A five bar mechanism is developed with ...

  13. Use of near infared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  14. Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  15. Formation of amorphous Ti-50at.%Pt by solid state reactions during mechanical alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlatji, ML


    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying of an equiatomic mixture of crystalline elemental powders of Ti and Pt in a high-energy ball mill results in formation of an amorphous alloy by solid-state reactions. Mechanical alloying was carried out in an argon atmosphere...

  16. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  17. Localized solid-state amorphization at grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline Al solid solution subjected to surface mechanical attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Tao, N [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hong, Y [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, J [LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000, Troyes (France); Lu, K [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)


    Using high-resolution electron microscopy, localized solid-state amorphization (SSA) was observed in a nanocrystalline (NC) Al solid solution (weight per cent 4.2 Cu, 0.3 Mn, the rest being Al) subjected to a surface mechanical attrition treatment. It was found that the deformation-induced SSA may occur at the grain boundary (GB) where either the high density dislocations or dislocation complexes are present. It is suggested that lattice instability due to elastic distortion within the dislocation core region plays a significant role in the initiation of the localized SSA at defective sites. Meanwhile, the GB of severely deformed NC grains exhibits a continuously varying atomic structure in such a way that while most of the GB is ordered but reveals corrugated configurations, localized amorphization may occur along the same GB.

  18. Thermal mechanical analysis of a solid breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, Donato


    This paper deals with a theoretical model of thermal mechanical behaviour of pebble beds, used as neutron multiplier or tritium breeder in the breeding blanket of a fusion nuclear reactor. The model tries to sum up the advantages of the two approaches ('discrete' method and macroscopic method), presently used for analysing the pebble bed behaviour, without their intrinsic disadvantages. The developed method has the capability to describe the microscopic behaviour of the single sphere (as the discrete approach does), and the capability to model complex structures under variable loads, typical of the macroscopic approach, without doing the unrealistic assumption of continuum homogeneous and isotropic material. The model describes the thermal mechanical behaviour of a single sphere compressed in elastic plastic conditions. The obtained relations have been extrapolated to regular lattices of spheres and subsequently to pebble beds (characterised by a macroscopic parameter called 'packing factor') of simple geometric shapes using statistical considerations. The results of the model have been assessed by comparison with results obtained by means of numerical simulations and experimental tests. The ongoing activity is the implementation in a FEM code of a new finite element, which represents one or several regular lattices of spheres, the non linear stiffness of which is obtained from the mono dimensional compression model of one sphere. The results of the numerical simulation permits to construct and display the strain and stress distribution of the single spheres by means of an implemented graphical interface

  19. Solid recovered fuel production through the mechanical-biological treatment of wastes


    Velis, C. A.


    This thesis is concerned with the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) from municipal solid waste using mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plants. It describes the first in-depth analysis of a UK MBT plant and addresses the fundamental research question: are MBT plants and their unit operations optimised to produce high quality SRF in the UK? A critical review of the process science and engineering of MBT provides timely insights into the quality management and standa...

  20. Durability and Mechanical Performance of PMMA/Stone Sludge Nanocomposites for Acrylic Solid Surface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah EL-Bashir


    Full Text Available Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF in Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA, then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica and clay Halloysite nanotubules (HNTs. Acrylic solid surface sheets were manufactured by mixing the syrups with SSFs. The morphology of the produced sheets was studied using optical, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM that revealed the uniform distribution of stone sludge in the polymeric matrix. The study of the physical properties showed promising mechanical performance and durability of PMMA/SSF nanocomposites for acrylic solid surface applications.

  1. Application of SolidWorks Plastic in the Training in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova Bakalova


    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article is presented an example of the application of SolidWorks the training in mechanical engineering. The main features of the design of the parts intended for injection molding are mentioned. SolidWorks allows all these recommendations to be implemented when creating the details. The text explains the simulation settings that are made in SolidWorks Plastics when simulating injection molding. Through a specific example referred to how to make an analysis of the results obtained.

  2. Design and implementation of a novel mechanical testing system for cellular solids. (United States)

    Nazarian, Ara; Stauber, Martin; Müller, Ralph


    Cellular solids constitute an important class of engineering materials encompassing both man-made and natural constructs. Materials such as wood, cork, coral, and cancellous bone are examples of cellular solids. The structural analysis of cellular solid failure has been limited to 2D sections to illustrate global fracture patterns. Due to the inherent destructiveness of 2D methods, dynamic assessment of fracture progression has not been possible. Image-guided failure assessment (IGFA), a noninvasive technique to analyze 3D progressive bone failure, has been developed utilizing stepwise microcompression in combination with time-lapsed microcomputed tomographic imaging (microCT). This method allows for the assessment of fracture progression in the plastic region, where much of the structural deformation/energy absorption is encountered in a cellular solid. Therefore, the goal of this project was to design and fabricate a novel micromechanical testing system to validate the effectiveness of the stepwise IGFA technique compared to classical continuous mechanical testing, using a variety of engineered and natural cellular solids. In our analysis, we found stepwise compression to be a valid approach for IGFA with high precision and accuracy comparable to classical continuous testing. Therefore, this approach complements the conventional mechanical testing methods by providing visual insight into the failure propagation mechanisms of cellular solids. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  4. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  5. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1 (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)


    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  6. Disposal of Liquid Propellants (United States)


    propellant includes an oxi- dizer (hydroxylammoniuin nitrate), a fuel (triethanolammonium nitrate), and water . In an- ticipation of widespread (both...are also included. 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT ’." OF ABMTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIF.CATICIN IUNCLASSIFIEDIUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. 0 OTIC...trieth- anolammoiur nitrate), anG water . In anticipation of widespread (both conti- nental U.S. and abroac) use of the propellant, USATHAMA began a

  7. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.


    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  8. The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate and of an ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.


    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  9. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms. (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony


    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  10. Operation characteristic of a heat pump of mechanical vapor recompression propelled by fans and its performance analysis applied to waste-water treatment (United States)

    Weike, Pang; Wenju, Lin; Qilin, Pan; Wenye, Lin; Qunte, Dai; Luwei, Yang; Zhentao, Zhang


    In this paper, a set of heat pump (called as Mechanical Vapor Recompression, MVR) propelled by a centrifugal fan is tested and it shows some special characteristic when it works together with a falling film evaporator. Firstly, an analysis of the fan's suction and discharge parameters at stable state, such as its pressure and temperature, indicates that a phenomenon of wet compression is probably to appear during vapor compression. As a result, superheat after saturated vapor is compressed is eliminated, which reduces discharge temperature of the system. It is because drops boil away and absorb the super heat into their latent heat during vapor compression. Meanwhile, drops in the suction vapor add to the compressed vapor, which increase the given heat of the MVR heat pump. Next, assistant electric heat could adjust and keep steady of the operating pressure and temperature of an MVR heat pump. With the evaporation temperature up to be high, heat balance is broken and supplement heat needs to increase. Thirdly, the performance of an MVR heat pump is affect by the balance of falling film and evaporation that has an effect on heat transfer. Then, two parameters standing for the performance are measured as it runs in practical condition. The two important parameters are consumptive electricity power and productive water capacity. According to theoretical work in ideal condition by calculation and fan's input power by measure as running, adiabatic efficiency (ηad) of a centrifugal fan is calculated when it is applied in a heat pump of MVR. Following, based on ηad, practical SMER and COP of an MVR heat pump are discovered to be correlative with it. Finally, in dependence on productive water in theory and in practice, displacement efficiency (ηv) of centrifugal fans is obtained when compressing vapor, and so provide some references of matching a fan for an MVR heat pump. On the other hand, it is helpful to research and develop MVR heat pumps, and also to check

  11. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics. (United States)

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio


    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  12. Inter-Batch Variation and the Effect of Casting Vacuum on Ballistic and Mechanical Properties of a High Performing Cast Composite Rocket Propellant (United States)


    X 5 mm with a bandsaw. Longitudinal faces were coated (inhibited) with an epoxy resin and burned in a Crawford-type low pressure strand burner. The...batch (P0190) is the highest. For strain at maximum stress and strain at break the trend is reversed with the highest values for P0188 and lowest...Appendix A: Propellant Strand Burn Results Table A1: Low pressure strand burn results for P0188, full vacuum coated with epoxy R180/H180

  13. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.


    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  14. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.


    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  15. Propellers in Saturn's rings (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.


    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  16. Current state of the art of HNF based composite propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciucci, A.; Frota, O.; Welland, W.H.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Leeming, B.; Bellerby, J.M.; Brotzu, A.


    The main activities currently performed for the development of HNF-based propellants are presented. The objectives and approach adopted are described. The results obtained on the HNF decomposition mechanism and on the re- and co-crystallisation of HNF with potential propellant ingredients are

  17. Determination of the mechanical properties of solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms by diametral compression. (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji


    At present, the immediate-release solid dosage forms, such as the oral tablets and capsules, are granular solids. They release drug rapidly and have adequate mechanical properties, but their manufacture is fraught with difficulties inherent in processing particulate matter. Such difficulties, however, could be overcome by liquid-based processing. Therefore, we have recently introduced polymeric cellular (i.e., highly porous) dosage forms prepared from a melt process. Experiments have shown that upon immersion in a dissolution medium, the cellular dosage forms with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as excipient and with predominantly open-cell topology disintegrate by exfoliation, thus enabling rapid drug release. If the volume fraction of voids of the open-cell structures is too large, however, their mechanical strength is adversely affected. At present, the common method for determining the tensile strength of brittle, solid dosage forms (such as select granular forms) is the diametral compression test. In this study, the theory of diametral compression is first refined to demonstrate that the relevant mechanical properties of ductile and cellular solids (i.e., the elastic modulus and the yield strength) can also be extracted from this test. Diametral compression experiments are then conducted on PEG-based solid and cellular dosage forms. It is found that the elastic modulus and yield strength of the open-cell structures are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the non-porous solids, but still are substantially greater than the stiffness and strength requirements for handling the dosage forms manually. This work thus demonstrates that melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms that release drug rapidly can be designed and manufactured to have adequate mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Solid-state reactions during mechanical milling of Fe-Al under nitrogen atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Čížek, J.; Jančík, D.


    Roč. 568, AUG (2013), s. 106-111 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : milling * mechanical alloying * Mössbauer phase analysis * Fe-Al alloy * microstructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2013

  19. On the relation between texture perception and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.


    Abstract Aspects of the relationship between texture perception in the mouth and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids are discussed. The emphasis is on the physical side of the relation. The importance is stressed of the incorporation of a thorough knowledge of

  20. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep


    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  1. Designing Small Propellers for Optimum Efficiency and Low Noise Footprint (United States)


    each one. The GUI contains input boxes for all of the necessary data in order to run QMIL, QPROP, NAFNoise, and to produce Visual Basic ( VBA ) code... VBA macros that will automatically place reference planes for each airfoil section and insert the splined airfoils to their respective reference...Figure 24. Solid propeller exa mple. Figure 25. Hub and spoke propeller design. Figure 26. Alumninum hub design. accessed on May 12, 2015. DC, August

  2. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  3. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)


    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. A Process and Environment Aware Sierra/SolidMechanics Cohesive Zone Modeling Capability for Polymer/Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, E. D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens, Mark J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The performance and reliability of many mechanical and electrical components depend on the integrity of po lymer - to - solid interfaces . Such interfaces are found in adhesively bonded joints, encapsulated or underfilled electronic modules, protective coatings, and laminates. The work described herein was aimed at improving Sandia's finite element - based capability to predict interfacial crack growth by 1) using a high fidelity nonlinear viscoelastic material model for the adhesive in fracture simulations, and 2) developing and implementing a novel cohesive zone fracture model that generates a mode - mixity dependent toughness as a natural consequence of its formulation (i.e., generates the observed increase in interfacial toughness wi th increasing crack - tip interfacial shear). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study fundamental material/interfa cial physics so as to develop a fuller understanding of the connection between molecular structure and failure . Also reported are test results that quantify how joint strength and interfacial toughness vary with temperature.

  5. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Binesh


    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  6. The mechanism of reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.


    The preservation of morphology (pseudomorphism) and crystal structure during the transformation of one solid phase to another is regularly used as a criterion for a solid-state mechanism, even when there is a fluid phase present. However, a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism also preserves the morphology and transfers crystallographic information from parent to product by epitaxial nucleation. The generation of porosity in the product phase is a necessary condition for such a mechanism as it allows fluid to maintain contact with a reaction interface which moves through the parent phase from the original surface. We propose that interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a general mechanism for reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase. - Graphical abstract: A single crystal of KBr is transformed to a porous single crystal of KCl by immersion in saturated KCl solution. The image shows partial transformation of a crystal of KBr (core) to KCl (porous, milky rim) by an interface coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. The external dimensions and crystallographic orientation of the original crystal are preserved, while a reaction interface moves through the crystal

  7. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part III. Finite Element Analysis in Nonlinear Solid Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, T.A.; Attaway, S.W.; Zadoks, R.I.


    This report outlines the application of finite element methodology to large deformation solid mechanics problems, detailing also some of the key technological issues that effective finite element formulations must address. The presentation is organized into three major portions: first, a discussion of finite element discretization from the global point of view, emphasizing the relationship between a virtual work principle and the associated fully discrete system, second, a discussion of finite element technology, emphasizing the important theoretical and practical features associated with an individual finite element; and third, detailed description of specific elements that enjoy widespread use, providing some examples of the theoretical ideas already described. Descriptions of problem formulation in nonlinear solid mechanics, nonlinear continuum mechanics, and constitutive modeling are given in three companion reports.

  8. Fluid and solid mechanics in a poroelastic network induced by ultrasound. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L


    We made a theoretical analysis on the fluid and solid mechanics in a poroelastic medium induced by low-power ultrasound. Using a perturbative approach, we were able to linearize the governing equations and obtain analytical solutions. We found that ultrasound could propagate in the medium as a mechanical wave, but would dissipate due to frictional forces between the fluid and the solid phase. The amplitude of the wave depends on the ultrasonic power input. We applied this model to the problem of drug delivery to soft biological tissues by low-power ultrasound and proposed a mechanism for enhanced drug penetration. We have also found the coexistence of two acoustic waves under certain circumstances and pointed out the importance of very accurate experimental determination of the high-frequency properties of brain tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-scale mechanics of granular solids from grain-resolved X-ray measurements (United States)

    Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Wright, J. P.


    This work discusses an experimental technique for studying the mechanics of three-dimensional (3D) granular solids. The approach combines 3D X-ray diffraction and X-ray computed tomography to measure grain-resolved strains, kinematics and contact fabric in the bulk of a granular solid, from which continuum strains, grain stresses, interparticle forces and coarse-grained elasto-plastic moduli can be determined. We demonstrate the experimental approach and analysis of selected results on a sample of 1099 stiff, frictional grains undergoing multiple uniaxial compression cycles. We investigate the inter-particle force network, elasto-plastic moduli and associated length scales, reversibility of mechanical responses during cyclic loading, the statistics of microscopic responses and microstructure-property relationships. This work serves to highlight both the fundamental insight into granular mechanics that is furnished by combined X-ray measurements and describes future directions in the field of granular materials that can be pursued with such approaches.

  10. Theoretical study of coupling mechanisms between oxygen diffusion, chemical reaction, mechanical stresses in a solid-gas reactive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creton, N.; Optasanu, V.; Montesin, T.; Garruchet, S.


    This paper offers a study of oxygen dissolution into a solid, and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the material. In fact, mechanical strains strongly influence the oxidation processes and may be, in some materials, responsible for cracking. To realize this study, mechanical considerations are introduced into the classical diffusion laws. Simulations were made for the particular case of uranium dioxide, which undergoes the chemical fragmentation. According to our simulations, the hypothesis of a compression stress field into the oxidised UO 2 compound near the internal interface is consistent with some oxidation mechanisms of oxidation experimentally observed. More generally, this work will be extended to the simulation to an oxide layer growth on a metallic substrate. (authors)

  11. Extended solid solubility of a Co–Cr system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A.; Sánchez-De Jesús, F.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.; Bolarín-Miró, A.M.; Cortés-Escobedo, C.A.


    Highlights: ► Solubility of the Co–Cr system is modified by means of Mechanical Alloying (MA). ► MA induces the formation of new solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. ► MA promote the formation of metastable Co–Cr phases with greater solubility. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying, MA, has been successfully used to extend the limits of solid solubility in many commercially important metallic systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that MA modifies the solid solubility of the Co–Cr system. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co 100−x Cr x (0 ≤ x ≤ 100, Δx = 10) to study the effect of mechanical processing in the solubility of the Co–Cr system. Processing was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as milling media with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. Crystalline structure characterization of the milled powders was conducted using X-ray diffraction, and phase transformations as a function of composition were analyzed. Thermal analysis confirmed structural changes occurred in the mechanically alloyed powders. The evolution of the phase transformations with composition is reported for each composition. The results showed that after high energy ball milling for 7 h, the solid solubility between Co and Cr could be evidently extended, despite the low solid solubility at the equilibrium conditions of this system. Additionally, the micrographs of the milled powders showed that increasing composition of chromium changes the shape and size of the particles while simultaneously reducing their agglomeration; this effect is possibly attributed to the brittleness of elemental chrome.

  12. Extended solid solubility of a Co-Cr system by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A. [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Sanchez-De Jesus, F., E-mail: [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Bolarin-Miro, A.M. [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Cortes-Escobedo, C.A. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica del IPN Cda. CECATI S/N, Col. Sta. Catarina, Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility of the Co-Cr system is modified by means of Mechanical Alloying (MA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MA induces the formation of new solid solutions of Co-Cr system in non-equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MA promote the formation of metastable Co-Cr phases with greater solubility. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying, MA, has been successfully used to extend the limits of solid solubility in many commercially important metallic systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that MA modifies the solid solubility of the Co-Cr system. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co{sub 100-x}Cr{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 100, {Delta}x = 10) to study the effect of mechanical processing in the solubility of the Co-Cr system. Processing was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as milling media with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. Crystalline structure characterization of the milled powders was conducted using X-ray diffraction, and phase transformations as a function of composition were analyzed. Thermal analysis confirmed structural changes occurred in the mechanically alloyed powders. The evolution of the phase transformations with composition is reported for each composition. The results showed that after high energy ball milling for 7 h, the solid solubility between Co and Cr could be evidently extended, despite the low solid solubility at the equilibrium conditions of this system. Additionally, the micrographs of the milled powders showed that increasing composition of chromium changes the shape and size of the particles while simultaneously reducing their agglomeration; this effect is possibly attributed to the brittleness of elemental chrome.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for synergistic effect of proteasome inhibitors with platinum-based therapy in solid tumors. (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Wang, Tzu-Hao


    The successful development of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib as an anticancer drug has improved survival in patients with multiple myeloma. With the emergence of the newly US Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib, ongoing trials are investigating this compound and other proteasome inhibitors either alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. However, in solid tumors, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors has not lived up to expectations. Results regarding the potential clinical efficacy of bortezomib combined with other agents in the treatment of solid tumors are eagerly awaited. Recent identification of the molecular mechanisms (involving apoptosis and autophagy) by which bortezomib and cisplatin can overcome chemotherapy resistance and sensitize tumor cells to anticancer therapy can provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with solid malignancies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter


    major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  15. Thermal fluid-solid interaction model and experimental validation for hydrostatic mechanical face seals (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Liao, Chuanjun; Liu, Xiangfeng; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuming


    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  16. The mechanisms of drug release from solid dispersions in water-soluble polymers. (United States)

    Craig, Duncan Q M


    Solid dispersions in water-soluble carriers have attracted considerable interest as a means of improving the dissolution rate, and hence possibly bioavailability, of a range of hydrophobic drugs. However, despite the publication of numerous original papers and reviews on the subject, the mechanisms underpinning the observed improvements in dissolution rate are not yet understood. In this review the current consensus with regard to the solid-state structure and dissolution properties of solid dispersions is critically assessed. In particular the theories of carrier- and drug-controlled dissolution are highlighted. A model is proposed whereby the release behaviour from the dispersions may be understood in terms of the dissolution or otherwise of the drug into the concentrated aqueous polymer layer adjacent to the solid surface, including a derivation of an expression to describe the release of intact particles from the dispersions. The implications of a deeper understanding of the dissolution mechanisms are discussed, with particular emphasis on optimising the choice of carrier and manufacturing method and the prediction of stability problems.

  17. Solid solution in Al-4.5 wt% Cu produced by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogagnolo, J.B.; Amador, D.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Torralba, J.M.


    Mechanical alloying has been used to produce oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic compounds, aluminium alloys and to obtain nanostructured and amorphous materials, as well as to extend the solid solution limit. In this work, Al and Cu elemental powders were subjected to high-energy milling to produce Al-4.5 wt% Cu powder alloy. The powders obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), aiming to explore if the copper is present in solid solution or as small particles after high-energy milling. Related to the formation of a supersaturated solid solution, the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are non-conclusive: the copper could be dispersed with a very small size, undetectable to both techniques. The Al 2 Cu precipitation at temperatures between 160 and 230 deg. C, verified by DSC and XRD analyses, substantiated that mechanical alloying had produced a supersaturated solid solution of copper in aluminium. The crystallite size as a function of milling time and annealing temperature was also determined by X-ray techniques

  18. Dynamic Regime of Ignition of Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay


    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic regime of exposure of the radiant flux on the sample of gun-cotton. Obtained time the ignition of gun-cotton in the heating conditions of increasing heat flux in the range from 0.2 W/cm2 to 22 W/cm2. A comparison of the delay times of the ignition when heated variable and constant heat flux.

  19. Sierra/Solid Mechanics 4.48 User's Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, Mark Thomas; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Gampert, Scott; Xavier, Patrick G.; Plews, Julia A.


    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for finite element analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic, implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models with extensive contact subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and a large library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments enabling scalable solutions of extremely large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which facilitates coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input syntax for Sierra/SM.

  20. Comparison of two approaches for differentiating full-field data in solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avril, Stéphane; Feissel, Pierre; Villon, Pierre; Pierron, Fabrice


    In this study, the issue of reconstructing the gradients of noisy full-field data is addressed within the framework of solid mechanics. Two approaches are considered, a global one based on finite element approximation (FEA) and a local one based on diffuse approximation (DA). For both approaches, it is proposed to monitor locally the filtering effect in order to adapt the uncertainty to the local signal to noise ratio. Both approaches are applied to a case study which is commonly considered as difficult in solid mechanics (open-hole tensile test on a composite laminate). Both DA and FEA are successful for detecting local subsurface damage from the measured noisy displacement fields. Indications are also provided about the compared performances of DA and FEA. It is shown that DA is more robust, but the downside is that it is also more CPU time consuming

  1. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David


    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  2. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.


    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  3. Mechanical behavior and coupling between mechanical and oxidation in alloy 718: effect of solide solution elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, Bertrand


    Alloy 718 is the superalloy the most widely used in industry due to its excellent mechanical properties, as well as oxidation and corrosion resistance in wide range of temperatures and solicitation modes. Nevertheless, it is a well-known fact that this alloy is sensitive to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation assisted cracking under loading in the range of temperatures met in service. Mechanisms explaining this phenomenon are not well understood: nevertheless, it is well established that a relation exists between a change in fracture mode and the apparition of plastic instabilities phenomenon. During this study, the instability phenomenon, Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, in alloy 718 was studied by tensile tests in wide ranges of temperatures and strain rates. Different domains of plastic instabilities have been evidenced. Their characteristics suggest the existence of interactions between dislocations and different types of solute elements: interstitials for lower temperatures and substitutionals for higher testing temperatures. Mechanical spectroscopy tests have been performed on alloy 718 and various alloys which composition is comparable to that of alloy 718. These tests prove the mobility of molybdenum atoms in the alloy in the studied temperature range. Specific tests have been performed to study interaction phenomenon between plasticity and oxidation. These results highlight the strong effect of plastic strain rate on both mechanical behavior and intergranular cracking in alloy 718. The subsequent discussion leads to propose hypothesis on coupling effects between deformation mechanisms and oxidation assisted embrittlement in the observed cracking processes. (author)

  4. Solid State Bonding Mechanics In Extrusion And FSW: Experimental Tests And Numerical Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.; Donati, L.; Tomesani, L.


    In the paper the authors compare the different solid state bonding mechanics for both the processes of hollow profiles extrusion and Friction Stir Welding (FSW), through the results obtained from a wide experimental campaign on AA6082-T6 aluminum alloys. Microstructure evaluation, tensile tests and micro-hardness measurements realized on specimens extracted by samples of the two processes are discussed also by means of the results obtained from coupled FEM simulation of the processes

  5. Applied structural and solid mechanics section: 1983 review and 1984 programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, J.A.


    This report reviews briefly the applied research and problem solving work carried out by the Applied Structural and Solid Mechanics Section during 1983. In 1983 there was a strong demand for services in the areas of theroretical and experimental stress analysis, heat transfer analysis, nonlinear analysis, and general structural analyses related to nuclear and thermal power plant, and transmission line components. Development of capabilities in these areas progressed well. Proposed work programs for 1984 are outlined in this report

  6. Microspheres for the Growth of Silicon Nanowires via Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha Gómez-Martínez


    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires have been synthesized by a simple process using a suitable support containing silica and carbon microspheres. Nanowires were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with only the substrate as silicon source. The curved surface of the microsized spheres allows arranging the gold catalyst as nanoparticles with appropriate dimensions to catalyze the growth of nanowires. The resulting material is composed of the microspheres with the silicon nanowires attached on their surface.

  7. Control of microstructure and mechanical properties of laser solid formed Inconel 718 superalloy by electromagnetic stirring (United States)

    Liu, Fencheng; Cheng, Hongmao; Yu, Xiaobin; Yang, Guang; Huang, Chunping; Lin, Xin; Chen, Jing


    The coarse columnar grains and special interface in laser solid formed (LSFed) Inconel 718 superalloy workpieces seriously affect their mechanical properties. To improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of LSFed Inconel 718 superalloy, electromagnetic stirring (EMS) was introduced to alter the solidification process of the molten pool during LSF. The results show that EMS could not completely eliminate the epitaxially growing columnar grains, however, the strong convection of liquid metals can effectively influence the solid-liquid interface growing mode. The segregation of alloying elements on the front of solid-liquid interface is inhibited and the degree of constitutional supercooling decreases correspondingly. Comparing the microstructures of samples formed under different process parameters, the size and amount of the γ+Laves eutectic phases formed in interdendritic area decrease along with the increasing magnetic field intensity, resulting in more uniformly distributed alloying elements. The residual stress distribution is proved to be more uniform, which is beneficial to the grain refinement after recrystallilzaiton. Mechanical properties testing results show an improvement of 100 MPa in tensile strength and 22% in elongation was obtained after EMS was used. The high cycle fatigue properties at room temperature was also improved from 4.09 × 104 cycles to 8.21 × 104 cycles for the as-deposited samples, and from 5.45 × 104 cycles to 12.73 × 104 cycles for the heat treated samples respectively.

  8. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants (United States)

    Turns, Stephen R.; Mueller, D. C.


    Experimental and analytical investigations focusing on secondary atomization and ignition characteristics of aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon slurry propellants were conducted. Experimental efforts included the application of a laser-based, two-color, forward-scatter technique to simultaneously measure free-flying slurry droplet diameters and velocities for droplet diameters in the range of 10-200 microns. A multi-diffusion flame burner was used to create a high-temperature environment into which a dilute stream of slurry droplets could be introduced. Narrowband measurements of radiant emission were used to determine if ignition of the aluminum in the slurry droplet had occurred. Models of slurry droplet shell formation were applied to aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon propellants and used to ascertain the effects of solids loading and ultimate particle size on the minimum droplet diameter that will permit secondary atomization. For a 60 weight-percent Al slurry, the limiting critical diameter was predicted to be 34.7 microns which is somewhat greater than the 20-25 micron limiting diameters determined in the experiments. A previously developed model of aluminum ignition in a slurry droplet was applied to the present experiments and found to predict ignition times in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. A model was also developed that predicts the mechanical stress in the droplet shell and a parametric study was conducted. A one-dimensional model of a slurry-fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed. This model includes the processes of liquid hydrocarbon burnout, secondary atomization, aluminum ignition, and aluminum combustion. Also included is a model for radiant heat transfer from the hot aluminum oxide particles to the chamber walls. Exercising this model shows that only a modest amount of secondary atomization is required to reduce residence times for aluminum burnout, and thereby maintain relatively short chamber lengths. The model also predicts

  9. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under a Phase 1 effort, IES successfully developed and demonstrated a spark ignition concept where propellant flow drives a very simple fluid mechanical oscillator...

  10. Study of the pitting effects during the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Yuhua; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Zhao, Weiyu; Murphy, Anthony B


    The propellant ignition mechanism has become a central issue in the electrothermal chemical (ETC) launch technology, and the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interactions are critical in determining the ignition characteristics. In this work, both an open-air ablation test and an interrupted burning test are conducted for three different propellants. A fused silica window, which is transparent in all relevant wavelengths, is utilized to investigate the role of the plasma radiation. Surface pitting of the propellants after interaction with the plasma is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of pits on the plasma ignition is then studied and a possible formation mechanism of pits is proposed. The input heat flux and the surface temperature of the propellants are obtained by solving a pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction model. The results shed light on the pre-ignition plasma ignition mechanisms and will assist in the development of propellants for an ETC launcher. (paper)

  11. Solid solution and amorphous phase in Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn systems synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzman, P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Parra, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bejar, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Medina, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. España 485, Copiapó (Chile)


    This work discusses the formation of Ti–30Nb–13Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt%) solid solution by mechanical alloying using a shaker mill. A solid solution was formed after 15 h of milling and an amorphous phase was formed after 30 h of milling, according to X-ray diffraction results. Disappearance of strongest X-ray diffraction peaks of Nb, Ta and Mn indicated the formation of solid solution, while, X-ray diffraction patterns of powders milled for 30 h showed an amorphous hump with crystalline peaks in the angular range of 35–45° in 2θ. TEM image analysis showed the presence of nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds embedded in an amorphous matrix. Mn{sub 2}Ti, MnTi and NbTi{sub 4} intermetallic compounds were detected and revealed crystallites with size ranging from 3 to 20 nm. The Gibbs free energy for the formation of solid solution and amorphous phase of three ternary systems (Ti–Nb–Ta, Ti–Nb–Mn and Ti–Ta–Mn) was calculated using extended Miedema's model. Experimental and thermodynamic data confirmed that solid solution was first formed in the alloy with 6wt% Mn followed by the formation of an amorphous phase as milling time increases. The presence of Mn promoted the formation of amorphous phase because the atomic radius difference between Mn with Ti, Nb and Ta. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of extension of solid solution of the Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn system. • Formation of amorphous phase and intermetallic compounds were observed. • Nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds were formed with the sizes between 3 and 20 nm.

  12. Quantification of uncertainty in first-principles predicted mechanical properties of solids: Application to solid ion conductors (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian


    Computationally-guided material discovery is being increasingly employed using a descriptor-based screening through the calculation of a few properties of interest. A precise understanding of the uncertainty associated with first-principles density functional theory calculated property values is important for the success of descriptor-based screening. The Bayesian error estimation approach has been built in to several recently developed exchange-correlation functionals, which allows an estimate of the uncertainty associated with properties related to the ground state energy, for example, adsorption energies. Here, we propose a robust and computationally efficient method for quantifying uncertainty in mechanical properties, which depend on the derivatives of the energy. The procedure involves calculating energies around the equilibrium cell volume with different strains and fitting the obtained energies to the corresponding energy-strain relationship. At each strain, we use instead of a single energy, an ensemble of energies, giving us an ensemble of fits and thereby, an ensemble of mechanical properties associated with each fit, whose spread can be used to quantify its uncertainty. The generation of ensemble of energies is only a post-processing step involving a perturbation of parameters of the exchange-correlation functional and solving for the energy non-self-consistently. The proposed method is computationally efficient and provides a more robust uncertainty estimate compared to the approach of self-consistent calculations employing several different exchange-correlation functionals. We demonstrate the method by calculating the uncertainty bounds for several materials belonging to different classes and having different structures using the developed method. We show that the calculated uncertainty bounds the property values obtained using three different GGA functionals: PBE, PBEsol, and RPBE. Finally, we apply the approach to calculate the uncertainty

  13. The screw propeller (United States)

    Larrabee, E. E.


    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  14. Fabrication of nanocrystalline alloys Cu–Cr–Mo super satured solid solution by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzmán, D. [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Castro, F.; Martínez, V.; Cuevas, F. de las [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizábal, N° 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Muthiah, T. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)


    This work discusses the extension of solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu processed by mechanical alloying. Three alloys processed, Cu–5Cr–5Mo, Cu–10Cr–10Mo and Cu–15Cr–15Mo (weight%) using a SPEX mill. Gibbs free energy of mixing values 10, 15 and 20 kJ mol{sup −1} were calculated for these three alloys respectively by using the Miedema's model. The crystallite size decreases and dislocation density increases when the milling time increases, so Gibbs free energy storage in powders increases by the presence of crystalline defects. The energy produced by crystallite boundaries and strain dislocations were estimated and compared with Gibbs free energy of mixing values. The energy storage values by the presence of crystalline defects were higher than Gibbs free energy of mixing at 120 h for Cu–5Cr–5Mo, 130 h for Cu–10Cr–10Mo and 150 h for Cu–15Cr–15Mo. During milling, crystalline defects are produced that increases the Gibbs free energy storage and thus the Gibbs free energy curves are moved upwards and hence the solubility limit changes. Therefore, the three alloys form solid solutions after these milling time, which are supported with the XRD results. - Highlights: • Extension of solid solution Cr and Mo in Cu achieved by mechanical alloying. • X-ray characterization of Cu–Cr–Mo system processed by mechanical alloying. • Thermodynamics analysis of formation of solid solution of the Cu–Cr–Mo system.

  15. Simulation of Semi-Solid Material Mechanical Behavior Using a Combined Discrete/Finite Element Method (United States)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.


    As a necessary step toward the quantitative prediction of hot tearing defects, a three-dimensional stress-strain simulation based on a combined finite element (FE)/discrete element method (DEM) has been developed that is capable of predicting the mechanical behavior of semisolid metallic alloys during solidification. The solidification model used for generating the initial solid-liquid structure is based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers and a solute diffusion model for each element of this tessellation. At a given fraction of solid, the deformation is then simulated with the solid grains being modeled using an elastoviscoplastic constitutive law, whereas the remaining liquid layers at grain boundaries are approximated by flexible connectors, each consisting of a spring element and a damper element acting in parallel. The model predictions have been validated against Al-Cu alloy experimental data from the literature. The results show that a combined FE/DEM approach is able to express the overall mechanical behavior of semisolid alloys at the macroscale based on the morphology of the grain structure. For the first time, the localization of strain in the intergranular regions is taken into account. Thus, this approach constitutes an indispensible step towards the development of a comprehensive model of hot tearing.

  16. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga


    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  17. Molecular mechanics and structure of the fluid-solid interface in simple fluids (United States)

    Wang, Gerald J.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.


    Near a fluid-solid interface, the fluid spatial density profile is highly nonuniform at the molecular scale. This nonuniformity can have profound effects on the dynamical behavior of the fluid and has been shown to play an especially important role when modeling a wide variety of nanoscale heat and momentum transfer phenomena. We use molecular-mechanics arguments and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to develop a better understanding of the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid in the layering regime, as delineated by a nondimensional number that compares the effects of wall-fluid interaction to thermal energy. Using asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation, we show that features of the fluid density profile close to the wall, such as the areal density of the first layer ΣFL (defined as the number of atoms in this layer per unit of fluid-solid interfacial area), can be expressed as polynomial functions of the fluid average density ρave. This is found to be in agreement with MD simulations, which also show that the width of the first layer hFL is a linear function of the average density and only a weak function of the temperature T . These results can be combined to show that, for system average densities corresponding to a dense fluid (ρave≥0.7 ), the ratio C ≡ΣFLρavehFL, representing a density enhancement with respect to the bulk fluid, depends only weakly on temperature and is essentially independent of density. Further MD simulations suggest that the above results, nominally valid for large systems (solid in contact with semi-infinite fluid), also describe fluid-solid interfaces under considerable nanoconfinement, provided ρave is appropriately defined.

  18. [Mechanism of gold solid extraction from aurocyanide solution using D3520 resin impregnated with TRPO]. (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Shi-Xiong; Zou, An-Qin; Chen, Jing; Guo, Hong


    Trialkyphosphine oxides (TRPO) was successfully used for the impregnation of D3520 resin to prepare an extractant-impregnated resin (EIR). Solid extraction of Au(I) from alkaline cyanide solution was studied using this extractant-impregnated resin (EIR), with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), directly into the aurous aqueous phase in advance. The mechanism of solid extraction was further investigated by means of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The column separation studies have shown that cationic surfactant CTMAB played a key role in the solid phase extraction, and the resin containing TRPO were effective for the extraction of gold when the molar ratio of CTMAB: Au( I ) reached 1:1. FTIR spectroscopy of gold loaded EIR showed that the frequency of C[triple bond]N stretching vibration was at 2144 cm(-1), and the frequency of P=O stretching vibration shifted to lower frequency from 1153 to 1150 cm(-1). The XPS spectrum of N(1s), Au(4f7/2) and Au(4f5/2) sugges- ted that the coordination environment of gold did not change before and after extraction, and gold was still as the form of Au (CN)2(-) anion exiting in the loaded resin; O(1s) spectrum showed that the chemically combined water significantly increased after solid extraction from 30.74% to 42.34%; Comparing to the P(2p) spectrum before and after extraction, the binding energy increased from 132. 15 to 132. 45 eV, indicating there maybe existing hydrogen-bond interaction between P=O and water molecule, such as P=O...H-O-H. The above results obtained established that in the solid extraction process, the hydrophobic ion association [CTMA+ x Au(CN)] diffused from the bulk solution into the pores of the EIR, and then be solvated by TRPO adsorbed in the pores through hydrogen bonding bridged by the water molecules.

  19. Nonlinear Longitudinal Mode Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Preburners (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.


    Nonlinear pressure oscillations have been observed in liquid propellant rocket instability preburner devices. Unlike the familiar transverse mode instabilities that characterize primary combustion chambers, these oscillations appear as longitudinal gas motions with frequencies that are typical of the chamber axial acoustic modes. In several respects, the phenomenon is similar to longitudinal mode combustion instability appearing in low-smoke solid propellant motors. An important feature is evidence of steep-fronted wave motions with very high amplitude. Clearly, gas motions of this type threaten the mechanical integrity of associated engine components and create unacceptably high vibration levels. This paper focuses on development of the analytical tools needed to predict, diagnose, and correct instabilities of this type. For this purpose, mechanisms that lead to steep-fronted, high-amplitude pressure waves are described in detail. It is shown that such gas motions are the outcome of the natural steepening process in which initially low amplitude standing acoustic waves grow into shock-like disturbances. The energy source that promotes this behavior is a combination of unsteady combustion energy release and interactions with the quasi-steady mean chamber flow. Since shock waves characterize the gas motions, detonation-like mechanisms may well control the unsteady combustion processes. When the energy gains exceed the losses (represented mainly by nozzle and viscous damping), the waves can rapidly grow to a finite amplitude limit cycle. Analytical tools are described that allow the prediction of the limit cycle amplitude and show the dependence of this wave amplitude on the system geometry and other design parameters. This information can be used to guide corrective procedures that mitigate or eliminate the oscillations.

  20. Mechanism and microstructures in Ga2O3 pseudomartensitic solid phase transition. (United States)

    Zhu, Sheng-Cai; Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan


    Solid-to-solid phase transition, although widely exploited in making new materials, challenges persistently our current theory for predicting its complex kinetics and rich microstructures in transition. The Ga2O3α-β phase transformation represents such a common but complex reaction with marked change in cation coordination and crystal density, which was known to yield either amorphous or crystalline products under different synthetic conditions. Here we, via recently developed stochastic surface walking (SSW) method, resolve for the first time the atomistic mechanism of Ga2O3α-β phase transformation, the pathway of which turns out to be the first reaction pathway ever determined for a new type of diffusionless solid phase transition, namely, pseudomartensitic phase transition. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of product crystallinity is caused by its multi-step, multi-type reaction pathway, which bypasses seven intermediate phases and involves all types of elementary solid phase transition steps, i.e. the shearing of O layers (martensitic type), the local diffusion of Ga atoms (reconstructive type) and the significant lattice dilation (dilation type). While the migration of Ga atoms across the close-packed O layers is the rate-determining step and yields "amorphous-like" high energy intermediates, the shearing of O layers contributes to the formation of coherent biphase junctions and the presence of a crystallographic orientation relation, (001)α//(201[combining macron])β + [120]α//[13[combining macron]2]β. Our experiment using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy further confirms the theoretical predictions on the atomic structure of biphase junction and the formation of (201[combining macron])β twin, and also discovers the late occurrence of lattice expansion in the nascent β phase that grows out from the parent α phase. By distinguishing pseudomartensitic transition from other types of mechanisms, we propose general rules to predict the

  1. Modeling and simulation of combustion chamber and propellant dynamics and issues in active control of combustion instabilities (United States)

    Isella, Giorgio Carlo

    A method for a comprehensive approach to analysis of the dynamics of an actively controlled combustion chamber, with detailed analysis of the combustion models for the case of a solid rocket propellant, is presented here. The objective is to model the system as interconnected blocks describing the dynamics of the chamber, combustion and control. The analytical framework for the analysis of the dynamics of a combustion chamber is based on spatial averaging, as introduced by Culick. Combustion dynamics are analyzed for the case of a solid propellant. Quasi-steady theory is extended to include the dynamics of the gas-phase and also of a surface layer. The models are constructed so that they produce a combustion response function for the solid propellant that can be immediately introduced in the our analytical framework. The principal objective mechanisms responsible for the large sensitivity, observed experimentally, of propellant response to small variations. We show that velocity coupling, and not pressure coupling, has the potential to be the mechanism responsible for that high sensitivity. We also discuss the effect of particulate modeling on the global dynamics of the chamber and revisit the interpretation of the intrinsic stability limit for burning of solid propellants. Active control is also considered. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of time delay (between sensing and actuation); several methods to compensate for it are discussed, with numerical examples based on the approximate analysis produced by our framework. Experimental results are presented for the case of a Dump Combustor. The combustor exhibits an unstable burning mode, defined through the measurement of the pressure trace and shadowgraph imaging. The transition between stable and unstable modes of operation is characterized by the presence of hysteresis, also observed in other experimental works, and hence not a special characteristic of this combustor. Control is introduced in the

  2. Magnetorheological technology for fabricating tunable solid electrolyte with enhanced conductivity and mechanical property (United States)

    Peng, Gangrou; Ge, Yu; Ding, Jie; Wang, Caiyun; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua


    Ionogels are a new class of hybrid materials where ionic liquids are immobilized by macromolecular support. The excessive amount of crosslinking polymer enhances the mechanical strength but compromises the conductivity. Here, we report an elastomeric magnetorheological (MR) ionogel with an enhanced conductivity and mechanical strength as well. Following the application of magnetic nanoparticles into an ionic liquid containing minimum cross-linking agent, the formation, thus physical properties, of MR ionogels are co-controlled by simultaneously applied UV light and external magnetic field. The application of MR ionogels as solid electrolytes in supercapacitors is also demonstrated to study electrochemical performance. This work opens a new avenue to synthesize robust ionogels with the desired conductivity and controllable mechanical properties for soft flexible electronic devices. Besides, as a new class of conductive MR elastomers, the proposed MR ionogel also possesses the potential for engineering applications, such as sensors and actuators.

  3. Platform construction and extraction mechanism study of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (United States)

    Xiao, Deli; Zhang, Chan; He, Jia; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Rong; He, Hua


    Simple, accurate and high-throughput pretreatment method would facilitate large-scale studies of trace analysis in complex samples. Magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction has the power to become a key pretreatment method in biological, environmental and clinical research. However, lacking of experimental predictability and unsharpness of extraction mechanism limit the development of this promising method. Herein, this work tries to establish theoretical-based experimental designs for extraction of trace analytes from complex samples using magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction. We selected three categories and six sub-types of compounds for systematic comparative study of extraction mechanism, and comprehensively illustrated the roles of different force (hydrophobic interaction, π-π stacking interactions, hydrogen-bonding interaction, electrostatic interaction) for the first time. What’s more, the application guidelines for supporting materials, surfactants and sample matrix were also summarized. The extraction mechanism and platform established in the study render its future promising for foreseeable and efficient pretreatment under theoretical based experimental design for trace analytes from environmental, biological and clinical samples.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Strengths of Metastable FCC Solid Solutions in Al-Ce-Fe System


    A., Inoue; H., Yamaguchi; M., Kikuchi; T., Masumoto; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research


    A metastable fcc solid solution (SS) with high mechanical strengths and good bending ductility was found to be formed in rapidly solidified Al-Ce-Fe alloys containing the solute elements below about 6 at%. The SS consists of equiaxed grains with a size of about 2μm and contains a high density of internal defects. The highest hardness (H_v) and tensile fracture strengtn (σ_f) are 440 and 860 MPa in the as-quenched state and remain almost unchanged up to about 600 K for 1 h, though fine compoun...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglin; Guo Ren; Liu Shikun; Chen Qingjie; Zuo Shanru; Yang Meng; Zuo Xiaocong


    Objective Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug,which is widely used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.However,chronic administration of FK506 leads to hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients,and its molecular mechanisms are much more complicated.In this review,we will discuss the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed.The terms "FK506" or "tacrolimus" and "hypertension"were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results There are several molecular mechanisms attributed to FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.First,FK506 binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and removes them from intracellular ryanodine receptors that induce a calcium ion leakage from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.The conventional protein kinase C beta II (cPKCβⅡ)-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase at Thr495,which reduces the production of NO,was activated by calcium ion leakage.Second,transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.Third,the activation of with-no-K(Lys) kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase/thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (WNKs/SPAK/NCC) pathway has a central role in tacrolimus-induced hypertension.Finally,the enhanced activity of renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a crucial role in

  6. Antibody-mediated rejection across solid organ transplants: manifestations, mechanisms, and therapies. (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Reed, Elaine F


    Solid organ transplantation is a curative therapy for hundreds of thousands of patients with end-stage organ failure. However, long-term outcomes have not improved, and nearly half of transplant recipients will lose their allografts by 10 years after transplant. One of the major challenges facing clinical transplantation is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) caused by anti-donor HLA antibodies. AMR is highly associated with graft loss, but unfortunately there are few efficacious therapies to prevent and reverse AMR. This Review describes the clinical and histological manifestations of AMR, and discusses the immunopathological mechanisms contributing to antibody-mediated allograft injury as well as current and emerging therapies.

  7. Strength of Screw Propellers (United States)


    ship because of increese of propeller efficiency and saving on the high cost of difficult to obtain materials (bronze, brass, stainless steel). The...indAjate that. x :axmuin stresses in the blade cross section are the cor-,prc-.,; ivFe norm-al strcs3es at point G. The maximom tensile stres-ses cis a...and stern part of the ship. Because of purely technical difficulties and also because of the relatively high cost of preparations for such tests, only


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  9. Formation of Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions by mechanical alloying and their ordering on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, V.K.; Tomilin, I.A.; Blinov, A.M.; Kulik, T.


    The Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions with different crystalline lattice periods (0.3592 and 0.3570 nm correspondingly) are formed in the course of the Ni 70 Al 25 Mo 5 and Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 powder mixtures mechanical alloying (MA) (through the mechanical activation in a vibrating mill). After MA the Mo atoms in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture completely replace the aluminium positions with formation of the Ni 75 (AlMo) 25 (the L1 2 -type) ternary ordered phase, whereby such a distribution remains after heating up to 700 deg C. The Ni(Al, Mo) metastable solution is formed by MA in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture, which decays with the release of molybdenum and the remained aluminide undergoes ordering by the L1 2 -type [ru

  10. Some problems in mechanics of growing solids with applications to AM technologies (United States)

    Manzhirov, A. V.


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are an exciting area of the modern industrial revolution and have applications in engineering, medicine, electronics, aerospace industry, etc. AM enables cost-effective production of customized geometry and parts by direct fabrication from 3D data and mathematical models. Despite much progress in AM technologies, problems of mechanical analysis for AM fabricated parts yet remain to be solved. This paper deals with three main mechanical problems: the onset of residual stresses, which occur in the AM process and can lead to failure of the parts, the distortion of the final shape of AM fabricated parts, and the development of technological solutions aimed at improving existing AM technologies and creating new ones. An approach proposed deals with the construction of adequate analytical model and effective methods for the simulation of AM processes for fabricated solid parts.

  11. International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Kadin


    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary­ wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto­ dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas­ sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...

  12. Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A.; Li, Juiki; Salamh, Yousef; Al-Laqtah, Nasir; Walker, Gavin; Ahmad, Mohammad N.M.


    A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu 2+ ), and cadmium ion (Cd 2+ ) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g -1 , respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ . For Cu 2+ , binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd 2+ , the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit.

  13. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.


    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  14. Mechanisms and kinetics of electrodeposition of alkali metals on solid and liquid mercury electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenzhe.


    Electroreduction of alkali metal ions at mercury is an important area in electrochemistry related to the battery industry. In this work, four major topics were considered: alkali metal/mercury interactions; electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury; electroreduction of alkali metal/crown ether complexes; and ammonium amalgam formation. The formation of alkali metal-mercury intermetallic compounds was studied on liquid and frozen thin layer mercury electrodes. The stoichiometry of the compounds produced under these conditions was determined using cyclic voltammetry. As expected, formation of a new phase was preceded by nucleation phenomena, which were particularly easy to monitor at solid Hg electrodes. The nucleation kinetics were studied using the chronoamperometric method. At very low temperatures, when the mobility of mercury atoms was restricted, the electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury electrodes was noted. Subsequent study allowed determination of the electrosorption parameters. The free energy of electrosorption is discussed in terms of interactions between alkali metals and mercury. The effect of crown ethers on the kinetics of alkali metal ion reduction was studied at both standard size and ultramicro-mercury electrodes in nonaqueous solutions using ultrafast cyclic voltammetry and ac voltammetry. The usefulness of ultrafast cyclic voltammetry with ultramicroelectrodes in measurements of the kinetics of amalgam formation was verified in a brief study of cadmium ion reduction. The mechanism of the complex reduction at mercury was analyzed based on the free energy changes before and after the activation state. In addition, the stoichiometry and formation constants of the crown ether/alkali metal complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The mechanism of electroreduction of ammonium ions at mercury electrodes in non-aqueous media was analyzed.

  15. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)


    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  16. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants. (United States)

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin


    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  17. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duxin Li


    Full Text Available The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  18. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G


    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ∼ Φ 0.89 ) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 10 9 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 10 9 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress. (papers)

  19. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides) (United States)


    the of ether and ethyl alcohol and removing objective of these lectures to give a this solvent. Instead of having a fibrous comprehensive cetto esrne do Les propergols composites, A matrice confifrences une description tout A fait A polymarique charg~o pst, un oxydant at un jour des...rusa., De nouveaux souvant suppos6 qua la vitesa des gaz de oxydes de for ultrafirts mont aujourd’hui combustion est n~gligeable at qua d~velopps pour

  20. Discovery Of B Ring Propellers In Cassini UVIS, And ISS (United States)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.


    We present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We identify two propeller populations: (1) tens of degrees wide propellers in the dense B ring core, and (2) smaller, more A ring like, propellers populating the inner B ring. The prototype of the first population is an object observed at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. The ubiquitous propeller "S" shape is seen both in UVIS occultations as an optical depth depletion and in ISS as a 40 degrees wide bright stripe in unlit geometries and dark in lit geometries. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at orbital speed consistent with its radial location. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body, which causes the propeller structure, is about 1.5km in size located at a=112,921km. The UVIS occultations indicate an asymmetric propeller "S" shape. Since the object is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth, this asymmetry is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient. We estimate that there are possibly dozen up to 100 other propeller objects in Saturn's B ring. The location of the discovered body, at an edge of a dense ringlet within the B ring, suggests a novel mechanism for the up to now illusive B ring irregular large-scale structure of alternating high and low optical depth ringlets. We propose that this B ring irregular structure may have its cause in the presence of many embedded bodies that shepherd the individual B ring ringlets.

  1. Physical, mechanical and electrochemical characterization of all-perovskite intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alidad

    Strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) has been considered as a promising electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems in recent years due to its high ionic conductivity and chemical stability over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures and temperatures. This research describes synthesis, physical and mechanical behavior, electrochemical properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of components of an all-perovskite anode-supported intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC), based on porous La 0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O 2.8 (LSGM) electrolyte, and porous La0.6Sr0.4Fe 0.8Co0.2O3 (LSCF) cathode. The phase evolution of synthesized LSGM and LSCM powders has been investigated, and it has been confirmed that there is no reaction between LSGM and LSCM at sintering temperature. Using different amounts of poreformers and binders as well as controlling firing temperature, porosity of the anode was optimized while still retaining good mechanical integrity. The effect of cell operation conditions under dry hydrogen fuel on the SOFC open circuit voltage (OCV) and cell performance were also investigated. Characterization study of the synthesized LSGM indicates that sintering at 1500°C obtains higher electrical conductivity compared to the currently published results, while conductivity of pellets sintered at 1400°C and 1450°C would be slightly lower. The effect of sintering temperature on bulk and grain boundary resistivities was also discussed. The mechanical properties, such as hardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness and modulus of rupture of the electrolyte were determined and correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological characterization. Linear thermal expansion and thermal expansion coefficient of LSGM were also measured.

  2. Mechanism to synthesize a ‘moving optical mark’ at solid-ambient interface for the estimation of thermal diffusivity of solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settu Balachandar


    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is proposed, involving a novel interaction between solid-sample supporting unsteady heat flow with its ambient-humidity; invokes phase transformation of water-vapour molecule and synthesize a ‘moving optical-mark’ at sample-ambient-interface. Under tailored condition, optical-mark exhibits a characteristic macro-scale translatory motion governed by thermal diffusivity of solid. For various step-temperature inputs via cooling, position-dependent velocities of moving optical-mark are measured at a fixed distance. A new approach is proposed. ‘Product of velocity of optical-mark and distance’ versus ‘non-dimensional velocity’ is plotted. The slope reveals thermal diffusivity of solid at ambient-temperature; preliminary results obtained for Quartz-glass is closely matching with literature.

  3. Effect of fluid–solid coupling on shale mechanics and seepage laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Song


    Full Text Available In this paper, the cores of outcropped black shale of Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm in the Yibin area, Sichuan Basin, were taken as samples to investigate the effects of extraneous water on shale mechanics and seepage laws during the production of shale gas reservoirs. Firstly, the development of fractures in water saturated cores was observed by using a VHX-5000 optical superdepth microscope. Secondly, water, formation water and slick water, as well as the damage form and compression strength of water saturated/unsaturated cores were investigated by means of a uniaxial compression testing machine and a strain testing & analysis system. Finally, the effects of fluid–solid coupling on shale gas flowing performance in different water saturations were analyzed by using a DYQ-1 multi-function displacement device. Analysis on core components shows that the Longmaxi shale is a highly crushable reservoir with a high content of fragile minerals, so fracturing stimulation is suitable for it. Shale compression strength test reveals that the effects of deionized water, formation water and slick water on shale are different, so the compression strength of shale before being saturated is quite different from that after being saturated. Due to the existence of water, the compression strength of shale drops, so the shale can be fractured easily, more fractures are generated and thus its seepage capacity is improved. Experiments on shale gas seepage under different water saturations show that under the condition of fluid–solid coupling, the higher the water saturation is, the better the propagation and seepage capacity of micro-fractures in shale under the effect of pressure. To sum up, the existence of water is beneficial to fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs and helps to achieve the goal of production improvement. Keywords: Shale gas, Core, Fluid–solid coupling, Water, Compression strength, Permeability, Seepage characteristic, Sichuan Basin

  4. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat


    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  5. Partitioned fluid-solid coupling for cardiovascular blood flow: left-ventricular fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Krittian, Sebastian; Janoske, Uwe; Oertel, Herbert; Böhlke, Thomas


    We present a 3D code-coupling approach which has been specialized towards cardiovascular blood flow. For the first time, the prescribed geometry movement of the cardiovascular flow model KaHMo (Karlsruhe Heart Model) has been replaced by a myocardial composite model. Deformation is driven by fluid forces and myocardial response, i.e., both its contractile and constitutive behavior. Whereas the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) of the Navier-Stokes equations is discretized by finite volumes (FVM), the solid mechanical finite elasticity equations are discretized by a finite element (FEM) approach. Taking advantage of specialized numerical solution strategies for non-matching fluid and solid domain meshes, an iterative data-exchange guarantees the interface equilibrium of the underlying governing equations. The focus of this work is on left-ventricular fluid-structure interaction based on patient-specific magnetic resonance imaging datasets. Multi-physical phenomena are described by temporal visualization and characteristic FSI numbers. The results gained show flow patterns that are in good agreement with previous observations. A deeper understanding of cavity deformation, blood flow, and their vital interaction can help to improve surgical treatment and clinical therapy planning.

  6. Isotopic study on mechanism for skeletal isomerization of n-butane over solid acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tetsuo; Okuhara, Toshio


    Reaction mechanism for skeletal isomerization of n-butane over typical strong solid acids were investigated by using 1,4- 13 C 2 -n-butane. We used FI MASS for the analysis of 13 C distribution to get the parent pattern. 13 C-distribution of isobutane formed at 423 K over SO 3 2- /ZrO 2 (SZ) and Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PW 12 O 40 (Cs2.5) were close to binomial distributions, indicating that the isomerization proceeded mainly via a bimolecular mechanism on these catalysts. On the other hand, at 523 K over Cs2.5, the isotopic distribution pattern in isobutane was quite different from the binomial one; the fraction of 13 C 2 -isobutane was much greater than the binomial distribution. This result demonstrates that an intramolecular (monomolecular) rearrangement became significant at 523 K over Cs2.5. The contribution of monomolecular pathway was higher on Cs2.5 than on SZ. We presumed that the contribution of mechanism is related to the acidic property and the dehydrogenation ability of the catalyst. (S.Y.)

  7. Analytical Solution and Physics of a Propellant Damping Device (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John


    NASA design teams have been investigating options for "detuning" Ares I to prevent oscillations originating in the vehicle solid-rocket main stage from synching up with the natural resonance of the rest of the vehicle. An experimental work started at NASA MSFC center in 2008 using a damping device showed great promise in damping the vibration level of an 8 resonant tank. However, the mechanisms of the vibration damping were not well understood and there were many unknowns such as the physics, scalability, technology readiness level (TRL), and applicability for the Ares I vehicle. The objectives of this study are to understand the physics of intriguing slosh damping observed in the experiments, to further validate a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in propellant sloshing against experiments with water, and to study the applicability and efficiency of the slosh damper to a full scale propellant tank and to cryogenic fluids. First a 2D fluid-structure interaction model is built to model the system resonance of liquid sloshing and structure vibration. A damper is then added into the above model to simulate experimentally observed system damping phenomena. Qualitative agreement is found. An analytical solution is then derived from the Newtonian dynamics for the thrust oscillation damper frequency, and a slave mass concept is introduced in deriving the damper and tank interaction dynamics. The paper will elucidate the fundamental physics behind the LOX damper success from the derivation of the above analytical equation of the lumped Newtonian dynamics. Discussion of simulation results using high fidelity multi-phase, multi-physics, fully coupled CFD structure interaction model will show why the LOX damper is unique and superior compared to other proposed mitigation techniques.

  8. Broad compositional tunability of indium tin oxide nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos


    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanowires were grown by the reaction of In and Sn with O2 at 800 °C via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si(001. We obtain Sn doped In2O3 nanowires having a cubic bixbyite crystal structure by using In:Sn source weight ratios > 1:9 while below this we observe the emergence of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and suppression of In2O3 permitting compositional and structural tuning from SnO2 to In2O3 which is accompanied by a blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and increase in carrier lifetime attributed to a higher crystal quality and Fermi level position.

  9. Mechanism of chromium poisoning the conventional cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Guangsen; Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Xiao, Shuhao; Li, Baihai; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin


    Chromium poisoning the La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 (LSM) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells is a critical issue that can strongly affect the stability. In this study, we evaluate the temperature distribution in a SOFC based on a 3D model and then combine conductivity test and material computation to reveal the effects of chromium in SUS430 stainless steels on LSM conductivities. The starch concentration in LSM pellets and the applied pressure on the contact with interconnect materials show close relationships with the chromium poisoning behavior. The density functional theory (DFT) computing results indicate that chromium atoms preferably adsorb on the MnO2-terminated and La (Sr)-O-terminated (001) surfaces. The resulting conclusions are expected to deeply understand mechanism of chromium deactivating conventional cathodes at some typical operational conditions, and offer crucial information to optimize the structure to avoid the poisoning effect.

  10. Structural Relaxations and Thermodynamic Properties of Molecular Amorphous Solids by Mechanical Milling (United States)

    Tsukushi, I.; Yamamuro, O.; Matsuo, T.

    The organic crystals of tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TMCD) and its three clathrate compounds containing benzoic acid (BA), p-nitrobenzoic acid (NBA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), sucrose (SUC), salicin (SAL), phenolphthalein (PP), 1,3,5-tri-α-naphthylbenzene (TNB) were amorphized by milling with a vibrating mill for 2 ˜ 16 hours at room temperature. The amorphization was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction. The heat capacities of crystals, liquid quenched glasses (LQG), and mechanically-milled amorphous solid (MMAS) of TMCD and TNB were measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range between 12 and 375 K. For both compounds, the enthalpy relaxation of MMAS appeared in the wide temperature range below Tg and the released configurational enthalpy was much larger than that of LQG, indicating that MMAS is more disordered and strained than LQG.

  11. Laser-induced stresses versus mechanical stress power measurements during laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.A.; Russo, R.E.


    Laser-induced stresses resulting from high-power laser-material interactions have been studied extensively. However, the rate of change in mechanical energy, or stress power, due to laser-induced stresses has only recently been investigated. An unanswered question for monitoring laser-material interactions in the far-field is whether stress power differs from stresses measured, particularly with respect to laser-energy coupling to a solid target. This letter shows experimental acoustic data which demonstrate that stress power measured in the far field of the target shows changes in laser-energy coupling, whereas the stresses measured do not. For the ambient medium above the target, stress power and stress together reflect changes in laser-energy coupling. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Ab initio study of structural and mechanical property of solid molecular hydrogens (United States)

    Ye, Yingting; Yang, Li; Yang, Tianle; Nie, Jinlan; Peng, Shuming; Long, Xinggui; Zu, Xiaotao; Du, Jincheng


    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to investigate the structural and the elastic properties of solid molecular hydrogens (H2). The influence of molecular axes of H2 on structural relative stabilities of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and face-centered cubic (fcc) structured hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically investigated. Our results indicate that for hcp structures, disordered hydrogen molecule structure is more stable, while for fcc structures, Pa3 hydrogen molecular crystal is most stable. The cohesive energy of fcc H2 crystal was found to be lower than hcp. The mechanical properties of fcc and hcp hydrogen molecular crystals were obtained, with results consistent with previous theoretical calculations. In addition, the effects of zero point energy (ZPE) and van der Waals (vdW) correction on the cohesive energy and the stability of hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically studied and discussed.

  13. CISM-Course on Modern Optical Methods in Experimental Solid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server


    The book covers the theories and physics of advanced new optical measuring methods and problems of experimental performance, recent achievements in the basic interferometric methods holography, speckle-interferometry, shearography as well as linear/non-linear photoelasticity and photoviscoelasticity, Moiré- and grid-techniques. It deals with theory and application of digital image processing, methods of data recording, data processing and -visualisation, with mathematical/numerical procedures for final evaluation of digitised measured data and the principle of hybrid techniques. It introduces into the new perceptions of methods in experimental solid mechanics and it should encourage scientists to deal intensively with the theories for further developments, and enables practitioners, to understand theory and physics of the new achievements at least and to apply the methods in research als well as in developments in practice.

  14. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism. (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe


    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D 1 (500-700kgm -3 ), D 2 (900-1000kgm -3 ), D 3 (1100-1200kgm -3 ) and D 4 (1200-1400kgm -3 ) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm -3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.


    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  16. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.


    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  17. Mechanical characterization of municipal solid waste from two waste dumps at Delhi, India. (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V; Datta, Manoj


    The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (C c ') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW. Low C c ' of MSW is attributed to the relatively low percentages of compressible elements such as textiles, plastics and paper, coupled with relatively high percentages of inert materials such as soil-like and gravel sized fractions. Shear strength of MSW tested is observed to be displacement dependent. The mobilized shear strength parameters i.e., the apparent cohesion intercept (c') and friction angle (ϕ') of MSW at these two dumps are best characterized by c'=13kPa and ϕ'=23° at 25mm displacement and c'=17kPa and ϕ'=34° at 55mm displacement and are in the range reported for MSW in the literature. A large database on the shear strength of MSW from 18 countries that includes: the experimental data from 277 large-scale DS tests (in-situ and laboratory) and the data from back analysis of 11 failed landfill slopes is statistically analyzed. Based on the analysis, a simple linear shear strength envelope, characterized by c'=17kPa and ϕ'=32°, is proposed for MSW for preliminary use in the absence of site-specific data for stability evaluation of the solid waste landfill under drained conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hull-Propeller Interaction and Its Effect on Propeller Cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regener, Pelle Bo

    In order to predict the required propulsion power for a ship reliably and accurately, it is not sufficient to only evaluate the resistance of the hull and the propeller performance in open water alone. Interaction effects between hull and propeller can even be a decisive factor in ship powering...... prediction and design optimization. The hull-propeller interaction coefficients of effective wake fraction, thrust deduction factor, and relative rotative efficiency are traditionally determined by model tests. Self-propulsion model tests consistently show an increase in effective wake fractions when using...... velocities. This offers an opportunity for additional insight into hull-propeller interaction and the propeller’s actual operating condition behind the ship, as the actual (effective) inflow is computed. Self-propulsion simulations at model and full scale were carried out for a bulk carrier, once...

  19. An advanced GAP/AN/TAGN propellant : part 2 : stability and storage life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, M.D. [Bristol Aerospace, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Badeen, C.M.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory


    An advanced solid propellant was characterized. The propellant was based on a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) energetic binder with an ammonium nitrate (AN) oxidizer, and contained a significant percentage of triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN). Raw ingredient accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was performed to determine self-heating rates. Thermal stability and heat flow calorimetry tests were also conducted. Ballistic analyses were conducted to determine the propellant's burn rate. The propellant was designed to produce non-toxic and non-acidic exhaust products. Results of the tests indicated that the propellant is safe for prolonged storage. The study demonstrated that propellant samples can be heated to temperatures up to 175 degrees C for several hours without combustion response. A mass loss of 62 per cent was observed at temperatures between 160 and 230 degrees C. The samples ignited almost immediately after being placed in a pre-heated block at temperatures higher than 175 degrees C. The propellant's burn rate was approximately twice that of standard AN propellants. The propellant will be further evaluated as a candidate for the propulsion of tactical rockets and missiles. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Diagnostics of Gun Barrel Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lederman, S


    A preliminary investigation of the applicability of the spontaneous Raman diagnostic technique to the determination of the temperature of the propellant gases in the vicinity of the muzzle of a 2Omm...

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  2. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    Cavitation on marine propellers causes thrust breakdown, noise, vibration and erosion. The increasing demand for high-efficiency propellers makes it difficult to avoid the occurrence of cavitation. Currently, practical analysis of propeller cavitation depends on cavitation tunnel test, empirical...... criteria and inviscid flow method, but a series of model test is costly and the other two methods have low accuracy. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics by using a viscous flow solver is common for practical industrial applications in many disciplines. Cavitation models in viscous flow solvers have been...... hydrofoils and conventional/highly-skewed propellers are performed with one of three cavitation models proven in 2D analysis. 3D cases also show accuracy and robustness of numerical method in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation on complicated geometries. Hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation...

  3. Microstructures and mechanical behavior of Inconel 625 fabricated by solid-state additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, O.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Allison, P.G., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Jordon, J.B.; Rodriguez, O.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Brewer, L.N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McClelland, Z. [US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Whittington, W.R.; Francis, D. [Center of Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States); Su, J. [Aeroprobe Corporation, Christiansburg, VA (United States); Martens, R.L. [Central Analytical Facility, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Hardwick, N. [Aeroprobe Corporation, Christiansburg, VA (United States)


    Here we introduce a novel thermo-mechanical Solid State Additive Manufacturing (SSAM) process referred to as Additive Friction Stir (AFS) manufacturing that provides a new and alternative path to fusion-based additive manufacturing processes for developing fully-dense, near-net shape components with a refined-equiaxed grain morphology. This study is the first to investigate the beneficial grain refinement and densification produced by AFS in IN625 that results in advantageous mechanical properties (YS, UTS, εf) at both quasi-static and high strain rate. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) observed grain refinement during the layer deposition in the AFS specimens, where the results identified fine equiaxed grain structures with even finer grain structures forming at the layer interfaces. The EBSD quantified grains as fine as 0.27 µm in these interface regions while the average grain size was approximately 1 µm. Additionally, this is the first study to report on the strain rate dependence of AFS IN625 through quasi-static (QS) (0.001/s) and high strain rate (HR) (1500/s) tensile experiments using a servo hydraulic frame and a direct tension-Kolsky bar, respectively, which captured both yield and ultimate tensile strengths increasing as strain rate increased. The HS results exhibited an approximately 200 MPa increase in engineering strength over the QS results, with the fracture surfaces at both strain rates aligned with the maximum shear plane and exhibiting localized microvoids.

  4. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor); Stein, Bland A. (Editor)


    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  5. Microstructures and mechanical behavior of Inconel 625 fabricated by solid-state additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, O.G.; Allison, P.G.; Jordon, J.B.; Rodriguez, O.L.; Brewer, L.N.; McClelland, Z.; Whittington, W.R.; Francis, D.; Su, J.; Martens, R.L.; Hardwick, N.


    Here we introduce a novel thermo-mechanical Solid State Additive Manufacturing (SSAM) process referred to as Additive Friction Stir (AFS) manufacturing that provides a new and alternative path to fusion-based additive manufacturing processes for developing fully-dense, near-net shape components with a refined-equiaxed grain morphology. This study is the first to investigate the beneficial grain refinement and densification produced by AFS in IN625 that results in advantageous mechanical properties (YS, UTS, εf) at both quasi-static and high strain rate. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) observed grain refinement during the layer deposition in the AFS specimens, where the results identified fine equiaxed grain structures with even finer grain structures forming at the layer interfaces. The EBSD quantified grains as fine as 0.27 µm in these interface regions while the average grain size was approximately 1 µm. Additionally, this is the first study to report on the strain rate dependence of AFS IN625 through quasi-static (QS) (0.001/s) and high strain rate (HR) (1500/s) tensile experiments using a servo hydraulic frame and a direct tension-Kolsky bar, respectively, which captured both yield and ultimate tensile strengths increasing as strain rate increased. The HS results exhibited an approximately 200 MPa increase in engineering strength over the QS results, with the fracture surfaces at both strain rates aligned with the maximum shear plane and exhibiting localized microvoids.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Characteristics of Dropped Eggs Based on Fluid-Solid Coupling Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Haiyan


    Full Text Available It is important to study the properties and mechanics of egg drop impacts in order to reduce egg loss during processing and logistics and to provide a basis for the protective packaging of egg products. In this paper, we present the results of our study of the effects of the structural parameters on the mechanical properties of an egg using a finite element model of the egg. Based on Fluid-Solid coupling theory, a finite element model of an egg was constructed using ADINA, a finite element calculation and analysis software package. To simplify the model, the internal fluid of the egg was considered to be a homogeneous substance. The egg drop impact was simulated by the coupling solution, and the feasibility of the model was verified by comparison with the experimental results of a drop test. In summary, the modeling scheme was shown to be feasible and the simulation results provide a theoretical basis for the optimum design of egg packaging and egg processing equipment.

  7. The Mechanism of Solid State Joining THA with AlMg3Mn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorowski M.


    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of solid state joining of tungsten heavy alloy (THA with AlMg3Mn alloy are presented. The aim of these investigations was to study the mechanism of joining two extremely different materials used for military applications. The continuous rotary friction welding method was used in the experiment. The parameters of friction welding process i.e. friction load and friction time in whole studies were changed in the range 10 to 30kN and 0,5 to 10s respectively while forging load and time were constant and equals 50kN and 5s. The results presented here concerns only a small part whole studies which were described elsewhere. These are focused on the mechanism of joining which can be adhesive or diffusion controlled. The experiment included macro- and microstructure observations which were supplemented with SEM investigations. The goal of the last one was to reveal the character of fracture surface after tensile test and to looking for anticipated diffusion of aluminum into THA matrix. The results showed that joining of THA with AlMg2Mn alloy has mainly adhesive character, although the diffusion cannot be excluded.

  8. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  9. Experimental investigation of atomization characteristics of swirling spray by ADN gelled propellant (United States)

    Guan, Hao-Sen; Li, Guo-Xiu; Zhang, Nai-Yuan


    Due to the current global energy shortage and increasingly serious environmental issues, green propellants are attracting more attention. In particular, the ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster is gaining world-wide attention as a green, non-polluting and high specific impulse propellant. Gel propellants combine the advantages of liquid and solid propellants, and are becoming popular in the field of spaceflight. In this paper, a swirling atomization experimental study was carried out using an ADN aqueous gel propellant under different injection pressures. A high-speed camera and a Malvern laser particle size analyzer were used to study the spray process. The flow coefficient, cone angle of swirl atomizing spray, breakup length of spray membrane, and droplet size distribution were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of different injection pressures on the swirling atomization characteristics were studied.

  10. Combustion characteristics of SMX and SMX based propellants (United States)

    Reese, David A.

    This work investigates the combustion of the new solid nitrate ester 2,3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dinitro-1,4-butanediol tetranitrate (SMX, C6H 8N6O16). SMX was synthesized for the first time in 2008. It has a melting point of 85 °C and oxygen balance of 0% to CO 2, allowing it to be used as an energetic additive or oxidizer in solid propellants. In addition to its neat combustion characteristics, this work also explores the use of SMX as a potential replacement for nitroglycerin (NG) in double base gun propellants and as a replacement for ammonium perchlorate in composite rocket propellants. The physical properties, sensitivity characteristics, and combustion behaviors of neat SMX were investigated. Its combustion is stable at pressures of up to at least 27.5 MPa (n = 0.81). The observed flame structure is nearly identical to that of other double base propellant ingredients, with a primary flame attached at the surface, a thick isothermal dark zone, and a luminous secondary flame wherein final recombination reactions occur. As a result, the burning rate and primary flame structure can be modeled using existing one-dimensional steady state techniques. A zero gas-phase activation energy approximation results in a good fit between modeled and observed behavior. Additionally, SMX was considered as a replacement for nitroglycerin in a double base propellant. Thermochemical calculations indicate improved performance when compared with the common double base propellant JA2 at SMX loadings above 40 wt-%. Also, since SMX is a room temperature solid, migration may be avoided. Like other nitrate esters, SMX is susceptible to decomposition over long-term storage due to the presence of excess acid in the crystals; the addition of stabilizers (e.g., derivatives of urea) during synthesis should be sufficient to prevent this. the addition of Both unplasticized and plasticized propellants were formulated. Thermal analysis of unplasticized propellant showed a distinct melt

  11. Triphenylamine - a 'new' stabilizer for nitrocellulose based propellants. Pt. 1: chemical stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilker, Stephan; Heeb, Gerhard [WIWEB ASt Heimerzheim, Grosses Cent, 53913 Swisttal (Germany); Vogelsanger, Beat [Nitrochemie Wimmis AG, Niesenstr. 44, 3752 Wimmis (Switzerland); Petrzilek, Jan; Skladal, Jan [Explosia a.s. - Research Institute of Industrial Chemistry (VUPCH), 532 17 Pardubice (Czech Republic)


    Triphenylamine (TPA) was used for the first time in France in 1937 as a stabilizer for propellants. The stability of those samples was described as 'good'. Around 1950 an American group produced TPA stabilized propellants and investigated the decomposition mechanism. Apart from one single experiment in the 1970s no further attempts were made to take TPA as a stabilizer for propellants. With the background of an increasingly critical discussion about nitrosamines in propellants and their declaration of being carcinogenic, TPA revealed a renaissance since the year 2000. To achieve the goal of nitrosamine free propellants several TPA stabilized propellants were produced. Their processability, stability and ballistic properties were investigated. This publication summarizes the most important results of stability tests on more than 30 different TPA stabilized propellants including the decomposition mechanism, the synthesis of the consecutive products and their stabilizing properties. In addition, the internal compatibility of TPA with the most important propellant ingredients is discussed and its relative decomposition rate is compared with that of other stabilizers. In summary TPA is a suitable stabilizer for propellants. It has nevertheless two disadvantages. It is relatively rapidly consumed in double base formulations (which makes it difficult to pass the criteria of AOP-48, Ed. 2) and the stabilizing activity of the two major consecutive products 4-NO{sub 2}-TPA and especially 4,4{sup '}-di-NO{sub 2}-TPA is low. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Vapor-liquid-solid mechanisms: Challenges for nanosized quantum cluster/dot/wire materials (United States)

    Cheyssac, P.; Sacilotti, M.; Patriarche, G.


    The growth mechanism model of a nanoscaled material is a critical step that has to be refined for a better understanding of a nanostructure's dot/wire fabrication. To do so, the growth mechanism will be discussed in this paper and the influence of the size of the metallic nanocluster starting point, referred to later as "size effect," will be studied. Among many of the so-called size effects, a tremendous decrease of the melting point of the metallic nanocluster changes the physical properties as well as the physical/mechanical interactions inside the growing structure composed of a metallic dot on top of a column. The thermodynamic size effect is related to the bending or curvature of chains of atoms, giving rise to the weakening of bonds between them; this size or curvature effect is described and approached to crystal nanodot/wire growth. We will describe this effect as that of a "cooking machine" when the number of atoms decreases from ˜1023at./cm3 for a bulk material to a few tens of them in a 1-2nm diameter sphere. The decrease of the number of atoms in a metallic cluster from such an enormous quantity is accompanied by a lowering of the melting temperature that extends from 200 up to 1000K, depending on the metallic material and its size under study. In this respect, the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model, which is the most utilized growth mechanism for quantum nanowires and nanodots, is critically exposed to size or curvature effects (CEs). More precisely, interactions in the vicinity of the growth regions should be reexamined. Some results illustrating the growth of micrometer-/nanometer-sized materials are presented in order to corroborate the CE/VLS models utilized by many research groups in today's nanosciences world. Examples of metallic clusters and semiconducting wires will be presented. The results and comments presented in this paper can be seen as a challenge to be overcome. From them, we expect that in a near future an improved model can be exposed

  13. Different control mechanisms regulate glucoamylase and protease gene transcription in Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state and submerged fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Biezen, N. van; Vos, W.M. de; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae results in high levels of secreted protein. However, control mechanisms of gene expression in SSF have been only poorly studied. In this study we show that both glucoamylase (glaB) and protease (alpA, nptB) genes are highly expressed during

  14. High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Bermejo, Raul; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob


    Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell systems are efficient devices to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels into electricity. The functionality of the cell is related to the structural integrity of the ceramic electrolyte, since its failure can lead to drastic performance losses. The mechanical property which is of most interest is the strength distribution at all relevant temperatures and how it is affected with time due to the environment. This study investigates the impact of the temperature on the strength and the fracture toughness of different zirconia electrolytes as well as the change of the elastic constants. 3YSZ and 6ScSZ materials are characterised regarding the influence of sub critical crack growth (SCCG) as one of the main lifetime limiting effects for ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, the reliability of different zirconia tapes is assessed with respect to temperature and SCCG. It was found that the strength is only influenced by temperature through the change in fracture toughness. SCCG has a large influence on the strength and the lifetime for intermediate temperature, while its impact becomes limited at temperatures higher than 650 °C. In this context the tetragonal 3YSZ and 6ScSZ behave quite different than the cubic 10Sc1CeSZ, so that at 850 °C it can be regarded as competitive compared to the tetragonal compounds.

  15. Two mechanisms of droplet splashing on a solid substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhen


    We investigate droplet impact on a solid substrate in order to understand the influence of the gas in the splashing dynamics. We use numerical simulations where both the liquid and the gas phases are considered incompressible in order to focus on the gas inertial and viscous contributions. We first confirm that the dominant gas effect on the dynamics is due to its viscosity through the cushioning of the gas layer beneath the droplet. We then describe an additional inertial effect that is directly related to the gas density. The two different splashing mechanisms initially suggested theoretically are observed numerically, depending on whether a jet is created before or after the impacting droplet wets the substrate. Finally, we provide a phase diagram of the drop impact outputs as the gas viscosity and density vary, emphasizing the dominant effect of the gas viscosity with a small correction due to the gas density. Our results also suggest that gas inertia influences the splashing formation through a Kelvin–Helmholtz-like instability of the surface of the impacting droplet, in agreement with former theoretical works.

  16. In situ grain fracture mechanics during uniaxial compaction of granular solids (United States)

    Hurley, R. C.; Lind, J.; Pagan, D. C.; Akin, M. C.; Herbold, E. B.


    Grain fracture and crushing are known to influence the macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials and be influenced by factors such as grain composition, morphology, and microstructure. In this paper, we investigate grain fracture and crushing by combining synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and three-dimensional x-ray diffraction to study two granular samples undergoing uniaxial compaction. Our measurements provide details of grain kinematics, contacts, average intra-granular stresses, inter-particle forces, and intra-grain crystal and fracture plane orientations. Our analyses elucidate the complex nature of fracture and crushing, showing that: (1) the average stress states of grains prior to fracture vary widely in their relation to global and local trends; (2) fractured grains experience inter-particle forces and stored energies that are statistically higher than intact grains prior to fracture; (3) fracture plane orientations are primarily controlled by average intra-granular stress and contact fabric rather than the orientation of the crystal lattice; (4) the creation of new surfaces during fracture accounts for a very small portion of the energy dissipated during compaction; (5) mixing brittle and ductile grain materials alters the grain-scale fracture response. The results highlight an application of combined x-ray measurements for non-destructive in situ analysis of granular solids and provide details about grain fracture that have important implications for theory and modeling.

  17. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.


    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  18. Propelling Extended Objects (United States)

    Humbert, Richard


    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  19. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.


    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was

  20. In-Situ tensile testing of propellants in SEM: influence of temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, G.L.; Ramshorst, M.C.J.; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.; Heijden, A. van der


    A tensile module system placed within a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to conduct insitu tensile testing of propellant samples. The tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under

  1. Pharmaceutical cocrystals:formation mechanisms, solubility behaviour and solid-state properties


    Alhalaweh, Amjad


    The primary aim of pharmaceutical materials engineering is the successful formulation and process development of pharmaceutical products. The diversity of solid forms available offers attractive opportunities for tailoring material properties. In this context, pharmaceutical cocrystals, multicomponent crystalline materials with definite stoichiometries often stabilised by hydrogen bonding, have recently emerged as interesting alternative solid forms with potential for improving the physical a...

  2. Simple thermodynamic model of the extension of solid solution of Cu-Mo alloys processed by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, C.; Guzman, D.; Rojas, P.A.; Ordonez, Stella; Rios, R.


    Highlights: → Extension of solid solution in Cu-Mo systems achieved by mechanical alloying. → Simple thermodynamic model to explain extension of solid solution of Mo in Cu. → Model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works. - Abstract: The objective of this work is proposing a simple thermodynamic model to explain the increase in the solubility limit of the powders of the Cu-Mo systems or other binary systems processed by mechanical alloying. In the regular solution model, the effects of crystalline defects, such as; dislocations and grain boundary produced during milling were introduced. The model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works for the Cu-Cr, Cu-Nb and Cu-Fe systems processed by mechanical alloying.

  3. Propeller Flaps: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe


    Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Laser-propelled ram accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science


    The concept of 'laser-propelled ram accelerator (L-RAMAC)' is proposed. Theoretically it is capable of achieving a higher launch speed than that by a chemical ram accelerator because a higher specific energy can be input to the propellant gas. The laser beam is supplied through the muzzle, focused as an annulus behind the base of the projectile. The performance of L-RAMAC is analized based on generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relations, suggesting that a superorbital muzzle speed is achievable out of this device. (orig.)

  5. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  6. Large Propellant Tank Cryo-Cooler (LPTC) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In rocket test and launch facilities, cryogenic propellants stored in tanks boils off due to heat leakage, with the following impacts:Ø   Waste, propellants boil off...

  7. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes


    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  8. Seawater Immersion of GEM II Propellant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Calude


    ... (% AP lost/week aged in seawater) and intercepts that depend on sample size. Friction and impact data on dried aged propellant samples showed no increased burning hazard compared with propellant not exposed to water...

  9. Characteristics of a non-volatile liquid propellant in liquid-fed ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki


    In the past several decades, the use of electric propulsion in spacecraft has experienced tremendous growth. With the increasing adoption of small satellites in the kilogram range, suitable propulsion systems will be necessary in the near future. Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) were the first form of electric propulsion to be deployed in orbit, and are highly suitable for small satellites due to their inherent simplicity. However, their lifetime is limited by disadvantages such as carbon deposition leading to thruster failure, and complicated feeding systems required due to the conventional use of solid propellants (usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). A promising alternative to solid propellants has recently emerged in the form of non-volatile liquids that are stable in vacuum. This study presents a broad comparison of the non-volatile liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and solid PTFE as propellants on a PPT with a common design base. We show that liquid PFPE can be successfully used as a propellant, and exhibits similar plasma discharge properties to conventional solid PTFE, but with a mass bit that is an order of magnitude higher for an identical ablation area. We also demonstrate that the liquid PFPE propellant has exceptional resistance to carbon deposition, completely negating one of the major causes of thruster failure, while solid PTFE exhibited considerable carbon build-up. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the elemental compositions of the surface deposition on the electrodes and the ablation area of the propellant (or PFPE encapsulator). The results show that based on its physical characteristics and behavior, non-volatile liquid PFPE is an extremely promising propellant for use in PPTs, with an extensive scope available for future research and development.

  10. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  11. Propelling arboriculture into the future (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson


    Research is the engine that propels arboriculture and urban forestry into the future. New knowledge, technologies, and tools provide arborists with improved tree care practices that result in healthier urban forests. The ISA Science and Research Committee (SRC) is composed of 13 professionals and researchers who are dedicated to elevating the importance of research...

  12. Plasma ignition of LOVA propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Boluijt, A.G.; Schilt, A.


    Ignition experiments were performed using a gun simulator which is equipped with a burst disk. This equipment facilitates the application of propellant loading densities which are comparable to those applied in regular ammunitions. For this study the gun simulator was equipped with a plasma jet


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene


    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ∼4 years, similar to the ∼3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  14. A Meshfree Cell-based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method for Solid Mechanics Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guiyong; Liu Guirong


    In the framework of a weakened weak (W 2 ) formulation using a generalized gradient smoothing operation, this paper introduces a novel meshfree cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) for solid mechanics problems. The W 2 formulation seeks solutions from a normed G space which includes both continuous and discontinuous functions and allows the use of much more types of methods to create shape functions for numerical methods. When PIM shape functions are used, the functions constructed are in general not continuous over the entire problem domain and hence are not compatible. Such an interpolation is not in a traditional H 1 space, but in a G 1 space. By introducing the generalized gradient smoothing operation properly, the requirement on function is now further weakened upon the already weakened requirement for functions in a H 1 space and G 1 space can be viewed as a space of functions with weakened weak (W 2 ) requirement on continuity. The cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) is formulated based on the W 2 formulation, in which displacement field is approximated using the PIM shape functions, which possess the Kronecker delta property facilitating the enforcement of essential boundary conditions [3]. The gradient (strain) field is constructed by the generalized gradient smoothing operation within the cell-based smoothing domains, which are exactly the triangular background cells. A W 2 formulation of generalized smoothed Galerkin (GS-Galerkin) weak form is used to derive the discretized system equations. It was found that the CS-PIM possesses the following attractive properties: (1) It is very easy to implement and works well with the simplest linear triangular mesh without introducing additional degrees of freedom; (2) it is at least linearly conforming; (3) this method is temporally stable and works well for dynamic analysis; (4) it possesses a close-to-exact stiffness, which is much softer than the overly-stiff FEM model and

  15. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudicianni, Paola, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Bozza, Pio, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Sorrentino, Giancarlo, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Ragucci, Raffaele, E-mail: [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione – C.N.R. Napoli (Italy)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  16. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek


    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  17. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH


    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  18. CO Self-Shielding as a Mechanism to Make O-16 Enriched Solids in the Solar Nebula (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A. III; Johnson, Natasha M.; Hill, Hugh G. M.


    Photochemical self-shielding of CO has been proposed as a mechanism to produce solids observed in the modern, O-16 depleted solar system. This is distinct from the relatively O-16 enriched composition of the solar nebula, as demonstrated by the oxygen isotopic composition of the contemporary sun. While supporting the idea that self-shielding can produce local enhancements in O-16 depleted solids, we argue that complementary enhancements of O-16 enriched solids can also be produced via CO-16 based, Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) catalytic processes that could produce much of the carbonaceous feedstock incorporated into accreting planetesimals. Local enhancements could explain observed O-16 enrichment in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), such as those from the meteorite, Isheyevo (CH/CHb), as well as in chondrules from the meteorite, Acfer 214 (CH3). CO selfshielding results in an overall increase in the O-17 and O-18 content of nebular solids only to the extent that there is a net loss of CO-16 from the solar nebula. In contrast, if CO-16 reacts in the nebula to produce organics and water then the net effect of the self-shielding process will be negligible for the average oxygen isotopic content of nebular solids and other mechanisms must be sought to produce the observed dichotomy between oxygen in the Sun and that in meteorites and the terrestrial planets. This illustrates that the formation and metamorphism of rocks and organics need to be considered in tandem rather than as isolated reaction networks.

  19. CO Self-Shielding as a Mechanism to Make 16O-Enriched Solids in the Solar Nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Nuth, III


    Full Text Available Photochemical self-shielding of CO has been proposed as a mechanism to produce solids observed in the modern, 16O-depleted solar system. This is distinct from the relatively 16O-enriched composition of the solar nebula, as demonstrated by the oxygen isotopic composition of the contemporary sun. While supporting the idea that self-shielding can produce local enhancements in 16O-depleted solids, we argue that complementary enhancements of 16O-enriched solids can also be produced via C16O-based, Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT catalytic processes that could produce much of the carbonaceous feedstock incorporated into accreting planetesimals. Local enhancements could explain observed 16O enrichment in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs, such as those from the meteorite, Isheyevo (CH/CHb, as well as in chondrules from the meteorite, Acfer 214 (CH3. CO self-shielding results in an overall increase in the 17O and 18O content of nebular solids only to the extent that there is a net loss of C16O from the solar nebula. In contrast, if C16O reacts in the nebula to produce organics and water then the net effect of the self-shielding process will be negligible for the average oxygen isotopic content of nebular solids and other mechanisms must be sought to produce the observed dichotomy between oxygen in the Sun and that in meteorites and the terrestrial planets. This illustrates that the formation and metamorphism of rocks and organics need to be considered in tandem rather than as isolated reaction networks.

  20. Fluid-mechanic/thermal interaction of a molten material and a decomposing solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Lee, D.O.


    Bench-scale experiments of a molten material in contact with a decomposing solid were conducted to gain insight into the expected interaction of a hot, molten reactor core with a concrete base. The results indicate that either of two regimes can occur: violent agitation and splattering of the melt or a very quiescent settling of the melt when placed in contact with the solid. The two regimes appear to be governed by the interface temperature condition. A conduction heat transfer model predicts the critical interface temperature with reasonable accuracy. In addition, a film thermal resistance model correlates well with the data in predicting the time for a solid skin to form on the molten material

  1. Experimental micro mechanics methods for conventional and negative Poisson's ratio cellular solids as Cosserat continua (United States)

    Lakes, R.


    Continuum representations of micromechanical phenomena in structured materials are described, with emphasis on cellular solids. These phenomena are interpreted in light of Cosserat elasticity, a generalized continuum theory which admits degrees of freedom not present in classical elasticity. These are the rotation of points in the material, and a couple per unit area or couple stress. Experimental work in this area is reviewed, and other interpretation schemes are discussed. The applicability of Cosserat elasticity to cellular solids and fibrous composite materials is considered as is the application of related generalized continuum theories. New experimental results are presented for foam materials with negative Poisson's ratios.

  2. Design and numerical investigation of swirl recovery vanes for the Fokker 29 propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yangang


    Full Text Available Swirl recovery vanes (SRVs are a set of stationary vanes located downstream from a propeller, which may recover some of the residual swirl from the propeller, hoping for an improvement in both thrust and efficiency. The SRV concept design for a scaled version representing the Fokker 29 propeller is performed in this paper, which may give rise to a promotion in propulsive performance of this traditional propeller. Firstly the numerical strategy is validated from two aspects of global quantities and the local flow field of the propeller compared with experimental data, and then the exit flow together with the development of propeller wake is analyzed in detail. Three kinds of SRV are designed with multiple circular airfoils. The numerical results show that the swirl behind the propeller is recovered significantly with Model V3, which is characterized by the highest solidity along spanwise, for various working conditions, and the combination of rotor and vane produced 5.76% extra thrust at the design point. However, a lower efficiency is observed asking for a better vane design and the choice of a working point. The vane position is studied which shows that there is an optimum range for higher thrust and efficiency.

  3. Ductility improvement of Mg alloys by solid solution: Ab initio modeling, synthesis and mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sandlöbes, S.; Pei, Z.; Friák, Martin; Zhu, L.-F.; Wang, F.; Zaefferer, S.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.


    Roč. 70, MAY (2014), s. 92-104 ISSN 1359-6454 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium * Rare-earth elements * Ductility * Modeling * Ab initio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.465, year: 2014

  4. Demonstration Experiments for Solid-State Physics Using a Table-Top Mechanical Stirling Refrigerator (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Morales, A. Palacio; Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.


    Liquid-free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature and solid-state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small-sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed…

  5. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues. (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas


    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  6. Experimental research on air propellers (United States)

    Durand, William F


    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  7. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian


    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  8. Aromatic C-Nitroso Compounds and Their Dimers: A Model for Probing the Reaction Mechanisms in Crystalline Molecular Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Biljan


    Full Text Available This review is focused on the dimerization and dissociation of aromatic C-nitroso compounds and their dimers, the reactions that could be used as a convenient model for studying the thermal organic solid-state reaction mechanisms. This molecular model is simple because it includes formation or breaking of only one covalent bond between two nitrogen atoms. The crystalline molecular solids of nitroso dimers (azodioxides dissociate by photolysis under the cryogenic conditions, and re-dimerize by slow warming. The thermal re-dimerization reaction is examined under the different topotactic conditions in crystals: disordering, surface defects, and phase transformations. Depending on the conditions, and on the molecular structure, aromatic C-nitroso compounds can associate to form one-dimensional polymeric structures and are able to self-assemble on gold surfaces.

  9. Solid-State Photochemistry as a Formation Mechanism for Titan's Stratospheric C4N2 Ice Clouds (United States)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Yung, Y. L.; McLain, J. L.


    We propose that C4N2 ice clouds observed in Titan's springtime polar stratosphere arise due to solid-state photochemistry occurring within extant ice cloud particles of HCN-HC3N mixtures. This formation process resembles the halogen-induced ice particle surface chemistry that leads to condensed nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and ozone depletion in Earth's polar stratosphere. As our analysis of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer 478 per centimeter ice emission feature demonstrates, this solid-state photochemistry mechanism eliminates the need for the relatively high C4N2 saturation vapor pressures required (even though they are not observed) when the ice is produced through the usual procedure of direct condensation from the vapor.

  10. Development of high temperature mechanical rig for characterizing the viscoplastic properties of alloys used in solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Greco, Fabio; Kwok, Kawai


    Analyzing the thermo-mechanical reliability of solid oxide cell (SOC) stack requires precise measurement of the mechanical properties of the different components in the stack at operating conditions of the SOC. It is challenging to precisely characterize the time dependent deformational properties...... temperature and in controlled atmosphere. The methodology uses a mechanical loading rig designed to apply variable as well as constant loads on samples within a gas-tight high temperature furnace. In addition, a unique remotely installed length measuring setup involving laser micrometer is used to monitor...... deformations in the sample. Application of the methodology is exemplified by measurement of stress relaxation, creep and constant strain rate behaviors of a high temperature alloy used in the construction of SOC metallic interconnects at different temperatures. Furthermore, measurements using the proposed...

  11. Predicting the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid mechanism (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Cai, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng


    Nanomaterial synthesis is experiencing a profound evolution from empirical science ("cook-and-look") to prediction and design, which depends on the deep insight into the growth mechanism. Herein, we report a generalized prediction of the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by nitriding F e28S i72 alloy particles across different phase regions based on our finding of the phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid (PED-VLS) mechanism. All the predictions about the growth of S i3N4 nanowires, and the associated evolutions of lattice parameters and geometries of the coexisting Fe -Si alloy phases, are experimentally confirmed quantitatively. This progress corroborates the general validity of the PED-VLS mechanism, which could be applied to the design and controllable synthesis of various one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  12. Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas. (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca


    Phenolic compounds, extractable from grape skins and seeds, have a notable influence on the quality of red wines. Many studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between the phenolic composition of the grape at harvest time and its influence on the phenolic composition of the red wine produced. In many previous works the evolution of phenolic composition and relative extractability was normally studied on grapes sampled at different times during ripening, but at the same date the physiological characteristics of grape berries in a vineyard are often very heterogeneous. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to investigate the differences among mechanical properties, phenolic composition and relative extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv Barbera grape berries, harvested at the same date from several vineyards, and calibrated according to their density at three levels of soluble solids (A=235+/-8, B=252+/-8 and C=269+/-8 g L(-1) sugar) with the aim of studying the influence of ripeness stages and growing locations on these parameters. Results on mechanical properties showed that the thickness of the berry skin (Sp(sk)) was the parameter most affected by the different level of sugars in the pulp, while different skin hardnesses, evaluated by the break skin force (F(sk)), were related to the cultivation sites. The latter were also observed to influence the mechanical characteristics of seeds. Generally, the anthocyanin content increased with the level of soluble solids, while the increase in the tannin content of the berry skin and seeds was less marked. However, significant changes in flavanols reactive to vanillin in the seeds were found. The cellular maturity index (EA%) was little influenced by the soluble solids content of grapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Instabilities on the Mechanical Response of Cellular Solids and Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyriakides, S


    .... The relatively regular and periodic microstructure of these two-dimensional materials makes them excellent models for studying the mechanisms that govern the compressive response of cellular materials...

  14. Modeling and testing of a tube-in-tube separation mechanism of bodies in space (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Gany, Alon


    A tube-in-tube concept for separation of bodies in space was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The separation system is based on generation of high pressure gas by combustion of solid propellant and restricting the expansion of the gas only by ejecting the two bodies in opposite directions, in such a fashion that maximizes generated impulse. An interior ballistics model was developed in order to investigate the potential benefits of the separation system for a large range of space body masses and for different design parameters such as geometry and propellant. The model takes into account solid propellant combustion, heat losses, and gas phase chemical reactions. The model shows that for large bodies (above 100 kg) and typical separation velocities of 5 m/s, the proposed separation mechanism may be characterized by a specific impulse of 25,000 s, two order of magnitude larger than that of conventional solid rockets. It means that the proposed separation system requires only 1% of the propellant mass that would be needed for a conventional rocket for the same mission. Since many existing launch vehicles obtain such separation velocities by using conventional solid rocket motors (retro-rockets), the implementation of the new separation system design can reduce dramatically the mass of the separation system and increase safety. A dedicated experimental setup was built in order to demonstrate the concept and validate the model. The experimental results revealed specific impulse values of up to 27,000 s and showed good correspondence with the model.

  15. Retraction of 'Composition design and mechanical properties of BCC Ti solid solution alloys with low Young's modulus'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulugan, Keli Mu; Park, Cheol Hong; Park, Won Jo; Qing, Wang


    The article 'Composition design and mechanical properties of BCC Ti solid solution alloys with low Young's modulus' has been retracted upon the request of the third author (Prof. Wang Qing, the first author's former advisor during his internship at DaLian University of Technology). The article was published without the third author's knowledge and consent. The corresponding author (Prof. Wonjo Park) apologizes to the third author, to the readers, and to the editorial staff of the JMST. The JMST editorial board does not tolerate such actions from authors and we will take appropriate action to prevent this from happening in the future

  16. Effects of thermal aging on thermo-mechanical behavior of a glass sealant for solid oxide cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdoli, Hamid; Alizadeh, Parvin; Boccaccini, Dino


    Thermo-mechanical properties of a silicate based glass and its potential use for sealing application in intermediate temperature solid oxide cell (SOC) are presented in this paper. Effects of thermal aging are discussed on structural and microstructural evolution, thermal expansion, viscosity......'s modulus in which a transition between a slow softening (elastic) regime and a rapid softening one was observed. Crystallization induced by thermal aging led to higher creep resistance, but lower capability of crack healing when inspected by electron microscopy. However, potential of stress relaxation...

  17. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang Xiao


    Full Text Available Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN (TEGDN propellants to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances are tested by the materials test machine, interrupted burning set-up and closed vessel, respectively. The static compression strength of consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layer coating increases significantly to 18 MPa, indicating that they can be applied in most circumstances of charge service. And the samples are easy to deconsolidate in the interrupted burning test. Furthermore, the closed bomb burning curves of the samples indicate a two-stage combustion phenomenon under the condition of certain thickness of coated multi-layers. After the outer deterred multi-layer coating of consolidated samples is finished burning, the inner consolidated propellants continue to burn and breakup into aggregates and grains. The high burning progressivity can be carefully obtained by the smart control of deconsolidation process and duration of consolidated propellants. The preliminary results of consolidated propellants show that a rapid deconsolidation process at higher deconsolidation pressure is presented in the dynamic vivacity curves of closed bomb test. Higher density and higher macro progressivity of consolidated propellants can be obtained by the techniques in this paper.

  18. FEM investigation and thermo-mechanic tests of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, Nikola; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht


    Highlights: • New solid tungsten divertor for fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. • Design validation in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS (Garching Large Divertor Sample Test Facility). • FEA simulation. -- Abstract: A new solid tungsten divertor for the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade is under construction at present. A new divertor tile design has been developed to improve the thermal performance of the current divertor made of tungsten coated fine grain graphite. Compared to thin tungsten coatings, divertor tiles made of massive tungsten allow to extend the operational range and to study the plasma material interaction of tungsten in more detail. The improved design for the solid tungsten divertor was tested on different full scale prototypes with a hydrogen ion beam. The influence of a possible material degradation due to thermal cracking or recrystallization can be studied. Furthermore, intensive Finite Element Method (FEM) numerical analysis with the respective test parameters has been performed. The elastic–plastic calculation was applied to analyze thermal stress and the observed elastic and plastic deformation during the heat loading. Additionally, the knowledge gained by the tests and especially by the numerical analysis has been used to optimize the shape of the divertor tiles and the accompanying divertor support structure. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux tests and their numerical simulations. In addition, results from some special structural mechanic analysis by means of FEM tools are presented. Finally, first results from the numerical lifecycle analysis of the current tungsten tiles will be reported

  19. A theoretical and experimental investigation of propeller performance methodologies (United States)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.; Mikkelson, D. C.


    This paper briefly covers aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies; presentation of wind tunnel propeller performance data taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 wind tunnel; discussion of the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies; and a brief review of airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications.

  20. Sea trials of wave propulsion of a yacht using a flexible fin propeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, R.C.; Thomson, G.R. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Evidence has been accumulating from theoretical and model test studies over several years that propellers that could be designated as ``oscillating foil`` are potentially more energy efficient than conventional screw propellers. There has been demonstrations that, in the controlled conditions of a laboratory, the flexible fin propeller can convert wave energy into an auxiliary means of forward propulsion. Two questions which are immediately raised are ``is the effect realisable in a real seaway?`` and ``what is the mechanism of energy transfer?``. This paper provides clear evidence of a positive answer to the first question. (author)

  1. The influence of the choice of propeller design tool on propeller performance


    Skåland, Edvard Knutsen


    In this master thesis different propeller design and analysis methods are presented and compared in terms of the accuracy and computational efficiency of their theory. These methods include lifting line, vortex lattice lifting surface and panel methods. A propeller design program based on lifting line theory was developed by the author. This program has been used together with the propeller design programs OpenProp and AKPD to make six propeller designs. The designs are based o...

  2. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle (United States)


    Laboratory, Edwards, CA Abstract In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the aluminum based propellant combusts, the fuel is oxidized into alumina (Al2O3...34Chemical Erosion of Refractory-Metal Nozzle Inserts in Solid - Propellant Rocket Motors," J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25, no.1,, 2009. [4] E. Y. Wong...34 Solid Rocket Nozzle Design Summary," in 4th AIAA Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, Cleveland, OH, 1968. [5] Nayfeh, A. H.; Saric, W. S

  3. Propeller Test Facilities Â (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Three electrically driven whirl test stands are used to determine propeller (or other rotating device) performance at various rotational speeds. These...

  4. Energy production from mechanical biological treatment and Composting plants exploiting solid anaerobic digestion batch: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, F.; Sordi, A.; Micale, C.


    Highlights: ► This work quantifies the Italian Composting and MBT facilities upgradable by SADB. ► The bioCH 4 from SADB of source and mechanical selected OFMSW is of 220–360 Nl/kg VS. ► The upgrading investment cost is 30% higher for Composting than for MBT. ► Electricity costs are 0.11–0.28 €/kW h, not influenced by differentiate collection. ► Electrical energy costs are constant for SADB treating more than 30 ktons/year. - Abstract: The energetic potential of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste processed in both existing Composting plants and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, can be successfully exploited by retrofitting these plants with the solid anaerobic digestion batch process. On the basis of the analysis performed in this study, about 50 MBT plants and 35 Composting plants were found to be suitable for retrofitting with Solid Anaerobic Digestion Batch (SADB) facilities. Currently the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) arising from the MBT facilities is about 1,100,000 tons/year, whereas that arising from differentiated collection and treated in Composting plants is about 850,000 tons/year. The SADB performances were analyzed by the aid of an experimental apparatus and the main results, in agreement with literature data, show that the biogas yield ranged from 400 to 650 Nl/kg of Volatile Solids (VS), with a methane content ranging from 55% to 60% v/v. This can lead to the production of about 500 GW h of renewable energy per year, giving a CO 2 reduction of about 270,000 tons/year. From the economic point of view, the analysis shows that the mean cost of a kW h of electrical energy produced by upgrading MBT and Composting facilities with the SADB, ranges from 0.11 and 0.28 €/kW h, depending on the plant size and the amount of waste treated.

  5. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements (United States)

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.


    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  6. Subcontract Report: Diffusion Mechanisms and Bond Dynamics in Solid Electrolyte Ion-Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevgolis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alvez, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehmedovic, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shea, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Varley, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Adelstein, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    We employ first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and Maximally Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) analysis to explore how halide substitution and nano-phase microstructures affect diffusivity, through the activation energy barrier - Ea and D0, in the solid electrolyte Li3InBr6-xClx. We find that nano-phase microstructures with x=3 (50-50 Br-Cl) mixed composition have a higher diffusivity compared to x=2 and x=3 solid solutions. There is a positive linear relationship between ln(D0.) and Ea, which suggests that for superionic conductivity optimizing both the activation energy and the D0 is important. Bond frustration due to mismatch in crystal geometry and ideal coordination number leads to especially high diffusivity through a high D0 in the x=3 composition.

  7. Study on Combustion Characteristics and Propelling Projectile Motion Process of Bulk-Loaded Liquid Propellant (United States)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Mang, Shanshan


    Data are presented showing that the problem of gas-liquid interaction instability is an important subject in the combustion and the propellant projectile motion process of a bulk-loaded liquid propellant gun (BLPG). The instabilities themselves arise from the sources, including fluid motion, to form a combustion gas cavity called Taylor cavity, fluid turbulence and breakup caused by liquid motion relative to the combustion chamber walls, and liquid surface breakup arising from a velocity mismatch on the gas-liquid interface. Typically, small disturbances that arise early in the BLPG combustion interior ballistic cycle can become amplified in the absence of burn rate limiting characteristics. Herein, significant attention has been given to developing and emphasizing the need for better combustion repeatability in the BLPG. Based on this goal, the concept of using different geometries of the combustion chamber is introduced and the concept of using a stepped-wall structure on the combustion chamber itself as a useful means of exerting boundary control on the combustion evolution to thus restrain the combustion instability has been verified experimentally in this work. Moreover, based on this background, the numerical simulation is devoted to a special combustion issue under transient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, namely, studying the combustion mechanism in a stepped-wall combustion chamber with full monopropellant on one end that is stationary and the other end can move at high speed. The numerical results also show that the burning surface of the liquid propellant can be defined geometrically and combustion is well behaved as ignition and combustion progressivity are in a suitable range during each stage in this combustion chamber with a stepped-wall structure.

  8. Understanding the mechanism of protamine in solid lipid nanoparticle-based lipofection: the importance of the entry pathway. (United States)

    Delgado, Diego; del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Solinís, Maria Ángeles; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of protamine on the transfection capacity of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) by correlating it to the internalization mechanisms and intracellular trafficking of the vectors. Vectors were prepared with SLN, DNA, and protamine. ARPE-19 and HEK-293 cells were used for the evaluation of the formulations. Protamine induced a 6-fold increase in the transfection of SLNs in retinal cells due to the presence of nuclear localization signals (NLS), its protection capacity, and a shift in the internalization mechanism from caveolae/raft-mediated to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, protamine produced an almost complete inhibition of transfection in HEK-293 cells. In spite of the high DNA condensation capacity of protamine and its content in NLS, this does not always lead to an improvement in cell transfection since it may impair some of the limiting steps of the transfection processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid state synthesis of stoichiometric LiCoO2 from mechanically activated Co-Li2CO3 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Bruni, Giovanna; Marini, Amedeo


    Stoichiometric lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) has been synthesized by solid state reaction of mixtures of the system Co-0.5Li 2 CO 3 after mechanical activation by high energy milling. The differences in the reaction mechanism and in product stoichiometry with respect to what happens when starting from the non activated (physical) system have been brought into evidence by TG analysis. Furthermore it has been shown that stoichiometric LiCoO 2 is obtained by a 200 h annealing of the activated mixture at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. Finally, it has been revealed that longer activation times (150 h) result in Co oxidation to Co 3 O 4 that, in turn, hampers the formation of stoichiometric LiCoO 2

  10. Interstitial positions of tin ions in alpha-(FerichSn)(2)O-3 solid solutions prepared by mechanical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Nielsen, Kurt


    The microstructure of samples of 91, 85, and 71 mol % alpha-Fe-2-O-3-SnO2. prepared by mechanical alloying, has been studied by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld structure refinements, On the basis of the structure refinements to the whole x-ray diffraction patterns for the four as-milled samples, ......, it is found that tin ions do not substitute iron ions in the solid solution, although this model is generally assumed in the literature. The Sn4+ ions occupy the empty octahedral holes in the lattice of the alpha-Fe2O3 phase.......The microstructure of samples of 91, 85, and 71 mol % alpha-Fe-2-O-3-SnO2. prepared by mechanical alloying, has been studied by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld structure refinements, On the basis of the structure refinements to the whole x-ray diffraction patterns for the four as-milled samples...

  11. Atomistic simulation of solid solution hardening in Mg/Al alloys: Examination of composition scaling and thermo-mechanical relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Peng; Cammarata, Robert C.; Falk, Michael L.


    Dislocation mobility in a solid solution was studied using atomistic simulations of an Mg/Al system. The critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for the dislocations on the basal plane was calculated at temperatures from 0 K to 500 K with solute concentrations from 0 to 7 at%, and with four different strain rates. Solute hardening of the CRSS is decomposed into two contributions: one scales with c 2/3 , where c is the solute concentration, and the other scales with c 1 . The former was consistent with the Labusch model for local solute obstacles, and the latter was related to the athermal plateau stress due to the long range solute effect. A thermo-mechanical model was then used to analyze the temperature and strain rate dependences of the CRSS, and it yielded self-consistent and realistic results. The scaling laws were confirmed and the thermo-mechanical model was successfully parameterized using experimental measurements of the CRSS for Mg/Al alloys under quasi-static conditions. The predicted strain rate sensitivity from the experimental measurements of the CRSS is in reasonable agreement with separate mechanical tests. The concentration scaling and the thermo-mechanical relationships provide a potential tool to analytically relate the structural and thermodynamic parameters on the microscopic level with the macroscopic mechanical properties arising from dislocation mediated deformation.

  12. Two mechanisms of droplet splashing on a solid substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhen; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Sté phane; Ray, Pascal; Zaleski, Sté phane


    related to the gas density. The two different splashing mechanisms initially suggested theoretically are observed numerically, depending on whether a jet is created before or after the impacting droplet wets the substrate. Finally, we provide a phase

  13. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor


    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer


    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  14. Baseline options and greenhouse gas emission reduction of clean development mechanism project in urban solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hanaki, K. [Department of Urban Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aramaki, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904(Japan)


    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol as a flexibility mechanism to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) and has been started with such projects as improving efficiency of individual technology. Although applying various countermeasures to urban areas has significant potentials for reducing GHGs, these countermeasures have not been proposed as CDM projects in the practical stage. A CDM project needs to be validated that it will reduce GHGs additionally compared with a baseline, that is, a predictive value of GHG emissions in the absence of the project. This study examined the introduction of solid waste incineration with electricity generation into three different cities, A, B and C. The main solid waste treatment and the main fuel source are landfill and coal, respectively, in City A, incineration and natural gas in City B, and landfill and hydro in City C. GHG emission reductions of each city under several baseline options assumed here were evaluated. Even if the same technology is introduced, the emission reduction greatly varies according to the current condition and the future plan of the city: 1043-1406 kg CO2/t of waste in City A, 198-580 kg CO2/t in City B, and wide range of zero to over 1000 kg CO2/t in City C. Baseline options also cause significant difference in the emission reduction even in the same city (City C). Incinerating solid waste after removing plastics by source separation in City B increased GHG emission reduction potential up to 730-900 kg CO2/t, which enhances the effectiveness as a CDM project.

  15. Halogen bonding: A new retention mechanism for the solid phase extraction of perfluorinated iodoalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoqing; Shen Qianjin; Zhao Xiaoran; Gao Haiyue; Pang Xue; Jin Weijun


    Highlights: ► Halogen bonding (XB) is firstly utilised in solid phase extraction. ► The perfluorinated iodine alkanes can be extracted by C-I⋯Cl − halogen bonding. ► The C-I⋯Cl − halogen bond is well characterised by spectroscopy methods. ► The analytes with strong halogen-bonding abilities can be selectively extracted. - Abstract: For the first time, halogen-bonding interaction is utilised in the solid phase extraction of perfluorinated iodoalkane (PFI). Nine PFIs, as model analytes, were tested, and analyses by UV, 19 F NMR and Raman spectroscopies demonstrate that the PFIs are extracted by a strong anion exchange (SAX) sorbent from n-hexane due to the C-I⋯Cl − halogen-bonding interactions. The results also show that the adsorptivities of SAX for the diiodoperfluoro-alkanes (diiodo-PFIs) were much stronger than those for the perfluoroalkyl iodides (monoiodo-PFIs). Specifically, the recoveries for 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane and 1,8-diiodoperfluorooctane were higher than 80% when 100 mL of sample spiked with a 5 ng mL −1 analyte mixture was extracted. Interestingly, SAX had no adsorption for hexafluorobenzene at all, which is known to be unable to form a halogen bond with Cl − . The analytical performance of the halogen bond-based SPE-GC–MS method for the diiodo-PFIs was also examined in soil samples. The sorbent SAX enabled the selective extraction of four diiodo-PFIs successfully from soil samples. The recoveries of the diiodo-PFIs extracted from 5 g soil sample at the 100 ng g −1 spike level were in the range of 73.2–93.8% except 26.8% for 1,2-diiodoperfluoroethane. The limit of detection varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng g −1 in soil samples. Overall, this work reveals the great application potential of halogen bonding in the field of solid phase extraction to selectively extract compounds with strong halogen-bonding abilities.

  16. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.


    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  17. High-Fidelity Microstructural Characterization and Performance Modeling of Aluminized Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiba, Graham D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.


    Image processing and stereological techniques were used to characterize the heterogeneity of composite propellant and inform a predictive burn rate model. Composite propellant samples made up of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), and aluminum (Al) were faced with an ion mill and imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray tomography (micro-CT). Properties of both the bulk and individual components of the composite propellant were determined from a variety of image processing tools. An algebraic model, based on the improved Beckstead-Derr-Price model developed by Cohen and Strand, was used to predict the steady-state burning of the aluminized composite propellant. In the presented model the presence of aluminum particles within the propellant was introduced. The thermal effects of aluminum particles are accounted for at the solid-gas propellant surface interface and aluminum combustion is considered in the gas phase using a single global reaction. In conclusion, properties derived from image processing were used directly as model inputs, leading to a sample-specific predictive combustion model.

  18. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  19. 78 FR 4038 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers (United States)


    ... manufacturers are not required to provide information concerning propeller critical part design, manufacture, or... engineering, manufacturing, and service management processes should provide clear information for propeller... manufacture critical parts for airplane propellers update their manuals to record engineering, manufacture...

  20. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul


    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved towards the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with non-planar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  1. Spontaneous fragmentation of an alpha-active ceramic: a mechanism for dispersion of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Rohr, D.L.


    Studies underway to characterize spontaneous fragmentation in 238 PuO 2 and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible are reported. Results reported here show that: spontaneous fragmentation of 238 PuO 2 generates a wide range of particle sizes, from a few mm to 1000 A or less; the phenomenon may continue with time or may saturate, depending on starting material; the magnitude of the effect is dependent on storage environment. Neither thermal stresses nor lattice damage appear to be solely responsible for fragmentation, but radiolysis of the environment could play an important role. Work is continuing in an effort to identify the controlling factors in this phenomenon

  2. Numerical analysis of the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yufeng; Nie Wansheng


    Based on the body force aerodynamic actuation mechanism of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of ten blade elements equably along the stratospheric screw propeller blade was numerical studied. Then the effect of plasma flow control enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller was compared that by the blade element theory method. The results show that the flow separate phenomena will easily happen in the root region and top end region of screw propeller, and the blade elements in the root region of screw propeller may work on the negative attack angle condition. DBD plasma flow control can entirely restrain the faintish flow separate phenomena in middle region of screw propeller. Although DBD plasma flow control can not entirely restrain the badly flow separate phenomena in top end region of screw propeller, it also can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of blade elements in these regions in same degree. But effect of DBD plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade elements working on the negative attack angle condition is ineffectively. It can be concluded that DBD plasma flow control can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller, the thrust of the whole propeller and the propeller efficiency in the case of plasma on will increases by a factor of 28.27% and 12.3% respectively compared with that in the case of plasma off studied. (authors)

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Combustion Instability in Solid Rocket Motor : Implementation of Pressure Coupled Response Function


    S. Saha; D. Chakraborty


    Combustion instability in solid propellant rocket motor is numerically simulated by implementing propellant response function with quasi steady homogeneous one dimensional formulation. The convolution integral of propellant response with pressure history is implemented through a user defined function in commercial computational fluid dynamics software. The methodology is validated against literature reported motor test and other simulation results. Computed amplitude of pressure fluctuations ...

  4. Modelling and simulation of multi spindle drilling redundant SCARA robot using SolidWorks and MATLAB/SimMechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Mohan Mariappan


    Full Text Available Los robots son sistemas electromecánicos que necesitan enfoque mecatrónico antes de fabricarlos, esto con el fin de reducir el costo de desarrollo. En este trabajo se presenta un nuevo intento de modelado PRRP (prismáticos-revoluto-revoluto-prismático, una configuración redundante SCARA (Brazo robótico articulado de respuesta selectiva, herramienta de perforación milti-eje (MSDT usando el software CAD de SolidWorks y el estudio dinámico con la ayuda de MATLAB/SimMechanics de perforación. Un SCARA con MSDT se utiliza para perforar varios agujeros en las placas de circuito impreso (PCB y la chapa metálica. En este trabajo, el modelo de CAD 3D del robot propuesto se convierte en un diagrama de bloque SimMechanics exportando a MATLAB/SimMechanics segunda generación de tecnología de modelado y simulación. Entonces se realiza una simulación SimMechanics y utilizando su capacidad de detección de movimiento la velocidad de parámetros dinámicos y la torsión del manipulador se observa la estructura del robot variable modificado. Los resultados de la simulación indican un cambio considerable en el rendimiento dinámico para diferentes parámetros de diseño.

  5. Supercritical Fluid Processing of Propellant Polymers (United States)


    of insoluble material present in the polymeric neopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) binder. Laub (2) summarizes (from Refs 3 & 4) the various polymeric...binders used in composite propellant formulations for DOD missile systems. e.g., these include: polyneopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) in HAWK. Composite smokeless propellants containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylene glycol adepate (PEGA) and polycaprolactone are currently under

  6. Green plasticizers for multibase gun propellants (Lecture)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, C.; Driel, C.A. van; Zebregs, M.


    TNO Defence, Security and Safety has a long history of research on gun propellants. Areas investigated are formulating (new ingredients, optimization), manufacturing, charge design and lifetime assessment [1,2,3,4,5]. In conventional propellants inert plasticizers are used to alter performance,

  7. Statistical mechanical perturbation theory of solid-vapor interfacial free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, Vitalij Iosifovitsj; Hagmeijer, Rob; Venner, Cornelis H.


    The solid–vapor interfacial free energy γsv plays an important role in a number of physical phenomena, such as adsorption, wetting, and adhesion. We propose a closed form expression for the orientation averaged value of this quantity using a statistical mechanical perturbation approach developed in

  8. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers (United States)

    Durand, W F


    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  9. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S


    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  10. Structural analysis and magnetic properties of solid solutions of Co–Cr system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Sánchez-De Jesús, F., E-mail: [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Bolarín-Miró, A.M. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Betancourt, I.; Torres-Villaseñor, G. [Departamento de Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)


    In this paper, a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 100−x}Cr{sub x} alloys (0mechanical alloying is presented. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors, and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x} (0Mechanical milling was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as the milling media with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. The mixtures were milled for 7 h. Results shown that after 7 h of milling time, solid solutions based on Co-hcp, Co-fcc and Cr-bcc structures were obtained. The saturation polarization indicated a maximum value of 1.17 T (144 Am{sup 2}/kg) for the Co{sub 90}Cr{sub 10}, which decreases with the increasing of the Cr content up to x=80, as a consequence of the dilution effect of the magnetic moment which is caused by the Cr content and by the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The coercivity increases up to 34 kA/m (435 Oe) for Co{sub 40}Cr{sub 60}. For Cr rich compositions, it is observed an important decrease reaching 21 kA/m (272 Oe) for Co{sub 10}Cr{sub 90,} it is related to the grain size and the structural change. Besides, the magnetic anisotropy constant was determined for each composition. Magnetic thermogravimetric analysis allowed to obtain Curie temperatures corresponding to the formation of hcp-Co(Cr) and fcc-Co(Cr) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying (MA) induces the formation of solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. • We report the crystal structure and the magnetic behavior of Co–Cr alloys produced by MA. • MA improves the magnetic properties of Co–Cr system.

  11. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part II: scheme analysis and mechanism revelation. (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Jiapei; Chen, Xiujuan; Li, Kailong


    As presented in the first companion paper, distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) was developed for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) under complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions. Beijing was selected as a representative case. This paper focuses on presenting the obtained schemes and the revealed mechanisms of the Beijing MSWM system. The optimal MSWM schemes for Beijing under various solid waste treatment policies and their differences are deliberated. The impacts of facility expansion, hierarchy, and spatial heterogeneities and potential extensions of DMIFHP are also discussed. A few of findings are revealed from the results and a series of comparisons and analyses. For instance, DMIFHP is capable of robustly reflecting these complexities in MSWM systems, especially for Beijing. The optimal MSWM schemes are of fragmented patterns due to the dominant role of the proximity principle in allocating solid waste treatment resources, and they are closely related to regulated ratios of landfilling, incineration, and composting. Communities without significant differences among distances to different types of treatment facilities are more sensitive to these ratios than others. The complexities of hierarchy and heterogeneities pose significant impacts on MSWM practices. Spatial dislocation of MSW generation rates and facility capacities caused by unreasonable planning in the past may result in insufficient utilization of treatment capacities under substantial influences of transportation costs. The problems of unreasonable MSWM planning, e.g., severe imbalance among different technologies and complete vacancy of ten facilities, should be gained deliberation of the public and the municipal or local governments in Beijing. These findings are helpful for gaining insights into MSWM systems under these complexities, mitigating key challenges in the planning of these systems, improving the related management

  12. Investigation on the formation of Cu-Fe nano crystalline super-saturated solid solution developed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, M., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, M.; Aboutalebi, M.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Soleimanian, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation of the mechanically alloyed Cu-Fe powder is anisotropic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld method is more proper and results in smaller crystallite size than the Scherer and Williamson-Hall methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual phase super saturated solid solution achieved after 96 h of milling of the mixtures with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A final proportion of approximately 85% FCC and 15% BCC structure obtained in all of the applied compositions. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of super saturated solid solution in the binary Cu-Fe system was investigated. Three powder blends with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Fe were milled for different times to 96 h. The variations of lattice parameter and inter-planar spacing were calculated and analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis (XDA). The anisotropy of lattice deformation in the FCC phase was studied and the obtained results were compared to milled pure Cu powder. Furthermore, crystallite size was calculated using Scherer formula in comparison with Rietveld full profile refinement method. Considering the previous studies about the formation of non-equilibrium FCC and BCC phases, the phase evolution has been discussed and the proportion of each phase was calculated using Rietveld refinement method. Supplementary studies on the evolution of microstructure and formation of solid solution were carried out using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Finally, high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging was utilized to find out the level of homogeneity in the resulting phases. While true alloying takes place in each phase, the final structure consists of both FCC and BCC nano-crystallites.

  13. A Generalized Nonlocal Calculus with Application to the Peridynamics Model for Solid Mechanics


    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max


    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in [2] that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A generalization is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal...

  14. Deriving mechanisms responsible for the lack of correlation between hypoxia and acidity in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and acidity are two main microenvironmental factors intimately associated with solid tumors and play critical roles in tumor growth and metastasis. The experimental results of Helmlinger and colleagues (Nature Medicine 3, 177, 1997 provide evidence of a lack of correlation between these factors on the micrometer scale in vivo and further show that the distribution of pH and pO(2 are heterogeneous. Here, using computational simulations, grounded in these experimental results, we show that the lack of correlation between pH and pO(2 and the heterogeneity in their shapes are related to the heterogeneous concentration of buffers and oxygen in the blood vessels, further amplified by the network of blood vessels and the cell metabolism. We also demonstrate that, although the judicious administration of anti-angiogenesis agents (normalization process in tumors may lead to recovery of the correlation between hypoxia and acidity, it may not normalize the pH throughout the whole tumor. However, an increase in the buffering capacity inside the blood vessels does appear to increase the extracellular pH throughout the whole tumor. Based on these results, we propose that the application of anti-angiogenic agents and at the same time increasing the buffering capacity of the tumor extracellular environment may be the most efficient way of normalizing the tumor microenvironment. As a by-product of our simulation we show that the recently observed lack of correlation between glucose consumption and hypoxia in cells which rely on respiration is related to the inhomogeneous consumption of glucose to oxygen concentration. We also demonstrate that this lack of correlation in cells which rely on glycolysis could be related to the heterogeneous concentration of oxygen inside the blood vessels.

  15. Structural analysis and magnetic properties of solid solutions of Co–Cr system obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A.; Sánchez-De Jesús, F.; Bolarín-Miró, A.M.; Betancourt, I.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.


    In this paper, a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co 100−x Cr x alloys (0 1−x Cr x (0 2 /kg) for the Co 90 Cr 10 , which decreases with the increasing of the Cr content up to x=80, as a consequence of the dilution effect of the magnetic moment which is caused by the Cr content and by the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The coercivity increases up to 34 kA/m (435 Oe) for Co 40 Cr 60 . For Cr rich compositions, it is observed an important decrease reaching 21 kA/m (272 Oe) for Co 10 Cr 90, it is related to the grain size and the structural change. Besides, the magnetic anisotropy constant was determined for each composition. Magnetic thermogravimetric analysis allowed to obtain Curie temperatures corresponding to the formation of hcp-Co(Cr) and fcc-Co(Cr) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying (MA) induces the formation of solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. • We report the crystal structure and the magnetic behavior of Co–Cr alloys produced by MA. • MA improves the magnetic properties of Co–Cr system

  16. Rapid Ice-Sheet Changes and Mechanical Coupling to Solid-Earth/Sea-Level and Space Geodetic Observation (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.


    Perturbations in gravitational and rotational potentials caused by climate driven mass redistribution on the earth's surface, such as ice sheet melting and terrestrial water storage, affect the spatiotemporal variability in global and regional sea level. Here we present a numerically accurate, computationally efficient, high-resolution model for sea level. Unlike contemporary models that are based on spherical-harmonic formulation, the model can operate efficiently in a flexible embedded finite-element mesh system, thus capturing the physics operating at km-scale yet capable of simulating geophysical quantities that are inherently of global scale with minimal computational cost. One obvious application is to compute evolution of sea level fingerprints and associated geodetic and astronomical observables (e.g., geoid height, gravity anomaly, solid-earth deformation, polar motion, and geocentric motion) as a companion to a numerical 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet simulation, thus capturing global signatures of climate driven mass redistribution. We evaluate some important time-varying signatures of GRACE inferred ice sheet mass balance and continental hydrological budget; for example, we identify dominant sources of ongoing sea-level change at the selected tide gauge stations, and explain the relative contribution of different sources to the observed polar drift. We also report our progress on ice-sheet/solid-earth/sea-level model coupling efforts toward realistic simulation of Pine Island Glacier over the past several hundred years.

  17. The Effect of Propellant Optical Properties on Composite Solid Propellant Combustion (United States)


    10.0 [cal/gJ CpAP . = 1.3 [J/(g K)1 LhrMp =433. [cal/g] CpfTBp = 1.3 [J/(g K)] Using the experimental burning rates, the surface temperatures of the AP...Photo- Flash Lamps." Journatl of the Optical Society of North America, Vol. 37, No. 8. pp. 652-659, 1947. 17. Parry, D.L.. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of...the light emitters in photoflash lamps. In 1947, Brockman 4 made spectroscopic measurements of the light emitted by flash lamps filled with aluminum

  18. Spectral Studies of Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Emission and Absorption Results for HMX2 Propellant (United States)


    funding from the Anry Productivity Capital Investment Program. vii INTENTioNALLY LEFT BL~ANK viH I. INTRODUCTION During the last several years we...G-23 Dahlgren, VA 22448-5000 1 OSD/SDIO/ IST ATTN: L. Caveny 2 Commander Pentagon Naval Surface Warfare Center Washington, DC 20301-7100 ATTN: R

  19. Mechanism of Formation of Li 7 P 3 S 11 Solid Electrolytes through Liquid Phase Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing [Energy; Lu, Dongping [Energy; Bowden, Mark [Environmental; El Khoury, Patrick Z. [Environmental; Han, Kee Sung [Environmental; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy; Xiao, Jie [Energy; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy; Liu, Jun [Energy


    Crystalline Li7P3S11 is a promising solid electrolyte for all solid state lithium/lithium ion batteries. A controllable liquid phase synthesis of Li7P3S11 is more desirable compared to conventional mechanochemical synthesis, but recent attempts suffer from reduced ionic conductivities. Here we elucidate the formation mechanism of crystalline Li7P3S11 synthesized in the liquid phase (acetonitrile, or ACN). We conclude that the crystalline Li7P3S11 forms through a two-step reaction: 1) formation of solid Li3PS4∙ACN and amorphous Li2S∙P2S5 phases in the liquid phase; 2) solid-state conversion of the two phases. The implication of this two-step reaction mechanism to the morphology control and the transport properties of liquid phase synthesized Li7P3S11 is identified and discussed.

  20. The region of influence of significant defects and the mechanical vibrations of linear elastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.


    The presence of cracks, voids or fields of pores, and their growth under applied forces or environmental actions, can produce a meaningful lowering in the proper frequencies of normal modes of mechanical vibration in machines and structures. A quite general expression for the square of modes proper frequency as a functional of displacement field, density field and elastic moduli fields is used as a starting point. The effect of defects on frequency are modeled as equivalent changes in density and elastic moduli fields, introducing the concept of region of influence of each defect. This region of influence is derived from the relation between the stress field of flawed components in machines or structures, and the elastic energy released from a suitable reference state, due to the presence of significant defects in the above mentioned mechanical components. An approximate analytical expression is obtained, which relates the relative variation in the square of mode s proper frequency with position, size, shape and orientation of defects in mode displacement field. Some simple mathematical models of machine and structural elements with cracks or fields of pores are considered as examples. The connections between the relative lowering in the square of mode s proper frequency and the stress intensity factor of a defect are discussed : the concept of region of influence of a defect is used as a bridge between (low frequency and low amplitude) vibration dynamics and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Some limitations of the present approach are discussed as well as the possibility of applying the region of influence of defects to the damping of normal modes of vibration

  1. Evaluation of the influence of mechanical activation on physical and chemical properties of municipal solid waste incineration sludge. (United States)

    Caprai, V; Florea, M V A; Brouwers, H J H


    Despite numerous studies concerning the application of by-products in the construction field, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are not widely used as secondary building materials. In some European countries, washing treatment to the full bottom ash (BA) fraction (0-32 mm) is applied, isolating more contaminated particles, smaller than 0.063 mm. Therefore, a MWSI sludge is produced, having a high moisture content, and thus a limited presence of soluble species. In order to enhance its performance as building material, here, dry mechanical activation is applied on MSWI sludge. Thereafter, a reactivity comparison between reference BA and untreated and treated MSWI sludge is provided, evaluating their behaviour in the presence of cement and their pozzolanic activity. Moreover, the mechanical performances, as 25% substitution of Portland cement (PC) are assessed, based on the EN 450. Mechanical activation enhances MSWI sludge physically due to the improved particle morphology and packing. Chemically, the hydration degree of PC is enhanced by the MSWI sludge by ≈25%. The milling treatment proved to be beneficial to the residues performances in the presence of PC, providing 32% higher strength than untreated sample. Environmentally, the compliance with the unshaped material legislation is successfully verified, according to the Soil Quality Decree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical properties of crystalline solids. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Y.


    The deformation model for non-elastic deformation in the grain matrix based on a mechanical equation of state was verified by comparing the predictions of the model with experimental data. The data of Type 316 stainless steel and nickel were used and were obtained in load relaxation and anelasticity tests. The same model was found to be successful in describing in-reactor creep and deformation. Work is in progress on the investigation of the driving force and the kinetics of stress induced cavity growth at the grain boundary


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin


    Full Text Available Reducing the risk of kidney transplant rejection is a perspective trend in modern medical science. One of the promising methods for reducing the activity of immune conflict between the recipient and the donor organ and the achievement of partial immunological tolerance is photochemotherapy. This method is widely used in over- seas heart and lung Transplantation. Domestic experience of applying this method in renal transplant recipients is extremely small. In this review of literature a modern representation of the scientists on the mechanism of action of this method is presented. 

  4. Proton hopping mechanism in solid polymer electrolysis demonstrated by tritium enrichment and electro-osmotic drag measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kato, Norio; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Keiichi


    Anomalies in tritium enrichment cannot be explained only by isotopic effects in water electrolysis. The temperature dependence of the enrichment factor had been reported as increasing with 1/T. However, the increase was difficult to explain on the basis of kinetics. In this study, electro-osmotic drag (EOD, number of water molecule accompanied by a proton) and tritium enrichment ratio were investigated using light water (H 2 O) and heavy water (D 2 O) by solid polymer electrolysis. The EOD decreased and tritium enrichment ratio increased at low temperature for H 2 O. Electrolysis showed no temperature dependence for D 2 O. It was revealed that proton hopping by a hydrogen bond network of water molecules (the Grotthuss mechanism) affects the temperature dependence of EOD and tritium enrichment in the case of H 2 O. (author)

  5. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)


    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  6. Effect of chip size on mechanical property and microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by solid state recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Maoliang; Ji Zesheng; Chen Xiaoyu; Zhang Zhenkao


    In this study, different kinds of AZ91D magnesium alloy chips were prepared by solid state recycling. Mechanical properties and microstructures of the recycled specimens were investigated. Various microstructural analyses were performed using the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen-nitrogen analysis. Microstructural observations revealed that all the recycled specimens consisted of fine grains due to dynamic recrystallization. The oxide precipitate content is closely related to the recycled chip size. Accumulated oxygen concentration linearly increases with the total surface area of the machined chips in the recycled specimens. Ambient oxide in the recycled specimen contributes to a higher ultimate tensile strength and a higher elongation to failure; however, excessive oxide in the recycled specimen may adversely affect the elongation to failure

  7. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling (United States)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei


    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  8. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei


    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps

  9. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition


    Lazar, Paul


    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  10. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich


    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  11. The Consistent Kinetics Porosity (CKP) Model: A Theory for the Mechanical Behavior of Moderately Porous Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A theory is developed for the response of moderately porous solids (no more than {approximately}20% void space) to high-strain-rate deformations. The model is consistent because each feature is incorporated in a manner that is mathematically compatible with the other features. Unlike simple p-{alpha} models, the onset of pore collapse depends on the amount of shear present. The user-specifiable yield function depends on pressure, effective shear stress, and porosity. The elastic part of the strain rate is linearly related to the stress rate, with nonlinear corrections from changes in the elastic moduli due to pore collapse. Plastically incompressible flow of the matrix material allows pore collapse and an associated macroscopic plastic volume change. The plastic strain rate due to pore collapse/growth is taken normal to the yield surface. If phase transformation and/or pore nucleation are simultaneously occurring, the inelastic strain rate will be non-normal to the yield surface. To permit hardening, the yield stress of matrix material is treated as an internal state variable. Changes in porosity and matrix yield stress naturally cause the yield surface to evolve. The stress, porosity, and all other state variables vary in a consistent manner so that the stress remains on the yield surface throughout any quasistatic interval of plastic deformation. Dynamic loading allows the stress to exceed the yield surface via an overstress ordinary differential equation that is solved in closed form for better numerical accuracy. The part of the stress rate that causes no plastic work (i.e-, the part that has a zero inner product with the stress deviator and the identity tensor) is given by the projection of the elastic stressrate orthogonal to the span of the stress deviator and the identity tensor.The model, which has been numerically implemented in MIG format, has been exercised under a wide array of extremal loading and unloading paths. As will be discussed in a companion

  12. Concurrent multiscale modeling of microstructural effects on localization behavior in finite deformation solid mechanics (United States)

    Alleman, Coleman N.; Foulk, James W.; Mota, Alejandro; Lim, Hojun; Littlewood, David J.


    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multiscale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J2 plasticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this study, the framework is applied to model incipient localization in tensile specimens during necking.

  13. Molecular mechanism of action of oxazolinoanthracyclines in cells derived from human solid tumors. Part 2. (United States)

    Denel-Bobrowska, Marta; Łukawska, Małgorzata; Bukowska, Barbara; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Marczak, Agnieszka


    Oxazolinodoxorubicin (O-DOX) and oxazolinodaunorubicin (O-DAU) are derivatives of anthracyclines (DOX and DAU) with a modified daunosamine moiety. We aimed to clarify their mechanisms of action by investigating intracellular accumulation and effects on the cell cycle, phosphatidylserine externalization, and proteasome 20S activity. Experimental model consisted of SKOV-3, A549 and HepG2 cells. Compounds were used at the concentration of 80nM. Intracellular accumulation, drug uptake, and proteasome 20S activity were evaluated by fluorimetric methods. The effects on the cell cycle and phosphatidylserine externalization were measured by flow cytometry. O-DOX was equivalent to DOX in terms of inducing G2/M arrest, but O-DAU was less potent in SKOV-3, HepG2, and A549 cells. O-DOX had the greatest effect on initiating apoptosis in all tested cells. Externalization of phosphatidylserine was significantly higher following O-DOX treatment compared with control cells and cells incubated with DOX. The intracellular accumulation and uptake of the derivatives were similar to those of the reference drugs. Tested compounds are able to activate proteasome 20S activity. Our results extended the understanding of the toxicity, mechanism of action, and biochemical properties of oxazoline derivatives of doxorubicin and daunorubicin, including their effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical and trybological characterization of ceramic materials obtained of mine solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto T, J.L.


    A discussion of the physical, mechanical and tribological characterization of the ceramics Jaar, Jaca and Vijaar is presented in this work. They have been obtained from the industrial residuals, coming from metals and sand of the mining industry in Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. The methodology followed for the obtention and characterization of these ceramics consists on eliminating the cyanides from the tailings through columns coupled with a system controlled with thermostats. Then, the chemical composition is analysed with spectrometry emission of plasma and scanning electronic microscopy. Then the ceramics are produced. The base material is agglutinated with clay or kaolin. For this purpose, it was used a sintering processes and isothermal compacting in hot condition. Finally, the physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties of these new products are determined. Carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, silicon, potassium, phosphor, calcium, titanium, iron, molybdenum, silver and gold are in the chemical composition or ceramic analysed. Also these are heterogeneous mixture of clay and kaolin. The cyanide was eliminated. The results show that Vijaar has better wear resistances to the waste; this was demonstrated in tribology tests. They were not perforated with the abrasive particles. Also, they have high hardness and they can to support more loads in compression than Jaar and the Jaca. Consequently, they are less fragile and, therefore, they can tolerate bending stresses and bigger impact loading. (Author)

  15. Self-regulation in self-propelled nematic fluids. (United States)

    Baskaran, A; Marchetti, M C


    We consider the hydrodynamic theory of an active fluid of self-propelled particles with nematic aligning interactions. This class of materials has polar symmetry at the microscopic level, but forms macrostates of nematic symmetry. We highlight three key features of the dynamics. First, as in polar active fluids, the control parameter for the order-disorder transition, namely the density, is dynamically convected by the order parameter via active currents. The resulting dynamical self-regulation of the order parameter is a generic property of active fluids and destabilizes the uniform nematic state near the mean-field transition. Secondly, curvature-driven currents render the system unstable deep in the nematic state, as found previously. Finally, and unique to self-propelled nematics, nematic order induces local polar order that in turn leads to the growth of density fluctuations. We propose this as a possible mechanism for the smectic order of polar clusters seen in numerical simulations.

  16. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  17. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of equiatomic solid solution alloys with face-centered cubic crystal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.; Bei, H.; Pharr, G.M.; George, E.P.


    Compared to decades-old theories of strengthening in dilute solid solutions, the mechanical behavior of concentrated solid solutions is relatively poorly understood. A special subset of these materials includes alloys in which the constituent elements are present in equal atomic proportions, including the high-entropy alloys of recent interest. A unique characteristic of equiatomic alloys is the absence of “solvent” and “solute” atoms, resulting in a breakdown of the textbook picture of dislocations moving through a solvent lattice and encountering discrete solute obstacles. To clarify the mechanical behavior of this interesting new class of materials, we investigate here a family of equiatomic binary, ternary and quaternary alloys based on the elements Fe, Ni, Co, Cr and Mn that were previously shown to be single-phase face-centered cubic (fcc) solid solutions. The alloys were arc-melted, drop-cast, homogenized, cold-rolled and recrystallized to produce equiaxed microstructures with comparable grain sizes. Tensile tests were performed at an engineering strain rate of 10 −3 s −1 at temperatures in the range 77–673 K. Unalloyed fcc Ni was processed similarly and tested for comparison. The flow stresses depend to varying degrees on temperature, with some (e.g. NiCoCr, NiCoCrMn and FeNiCoCr) exhibiting yield and ultimate strengths that increase strongly with decreasing temperature, while others (e.g. NiCo and Ni) exhibit very weak temperature dependencies. To better understand this behavior, the temperature dependencies of the yield strength and strain hardening were analyzed separately. Lattice friction appears to be the predominant component of the temperature-dependent yield stress, possibly because the Peierls barrier height decreases with increasing temperature due to a thermally induced increase of dislocation width. In the early stages of plastic flow (5–13% strain, depending on material), the temperature dependence of strain hardening is due

  18. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Weichgrebe; S. Maerker; T. Boning; H. Stegemann


    Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  19. Proceedings of the fourteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Mechanical sciences; Solids and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The 26 papers in this proceedings are arranged in the following topical sections: superconductors (4 papers); materials (7); controls (4); fluid mechanics (7); and thin films (4). Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup


    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  1. Noise from Two-Blade Propellers (United States)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F


    The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included.

  2. Experimental Research on Air Propellers III (United States)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P


    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.

  3. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study (United States)

    Pearson, W. E.


    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  4. Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, K.; Eisele, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)


    Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates recommend themselves for use in a rocket motor for high accelerating tactical missiles. They serve for an improved camouflage on the battle field and may enable guidance control due to the higher transmission of their rocket plume compared to traditional aluminized composite propellants. In this contribution the material based ranges of performance and properties of three non aluminized rocket propellants will be introduced and compared to each other. The selected formulations based on AP/HTPB; AP/PU/TMETN and AP/HMX/GAP/TMETN have roughly the same specific impulse of I{sub SP}=2430 Ns/kg at 70:1 expansion ratio. The burning rates in the pressure range from 10-18 MPa vary from to 26-33 mm/s for the AP/HTPB propellant, 52-68 mm/s for the formulation based on AP/PU/TMETN and 28-39 mm/s for the propellant based on AP/HMX/GAP. With 58% and 20% AP-contents the propellants with nitrate ester plasticizers create a much smaller secondary signature than the AP/HTPB representative containing 85% AP. Their disadvantage, however, is the connection of high performance to a high level of energetic plasticizer. For this reason, the very fast burning propellant based on AP/PU/TMETN is endowed with a low elastic modulus and is limited to a grain configuration which isn`t exposed too much to the fast and turbulent airstream. The mechanical properties of the AP/HMX/GAP-propellant are as good or better as those of the AP/HTPB propellant. The first one exhibits the same performance and burn rates as the composite representative but produces only one fifth of HCl exhaust. For this reason it is recommended for missile applications, which must have high accelerating power together with a significantly reduced plume signature and smoke production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rauchreduzierte Festtreibstoffe mit hohen Abbrandgeschwindigkeiten bieten sich fuer den Antrieb hochbeschleunigender taktischer Flugkoerper an, da sie gegenueber

  5. Effects of walking in deep venous thrombosis: a new integrated solid and fluid mechanics model. (United States)

    López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc; Garcia-Bennett, Josep


    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. Large thrombi in venous vessels cause bad blood circulation and pain; and when a blood clot detaches from a vein wall, it causes an embolism whose consequences range from mild to fatal. Walking is recommended to DVT patients as a therapeutical complement. In this study the mechanical effects of walking on a specific patient of DVT were simulated by means of an unprecedented integration of 3 elements: a real geometry, a biomechanical model of body tissues, and a computational fluid dynamics study. A set of computed tomography images of a patient's leg with a thrombus in the popliteal vein was employed to reconstruct a geometry model. Then a biomechanical model was used to compute the new deformed geometry of the vein as a function of the fiber stretch level of the semimembranosus muscle. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics study was performed to compute the blood flow and the wall shear stress (WSS) at the vein and thrombus walls. Calculations showed that either a lengthening or shortening of the semimembranosus muscle led to a decrease of WSS levels up to 10%. Notwithstanding, changes in blood viscosity properties or blood flow rate may easily have a greater impact in WSS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of volume ratio of liquid to solid on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Bowen; Cai Changchun; Lu Baiping


    Highlights: → Volume ratio of liquid to solid affects significantly the interfacial microstructure. → Elemental diffusion activity is increased by increasing volume ratio. → Mechanical property is improved by increasing volume ratio. - Abstract: The high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal was fabricated by liquid-solid casting technology. The effect of volume ratios of liquid to solid (6:1, 10:1 and 12:1) on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of bimetal was investigated. The interfacial microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The shear strength and microhardness in as-cast condition were studied at room temperature. The results show that the volume ratios of liquid to solid affect significantly the interfacial microstructure. When liquid-solid volume ratio was 6:1, the unbonded region was detected in interface region because the imported heat energy cannot support effectively the diffusion of element, whereas, when liquid-solid volume ratios reach 10:1 and 12:1, a sound interfacial microstructure was achieved by the diffusion of C, Cr, Mo, Cu and Mn, and metallurgical bonding without unbonded region, void and hole, etc. was detected. With the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the elemental diffusion activity improves, resulting in the increase of width of interface transition region. At the same distance from interface, with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the microhardness is degraded in HCCI, but increased in MCS. The shear strength is also improved with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio.

  7. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L


    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K) -1 . The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  8. A Poroelasticity Theory Approach to Study the Mechanisms Leading to Elevated Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Solid Tumours. (United States)

    Burazin, Andrijana; Drapaca, Corina S; Tenti, Giuseppe; Sivaloganathan, Siv


    Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon. In this paper, we use poroelasticity theory to also develop a macroscopic mathematical model to describe the time evolution of a solid tumour, but focus our attention on the mechanisms responsible for the rise of the IFP, from that for a healthy interstitium to that measured in malignant tumours. In particular, we discuss a number of possible time scales suggested by our mathematical model and propose a tumour-dependent time scale that leads to results in agreement with experimental observations. We apply our mathematical model to simulate the effect of "vascular normalization" (as proposed by Jain in Nat Med 7:987-989, 2001) on the IFP profile and discuss and contrast our conclusions with those of previous work in the literature.

  9. A two-dimensional finite element method for analysis of solid body contact problems in fuel rod mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, K.L.


    Two computer codes for the analysis of fuel rod behavior have been developed. Fuel rod mechanics is treated by a two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite element method. The program KONTAKT is used for detailed examinations on fuel rod sections, whereas the second program METHOD2D allows instationary calculations of whole fuel rods. The mechanical contact of fuel and cladding during heating of the fuel rod is very important for it's integrity. Both computer codes use a Newton-Raphson iteration for the solution of the nonlinear solid body contact problem. A constitutive equation is applied for the dependency of contact pressure on normal approach of the surfaces which are assumed to be rough. If friction is present on the contacting surfaces, Coulomb's friction law is used. Code validation is done by comparison with known analytical solutions for special problems. Results of the contact algorithm for an elastic ball pressing against a rigid surface are confronted with Hertzian theory. Influences of fuel-pellet geometry as well as influences of discretisation of displacements and stresses of a single fuel pellet are studied. Contact of fuel and cladding is calculated for a fuel rod section with two fuel pellets. The influence of friction forces between fuel and cladding on their axial expansion is demonstrated. By calculation of deformations and temperatures during an instationary fuel rod experiment of the CABRI-series the feasibility of two-dimensional finite element analysis of whole fuel rods is shown. (orig.) [de

  10. 14 CFR 35.23 - Propeller control system. (United States)


    ... propeller effect under the intended operating conditions. (4) The failure or corruption of data or signals... corruption of airplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects. (e) The propeller... effect. (2) Failures or malfunctions directly affecting the propeller control system in a typical...

  11. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography. (United States)

    Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L


    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic

  12. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. IX. Mechanical Properties of Dust Aggregates Probed by a Solid-projectile Impact (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki; Blum, Jürgen


    Dynamic characterization of mechanical properties of dust aggregates has been one of the most important problems to quantitatively discuss the dust growth in protoplanetary disks. We experimentally investigate the dynamic properties of dust aggregates by low-speed (≤slant 3.2 m s-1) impacts of solid projectiles. Spherical impactors made of glass, steel, or lead are dropped onto a dust aggregate with a packing fraction of ϕ = 0.35 under vacuum conditions. The impact results in cratering or fragmentation of the dust aggregate, depending on the impact energy. The crater shape can be approximated by a spherical segment and no ejecta are observed. To understand the underlying physics of impacts into dust aggregates, the motion of the solid projectile is acquired by a high-speed camera. Using the obtained position data of the impactor, we analyze the drag-force law and dynamic pressure induced by the impact. We find that there are two characteristic strengths. One is defined by the ratio between impact energy and crater volume and is ≃120 kPa. The other strength indicates the fragmentation threshold of dynamic pressure and is ≃10 kPa. The former characterizes the apparent plastic deformation and is consistent with the drag force responsible for impactor deceleration. The latter corresponds to the dynamic tensile strength to create cracks. Using these results, a simple model for the compaction and fragmentation threshold of dust aggregates is proposed. In addition, the comparison of drag-force laws for dust aggregates and loose granular matter reveals the similarities and differences between the two materials.

  13. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drot, Romuald


    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 which allow to study the effect of PO 4 and P 2 O 7 groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP 2 O 7 presents only one single site (P 2 O 7 groups) whereas Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 and Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 admit two types of sites (PO 4 /P 2 O 7 and PO 4 /oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO 3 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO 2+ 2 et de UO 2 NO + 3 species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO 2+ 3 ). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid suspension using FITEQL code (CCM). As sorption equilibria were defined, experimental retention data simulation was performed with respect to structural

  14. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  15. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin


    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  16. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  17. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael


    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  18. In-Space Manufacture of Storable Propellants (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many deep-space, missions, especially those that return material or crews to near-Earth space, are severely limited by the need to carry propellants and heat shields...

  19. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.


    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  20. Formulation and properties of ADN/GAP propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, Klaus; Heintz, Thomas; Schweikert, Wenka; Keicher, Thomas; Krause, Horst [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)


    In this contribution two ways are described, how it is possible to achieve perfectly cured and processible propellants with prilled ADN, low amounts of HMX 5{mu}m mps and a binder system based on GAP diole and GAP triole oligomers with and without TMETN as a nitrate ester plasticizer. It was shown how it will be possible to suppress the strongly gas forming reaction between ADN and reactive isocyanates by a mixture of stabilizers. In this way it was possible to create minimum smoke ADN/HMX/GAP/TMETN propellants cured with the triisocyanate N100. In the second part an unconventional binder system based on the 1.3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azido groups with acetylene compounds forming 1,2,3-triazole heterocyclic rings has been applied for ADN/GAP and AP/GAP propellants. Together with small parts of HMX formulations with ADN/HMX/GAP and the corresponding AP/HMX/GAP exhibit high thermodynamic performance, are easily processible, and cure successfully at 60 C. Their basic properties consisting of burning behavior and mechanical properties, at ambient temperature, chemical stability, and sensitivity have been investigated and are compared to each other. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. The effect of oxygen transfer mechanism on the cathode performance based on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jie


    Two types of proton-blocking composites, La2NiO4+δ-LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3-δ (LNO-LNF) and Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ-LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3-δ (SDC-LNF), were evaluated as cathode materials for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs) based on the BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY) electrolyte, in order to compare and investigate the influence of two different oxygen transfer mechanism on the performance of the cathode for H-SOFCs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the chemical compatibility of the components in both compounds was excellent up to 1000°C. Electrochemical studies revealed that LNO-LNF showed lower area specific polarization resistances in symmetrical cells and better electrochemical performance in single cell tests. The single cell with LNO-LNF cathode generated remarkable higher maximum power densities (MPDs) and lower interfacial polarization resistances (Rp) than that with SDC-LNF cathode. Correspondingly, the MPDs of the single cell with the LNO-LNF cathode were 490, 364, 266, 180 mW cm-2 and the Rp were 0.103, 0.279, 0.587, 1.367 Ω cm2 at 700, 650, 600 and 550°C, respectively. Moreover, after the single cell with LNO-LNF cathode optimized with an anode functional layer (AFL) between the anode and electrolyte, the power outputs reached 708 mW cm-2 at 700°C. These results demonstrate that the LNO-LNF composite cathode with the interstitial oxygen transfer mechanism is a more preferable alternative for H-SOFCs than SDC-LNF composite cathode with the oxygen vacancy transfer mechanism.

  2. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.


    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  3. Propeller performance analysis using lifting line theory


    Flood, Kevin M.


    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Propellers are typically optimized to provide the maximum thrust for the minimum torque at a specific number of revolutions per minute (RPM) at a particular ship speed. This process allows ships to efficiently travel at their design speed. However, it is useful to know how the propeller performs during off-design conditions. This is especially true for naval warships whose missions req...

  4. Influence of different propellant systems on ablation of EPDM insulators in overload state (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tuanwei


    This study examines the propellants used in full-scale solid rocket motors (SRM) and investigates how insulator ablation is affected by two propellant formulations (A and B) during flight overload conditions. An experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations were performed to discover the intrinsic causes of insulator ablation rates from the perspective of lab-scaled ground-firing tests, the decoupling of thermochemical ablation, and particle erosion. In addition, the difference in propellant composition, and the insulator charring layer microstructure were analyzed. Results reveal that the degree of insulator ablation is positively correlated with the propellant burn rate, particle velocity, and aggregate concentrations during the condensed phase. A lower ratio of energetic additive material in the AP oxidizer of the propellant is promising for the reduction in particle size and increase in the burn rate and pressure index. However, the overall higher velocity of a two-phase flow causes severe erosion of the insulation material. While the higher ratio of energetic additive to the AP oxidizer imparts a smaller ablation rate to the insulator (under lab-scale test conditions), the slag deposition problem in the combustion chamber may cause catastrophic consequences for future large full-scale SRM flight experiments.

  5. Potential low cost, safe, high efficiency propellant for future space program (United States)

    Zhou, D.


    Mixtures of nanometer or micrometer sized carbon powder suspended in hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixtures are proposed as candidates for low cost, high efficiency propellants for future space programs. While liquid hydrogen has low weight and high heat of combustion per unit mass, because of the low mass density the heat of combustion per unit volume is low, and the liquid hydrogen storage container must be large. The proposed propellants can produce higher gross heat combustion with small volume with trade off of some weight increase. Liquid hydrogen can serve as the fluid component of the propellant in the mixtures and thus used by current rocket engine designs. For example, for the same volume a mixture of 5% methane and 95% hydrogen, can lead to an increase in the gross heat of combustion by about 10% and an increase in the Isp (specific impulse) by 21% compared to a pure liquid hydrogen propellant. At liquid hydrogen temperatures of 20.3 K, methane will be in solid state, and must be formed as fine granules (or slush) to satisfy the requirement of liquid propellant engines.

  6. CFD Fuel Slosh Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction in Spacecraft Propellant Tanks with Diaphragms (United States)

    Sances, Dillon J.; Gangadharan, Sathya N.; Sudermann, James E.; Marsell, Brandon


    Liquid sloshing within spacecraft propellant tanks causes rapid energy dissipation at resonant modes, which can result in attitude destabilization of the vehicle. Identifying resonant slosh modes currently requires experimental testing and mechanical pendulum analogs to characterize the slosh dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have recently been validated as an effective tool for simulating fuel slosh within free-surface propellant tanks. Propellant tanks often incorporate an internal flexible diaphragm to separate ullage and propellant which increases modeling complexity. A coupled fluid-structure CFD model is required to capture the damping effects of a flexible diaphragm on the propellant. ANSYS multidisciplinary engineering software employs a coupled solver for analyzing two-way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) cases such as the diaphragm propellant tank system. Slosh models generated by ANSYS software are validated by experimental lateral slosh test results. Accurate data correlation would produce an innovative technique for modeling fuel slosh within diaphragm tanks and provide an accurate and efficient tool for identifying resonant modes and the slosh dynamic response.

  7. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, R.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail:; Kamale, P.J. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shaikh, M.A.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shelar, S.D. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, K. Sunil [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Singh, Amarjit [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)


    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 deg. C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 {mu}m HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  8. Propeller installation effects on turboprop aircraft acoustics (United States)

    Chirico, Giulia; Barakos, George N.; Bown, Nicholas


    Propeller installation options for a twin-engined turboprop aircraft are evaluated at cruise conditions, aiming to identify the quieter configuration. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the near-field acoustics and transfer functions are employed to estimate the interior cabin noise. Co-rotating and counter-rotating installation options are compared. The effect of propeller synchrophasing is also considered. The employed method captures the complexity of the acoustic field generated by the interactions of the propeller sound fields among each other and with the airframe, showing also the importance of simulating the whole problem to predict the actual noise on a flying aircraft. Marked differences among the various layouts are observed. The counter-rotating top-in option appears the best in terms of acoustics, the top-out propeller rotation leading to louder noise because of inflow conditions and the occurrence of constructive acoustic interferences. Synchrophasing is shown to be beneficial for co-rotating propellers, specially regarding the interior noise, because of favorable effects in the interaction between the propeller direct sound field and the noise due to the airframe. An angle closer to the maximum relative blade shift was found to be the best choice, yielding, however, higher sound levels than those provided by the counter-rotating top-in layout.

  9. Nanometer, submicron and micron sized aluminum powder prepared by semi-solid mechanical stirring method with addition of ceramic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, X.H.; Jiang, D.L.; Dong, S.M.


    Composite powder, which is a mixture of Al/Al 2 O 3 composite particles and nanometer, submicron and micron sized aluminum powder, was prepared by semi-solid mechanical stirring method with addition of Al 2 O 3 ceramic particles. The ceramic particles have an average diameter of 80 μm and a volume fraction of 15% in the slurry. The methods used to measure the size distribution of particles greater than 50 μm and less than 50 μm were sieve analysis and photosedimentation, respectively. The surface morphology and transverse sections of the composite powder of different sizes were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results indicate that the composite powder prepared in present work have a wide size distribution ranging from less than 50-900 μm, and the aluminum particles and Al/Al 2 O 3 composite particles are separated and isolated. The particles greater than 200 μm and less than 50 μm are almost pure aluminum powder. The rate of conversion of ingot aluminum into particles less than 1 μm containing nanometer and submicron sizes is 1.777 wt.% in this work. The aluminum powder of different sizes has different shape and surface morphology, quasi-spherical in shape with rough surface for aluminum particles of micron scale, irregular in shape for aluminum particles of submicron scale, and quite close to a globular or an excellent globular in shape for aluminum particles of nanometer size. On the other hand, the surface of ceramic particle was coated by aluminum particles with maximum thickness less than 10 μm containing nanometer and submicron sizes as a single layer. It is suggested that the surface of ceramic particles can provide more nucleation sites for solidification of liquid aluminum and the nucleation of liquid aluminum can take place readily, grow and adhere on the surface of ceramic particles, although it is poorly wetted by the liquid aluminum and the semi-solid slurry can

  10. The development of an erosive burning model for solid rocket motors using direct numerical simulation (United States)

    McDonald, Brian A.

    A method for developing an erosive burning model for use in solid propellant design-and-analysis interior ballistics codes is described and evaluated. Using Direct Numerical Simulation, the primary mechanisms controlling erosive burning (turbulent heat transfer, and finite rate reactions) have been studied independently through the development of models using finite rate chemistry, and infinite rate chemistry. Both approaches are calibrated to strand burn rate data by modeling the propellant burning in an environment with no cross-flow, and adjusting thermophysical properties until the predicted regression rate matches test data. Subsequent runs are conducted where the cross-flow is increased from M = 0.0 up to M = 0.8. The resulting relationship of burn rate increase versus Mach Number is used in an interior ballistics analysis to compute the chamber pressure of an existing solid rocket motor. The resulting predictions are compared to static test data. Both the infinite rate model and the finite rate model show good agreement when compared to test data. The propellant considered is an AP/HTPB with an average AP particle size of 37 microns. The finite rate model shows that as the cross-flow increases, near wall vorticity increases due to the lifting of the boundary caused by the side injection of gases from the burning propellant surface. The point of maximum vorticity corresponds to the outer edge of the APd-binder flame. As the cross-flow increases, the APd-binder flame thickness becomes thinner; however, the point of highest reaction rate moves only slightly closer to the propellant surface. As such, the net increase of heat transfer to the propellant surface due to finite rate chemistry affects is small. This leads to the conclusion that augmentation of thermal transport properties and the resulting heat transfer increase due to turbulence dominates over combustion chemistry in the erosive burning problem. This conclusion is advantageous in the development of

  11. Cavitation noise studies on marine propellers (United States)

    Sharma, S. D.; Mani, K.; Arakeri, V. H.


    Experimental observations are described of cavitation inception and noise from five model propellers, three basic and two modified, tested in the open jet section of the Indian Institute of Science high-speed water tunnel facility. Extensive experiments on the three basic propellers of different design, which included visualization of cavitation and measurements of noise, showed that the dominant type of cavitation was in the form of tip vortex cavitation, accompanied by leading edge suction side sheet cavitation in its close vicinity, and the resultant noise depended on parameters such as the advance coefficient, the cavitation number, and the propeller geometry. Of these, advance coefficient was found to have the maximum influence not only on cavitation noise but also on the inception of cavitation. Noise levels and frequencies of spectra obtained from all the three basic propellers at conditions near inception and different advance coefficient values, when plotted in the normalized form as suggested by Blake, resulted in a universal spectrum which would be useful for predicting cavitation noise at prototype scales when a limited extent of cavitation is expected in the same form as observed on the present models. In an attempt to delay the onset of tip vortex cavitation, the blades of two of the three basic propellers were modified by drilling small holes in the tip and leading edge areas. Studies on the modified propellers showed that the effectiveness of the blade modification was apparently stronger at low advance coefficient values and depended on the blade sectional profile. Measurements of cavitation noise indicated that the modification also improved the acoustic performance of the propellers as it resulted in a complete attenuation of the low-frequency spectral peaks, which were prominent with the basic propellers. In addition to the above studies, which were conducted under uniform flow conditions, one of the basic propellers was tested in the simulated

  12. Probing the mechanisms of drug release from amorphous solid dispersions in medium-soluble and medium-insoluble carriers. (United States)

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I


    The objective of the current study is to mechanistically differentiate the dissolution and supersaturation behaviors of amorphous drugs from amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on medium-soluble versus medium-insoluble carriers under nonsink dissolution conditions through a direct head-to-head comparison. ASDs of indomethacin (IND) were prepared in several polymers which exhibit different solubility behaviors in acidic (pH1.2) and basic (pH7.4) dissolution media. The selected polymers range from water-soluble (e.g., PVP and Soluplus) and water-insoluble (e.g., ethylcellulose and Eudragit RL PO) to those only soluble in an acidic or basic dissolution medium (e.g., Eudragit E100, Eudragit L100, and HPMCAS). At 20wt.% drug loading, DSC and powder XRD analysis confirmed that the majority of incorporated IND was present in an amorphous state. Our nonsink dissolution results confirm that whether the carrier matrix is medium soluble determines the release mechanism of amorphous drugs from ASD systems which has a direct impact on the rate of supersaturation generation, thus in turn affecting the evolution of supersaturation in amorphous systems. For example, under nonsink dissolution conditions, the release of amorphous IND from medium-soluble carriers is governed by a dissolution-controlled mechanism leading to an initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration due to rapid nucleation and crystallization. In contrast, the dissolution of IND ASD from medium-insoluble carriers is more gradual as drug release is regulated by a diffusion-controlled mechanism by which drug supersaturation is built up gradually and sustained over an extended period of time without any apparent decline. Since several tested carrier polymers can be switched from soluble to insoluble by simply changing the pH of the dissolution medium, the results obtained here provide unequivocal evidence of the proposed transition of kinetic solubility profiles from the

  13. The influence of drawing temperature on mechanical properties and organisation of melt spun polyethylene solid-state drawn in the pseudo-affine regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Xin; Alcock, B.; Loos, J.


    Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) solid-state drawn with fixed draw ratio at different temperatures in a fiber/tape spin line were investigated. All drawing experiments were performed in the pseudo-affine regime, i.e. no effective relaxation of the molecules occurs during

  14. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae


    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Supports and Half‐Cells for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Influenced by Alumina‐Zirconia Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlas, Benoit; Ni, De Wei; Frandsen, Henrik Lund


    In order to improve the durability and robustness of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and stacks, it is necessary to improve the strength of its components. In cathode supported SOEC, the main structural component is the Ni(O)- YSZ support. But the strength of the half-cell or cell is also...... determined by the strength of other weaker components and by the residual stress state induced by the thermal expansion mismatch. In this study, the mechanical properties of Ni(O)-3YSZ supports with a reference composition and with substitution of 3YSZ by 20A3YSZ (3YSZ with 20 wt.% Al2O3) have been tested...... and compared. The initial interest of this substitution are a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch within the half-cell and the fact that 20A3YSZ is stronger than 3YSZ. The influence of the process on the composition, strength, elastic properties and electrical conductivity...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kuwahata, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira; Chigai, Takeshi [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0819 (Japan); Kimura, Yuki [Department of Earth and Planetary Materials Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Pirronello, Valerio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita' di Catania, I-95125 Catania, Sicily (Italy)


    To understand elementary processes leading to H{sub 2} formation, and the hydrogenation and deuteration reactions of adsorbed species on dust grains in dense clouds, we experimentally investigated the diffusion of atomic hydrogen and deuterium on amorphous solid water (ASW) at temperatures of 8-15 K. The present study extended our previous study for selective detections of H and D atoms, and of H{sub 2} (J = 0 and 1) and D{sub 2} (J = 0 and 1) molecules adsorbed on ASW using both photo-stimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, to investigate potential sites on ASW for diffusion, recombination dynamics, and the diffusion mechanism of H and D atoms. Our results demonstrate that the ASW surface contains various potential sites that can be categorized into at least three groups: very shallow, middle-, and deep-potential sites, with diffusion activation energies of {<=}18, 22 (23 meV for D atoms), and {>=}30 meV, respectively. The present study pictured the outline of H{sub 2} formation on cosmic ice dust at low temperatures: H atoms landing on the dust will diffuse rapidly at the abundant shallow and middle sites on ASW, and finally become trapped at deep sites. The H atoms that arrive next recombine with such trapped H atoms to yield H{sub 2} molecules. The small isotopic difference between the diffusion of H and D atoms on ASW indicates that the diffusion mechanism can be explained by thermal hopping, at least at middle-potential sites.

  17. Mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Carl T F


    This text is the primary recommendation of the UK Engineering Council Faculty of Technology to all British universities as of approved standard and quality for use as a text for the Board's own examinations. It introduces the fundamental concepts and principles of statics and stress analysis as the essential reading for first year engineering students. Worked examples from the authors experience reinforce comprehension of key concepts. Tutorial solutions with explanation in extended detail have been provided for students. Key elements include: use of free-body diagrams to help problem solving;

  18. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.


    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  19. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.


    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  20. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.


    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  1. Dissolution-modulating mechanism of pH modifiers in solid dispersion containing weakly acidic or basic drugs with poor water solubility. (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Beom-Jin


    Although the solid dispersion method has been known to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs by dispersing them in hydrophilic carriers, one obstacle of the solid dispersion method is its limited solubilization capacity, especially for pH-dependent soluble drugs. pH-modified solid dispersion, in which pH modifiers are incorporated, may be a useful method for increasing the dissolution rate of weakly acidic or basic drugs. Sufficient research, including the most recent reports, was undertaken in this review. How could the inclusion of the pH the pH modifiers in the solid dispersion system change drug structural behaviors, molecular interactions, microenvironmental pH, and/or release rate of pH modifiers, relating with the enhanced dissolution of weakly acidic or weakly basic drugs with poor water solubility? These questions have been investigated to determine the dissolution-modulating mechanism of pH modifiers in solid dispersion containing weakly acidic or basic drugs. It is believed that step-by-step mechanistic approaches could provide the ultimate solution for solubilizing several poorly water-soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility from a solid dispersion system, as well as provide ideas for developing future dosage systems.

  2. A Method to Assess Transverse Vibration Energy of Ship Propeller Shaft for Diagnostic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The article discusses a key problem of ship propulsion system vibration diagnostics, which concerns assessing this part of mechanical energy transmitted from the main engine to the ship propeller which is dissipated due to propeller shaft vibration. A simplified calculation model is proposed which allows the total energy of the generated torsional vibration to be assessed from the shaft deflection amplitude measured at the mind-span point between the supports. To verify the developed model, pilot tests were performed on the laboratory rotational mechanical system test rig. In those tests, cyclic bending moment was applied to a unified (cylindrical material sample, which modelled, at an appropriate scale, structural and functional properties of a real propeller shaft.

  3. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro


    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters.

  4. Self-propelled magnesium based micromotors: synthesis and magnetic steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dongdong


    Full Text Available In this work the magnesium based Janus micromotors were prepared by an asymmetric coating of Co-Au bilayer on the surface of Mg microparticles. The micromotor could efficiently self-propel in phosphate buffer saline (PBS with a highest speed of 221 μm·s−1 without any extra additives through the macrogalvanic corrosion and pitting corrosion mechanism. The influence of pH value of PBS buffer on the motion of micromotor was also investigated. Moreover, we demonstrated that the motion of micromotor could be controlled by an external magnetic field rapidly and accurately, indicating the potential application in biomedicine.

  5. Advances in LO2 Propellant Conditioning (United States)

    Mehta, Gopal; Orth, Michael; Stone, William; Perry, Gretchen; Holt, Kimberly; Suter, John


    This paper describes the cryogenic testing and analysis that has recently been completed as part of a multi-year effort to develop a new, more robust and operable LO2 propellant conditioning system. Phase 1 of the program consisted of feasibility demonstrations ot four novel propellant conditioning concepts. A no-bleed, passive propellant conditioning option was shown for the first time to successfully provide desired propellant inlet conditions. The benefits of passive conditioning are reduced operations costs, decreased hardware costs, enhanced operability and increased reliability on future expendable launch vehicles In Phase 2 of the test program, effects of major design parameters were studied and design correlation for future vehicle design were developed. Simultaneously, analytical models were developed and validated. Over 100 tests were conducted with a full-scale feedline using LN2 as the test fluid. A circulation pump provided a range of pressure and flow conditions. The test results showed that the passive propellant conditioning system is insensitive to variations in many of the parameters. The test program provides the validation necessary to incorporate the passive conditioning system into the baseline of future vehicles. Modeling of these systems using computational fluid dynamics seems highly promising.

  6. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water (United States)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William


    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  7. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.


    The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

  8. Measurement of Mechanical Coherency Temperature and Solid Volume Fraction in Al-Zn Alloys Using In Situ X-ray Diffraction During Casting (United States)

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Kurtuldu, Güven; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Drakopoulos, Michael


    During solidification of metallic alloys, coalescence leads to the formation of solid bridges between grains or grain clusters when both solid and liquid phases are percolated. As such, it represents a key transition with respect to the mechanical behavior of solidifying alloys and to the prediction of solidification cracking. Coalescence starts at the coherency point when the grains begin to touch each other, but are unable to sustain any tensile loads. It ends up at mechanical coherency when the solid phase is sufficiently coalesced to transmit macroscopic tensile strains and stresses. Temperature at mechanical coherency is a major input parameter in numerical modeling of solidification processes as it defines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. This temperature has been determined for Al-Zn alloys using in situ X-ray diffraction during casting in a dog-bone-shaped mold. This setup allows the sample to build up internal stress naturally as its contraction is prevented. The cooling on both extremities of the mold induces a hot spot at the middle of the sample which is irradiated by X-ray. Diffraction patterns were recorded every 0.5 seconds using a detector covering a 426 × 426 mm2 area. The change of diffraction angles allowed measuring the general decrease of the lattice parameter of the fcc aluminum phase. At high solid volume fraction, a succession of strain/stress build up and release is explained by the formation of hot tears. Mechanical coherency temperatures, 829 K to 866 K (556 °C to 593 °C), and solid volume fractions, ca. 98 pct, are shown to depend on solidification time for grain refined Al-6.2 wt pct Zn alloys.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alkamachi


    Full Text Available Traditional quadcopter suffers terribly from its underactuation which implies the coupling between the rotational and the translational motion. In this paper, we present a quadcopter with dynamic rotor tilting capability in which the four propellers are allowed to tilt together around their arm axis. The proposed model provides leveled forward/backward horizontal motion and therefore, ensures a correct view of the onboard camera, and increases the vehicle speed by reducing the air drag. The rotor tilt mechanism also provides an instant high speed in the forward or reverse direction and offers a quick and solid air brake to restrain that fast moving speed.  The nonlinear dynamical model for the quadcopter under consideration is derived using Newton-Euler formalization. A control strategy is then proposed aimed to control the altitude, attitude, and the forward speed of the obtained model. Finally, a numerical simulation is used to integrate the system model with the controller and to test the system performance. Simulation results are reported to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed novel configuration.

  10. Mechanism for enhanced absorption of a solid dispersion formulation of LY2300559 using the artificial stomach duodenum model. (United States)

    Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C


    An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation.

  11. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration (United States)

    Glick, R. L.


    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  12. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 1 (United States)


    The technical requirements for the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) propulsion system definition, (2) solid rocket engine stage design, (3) solid rocket engine stage recovery, (4) environmental effects, (5) manrating of the solid rocket engine stage, (6) system safety analysis, and (7) ground support equipment.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries. (United States)

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won


    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  14. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus


    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...

  15. Neural Network Predictions of the 4-Quadrant Wageningen Propeller Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roddy, Robert F; Hess, David E; Faller, Will


    .... This report describes the development of feedforward neural network (FFNN) predictions of four-quadrant thrust and torque behavior for the Wageningen B-Screw Series of propellers and for two Wageningen ducted propeller series...

  16. Innovative Swirl Injector for LOX and Hydrocarbon Propellants, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gases trapped in the propellant feed lines of space-based rocket engines due to cryogenic propellant boil-off or pressurant ingestion can result in poor combustion...

  17. Propellant Gelation for Green In-Space Propulsion, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Concerns in recent years about the toxicity and safe handling of the storable class of propellants have led to efforts in greener monopropellants and bi-propellants....

  18. The growth of silica and silica-clad nanowires using a solid-state reaction mechanism on Ti, Ni and SiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Parul; Anguita, J V; Stolojan, V; Henley, S J; Silva, S R P


    A large area compatible and solid-state process for growing silica nanowires is reported using nickel, titanium and silicon dioxide layers on silicon. The silica nanowires also contain silicon, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon confinement model is employed to measure the diameter of the Si rich tail for our samples. The measured Raman peak shift and full width at half-maximum variation with the nanowire diameter qualitatively match with data available in the literature. We have investigated the effect of the seedbed structure on the nanowires, and the effect of using different gas conditions in the growth stages. From this, we have obtained the growth mechanism, and deduced the role of each individual substrate seedbed layer in the growth of the nanowires. We report a combined growth mechanism, where the growth is initiated by a solid-liquid-solid process, which is then followed by a vapour-liquid-solid process. We also report on the formation of two distinct structures of nanowires (type I and type II). The growth of these can be controlled by the use of titanium in the seedbed. We also observe that the diameter of the nanowires exhibits an inverse relation with the catalyst thickness.

  19. Effect of Nb2O5 doping on improving the thermo-mechanical stability of sealing interfaces for solid oxide fuel cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Du, Xinhang; Tan, Shengwei; Tang, Dian; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Teng


    Nb 2 O 5 is added to a borosilicate sealing system to improve the thermo-mechanical stability of the sealing interface between the glass and Fe-Cr metallic interconnect (Crofer 22APU) in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The thermo-mechanical stability of the glass/metal interface is evaluated experimentally as well as by using a finite element analysis (FEA) method. The sealing glass doped with 4 mol.% Nb 2 O 5 shows the best thermo-mechanical stability, and the sealing couple of Crofer 22APU/glass/GDC (Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 ) remains intact after 50 thermal cycles. In addition, all sealing couples show good joining after being held at 750 °C for 1000 h. Moreover, the possible mechanism on the thermo-mechanical stability of sealing interface is investigated in terms of stress-based and energy-based perspectives.

  20. Self-propelled supramolecular nanomotors with temperature-responsive speed regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Y.; Peng, F.; Sui, X.; Men, Y.; White, P.B.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Wilson, D.A.


    Self-propelled catalytic micro- and nanomotors have been the subject of intense study over the past few years, but it remains a continuing challenge to build in an effective speed-regulation mechanism. Movement of these motors is generally fully dependent on the concentration of accessible fuel,

  1. Ionic liquid propellants: future fuels for space propulsion. (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M


    Use of green propellants is a trend for future space propulsion. Hypergolic ionic liquid propellants, which are environmentally-benign while exhibiting energetic performances comparable to hydrazine, have shown great potential to meet the requirements of developing nontoxic high-performance propellant formulations for space propulsion applications. This Concept article presents a review of recent advances in the field of ionic liquid propellants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers (United States)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  3. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production (United States)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve


    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  4. Analysis of Aerodynamic Load of LSU-03 (LAPAN Surveillance UAV-03) Propeller (United States)

    Rahmadi Nuranto, Awang; Jamaludin Fitroh, Ahmad; Syamsudin, Hendri


    The existing propeller of the LSU-03 aircraft is made of wood. To improve structural strength and obtain better mechanical properties, the propeller will be redesigned usingcomposite materials. It is necessary to simulate and analyze the design load. This research paper explainsthe simulation and analysis of aerodynamic load prior to structural design phase of composite propeller. Aerodynamic load calculations are performed using both the Blade Element Theory(BET) and the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)simulation. The result of both methods show a close agreement, the different thrust forces is only 1.2 and 4.1% for two type mesh. Thus the distribution of aerodynamic loads along the surface of the propeller blades of the 3-D CFD simulation results are considered valid and ready to design the composite structure. TheCFD results is directly imported to the structure model using the Direct Import CFD / One-Way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) method. Design load of propeller is chosen at the flight condition at speed of 20 km/h at 7000 rpm.

  5. Preliminary characterization of propellants based on p(GA/BAMO) and pAMMO binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Ugo; Polacco, Giovanni [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pisa (Italy); Keicher, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany); Massimi, Roberto [AVIO S.p.A., Roma (Italy)


    In previous papers, the synthesis and characterization of OH-terminated glycidyl azide-r-(3,3-bis(azidomethyl)oxetane) copolymers (GA/BAMO) and poly-3-azidomethyl-3-methyl oxetane (pAMMO) by azidation of their respective polymeric substrates were described. The main objective was the preparation of amorphous azido-polymers, as substitutes of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in new formulations of energetic propellants. Here, the subsequent characterization of both the binders is presented. First of all, several isocyanates were checked in order to optimize the curing reaction, and then two small-scale formulations of a propellant, based on aluminium and ammonium perchlorate, were prepared and characterized. Finally, the mechanical properties and burning rate were compared to those of a similar propellant based on HTPB as binder. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. 14 CFR 25.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 25.907... vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a... propeller to show that failure due to fatigue will be avoided throughout the operational life of the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood... evaluation of the propeller to show that failure due to fatigue will be avoided throughout the operational...

  8. ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Y. Nagamachi


    Full Text Available The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate. Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.

  9. Design Procedure of 4-Bladed Propeller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.8 No.1 September 2013 ..... Number of blades. 5. Taylor's wake friction (w). The speed of ship (Vs), the number of propeller revolution (n), the blade number (Z) and the blade area ratio.... .... moment of inertia of a blade, the approximate.

  10. Spray and Combustion of Gelled Hypergolic Propellants (United States)


    moisture absorption on the fumed silica surface correlates directly to the ambient humidity , and can reach 12% by weight at an atmospheric humidity of...propellant interface, the liquid at the interface can be heated to the homogeneous vapor nucleation temperature rather than the boiling point. At this

  11. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartoux, Gerard.


    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle [fr

  12. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review (United States)

    Hadef, Fatma


    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe-Al-X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe-Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems.

  13. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)


    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  14. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids. (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E


    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  15. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon


    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  16. Propellant Slosh Force and Mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hunt


    Full Text Available We have used electrical capacitance tomography (ECT to instrument a demonstration tank containing kerosene and have successfully demonstrated that ECT can, in real time, (i measure propellant mass to better than 1% of total in a range of gravity fields, (ii image propellant distribution, and (iii accurately track propellant centre of mass (CoM. We have shown that the ability to track CoM enables the determination of slosh forces, and we argue that this will result in disruptive changes in a propellant tank design and use in a spacecraft. Ground testing together with real-time slosh force data will allow an improved tank design to minimize and mitigate slosh forces, while at the same time keeping the tank mass to a minimum. Fully instrumented Smart Tanks will be able to provide force vector inputs to a spacecraft inertial navigation system; this in turn will (i eliminate or reduce navigational errors, (ii reduce wait time for uncertain slosh settling, since actual slosh forces will be known, and (iii simplify slosh control hardware, hence reducing overall mass. ECT may be well suited to space borne liquid measurement applications. Measurements are independent of and unaffected by orientation or levels of g. The electronics and sensor arrays can be low in mass, and critically, the technique does not dissipate heat into the propellant, which makes it intrinsically safe and suitable for cryogenic liquids. Because of the limitations of operating in earth-bound gravity, it has not been possible to check the exact numerical accuracy of the slosh force acting on the vessel. We are therefore in the process of undertaking a further project to (i build a prototype integrated “Smart Tank for Space”, (ii undertake slosh tests in zero or microgravity, (iii develop the system for commercial ground testing, and (iv qualify ECT for use in space.

  17. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, M.


    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  18. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.


    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  19. Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive to Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rockets (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth, K.; Koo, Joseph H.; Story, George


    Paraffin-based solid fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications are recognized as a fastburning alternative to other fuel binders such as HTPB, but efforts to further improve the burning rate and mechanical properties of paraffin are still necessary. One approach that is considered in this study is to use multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as an additive to paraffin wax. Carbon nanotubes provide increased electrical and thermal conductivity to the solid-fuel grains to which they are added, which can improve the mass burning rate. Furthermore, the addition of ultra-fine aluminum particles to the paraffin/MWNT fuel grains can enhance regression rate of the solid fuel and the density impulse of the hybrid rocket. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes also present the possibility of greatly improving the mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength) of the paraffin-based solid-fuel grains. For casting these solid-fuel grains, various percentages of MWNT and aluminum particles will be added to the paraffin wax. Previous work has been published about the dispersion and mixing of carbon nanotubes.1 Another manufacturing method has been used for mixing the MWNT with a phenolic resin for ablative applications, and the manufacturing and mixing processes are well-documented in the literature.2 The cost of MWNT is a small fraction of single-walled nanotubes. This is a scale-up advantage as future applications and projects will require low cost additives to maintain cost effectiveness. Testing of the solid-fuel grains will be conducted in several steps. Dog bone samples will be cast and prepared for tensile testing. The fuel samples will also be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM will allow for examination of the solid fuel grain for uniformity and consistency. The paraffin-based fuel grains will also be tested using two hybrid rocket test motors located at the Pennsylvania State University s High Pressure

  20. Indications of the formation of an oversaturated solid solution during hydrogenation of Mg-Ni based nanocomposite produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama, CRIDESAT, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Ordonez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Serafini, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Materials, CIMAT, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Los Carrera 01567, Quilpue, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, PUCV (Chile); Aguilar, C. [Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria, Universidad Austral de Chile, Av. General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile)


    An oversaturated solid solution of H in a nanocomposite material formed mainly by nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni, some residual nanocrystalline Ni and an Mg rich amorphous phase has been found for the first time. The nanocomposite was produced by mechanical alloying starting from Mg and Ni elemental powders, using a SPEX 8000D mill. The hydriding characterization of the nanocomposite was carried out by solid-gas reaction method in a Sievert's type apparatus. The maximum hydrogen content reached in a period of 21 Ks without prior activation was 2.00 wt.% H under hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa at 363 K. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of an oversaturated solid solution between nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni and H without any sign of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} hydride formation. The dehydriding behaviour was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The results showed the existence of two desorption peaks, the first one associated with the transformation of the oversaturated solid solution into Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and the second one with the Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} desorption. (author)