WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid phase products

  1. Solid-Solid Vacuum Regolith Heat-Exchanger for Oxygen Production, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel coaxial counterflow solid-solid heat exchanger to recover heat energy from spent regolith...

  2. Structures of the particles of the condensed dispersed phase in solid fuel combustion products plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaryan, A.A.; Chernyshev, A.V.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Fortov, V.E.; Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mintsev, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a type of dusty plasma which has been least studied--the plasma of solid fuel combustion products--were presented. Experiments to determine the parameters of the plasma of the combustion products of synthetic solid fuels with various compositions together with simultaneous diagnostics of the degree of ordering of the structures of the particles of the dispersed condensed phase were performed. The measurements showed that the charge composition of the plasma of the solid fuels combustion products depends strongly on the easily ionized alkali-metal impurities which are always present in synthetic fuel in one or another amount. An ordered arrangement of the particles of a condensed dispersed phase in structures that form in a boundary region between the high-temperature and condensation zones was observed for samples of aluminum-coated solid fuels with a low content of alkali-metal impurities

  3. Dispersive solid-phase imprinting of proteins for the production of plastic antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Feng, Xiaotong; Halder, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    We describe a novel dispersive solid-phase imprinting technique for the production of nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymers (nanoMIPs) as plastic antibodies. The template was immobilized on in-house synthesized magnetic microspheres instead of conventional glass beads. As a result, high...

  4. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Production and Characterization of Anti-LH Polyclonal Antibodies for Establishment of Sepharose Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, N.H.; Mehany, N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to achieve the production and characterization of polyclonal antibody of luteinizing hormone (Anti-LH) as a basic component of LH radioimmunoassay (RIA). The main objective was to improve the immunogenicity of LH by conjugation of LH with bovine serum albumin (LH: BSA) as a protein carrier using Ethyl dimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide (ECDI). Production of Anti-LH was described where LH : BSA immunogen was immunized into three male mature white New-Zealand rabbits through primary immunization and four boosters. The criteria for selecting LH antiserum for liquid phase RIA system were mainly titer, displacement and immuno response profile and followed by partial purification of IgG-LH. The radioiodinated 125 I-LH tracer was carried out using Chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent and the tracer was purified through PD-10 column. The preparation of LH standards was carried out. Coupling of purified IgG-LH to activated Sepharose particles CL-4B was carried out after activation of Sepharose particles with 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. Extensive studies were carried out to obtain the optimum conditions of using solid phase Sepharose particles to reach the optimum separation efficiency. The results of validation tests revealed that the local solid phase RIA system is precise and accurate to detect LH concentration in human serum to be used as a diagnostic tool in investigating the infertility in the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal disorders

  6. The hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion improves the downstream methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, P; Dooms, M; Hattou, S; Benbelkacem, H

    2018-07-01

    The role of the hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion was investigated with a mixture of cattle slurry and maize silage with variable ratios (100, 70 and 30% volatile solids coming from cattle slurry). It was incubated for 48 h at 37, 55, 65 and 72 °C. Soluble chemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. Higher temperatures improved the amount of solubilized COD, which confirmed previously reported results. Nevertheless, solubilization mostly took place during the first 24 h. The rate of methane production in post-hydrolysis BMPs increased after 48 h hydrolysis time, but not after 24 h. The first order kinetic constant rose by 40% on average. No correlation was observed between soluble COD and downstream methane production rate, indicating a possible modification of the physical structure of the particulate solids during the hydrolytic stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel chromatographic separation and carbon solid-phase extraction of acetanilide herbicide degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Jody A

    2002-01-01

    One acetamide and 5 acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the United States. Over the past several years, ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradation products of these acetanilide/acetamide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide degradation products are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1998 Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Consequently, EPA is interested in obtaining national occurrence data for these contaminants in drinking water. EPA currently does not have a method for determining these acetanilide degradation products in drinking water; therefore, a research method is being developed using liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray/mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction (SPE). A novel chromatographic separation of the acetochlor/alachlor ESA and OA structural isomers was developed which uses an ammonium acetate-methanol gradient combined with heating the analytical column to 70 degrees C. Twelve acetanilide degradates were extracted by SPE from 100 mL water samples using carbon cartridges with mean recoveries >90% and relative standard deviations < or =16%.

  8. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Alfaro, A.R.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  9. Divergent solid-phase synthesis of natural product-inspired bipartite cyclodepsipeptides : total synthesis of seragamide A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arndt, H.-D.; Rizzo, S.; Nöcker, Chr.; Wackchaure, V.N.; Milroy, L.G.; Bieker, V.; Calderon, A.; Tran, T.T.N.; Brand, S.; Dehmelt, L.; Waldmann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic natural products (NPs) and analogues thereof often show high affinity, selectivity, and metabolic stability, and methods for the synthesis of NP-like macrocycle collections are of major current interest. We report an efficient solid-phase/cyclorelease method for the synthesis of a

  10. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    is frequently given as a quantity of solid wasteand possibly some recovered energy from waste incineration.Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modeling oflandfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large......), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The computer toolLCA-LAND is useful for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in Europeancountries (for the present Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands). Input data...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  11. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  12. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Broch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA. Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase.

  13. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  14. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  15. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  16. Solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, J

    2001-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) uses a small volume of sorbent dispersed typically on the surface of small fibres, to isolate and concentrate analytes from sample matrix. After contact with sample, analytes are absorbed or adsorbed by the fibre phase (depending on the nature of the coating) until an equilibrium is reached in the system. The amount of an analyte extracted by the coating at equilibrium is determined by the magnitude of the partition coefficient of the analyte between the sample matrix and the coating material. After the extraction step, the fibres are transferred, with the help of a syringe-like handling device, to analytical instrument, for separation and quantitation of target analytes. This technique integrates sampling, extraction and sample introduction and is a simple way of facilitating on-site monitoring. Applications of this technique include environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, process monitoring, clinical, forensic, food, flavour, fragrance and drug analyses, in laboratory and on-site analysis.

  17. Solid-Phase Iminium Cyclization Reactions for the Synthesis of Natural Product-Like Diketopiperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rico

    The development of methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of fused 2,5-diketopiperazines with an emphasis on structural and stereochemical control, has been accomplished through two different approaches. The first approach was based on a highly trans-stereoselective (82% d.e.) intramolecular N...... inhibitors based on the 2,5-diketopiperazino[6,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold was prepared and subsequently evaluated for biologically activity. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against a nuclear extract of HeLa cells, on average 200-fold lower than the activity of SAHA. When screened towards...... HDAC 1 the compounds showed a lower inhibitor activity, compared to the nuclear extract, except for one of the compounds which showed increased activity. The compound represents a clear case of stereodifferentiation. Finally, and most importantly, when screening the compounds towards HDAC 8 an activity...

  18. Solid-phase spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Marchenko, D.Yu.; Shpigun, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS), which is based on the direct measurement of light absorption of an ion exchanger containing a substance of interest, was reviewed. Since 1976, it has been known that aborbance of an ion exchanger is directly proportional to the concentration of a particular ion in solution. A similar dependence can also be followed for other sorbents, as well as for foams, membranes, films, etc., which do not exhibit ion exchange properties. One can use absorption, diffuse reflection, and luminescence spectra parameters as an analytical signal. Thus, SPS of ion exchangers is among the analytical techniques that combine the sorption concentration and surface determination of the substance of interest. This review summarizes the advancements in SPS over the last six years and demonstrates the prospects for its development. Special attention is paid to experimental methods for measuring solid-phase absorption and to the basic procedures of sample preparation, including new ones. These two facets are of great importance for obtaining precise results and extending the capabilities of SPS

  19. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...... of SPME were examined for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, and a standard method for their quantitative analysis in aqueous samples was developed and validated in inter-laboratory studies on the basis of reference material and in comparison with the traditional methods....... The influences of some possible interferences on the SPME process were examined, and new SPME probes were tested for the in situ monitoring of groundwater pollutants. Inter-laboratory studies were carried out also for the validation of SPME for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organonitrogen...

  20. Modeling the performance of the anaerobic phased solids digester system for biogas energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapport, Joshua L.; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Hartsough, Bruce R.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    A process model was developed to predict the mass and energy balance for a full-scale (115 t d -1 ) high-solids anaerobic digester using research data from lab and pilot scale (1-3000 kg d -1 wet waste) systems. Costs and revenues were estimated in consultation with industry partners and the 20-year project cash flow, net present worth (NPW), simple payback, internal rate of return, and revenue requirements were calculated. The NPW was used to compare scenarios in order to determine the financial viability of using a generator for heat and electricity or a pressure swing adsorption unit for converting biogas to compressed natural gas (CNG). The full-scale digester consisted of five 786 m 3 reactors (one biogasification reactor and four hydrolysis reactors) treating a 50:50 mix (volatile solids basis) of food and green waste, of which 17% became biogas, 32% residual solids, and 51% wastewater. The NPW of the projects were similar whether producing electricity or CNG, as long as the parasitic energy demand was satisfied with the biogas produced. When producing electricity only, the power output was 1.2 MW, 7% of which was consumed parasitically. When producing CNG, the system produced 2 hm 3 y -1 natural gas after converting 22% of the biogas to heat and electricity which supplied the parasitic energy demand. The digester system was financially viable whether producing electricity or CNG for discount rates of up to 13% y -1 without considering debt (all capital was considered equity), heat sales, feed-in tariffs or tax credits.

  1. Retention of actinide and fission products by poly-mineral solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynet, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    This research thesis first reports available knowledge on reactivity of mineral surfaces (notably the thermodynamic modelling of their retention properties) and discusses the different approaches proposed in the literature regarding the prediction of retention of an element on an adsorbent mixing. It also proposes a synthesis of publications on retention properties of montmorillonite, goethite and calcite with respect to elements with high or very low concentrations. Then, the author reports a characterization of solids in terms of ion exchanger theory. Results are used for traces of caesium, americium and selenium. He finally reports measurement results of traces of elements by montmorillonite / goethite and montmorillonite / calcite binary mixings, or by montmorillonite / goethite / calcite ternary mixings

  2. Determination of transformation products of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in water using vacuum-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayeva, Dina; Kenessov, Bulat; Psillakis, Elefteria; Nassyrova, Dayana; Bektassov, Marat

    2018-06-22

    A new, sensitive and simple method based on vacuum-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction (Vac-HSSPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS), is proposed for the quantification of rocket fuel unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) transformation products in water samples. The target transformation products were: pyrazine, 1-methyl-1H-pyrazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-1Н-1,2,4-triazole, 1-methyl-imidazole and 1H-pyrazole. For these analytes and within shorter sampling times, Vac-HSSPME yielded detection limits (0.5-100 ng L -1 ) 3-10 times lower than those reported for regular HSSPME. Vac-HSSPME sampling for 30 min at 50 °C yielded the best combination of analyte responses and their standard deviations (24 h). Finally, multiple Vac-HSSME proved to be an efficient tool for controlling the matrix effect and quantifying UDMH transformation products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies for use in immunoassays based on the magnetizable solid phase separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Krasao, P.

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to TSH were produced by using mouse-ascites techniques. Various methods for purifying the antibody from the ascetic fluid have been tried in order to obtain an appropriate TSH kit production protocol. The purified antibodies were then immobilized on magnetizable cellulose for developing an IRMA for TSH. A detailed study of the assay system, including the stability of the magnetic adsorbent was made, which showed that the SCIPAc magnetizable cellulose is suitable for the production of TSH - Blood spot IRMA kits for use in the Neonatal hypothyroid screening programme to be launched in Thailand in the near future. (author). 4 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  4. NOVEL CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND CARBON SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the U.S. Over the past several years, ethanesufonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradatoin products of these acetanilide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. "Alachlor ESA and ...

  5. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  7. Sulfonated nanocellulose for the efficient dispersive micro solid-phase extraction and determination of silver nanoparticles in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-08

    This paper reports a simple approach to Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N) that integrates the nanotool, sulfonated nanocellulose (s-NC), and nanoanalyte, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the same analytical process by using an efficient, environmentally friendly dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μSPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with s-NC as sorbent material. Introducing negatively charged sulfate groups onto the surface of cellulose enhances its surface chemistry and enables the extraction and preconcentration of AgNPs of variable diameter (10, 20 and 60nm) and shell composition (citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings) from complex matrices into a cationic surfactant. In this way, AgNPs of diverse nature were successfully extracted onto the s-NC sorbent and then desorbed into an aqueous solution containing thiotic acid (TA) prior to CE without the need for any labor-intensive cleanup. The ensuing eco-friendly D-μSPE method exhibited a linear response to AgNPs with a limit of detection (LOD) of 20μg/L. Its ability to specifically recognize AgNPs of different sizes was checked in orange juice and mussels, which afforded recoveries of 70.9-108.4%. The repeatability of the method at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level was 5.6%. Based on the results, sulfonated nanocellulose provides an efficient, cost-effective analytical nanotool for the extraction of AgNPs from food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  9. Effect of Cold Stress on Fruiting Body Production by Medicinal Basidiomycetes in Submerged and Solid-phase Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Vetchinkina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the medicinal xylotrophic basidiomycetes Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa to produce typical and atypical fruiting bodies with viable basidiospores in submerged and solid-phase culture under stationary conditions in a beer wort-containing medium under cold stress was shown. The examined mushrooms, when not exposed to temperature stress, did not form fruiting bodies. In solid-phase culture in an agarized medium after cold treatment, the basidiome formation period was shortened by 1.5–2 times. Furthermore, the use of a mycelium subjected to temperature stress for inoculation induced and accelerated the formation of fruiting bodies on an industrial wood substrate, which is of great biotechnological importance.

  10. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of immunoglobulin production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffe, L.M.; Maini, R.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Meretey, K.

    1981-01-01

    A simple solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for IgG and IgM is described. Supernatants from lymphocyte cultures are incubated in microtitre plates which have been precoated with anti-IgG or anti-IgM. Subsequent binding of 125 I-labelled anti-immunoglobulin is measured and IgG and IgM in supernatants are estimated from the standard curve constructed for each assay. The assay is specific for human IgG and IgM, is able to detect nanogram amounts and offers advantages over other techniques for evaluating in vitro lymphocyte function. (Auth.)

  12. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Balanol Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Lyngsø, Lars Ole

    1996-01-01

    The natural product balanol has served as a template for the design and synthesis of a combinatorial library using solid-phase chemistry. Using a retrosynthetic analysis, the structural analogues have been assembled from three relatively accessible building blocks. The solid-phase chemistry inclu...

  14. An Experimental Design Approach for the Analysis of Liquid Phase Products in Water for Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol using Immersed Solid-Phase Micro extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Hamzah; Rozita Osman; Noraini Hamzah; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the immersed-solid-phase micro extraction (immersed-SPME) conditions for the first time using a polyacrylate (PA) coated fiber. This was to determine liquid phase compounds in water for hydrogenolysis reaction of glycerol. There are a three-factor response surface experimental design was used to evaluate the interactive effects of extraction temperature (30-70 degree Celsius), extraction time (10-30 minutes) and desorption time (2-18 minutes) on the analysis of liquid phase compounds in water for hydrogenolysis of glycerol using immersed-solid-phase micro extraction (immersed-SPME). The extraction conditions using immersed-SPME were optimized in order to achieve high enrichment of the analytes from aqueous samples. The isolated compounds from the SPME fiber were desorbed and separated on a capillary polar column of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The extraction time and desorption time were found significant in increasing the amount of glycerol in aqueous hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Nevertheless, the effect of extraction temperature was not significant. In terms of interactions between the effects, the relation between extraction temperature and extraction time was the most significant. The optimised immersed-SPME conditions were at extraction temperature of 27 degree Celsius, extraction time of 30 minutes and 15 minutes of desorption time. Thus, the application of SPME was found to be a rapid and effective technique in the determination of glycerol and propylene glycol compounds in aqueous hydrogenolysis glycerol. (author)

  15. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of Triazine and Phenylurea Herbicides and Their Degradation Products in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, E. A; Strahan, A. P; Thurman, E. M

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography...

  16. Explorative Solid-Phase Extraction (E-SPE) for Accelerated Microbial Natural Product Discovery, Dereplication, and Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Microbial natural products (NP) cover a high chemical diversity, and in consequence extracts from microorganisms are often complex to analyze and purify. A distribution analysis of calculated pK(a) values from the 34390 records in Antibase2008 revealed that within pH 2-11, 44% of all included......-phase extraction" (E-SPE) protocol using SAX, Oasis MAX, SCX, and LH-20 columns for targeted exploitation of chemical functionalities. E-SPE provides a minimum of fractions (15) for chemical and biological analyses and implicates development into a preparative scale methodology. Overall, this allows fast extract...

  17. Selective extraction of phospholipids from dairy products by micro-solid phase extraction based on titanium dioxide microcolumns followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima; Jensen, Ole; Zambonin, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A new micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE) procedure based on titanium dioxide microcolumns was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids (PLs) from dairy products before matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. All...... the extraction steps (loading, washing, and elution) have been optimized using a synthetic mixture of PLs standard and the procedure was subsequently applied to food samples such as milk, chocolate milk and butter. The whole method demonstrated to be simpler than traditional approaches and it appears very...

  18. Determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic products by solid-phase extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiying; Guo, Yuanming; Sun, Xiumei; Hao, Qing; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-22

    We propose a method for the simultaneous determination of 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples (muscle) employing gas chromatography with mass spectrometry after saponification with ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction. The experimental conditions were optimized by the response surface method. In addition, the effects of different lyes and extractants on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction were discussed, and saturated sodium carbonate was first used as the primary saponification reaction and extracted with 10 mL of ethyl acetate and secondly 1 mol/L of sodium hydroxide and 10 mL of n-hexane were used to achieve better results. The average recovery was 67-112%. Satisfactory data showed that the method has good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of <13%. The detection limits of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 0.02-0.13 ng/g. Compared with other methods, this method has the advantages of simple pretreatment, low solvent consumption, maximum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction, the fast separation speed, and the high extraction efficiency. It is concluded that this method meets the batch processing requirements of the sample and can also be used to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in other high-fat (fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish) biological samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect.

  20. Simple method for the determination of personal care product ingredients in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Peralta, Jerónimo; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2018-05-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of personal care product ingredients: galaxolide, tonalide, oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzyliden camphor, padimate-o, 2-ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed. Lettuce was directly extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with methanol, this extract was combined with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction in immersion mode, and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Good linear relationships (25-250 ng/g, R 2  > 0.9702) and low detection limits (1.0-25 ng/g) were obtained for analytes along with acceptable precision for almost all analytes (RSDs < 20%). The validated method was applied for the determination of personal care product ingredients in commercial lettuce and lettuces grown in soil and irrigated with the analytes, identifying the target analytes in leaves and roots of the latter. This procedure is a miniaturized and environmentally friendly proposal which can be a useful tool for quality analysis in lettuce. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-04-15

    Apr 15, 2005 ... to the economy and has significant industrial applications. The development of a ... Waters Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) device (the device can carry out twenty ... HPLC grade dimethyl formamide (DMF) (Fisher. Corporation ...

  2. solid phase extraction method for selective determination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATOKI

    determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the ... samples that receive effluent from industries that use phthalate esters. ... Keywords Phthalates, Plasticizers, Solid Phase Gas Chromatography.

  3. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  4. Product removal and solids transport from fluidized-bed calciners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Munger, D.H.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of removing the solid product from pilot-plant and production fluidized-bed calciners, and transporting product to underground storage vaults are reported here. Testing of dense-phase solids transport systems in test loops during development of a 15-cm-diam. and 30-cm-diam. calciner are described. A lean-phase solid transport system is used with the Waste Calcining Facility. The results of some recent tests done in a lean-phase transport system connected to the 30-cm-diam. calciner are included in this report

  5. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  6. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  7. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K. [Advanced Product Development, Bristol, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  8. Monitoring of gamma radiolytic degradation products of methoxychlor pesticide in water by solid phase micro-extraction using hplc and GC-MS (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, S.B.; Zafar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring, removal and management of toxic chemicals is an essential area of study regarding sustainable progress. Different approaches are adopted to eliminate these water born toxics from water and waste water. Among these gamma radiolytic is an emerging option. This ionization radiation generates highly reactive radicals that reacts with pollutants and hence eliminates these. A solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) procedure has been developed for the successful preconcentration of organic pollutant irradiated water. A SPME fused-silica fiber coated with Polyacrylate was used as a probe to extract the organic pollutant after irradiation. In this reference, degradation of priority organic pollutant methoxychlor (1, 1, 1-Trichloro 2, 2-bis (p-methoxyphenyl) ethane, in water by gamma irradiation under varied experimental conditions has been investigated. The degree of gamma radiolytic degradation was monitored by HPLC-UV and GC-MS. For 4 kGy and 5 kGy gamma radiation dose at a rate of 200 kGyh/sup -1/ greater or equal to 95 % and 98 % MXC was degraded respectively. The degradation products were identified by Mass Spectrometry after comparing their MS spectras with the NIST 98 library. The major degradation occurs via dechlorination, dehydro chlorination, by the detachment of methoxyphenyl from MXC and by interaction of other radicals generated by the water radiolysis. (author)

  9. Unitized solid phase immunoassay kit and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A unitized solid phase kit for radioimmunoassay is disclosed. All of the necessary assay reagents are incorporated into a single tube wherein all phases of the assay procedure are performed, requiring only the addition of the patient's sample. Antibody is bound to the tube surface while labelled antigen is also present but unbound. Storage in the absence of air and water results in the stabilization of the reagents such that the system can be stored for long periods

  10. Improved detection limits for phthalates by selective solid-phase micro-extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Xie, Li; Nag, Anindya; Al-Bahadly, I. H.; Yu, P. L.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Presented research reports on an improved method and enhanced limits of detection for phthalates; a hazardous additive used in the production of plastics by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) polymer in comparison to molecularly imprinted solid

  11. Solid phase tube radioimmunoassay for digoxin detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellner, K.; Glatz, C.; Linke, R.

    1975-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay with 125 I is described for cardiac patients. The test for the digoxin determination and the poisoning due to cardiac glycosides can be measured very accurately and carried out easily. In addition, the test determination can be automatically performed in connection with other tests. (GSE/LH) [de

  12. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  13. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  14. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  15. Biogasification of solid wastes by two-phase anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Vieitez, E.R.; Liu, T.; Kato, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Municipal, industrial and agricultural solid wastes, and biomass deposits, cause large-scale pollution of land and water. Gaseous products of waste decomposition pollute the air and contribute to global warming. This paper describes the development of a two-phase fermentation system that alleviates methanogenic inhibition encountered with high-solids feed, accelerates methane fermentation of the solid bed, and captures methane (renewable energy) for captive use to reduce global warming. The innovative system consisted of a solid bed reactor packed with simulated solid waste at a density of 160 kg/m 3 and operated with recirculation of the percolated culture (bioleachate) through the bed. A rapid onset of solids hydrolysis, acidification, denitrification and hydrogen gas formation was observed under these operating conditions. However, these fermentative reactions stopped at a total fatty acids concentration of 13,000 mg/l (as acetic) at pH 5, with a reactor head-gas composition of 75 percent carbon dioxide, 20 percent nitrogen, 2 percent hydrogen and 3 percent methane. Fermentation inhibition was alleviated by moving the bioleachate to a separate methane-phase fermenter, and recycling methanogenic effluents at pH 7 to the solid bed. Coupled operation of the two reactors promoted methanogenic conversion of the high-solids feed. (author)

  16. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  17. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  18. Determination of phenyl-N-methylcarbamates and their hydrolysis products in water, using solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atrache, L.L.; Sabbah, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, eight phenyl-N-methylcarbamates (PNMCs) were considered. Reversed-phase LC was set up for UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection mode. Gradient elution was used, and the mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water. UV-vis was performed at 220 nm. The method was tested with different reversed-phase columns. Comparison between chromatographic parameters: retention time (t R ), resolution (R S ), and selectivity (α) was established. Hydrolysis kinetics of three of the PNMCs were reported. The major hydrolysis products were determined by LC-UV, and the effect of pH on hydrolysis was also studied. Also, chromatographic separation of a mixture of PNMCs and four of their hydrolysis products was carried out. The preconcentration of 12 studied solutes was realized by solid-phase extraction. C18 extraction cartridges of 1 g were used to extract solutes from a 100 mL volume of tap and surface water spiked at 10 μg/L. The recoveries were, respectively, between 68-86% and 62-83% with relative a standard deviation of less than 11%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged, respectively, from 1-4 μg/L and from 4-10 μg/L. Since standard UV detection does not provide adequate selectivity for water samples, an electrospray (ES)-MS instrument equipped with a triple quadrupole mass filter was used. MS data acquisition was performed by a time-scheduled, selected-ion monitoring (SIM) program. Limits of quantitation gave values between 0.1-0.5 μg/L. (author)

  19. Preparation and quantification of the total phenolic products in Citrus fruit using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Honglian; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Shu, Yisong; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Dong, Yunzhuo; Ning, Zhangchi; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-10-01

    Citrus fruit is an important health-promoting food that is rich in dietary phenolic metabolites. Traditional Chinese medicines, such as Zhishi and Zhiqiao, come from young and immature fruits of Citrus cultivars. The preparation of diversified bioactive phenolic products and establishment of the corresponding quality control methodology are challenging and necessary. In the current study, four types of solid-phase extraction sorbents for the enrichment and clean-up of the phenolic matrix were evaluated. A solid-phase extraction column coated with Strata-X was finally used in the procedure. Twenty phenolic compounds were selected to evaluate the extraction performances of the sorbents using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained with R 2 more than 0.9996 for all analytes with LODs of 0.04-1.012 μg/g. Intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were less than 3%, and the recovery was equal to or higher than 90.02%. Compared to non-solid-phase extraction process, the content of total phenolic products was elevated 35.55-68.48% with solid-phase extraction. Finally, the developed and validated method was successfully applied to the discrimination of Zhishi samples from different species as well as Zhishi and Zhiqiao samples in different development stages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Solid-phase equilibria on Pluto's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sugata P.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2018-03-01

    Pluto's surface is covered by volatile ices that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Multicomponent phase equilibria may be calculated using a thermodynamic equation of state and, without additional assumptions, result in methane-rich and nitrogen-rich solid phases. The former is formed at temperature range between the atmospheric pressure-dependent sublimation and condensation points, while the latter is formed at temperatures lower than the sublimation point. The results, calculated for the observed 11 μbar atmospheric pressure and composition, are consistent with recent work derived from observations by New Horizons.

  1. Offline solid-phase extraction for preconcentration of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental water and their simultaneous determination using the reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Archana; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-09-01

    The present study reports a precise and simple offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of five representative and commonly present pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), a new class of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment. The target list of analytes including ciprofloxacin, acetaminophen, caffeine benzophenone and irgasan were separated by a simple HPLC method. The column used was a reversed-phase C18 column, and the mobile phase was 1 % acetic acid and methanol (20:80 v/v) under isocratic conditions, at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The analytes were separated and detected within 15 min using the photodiode array detector (PDA). The linearity of the calibration curves were obtained with correlation coefficients 0.98-0.99.The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy and ruggedness demonstrated the reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity of the developed method. Prior to the analysis, the SPE was performed using a C18 cartridge to preconcentrate the targeted analytes from the environmental water samples. The developed method was applied to evaluate and fingerprint PPCPs in sewage collected from a residential engineering college campus, polluted water bodies such as Nag river and Pili river and the influent and effluent samples from a sewage treatment plant (STP) situated at Nagpur city, in the peak summer season. This method is useful for estimation of pollutants present in microquantities in the surface water bodies and treated sewage as compared to nanolevel pollutants detected by mass spectrometry (MS) detectors.

  2. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  3. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  4. Elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is and will continue to be a uniquely powerful tool for the study of elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids. The paper examines a few recent experiments on molecular crystals, superionic materials, paramagnetic scattering and phase transitions to see what experimental features made these experiments possible, and hence to make suggestions about future needs. It is concluded that new instruments will extend the scope of neutron scattering studies to new excitations, that there is a need for higher resolution, particularly for phase transition studies, and that it will be important to use intensity information, discrimination against unwanted inelastic processes and polarization analysis to reliably measure the excitations in new materials. (author)

  5. Solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials, generally based on acrylic or methacrylic monomers, that are polymerized in the presence of a specific target molecule called the 'template' and capable of rebinding selectively to this target molecule. They have the potential to be low-cost and robust alternatives to biomolecules such as antibodies and receptors. When prepared by traditional synthetic methods (i.e., with free template in solution), their usefulness has been limited by high binding site heterogeneity, the presence of residual template and the fact that the production methods are complex and difficult to standardize. To overcome some of these limitations, we developed a method for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) using an innovative solid-phase approach, which relies on the covalent immobilization of the template molecules onto the surface of a solid support (glass beads). The obtained nanoMIPs are virtually free of template and demonstrate high affinity for the target molecule (e.g., melamine and trypsin in our published work). Because of an affinity separation step performed on the solid phase after polymerization, poor binders and unproductive polymer are removed, so the final product has more uniform binding characteristics. The overall protocol, starting from the immobilization of the template onto the solid phase and including the purification and characterization of the nanoparticles, takes up to 1 week.

  6. Determination of Glyphosate, its Degradation Product Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate, in Water by Isotope Dilution and Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Lee, Edward A.; Hinshaw, Gary H.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey method (0-2141-09) presented is approved for the determination of glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water. It was was validated to demonstrate the method detection levels (MDL), compare isotope dilution to standard addition, and evaluate method and compound stability. The original method USGS analytical method 0-2136-01 was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitation by standard addition. Lower method detection levels and increased specificity were achieved in the modified method, 0-2141-09, by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The use of isotope dilution for glyphosate and AMPA and pseudo isotope dilution of glufosinate in place of standard addition was evaluated. Stable-isotope labeled AMPA and glyphosate were used as the isotope dilution standards. In addition, the stability of glyphosate and AMPA was studied in raw filtered and derivatized water samples. The stable-isotope labeled glyphosate and AMPA standards were added to each water sample and the samples then derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. After derivatization, samples were concentrated using automated online solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by elution in-line with the LC mobile phase; the compounds separated and then were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. The deprotonated derivatized parent molecule and two daughter-ion transition pairs were identified and optimized for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and the glyphosate and AMPA stable-isotope labeled internal standards. Quantitative comparison between standard addition and isotope dilution was conducted using 473 samples analyzed between April 2004 and June 2006. The mean percent difference and relative standard deviation between the two quantitation methods was 7.6 plus or minus 6.30 (n = 179), AMPA 9.6 plus or minus 8

  7. Density-functional theory for fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Atul S; Singh, Yashwant

    2017-03-01

    We develop a theory to describe solid-solid phase transitions. The density functional formalism of classical statistical mechanics is used to find an exact expression for the difference in the grand thermodynamic potentials of the two coexisting phases. The expression involves both the symmetry conserving and the symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function. The theory is used to calculate phase diagram of systems of soft spheres interacting via inverse power potentials u(r)=ε(σ/r)^{n}, where parameter n measures softness of the potential. We find that for 1/nfcc) structure while for 1/n≥0.154 the body-centred-cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The bcc structure transforms into the fcc structure upon increasing the density. The calculated phase diagram is in good agreement with the one found from molecular simulations.

  8. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of Al, Mg, Ca, Fe, S in solid phase of magnesite technology of combustion product desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymola, R.; Hora, V.; Spitzer, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Solid phase samples of magnesite technology were moulded into pellets or melted into the shape of a glass disk. MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , S, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 were determined in the samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence intensities were measured with an SRS 200 sequential X-ray spectrometer and the measured data were evaluated using a linked-up PDP 11/04 computer. The reproducibility of MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 and S determinations was very good; higher measurement accuracy was achieved for moulded samples. The specificity of determinations was checked by a comparative chemical analysis. (E.J.). 8 tabs., 5 refs

  10. Preparation and characterization of a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Peng; Gu Xiaohua; Cheng Bowen; Wang Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Here we reported a two-step procedure for preparing a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material. Firstly, a copolymer monomer containing a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG) phase change unit and a vinyl unit was synthesized via the modification of hydrogen group of MPEG. Secondly, by copolymerization of the copolymer monomer and phenyl ethylene, a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material was prepared. The composition, structure and properties of the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, DSC, WAXD, and POM, respectively. The results show that the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material possesses of excellent crystal properties and high phase change enthalpy.

  11. Fluorine incorporation during Si solid phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impellizzeri, G.; Mirabella, S.; Romano, L.; Napolitani, E.; Carnera, A.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Priolo, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the F incorporation and segregation in preamorphized Si during solid phase epitaxy (SPE) at different temperatures and for several implanted-F energies and fluences. The Si samples were amorphized to a depth of 550 nm by implanting Si at liquid nitrogen temperature and then enriched with F at different energies (65-150 keV) and fluences (0.07-5 x 10 14 F/cm 2 ). Subsequently, the samples were regrown by SPE at different temperatures: 580, 700 and 800 deg. C. We have found that the amount of F incorporated after SPE strongly depends on the SPE temperature and on the energy and fluence of the implanted-F, opening the possibility to tailor the F profile during SPE

  12. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  13. SOLID-PHASE PEPTIDE SYNTHESIS OF ISOTOCIN WITH AMIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOLID-PHASE PEPTIDE SYNTHESIS OF ISOTOCIN WITH AMIDE OF ASPARAGINE PROTECTED WITH 1-TETRALINYL. TRIFLUOROMETHANESULPHONIC ACID (TFMSA) DEPROTECTION, CLEAVAGE AND AIR OXIDATION OF MERCAPTO GROUPS TO DISULPHIDE.

  14. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Applied Science, 3Police Forensic Science Center 10, Yala 95000, 4Natural ... Purpose: To develop a solid phase extraction (SPE) method that utilizes reverse-phase high.

  15. Automated Solid-Phase Radiofluorination Using Polymer-Supported Phosphazenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiessen, Bente; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    of [18F]FDG. The combination of compact form factor, simplicity of [18F]F− recovery and processing, and column reusability can make solid phase radiofluorination an attractive radiochemistry platform for the emerging dose-on-demand instruments for bedside production of PET radiotracers.......The polymer supported phosphazene bases PS-P2tBu and the novel PS-P2PEG allowed for efficient extraction of [18F]F− from proton irradiated [18O]H2O and subsequent radiofluorination of a broad range of substrates directly on the resin. The highest radiochemical yields were obtained with aliphatic...

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of selected herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, J.L.; Thurman, E.M.; Scribner, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the extraction and analysis of eight herbicides and five degradation products using solid-phase extraction from natural water samples followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. This method was developed for dimethenamid; flufenacet; fluometuron and its degradation products, demethylfluometuron (DMFM), 3-(trifluromethyl)phenylurea (TFMPU), 3-(trifluromethyl)-aniline (TFMA); molinate; norflurazon and its degradation product, demethylnorflurazon; pendamethalin; the degradation product of prometryn, deisopropylprometryn; propanil; and trifluralin. The eight herbicides are used primarily in the southern United States where cotton, rice, and soybeans are produced. The exceptions are dimethenamid and flufenacet, which are used on corn in the Midwest. Water samples received by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas, are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then passed through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica (C-18) to extract the compounds. The herbicides and their degradation products are removed from the column by ethyl acetate elution. The eluate is evaporated under nitrogen, and components then are separated, identified, and quantified by injecting an aliquot of the concentrated extract into a high-resolution, fused-silica capillary column of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer under selected-ion mode. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L for all compounds with the exception of TFMPU, which has a method detection limit of 0.32 ?g/L. The mean absolute recovery is 107 percent. This method for the determination of herbicides and their degradation products is valuable for acquiring information about water quality and compound fate and transport in water.

  17. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-08

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid-phase extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Hu, Yumin; Huang, Ke; Yin, Shi'an; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2009-07-24

    In this work, solid-phase extraction (SPE) trapping performance of lutein and beta-carotene, which were used as the model molecules of carotenoids, was investigated. The absorption, elution, and enrichment of carotenoids on SPE cartridges with four different sorbents, i.e. C(30), C(18), diol, and silica, were compared respectively with the help of frontal analysis technique. The high retentions of both lutein and beta-carotene were achieved on the C(18) and C(30) cartridges. The diol and silica cartridges only had good retention for lutein. The optimized SPE method for sample pretreatment for the carotenoids analysis was obtained after the investigation of trapping performance. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of biological sample, i.e. serum and human breast milk. The recovery, accuracy, and precision of SPE method comparing with those of traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method for the sample pretreatment for the analysis of carotenoids owned a number of advantages such as rapid, no chloroform used, and accurate versus LLE.

  19. Investigation into process of solid-phase synthesis of calcium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiev, A.A.; Krasnenko, T.I.; Slobodin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of solid-phase synthesis of calcium vanadates by Toubandt method, measuring electric conductivity and Ca 45 and V 48 radioactive indicators are investigated. It is shown that reaction diffusion during calcium vanadates production from oxides is ensured by calcium and oxygen ions or calcium ions and electrons through the product layer, as to oxygen - through the gas phase

  20. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  1. Role of nanoparticles in analytical solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is commonly used to measure the free concentration of fairly hydrophobic substances in aqueous media on the basis of their partitioning between sample solution and a solid phase. Here we study the role of nanoparticles that may sorb the analyte in the sample

  2. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Improvement of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide Analysis in Meats and Meat Products by HPLC and LC-MS/MS with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Asako; Yamajima, Yukiko; Uematsu, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    A method for nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAA) analysis in meats was developed. NA and NAA were extracted from meats or meat products with metaphosphate aqueous solution. The extract was cleaned up with an Oasis MCX cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 2% acetic acid (v/v) and acetic acid-methanol solution. NA and NAA were eluted with ammonia-methanol solution. NA and NAA in the eluate were chromatographed on a Scherzo SM-C18 (3.0×150 mm, 3.0 μm) column with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid-acetonitrile (97 : 3) as a mobile phase and were monitored at 261 nm. Quantification was performed by LC and LC-MS/MS. Calibration curves showed high linearity (correlation coefficient>0.998) between 1-25 μg/mL for LC and LC-MS/MS. Recoveries were 84-108% (CV≦5.8%) by HPLC and 79-105% (CV≦9.0%) by LC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for NA was 0.005-0.01 g/kg and that for NAA was 0.01-0.02 g/kg.

  4. Solid-solid phase transitions in Fe nanowires induced by axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    By means of classical molecular-dynamics simulations we investigate the solid-solid phase transition from a bcc to a close-packed crystal structure in cylindrical iron nanowires, induced by axial strain. The interatomic potential employed has been shown to be capable of describing the martensite-austenite phase transition in iron. We study the stress versus strain curves for different temperatures and show that for a range of temperatures it is possible to induce a solid-solid phase transition by axial strain before the elasticity is lost; these transition temperatures are below the bulk transition temperature. The two phases have different (non-linear) elastic behavior: the bcc phase softens, while the close-packed phase stiffens with temperature. We also consider the reversibility of the transformation in the elastic regimes, and the role of the strain rate on the critical strain necessary for phase transition.

  5. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  6. The role of solid-solid phase transitions in mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenda, Manuele; Dal Zilio, Luca

    2017-01-01

    With changing pressure and temperature conditions, downwelling and upwelling crustal and mantle rocks experience several solid-solid phase transitions that affect the mineral physical properties owing to structural changes in the crystal lattice and to the absorption or release of latent heat. Variations in density, together with phase boundary deflections related to the non-null reaction slope, generate important buoyancy forces that add to those induced by thermal perturbations. These buoyancy forces are proportional to the density contrast between reactant and product phases, their volume fraction, the slope and the sharpness of the reaction, and affect the style of mantle convection depending on the system composition. In a homogeneous pyrolitic mantle there is little tendency for layered convection, with slabs that may stagnate in the transition zone because of the positive buoyancy caused by post-spinel and post-ilmenite reactions, and hot plumes that are accelerated by phase transformations in the 600-800 km depth range. By adding chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities as on Earth, phase transitions introduce bulk rock and volatiles filtering effects that generate a compositional gradient throughout the entire mantle, with levels that are enriched or depleted in one or more of these components. Phase transitions often lead to mechanical softening or hardening that can be related to a different intrinsic mechanical behaviour and volatile solubility of the product phases, the heating or cooling associated with latent heat, and the transient grain size reduction in downwelling cold material. Strong variations in viscosity would enhance layered mantle convection, causing slab stagnation and plume ponding. At low temperatures and relatively dry conditions, reactions are delayed due to the sluggish kinetics, so that non-equilibrium phase aggregates can persist metastably beyond the equilibrium phase boundary. Survival of low-density metastable olivine

  7. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  8. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  9. Extraction products of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-04

    A method is described for the manufacture of liquid products from pressure extracts of solid carbon-containing material by destructive hydrogenation, characterized in that the pressure extracts are hydrogenated in admixture with products of high-molecular weight formed during a previous destructive hydrogenation of another part of the same or other pressure extract and which has been collected as liquid without extensive cooling of the hot products of the reaction, which came from the reaction chamber where the previous destructive hydrogenation took place.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Alan; Strahan, Alex P.; Thurman, Earl Michael

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using 0.5 gram graphitized carbon as the solid-phase extraction media followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three different water-sample matrices?ground-water, surface-water, and reagent-water samples?spiked at 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter were analyzed. Method detection limits ranged from 0.013 to 0.168 microgram per liter for the parent triazine herbicides and the triazine degradation products. Method detection limits ranged from 0.042 to 0.141 microgram per liter for the parent phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the triazine compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples generally ranged from 72.6 to 117.5 percent, but deethyl-cyanazine amide was recovered at 140.5 percent. Mean recoveries from the ground- and surface-water samples for the phenylurea compounds spiked at the 2.0-micrograms-per-liter level ranged from 82.1 to 114.4 percent. The mean recoveries for the phenylureas spiked at 0.2-microgram per liter were less consistent, ranging from 87.0 to 136.0 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 87.0 to 109.5 percent for all compounds. The triazine compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter, with the exception of deethylcyanazine and deethylcyanazine amide which are reported at 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The phenylurea compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit was 2

  11. Development and Application of Solid Phase Extraction Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    for the addition of organic modifier, sample load volume, conditioning solvent, washing solvent and ... Solid phase extraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water samples, ... such as polymeric, activated carbon or silica modified with.

  12. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC. Tropical Journal of ..... food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment ... food dyes in soft drinks containing natural pigments by.

  13. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the solid. For a proper description of the crystallization process the equilibrium approach is insufficient and a kinetic approach is actually required. In this work, we show that during slow crystallizatio...

  14. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas PWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  15. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas BWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  16. The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...

  17. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  18. Solid-Phase S-Alkylation Promoted by Molecular Sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Monfregola, Luca; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-11-20

    A solid-phase S-alkylation procedure to introduce chemical modification on the cysteine sulfhydryl group of a peptidyl resin is reported. The reaction is promoted by activated molecular sieves and consists of a solid-solid process, since both the catalyst and the substrate are in a solid state. The procedure was revealed to be efficient and versatile, particularly when used in combination with the solution S-alkylation approach, allowing for the introduction of different molecular diversities on the same peptide molecule.

  19. Solid-solid phase change thermal storage application to space-suit battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.; Morehouse, Jeffrey H.

    1989-01-01

    High cell temperatures are seen as the primary safety problem in the Li-BCX space battery. The exothermic heat from the chemical reactions could raise the temperature of the lithium electrode above the melting temperature. Also, high temperature causes the cell efficiency to decrease. Solid-solid phase-change materials were used as a thermal storage medium to lower this battery cell temperature by utilizing their phase-change (latent heat storage) characteristics. Solid-solid phase-change materials focused on in this study are neopentyl glycol and pentaglycerine. Because of their favorable phase-change characteristics, these materials appear appropriate for space-suit battery pack use. The results of testing various materials are reported as thermophysical property values, and the space-suit battery operating temperature is discussed in terms of these property results.

  20. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of

  1. Mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation based on solid medium' dry weight variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2018-04-21

    In this work, mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been done based on the variation in the dry weight of solid medium. This method was previously used for mathematical modeling of enzyme production; however, the model should be modified to predict the production of a volatile compound like ethanol. The experimental results of bioethanol production from the mixture of carob pods and wheat bran by Zymomonas mobilis in SSF were used for the model validation. Exponential and logistic kinetic models were used for modeling the growth of microorganism. In both cases, the model predictions matched well with the experimental results during the exponential growth phase, indicating the good ability of solid medium weight variation method for modeling a volatile product formation in solid-state fermentation. In addition, using logistic model, better predictions were obtained.

  2. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  3. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the

  4. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  5. Phase diagram of a Lennard-Jones solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.; Ree, T.; Ree, F.H.

    1993-01-01

    A phase diagram of a Lennard-Jones solid at kT/ε≥0.8 is constructed by our recent perturbation theory. It shows the stability of the face-centered-cubic phase except within a small pressure and temperature domain, where the hexagonal-close packed phase may occur. The theory predicts anharmonic contributions to the Helmholtz free energy (important to the crystal stability) in good agreement with Monte Carlo data

  6. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  7. Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions: Formation of monoclinic phase with enhanced piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase morphology and corresponding piezoelectricity in ferroelectric solid solutions were studied by using a phenomenological theory with the consideration of phase coexistence. Results have shown that phases with similar energy potentials can coexist, thus induce interfacial stresses which lead to the formation of adaptive monoclinic phases. A new tetragonal-like monoclinic to rhombohedral-like monoclinic phase transition was predicted in a shear stress state. Enhanced piezoelectricity can be achieved by manipulating the stress state close to a critical stress field. Phase coexistence is universal in ferroelectric solid solutions and may provide a way to optimize ultra-fine structures and proper stress states to achieve ultrahigh piezoelectricity.

  8. The Use of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME to Assess the Quality and Stability of Fruit Products: An Example Using Red Mombin Pulp (Spondias purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katieli Martins Todisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP or laminated packages (LP. The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99, at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products.

  9. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  10. Linkage of biomolecules to solid phases for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Topics covered by this lecture include a brief review of the principal methods of linkage of biomolecules to solid phase matrices. Copies of the key self explanatory slides are presented as figures together with reprints of two publications by the author dealing with a preferred chemistry for the covalent linkage of antibodies to hydroxyl and amino functional groups and the effects of changes in solid phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry on the performance of a typical excess reagent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

  11. Solid-phase synthesis of complex and pharmacologically interesting heterocycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2009-01-01

    Efficient routes for the creation of heterocycles continue to be one of the primary goals for solid-phase synthesis. Recent advances in this field rely most notably on transition-metal-catalysis and N-acyliminium chemistry to mediate a range of cyclization processes for the generation of compounds...... with significant structural complexity and diversity. This review describes some of the most systematic solid-phase approaches that are potentially suited for pharmaceutical applications, that is, the methods described are useful for the synthesis of compound collections, and exhibit tunable stereochemistry...

  12. Characterisation of aqueous waste produced during the clandestine production of amphetamine following the Leuckart route utilising solid-phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Frank M; Hulshof, Janneke W; Rößler, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf; Pütz, Michael

    2018-04-18

    Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland were characterised to increase knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification. Conductivity, pH, density, ionic load, and organic compounds were determined using different analytical methods. Conductivity values ranged from 1 to over 200 mS/cm, pH values from 0 to 14, and densities from 1.0 to 1.3 g/cm 3 . A capillary electrophoresis method with contactless conductivity detection (CE-C 4 D) was developed and validated to quantify chloride, sulphate, formate, ammonium, and sodium ions which were the most abundant ions in the investigated waste samples. A solid-phase extraction sample preparation was used prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to determine the organic compounds. Using the characterisation data of the known samples, it was possible to assign 16 seized clandestine waste samples from an amphetamine production to the corresponding synthesis step. The data also allowed us to draw conclusions about the synthesis procedure and used chemicals. The presented data and methods could support forensic investigations by showing the probative value of synthesis waste when investigating the illegal production of amphetamine. It can also act as starting point to develop new approaches to tackle the problem of clandestine waste dumping. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Systems for production of polymer encapsuated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Baker, Sarah E.; Duoss, Eric B.; Maiti, Amitesh; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Vericella, John J.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Hardin, IV, James O.; Floyd, III, William C.

    2017-11-21

    Encapsulated solids are made by first encapsulating precursor materials in a polymer shell. The precursors are some combination of solids, liquids, gases, and/or gels. The precursors are then transformed into solids by emplacement of the capsule in an environment where gas or fluid transport into or out of the polymer shell causes transformation into solids.

  14. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  15. Using reweighting and free energy surface interpolation to predict solid-solid phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Natalie P.; Dybeck, Eric C.; Shirts, Michael R.

    2018-04-01

    Many physical properties of small organic molecules are dependent on the current crystal packing, or polymorph, of the material, including bioavailability of pharmaceuticals, optical properties of dyes, and charge transport properties of semiconductors. Predicting the most stable crystalline form at a given temperature and pressure requires determining the crystalline form with the lowest relative Gibbs free energy. Effective computational prediction of the most stable polymorph could save significant time and effort in the design of novel molecular crystalline solids or predict their behavior under new conditions. In this study, we introduce a new approach using multistate reweighting to address the problem of determining solid-solid phase diagrams and apply this approach to the phase diagram of solid benzene. For this approach, we perform sampling at a selection of temperature and pressure states in the region of interest. We use multistate reweighting methods to determine the reduced free energy differences between T and P states within a given polymorph and validate this phase diagram using several measures. The relative stability of the polymorphs at the sampled states can be successively interpolated from these points to create the phase diagram by combining these reduced free energy differences with a reference Gibbs free energy difference between polymorphs. The method also allows for straightforward estimation of uncertainties in the phase boundary. We also find that when properly implemented, multistate reweighting for phase diagram determination scales better with the size of the system than previously estimated.

  16. Novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid-solid phase micro-extraction membrane for the preconcentration of aniline as degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-Qing; Du, Chun-Hui; Ma, Xu-Ming; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-07-04

    A novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid membrane containing a hydrophilic bromide anion and a hydrophobic carbonyl group was synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) systems using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (BVImBr) and the methylmethacrylate (MMA) as monomers. The prepared amphiphilic ploy-methylmethacrylate-1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (MMA-BVImBr) was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and an infrared spectrum instrument. The results of solid-phase micro-extraction membrane (SPMM) experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of membrane was about 0.76μgμg(-1) for aniline. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of trace aniline, as a degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication, was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The calibration curve showed a good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 10.0μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9998. The limit of quantification was 0.5μgL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 90.6% to 96.1%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 8.3% and 10.9%. The developed SPMM-LC-MS/MS method was used successfully for preconcentration of trace aniline produced during the sonication of Orange G solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Simple Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in River Sediment by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alejandro; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2017-10-01

    A simple method was developed using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of eight different pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (ibuprofen, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, naproxen, triclosan, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A and estrone) in river sediment. UAE conditions were optimized involving extraction variables such as extraction solvent, extraction time, sample amount, extraction temperature, pH and salt addition. A 100 mg of sediment was extracted by optimized UAE process using 7 mL deionized water (pH 3) + 1% methanol as solvent, room temperature and 1 min extraction at 70% of amplitude. A 5 mL of supernatant was subsequently extracted by SPME; the extracted analytes were derivatized on fiber in head-space mode with N-methyl-N-(tertbutyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and then analyzed by GC-MS. The developed method was evaluated by testing: precision (CV 0.98), recoveries (56-108%), limits of detection (simple and environmentally friendly, and provides straightforward analyses of these trace organic pollutants in sediment samples. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Quantitative determination of acidic hydrolysis products of Chemical Weapons Convention related chemicals from aqueous and soil samples using ion-pair solid-phase extraction and in situ butylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Anagoni, Suresh; Kauser, Asma; Maity, Gopal; Upadhyayula, Vijayasarathi V R

    2018-02-01

    Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3-quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization method in which the analytes are butylated followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric identification of the analytes from aqueous and soil samples was carried out. The extraction was carried out using ion-pair solid-phase extraction with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the electron ionization mode. Various parameters such as optimum concentration of the ion-pair reagent, pH of the sample, extraction solvent, and type of ion-pair reagent were optimized. The method was validated for various parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, and limit of detection and quantification. The method was observed to be linear from 1 to 1000 ng/mL range in selected ion monitoring mode. The extraction recoveries were in the range of 85-110% from the matrixes with the limit of quantification for alkyl phosphonic acids at 1 ng/mL, thiodiglycolic acid at 20 ng/mL, and benzilic acid at 50 ng/mL with intra- and interday precisions below 15%. The developed method was applied for the samples prepared in the scenario of challenging inspection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Minoru

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Energy Harvesting, Electrode Processes and the Partitioning and Speciation of Solid Phase Iron and Sulfur in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reimers, Clare

    2003-01-01

    .... Sediment, pore water and electrode surface analyses indicated that electricity product ion is coupled to the oxidation of dissolved and solid-phase forms of reduced sulfur supplied from the sediments...

  1. Determination of 24 personal care products in fish bile using hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Lv, Yin-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-05-25

    Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments owing to the continuous discharge of domestic wastewater from highly urbanized regions. These PCPs can be adsorbed by fish and thereafter usually enter the bile of the fish through biliary excretion. In this study, a sensitive method based on a combination of hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) purification was developed to simultaneously extract and detect 24 PCPs, namely, 16 biocides, 4 synthetic musks, and 4 benzotriazoles, from fish bile. Hybrid precipitation on solid phase extraction (SPE) tubes was applied to remove phospholipids and proteins, and a d-SPE procedure was used for further purification. The extraction solvents for the hybrid precipitation/SPE tubes and d-SPE materials were optimized. The method performance for bile samples both with and without enzyme hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase/aryl-sulfatase were validated. The 24 PCPs in fish bile were spiked with standard concentrations of 10 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 200 ng/mL to evaluate recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120% for 16, 16, 22, and 21 analytes with hydrolysis, respectively, and 70-120% for 14, 15, 23, and 23 analytes without hydrolysis, respectively. The quantification limits for target PCPs were in the range 0.26-7.38 ng/mL [excluding musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK)] and 0.20-9.48 ng/mL (excluding MX and MK) for bile samples with and without enzyme hydrolysis, respectively. After enzyme hydrolysis, 12 PCPs were detected in bile from fish collected from the Yangtze River, with a maximum detected concentration of 460 ng/mL, for triclosan (TCS). The hydrolysis reaction indicated that high percentages of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites for some PCPs, i.e. four parabens and TCS, existed in the bile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  3. Solid-phase oligosaccharide and glycopeptide synthesis using glycosynthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    and the prospect of automatability. Here, we report the first application of glycosynthases to solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis by use of the 51 kDa serine and glycine mutants of Agrobacterium sp. beta-glucosidase, Abg E358S and E358G. Acceptors were linked to PEGA resin through a backbone amide linker (BAL...

  4. Zirconium determination in rocks by solid-phase spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Lebedeva, G.G.; Agapova, G.F.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of zirconium in rocks by solid-phase spectrophotometry using AV-17x8-Cl anion exchanger modified with xylenol orange. Relative standard deviation at the level of (2-4.9)x10 -3 % ZrO 2 was about 0.245

  5. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, T. M.; LaMothe, M. E.; Lachut, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  6. Phase segregation in cerium-lanthanum solid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belliere, V.; Joorst, G; Stephan, O; de Groot, FMF; Weckhuysen, BM

    2006-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy ( STEM) reveals that the La enrichment at the surface of cerium-lanthanum solid solutions is an averaged effect and that segregation occurs in a mixed oxide phase. This separation occurs within a

  7. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a

  8. Development of headspace solid-phase microextraction method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method was developed as a preliminary investigation using univariate approach for the analysis of 14 multiclass pesticide residues in fruits and vegetable samples. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry parameters (desorption temperature and time, column flow ...

  9. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBe Ag and anti-HBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froesner, G G; Deinhardt, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie; Sugg, U [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Transfusionswesen mit Blutbank; Haas, H [Staedtische Krankenanstalten Esslingen (Germany, F.R.). Zentrallabor; Overby, R L [Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (USA)

    1978-04-01

    A highly sensitive solid phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of hepatitis Be-antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe is described. Iodine-125 labelled anti-HBe is used as a tracer. The assay is about 500 foLd more sensitive than immunodiffusion.

  10. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to alpha,beta-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2...

  11. A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.; Sokolowski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A new solid phase radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine was evaluated over a longer time under clinical routine conditions and compared with an established test system. The results show up that the T 4 values are precise, reliable and reproducible, the is incomplicate to handle and well suitable for semiautomatic pipetting systems. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  12. Copper welding in solid phase; Svarka medi v tverdoj faze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avagyan, V Sh

    1993-12-31

    An analysis of the publications on the technology of diffusion welding of copper in solid phase is carried out. The aspects of diffusion welding of copper with silver, aluminium, nickels, chromium, titanium, stainless steel and refractory metals are considered 35 refs.

  13. Solid phase separation technique for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure, and article of manufacture for carrying out that procedure, are disclosed herein. The solid phase separation technique utilized in the radioimmunoassay of this invention utilizes a test tube, the internal surface of which has been coated with two antibody layers

  14. Solid-Phase Extraction Combined with High Performance Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Solid-phase extraction method was employed for the extraction of the estrogen from milk and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for the determination of estrogen. Results: Optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column at a ...

  15. Solid-phase cloning for high-throughput assembly of single and multiple DNA parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Magnus; Edfors, Fredrik; Sivertsson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    We describe solid-phase cloning (SPC) for high-throughput assembly of expression plasmids. Our method allows PCR products to be put directly into a liquid handler for capture and purification using paramagnetic streptavidin beads and conversion into constructs by subsequent cloning reactions. We ...

  16. Microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi four-component condensations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    An 18-member library was constructed from 2 isocyanides, 3 aldehydes and 3 carboxylic acids via microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi reactions on TentaGel S RAM. Products of high purity were obtained in moderate to excellent yields after reaction times of 5 minutes or less (irradiation at 60W). (C...

  17. Immunochemical cross-reactivity between albumin and solid-phase adsorbed histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Nolte, H; Søndergaard, I

    1990-01-01

    For production of an antibody against histamine, this was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. To test the antiserum, an immunoradiometric assay was developed comprising solid-phase bound histamine, antisera and radiolabelled protein A. Titration and inhibition...

  18. The Chemistry, Crystallization, Physicochemical Properties and Behavior of Sodium Aluminosilicate Solid Phases: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosencrance, S.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of sodium aluminosilicate solids phases precipitated from NO 2 /NO 3 -free and NO 2 /NO 3 -rich liquors has been performed. Four sodium aluminosilicate precipitation products were formed. These are (1) X-ray/electron diffraction-indifferent amorphous phase; (2) crystalline zeolite A; (3)NO 2 /NO 3 -rich crystalline sodalite; and (4) NO 2 /NO 3 -rich crystalline cancrinite phase. Characterization of the physicochemical properties for these phases has been performed under conditions simulating Westinghouse Savannah River Company liquid waste processing

  19. Axial dispersion of gas and solid phases in a gas—solid packed column at trickle flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, A.W.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    Axial dispersion of gas and solid phases in a gas—solid packed column at trickle flow, a promising new countercurrent operation, was evaluated using residence time distribution (RTD) experiments. The column was packed with dumped Pall rings, the gas phase was air at ambient conditions and the solid

  20. C18, C8, and perfluoro reversed phases on diamond for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Wiest, Landon A; Herbert, David; Biggs, Katherine N; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael A; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-04-17

    In spite of advances in solid-phase extraction (SPE) technology there are certain disadvantages to current SPE silica-based, column packings. The pH range over which extraction can occur is limited and each column is generally only used once. New diamond-based reversed SPE phases (C(18), C(8), and perfluorinated) were developed in our laboratories. Studies were done which show that these phases do not have the same limitations as traditional silica-based stationary phases. The synthesis and properties of these diamond-based phases are presented, and the stability, percent recovery, and column capacity are given for the C(18) phase.

  1. Conditioning of radioactive ash residue in a wave of solid-phase exothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlakova, G.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Tivanskij, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The abilities for utilization of exothermic reaction heat in solid phase for conditioning the ash residue produced as a result of solid radioactive waste burning are analyzed. It is shown that the process of ash residue making monolithic with obtaining the glass-like finish product containing 50-60 mass % of ash residue which meets the requirements for solidified radioactive wastes may be realized without energy supplying from external heat sources. The conditioning is realized in a special crucible furnace-container designed not only for the process conducting but also for subsequent storage or disposal of the finish product [ru

  2. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  3. Mechanism and microstructures in Ga2O3 pseudomartensitic solid phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sheng-Cai; Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2016-07-21

    Solid-to-solid phase transition, although widely exploited in making new materials, challenges persistently our current theory for predicting its complex kinetics and rich microstructures in transition. The Ga2O3α-β phase transformation represents such a common but complex reaction with marked change in cation coordination and crystal density, which was known to yield either amorphous or crystalline products under different synthetic conditions. Here we, via recently developed stochastic surface walking (SSW) method, resolve for the first time the atomistic mechanism of Ga2O3α-β phase transformation, the pathway of which turns out to be the first reaction pathway ever determined for a new type of diffusionless solid phase transition, namely, pseudomartensitic phase transition. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of product crystallinity is caused by its multi-step, multi-type reaction pathway, which bypasses seven intermediate phases and involves all types of elementary solid phase transition steps, i.e. the shearing of O layers (martensitic type), the local diffusion of Ga atoms (reconstructive type) and the significant lattice dilation (dilation type). While the migration of Ga atoms across the close-packed O layers is the rate-determining step and yields "amorphous-like" high energy intermediates, the shearing of O layers contributes to the formation of coherent biphase junctions and the presence of a crystallographic orientation relation, (001)α//(201[combining macron])β + [120]α//[13[combining macron]2]β. Our experiment using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy further confirms the theoretical predictions on the atomic structure of biphase junction and the formation of (201[combining macron])β twin, and also discovers the late occurrence of lattice expansion in the nascent β phase that grows out from the parent α phase. By distinguishing pseudomartensitic transition from other types of mechanisms, we propose general rules to predict the

  4. Liquid-phase and solid-phase radioimmunoassay with herpes simplex virus type 1 nucleocapsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricka, M.; Rajcani, J.; Libikova, H.; Sabo, A.; Foeldes, O.; Sadlon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid-phase radioimmunoassay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay are described using 125 I-labelled or immobilized nucleocapsids (NC) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1. These techniques appeared sensitive and specific for quantitation of HSV-NC antigens and corresponding antibodies. (author)

  5. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  6. Ultra-preconcentration and determination of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products in different water matrices by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Rita; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are one of the most important classes of emerging contaminants. The potential of ecological and environmental impacts associated with PPCPs are of particular concern because they continually penetrate the aquatic environment. This work describes a novel ultra-preconcentration technique for the rapid and highly sensitive analysis of selected PPCPs in environmental water matrices at ppt levels. Selected PPCPs were rapidly extracted and concentrated from large volumes of aqueous solutions (500 and 250mL) by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME) and then analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS. Experimental parameters were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best SPE-DLLME efficiency and higher enrichment factors. The best results were obtained using the ternary mixture acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane 3:3:4, v/v/v, both as SPE eluent and DLLME extractant/dispersive mixture. DLLME aqueous solution (5% NaCl, 10mgL(-1) TBAB) was also modified to improve the extraction efficiency of more hydrophilic PPCPs. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for most of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSD drinking, sea, river and wastewater). Method detection and quantification limits were at very low ppt levels and below 1 and 3ngL(-1), respectively, for 15 of selected PPCPs. The proposed analytical procedure offers numerous advantages such as the simplicity of operation, rapidity, a high enrichment factor and sensitivity. So it is suitable for monitoring and studies of occurrence of PPCPs in different environmental compartments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the study of the solid-solid phase transformation of TlBiTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrissafis, K.; Vinga, E.S.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Polychroniadis, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    The narrow gap semiconductor TlBiTe 2 undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation from the rhombohedral (D 3d ) to the cubic (O h ) phase. The present paper deals with the study of this phase transformation combining the results of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). It has been found that during heating the transformation is an athermal activated process, which can be described only by a combination of more than one processes while during cooling it exhibits an expectable thermal hysteresis due to the volume difference. The results of the kinetic analysis combined with the electron microscopy findings, supported also by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy ones, lead to the conclusion that TlBiTe 2 undergoes a multiple-step, displacive, martensitic type transformation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Studies in Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Personal Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-06-01

    By the early 1970s it had became apparent that the solid phase synthesis of ribonuclease A could not be generalized. Consequently, virtually every aspect of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was reexamined and improved during the decade of the 1970s. The sensitive detection and elimination of possible side reactions (amino acid insertion, N{sup {alpha}}-trifluoroacetylation, N{sup {alpha}{var_epsilon}}-alkylation) was examined. The quantitation of coupling efficiency in SPPS as a function of chain length was studied. A new and improved support for SPPS, the 'PAM-resin', was prepared and evaluated. These and many other studies from the Merrifield laboratory and elsewhere increased the general acceptance of SPPS leading to the 1984 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Bruce Merrifield.

  9. Semi-automated microwave assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg

    with microwaves for SPPS has gained in popularity as it for many syntheses has provided significant improvement in terms of speed, purity, and yields, maybe especially in the synthesis of long and "difficult" peptides. Thus, precise microwave heating has emerged as one new parameter for SPPS, in addition...... to coupling reagents, resins, solvents etc. We have previously reported on microwave heating to promote a range of solid-phase reactions in SPPS. Here we present a new, flexible semi-automated instrument for the application of precise microwave heating in solid-phase synthesis. It combines a slightly modified...... Biotage Initiator microwave instrument, which is available in many laboratories, with a modified semi-automated peptide synthesizer from MultiSynTech. A custom-made reaction vessel is placed permanently in the microwave oven, thus the reactor does not have to be moved between steps. Mixing is achieved...

  10. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  11. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S

    2017-06-01

    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH 4 kgVS fed -1 for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Binding of properdin to solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, A; Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1998-01-01

    The capacity of serum to support deposition of C3, properdin and factor B was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using solid-phase immune complexes (IC) for activation of complement. Deposition of C3 and properdin occurred in fairly dilute normal human serum (NHS), but factor B uptake...... fixed to IC was the principal ligand for properdin in the assay. The findings could have biological implications relating to complement-mediated modification of immune complexes in disease....

  13. Solid-phase reductive amination for glycomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kuan; Zhu, He; Xiao, Cong; Liu, Ding; Edmunds, Garrett; Wen, Liuqing; Ma, Cheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Peng George

    2017-04-15

    Reductive amination is an indispensable method for glycomic analysis, as it tremendously facilitates glycan characterization and quantification by coupling functional tags at the reducing ends of glycans. However, traditional in-solution derivatization based approach for the preparation of reductively aminated glycans is quite tedious and time-consuming. Here, a simpler and more efficient strategy termed solid-phase reductive amination was investigated. The general concept underlying this new approach is to streamline glycan extraction, derivatization, and purification on non-porous graphitized carbon sorbents. Neutral and sialylated standard glycans were utilized to test the feasibility of the solid-phase method. As results, almost complete labeling of those glycans with four common labels of aniline, 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB), 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) and 2-amino-N-(2-aminoethyl)-benzamide (AEAB) was obtained, and negligible desialylation occurred during sample preparation. The labeled glycans derived from glycoproteins showed excellent reproducibility in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Direct comparisons based on fluorescent absorbance and relative quantification using isotopic labeling demonstrated that the solid-phase strategy enabled 20-30% increase in sample recovery. In short, the solid-phase strategy is simple, reproducible, efficient, and sensitive for glycan analysis. This method was also successfully applied for N-glycan profiling of HEK 293 cells with MALDI-TOF MS, showing its attractive application in the high-throughput analysis of mammalian glycome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Chromatography, solid-phase extraction, and capillary electrochromatography with MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Blanka; Horvai, George

    2012-01-01

    Most analytical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers are based on their selective adsorption properties towards the template or its analogs. In chromatography, solid phase extraction and electrochromatography this adsorption is a dynamic process. The dynamic process combined with the nonlinear adsorption isotherm of the polymers and other factors results in complications which have limited the success of imprinted polymers. This chapter explains these problems and shows many examples of successful applications overcoming or avoiding the problems.

  15. [Amylase production by Aureobasidium pullulans in liquid and solid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, P B; Forchiassin, F; Segovia de Huergo, M B

    1997-01-01

    Amylase production by a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated in the laboratory was evaluated in liquid media (complex and synthetic) and in solid medium (wheat bran). There was an inhibitory effect in amylase production or amylase secretion by glucose. Asparagine was the best nitrogen source for amylase production (4-6 g/l). Only chlamidospores and melanin but not, amylase activity, were obtained with ammonium sulfate. Amylase production in solid culture was higher than the production obtained in the liquid media assayed. Optimum initial moisture content in solid culture ranged between 57 and 74%. No difference was observed in amylase production between solid media inoculated with cells grown in liquid or solid media.

  16. Using Flory-Huggins phase diagrams as a pre-formulation tool for the production of amorphous solid dispersions: a comparison between hot-melt extrusion and spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiwei; Caron, Vincent; Jones, David S; Healy, Anne-Marie; Andrews, Gavin P

    2014-02-01

    Amorphous drug forms provide a useful method of enhancing the dissolution performance of poorly water-soluble drugs; however, they are inherently unstable. In this article, we have used Flory-Huggins theory to predict drug solubility and miscibility in polymer candidates, and used this information to compare spray drying and melt extrusion as processes to manufacture solid dispersions. Solid dispersions were prepared using two different techniques (hot-melt extrusion and spray drying), and characterised using a combination of thermal (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction methods. Spray drying permitted generation of amorphous solid dispersions across a wider drug concentration than melt extrusion. Melt extrusion provided sufficient energy for more intimate mixing to be achieved between drug and polymer, which may improve physical stability. It was also confirmed that stronger drug-polymer interactions might be generated through melt extrusion. Remixing and dissolution of recrystallised felodipine into the polymeric matrices did occur during the modulated differential scanning calorimetry analysis, but the complementary information provided from FTIR confirms that all freshly prepared spray-dried samples were amorphous with the existence of amorphous drug domains within high drug-loaded samples. Using temperature-composition phase diagrams to probe the relevance of temperature and drug composition in specific polymer candidates facilitates polymer screening for the purpose of formulating solid dispersions. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. [Determination of patulin in fruits and jam by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Weichao; Shen, Shuchang; Wang, Chao

    2017-11-08

    With magnesium silicate, silica gel, diatomite and calcium sulfate as raw materials, a new solid phase extraction column was prepared through a series of processes of grinding to ethanol homogenate, drying and packing into polypropylene tube. The sample was hydrolyzed by pectinase, extracted by acetonitrile and purified by solid phase extraction. The target compounds were separated on a C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), using 0.8% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran solution as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 276 nm. The effect of pectinase on extraction yield and purification effect of solid-phase extraction column were investigated. The optimum chromatographic conditions were selected. There was a good linear relationship between the peak heights and the mass concentrations of patulin in the range of 0.1 to 10 mg/L with the correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 1. The limit of detection for this method was 10.22 μg/kg. The spiked recoveries of samples were 86.58%-94.84% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.45%-2.28%. The results indicated that the self-made solid phase extraction column had a good purification efficiency, and the UPLC had a high separation efficiency. The method is simple, accurate and of great significance for the quality and safety control of fruit products.

  18. Ultrarapid mutation detection by multiplex, solid-phase chemical cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, G.; Saad, S.; Giannelli, F.; Green, P.M. [Guy`s & St. Thomas`s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    The chemical cleavage of mismatches in heteroduplexes formed by probe and test DNA detects and locates any sequence change in long DNA segments ({approximately}1.8 kb), and its efficiency has been well tested in the analysis of both average (e.g., coagulation factor IX) and large, complex genes (e.g., coagulation factor VIII and dystrophin). In the latter application RT/PCR products allow the examination of all essential sequences of the gene in a minimum number of reactions. We use two specific chemical reactants (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) and piperidine cleavage of the above procedure to develop a very fast mutation screening method. This is based on: (1) 5{prime} or internal fluorescent labeling to allow concurrent screening of three to four DNA fragments and (2) solid-phase chemistry to use a microliter format and reduce the time required for the procedure, from amplification of sequence to gel loading inclusive, to one person-working-day. We test the two variations of the method, one entailing 5{prime} labeling of probe DNA and the other uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA, by detecting 114 known hemophilia B (coagulation factor IX) mutations and by analyzing 129 new patients. Uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA prior to formation of the heteroduplexes leads to almost twofold redundancy in the ability to detect mutations. Alternatively, the latter procedure may offer very efficient though less than 100% screening for sequence changes with only hydroxylamine. The full method with two chemical reactions (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) should allow one person to screen with virtually 100% accuracy more than 300 kb of sequence in three ABI 373 gels in 1 day. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Solid phase radioimmunoassays for human C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, B.; Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two new, rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassays for human C-reactive protein (CRP) have been established using antiserum coupled to magnetizable cellulose particles, which facilitate phase separation. A single antibody method, using solid phase anti-CRP, provides a sensitivity of 50 μg/l with a 1-h incubation time and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 10%. A double antibody method, using fluid phase rabbit anti-CRP serum and solid phase sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum, provides a sensitivity of 3 μg/l with an overnight incubation and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 10%. Among 468 sera from normal adult volunteer blood donors the median CRP concentration was 800 μg/l, interquartile range 340-1700 μg/l and range 70-29,000 μg/l. Ninety percent of samples contained less than 3 mg/l and 99% less than 10 mg/l. Low levels (14-650 μg/l) of CRP were detected both in amniotic fluids and in cerebrospinal fluids. (Auth.)

  20. The mechanism of reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2007-01-01

    The preservation of morphology (pseudomorphism) and crystal structure during the transformation of one solid phase to another is regularly used as a criterion for a solid-state mechanism, even when there is a fluid phase present. However, a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism also preserves the morphology and transfers crystallographic information from parent to product by epitaxial nucleation. The generation of porosity in the product phase is a necessary condition for such a mechanism as it allows fluid to maintain contact with a reaction interface which moves through the parent phase from the original surface. We propose that interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a general mechanism for reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase. - Graphical abstract: A single crystal of KBr is transformed to a porous single crystal of KCl by immersion in saturated KCl solution. The image shows partial transformation of a crystal of KBr (core) to KCl (porous, milky rim) by an interface coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. The external dimensions and crystallographic orientation of the original crystal are preserved, while a reaction interface moves through the crystal

  1. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  3. New Solid Phases for Estimation of Hormones by Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, R.R.; Ayoub, H.S.M.; Shafik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The efforts in this study were initiated to develop and validate new solid phases for estimation of hormones by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The study argued the successful application of different hydroxy apatites (HAP) as new solid phases for estimation of Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) in human serum. Hydroxy apatites have different alkali earth elements were successfully prepared by a well-controlled co-precipitation method with stoichiometric ratio value 1.67. The synthesized barium and calcium hydroxy apatites were characterized using XRD and Ftir and data clarified the preparation of pure structures of both BaHAP and CaHAP with no evidence on presence of other additional phases. The prepared solid phases were applied in various radioimmunoassay systems for separation of bound and free antigens of AFP, TSH and LH hormones. The preparation of radiolabeled tracer for these antigens was carried out using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. The influence of different parameters on the activation and coupling of the used apatite particles with the polyclonal antibodies was systematically investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The assay was reproducible, specific and sensitive enough for regular estimation of the studied hormones. The intra-and inter-assay variation were satisfactory and also the recovery and dilution tests indicated an accurate calibration. The reliability of these apatite particles had been validated by comparing the results that obtained by using commercial kits. The results finally authenticates that hydroxyapatite particles would have a great potential to address the emerging challenge of accurate quantitation in laboratory medical application

  4. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  5. Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay for Measuring Serum Prolactin Using Antibody Coupled Magnetizable Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to prepare solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents. Development as well as optimization and validation of RIA system using solid phase magnetic particles for the measurement of prolactin (PRL) in human serum are described. The production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out by immunizing three Balb/C mice intraperitoneal through primary injection and two booster doses. Low density magnetizable cellulose iron oxide particles have been used to couple covalently to the IgG fraction of polyclonal anti-prolactin using carbonyl diimidazole activation method and applied as a solid phase separating agent for RIA of serum prolactin. Preparation of 125 I-PRL tracer was prepared using lactoperoxidase method and it was purified by gel filtration using sephadex G-100. The PRL standards were prepared using a highly purified PRL antigen with assay buffer as standard matrix. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a low cost, simple, sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of prolactin based on magnetizable solid phase separation. These magnetic particles retain their characteristics during storage for 6 months at 4 degree C. In conclusion, this assay could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for pituitary dysfunction and possible reproductive disability.

  6. Double antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroth, S.; Niskanen, A.

    1977-01-01

    A double antibody solid-phase (DASP) radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin A is described. In the assay the antigen-antibody complex is precipitated by anti-rabbit serum which is adsorbed onto a solid carrier (cellulose). The method is sensitive to 200 pg of enterotoxin. It was possible to detect a little as 2-5 ng of enterotoxin A/ml food extract from minced meat and sausage. Enterotoxins B and C were not found to inhibit the uptake of labled enterotoxin A at a level which might distort the results of the enterotoxin A assay. The DASP technique is sensitive, rapid, and easy to perform and thus compares favorably with other radioimmunoassays for enterotoxin. (orig.) [de

  7. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  8. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  9. Solid phase crystallisation of HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modreanu, M.; Sancho-Parramon, J.; O'Connell, D.; Justice, J.; Durand, O.; Servet, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the solid phase crystallisation of carbon-free HfO 2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD). After deposition, the HfO 2 films were annealed in N 2 ambient for 3 h at 350, 550 and 750 deg. C. Several characterisation techniques including X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for the physical characterisation of as-deposited and annealed HfO 2 . XRD has revealed that the as-deposited HfO 2 film is in an amorphous-like state with only traces of crystalline phase and that the annealed films are in a highly crystalline state. These results are in good agreement with the SE results showing an increase of refractive index by increasing the annealing temperature. XRR results show a significant density gradient over the as-deposited film thickness, which is characteristic of the PIAD method. The AFM measurements show that the HfO 2 layers have a smooth surface even after annealing at 750 deg. C. The present study demonstrates that the solid phase crystallisation of HfO 2 PIAD thin films starts at a temperature as low as 550 deg. C

  10. Visual monitoring of solid-phase extraction using chromogenic fluorous synthesis supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Christopher

    2012-03-12

    Reductive aminations and further transformations of an azo dye and fluorous tagged aldehyde are described. The intensely colored 2,4-dialkoxybenzyl protected amines undergo Fmoc-based peptide coupling, Suzuki reactions, and sulfonamide formation with product isolation facilitated by visual monitoring of fluorous solid phase extraction. Target compounds are released from the supports in high yields and purities by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).

  11. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  12. Solid-phase vibrational redox reactions in coordinated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostikova, G.P.; Korol'kov, D.V.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of multicomponent oxides (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x , etc.), incorporating different valency forms of each of two (or more) different elements have been compared with the properties of the known chemical systems, where vibrational (periodic) redox-reactions are realized a fortiori. The essence of the new theoretical concept suggested consists in the following: high-T c superconductivity of the complex oxides and similar compounds originates from vibrational redox reaction proceeding in solid phase and involving different valency atoms of every element

  13. Solid phase micro-extraction in environmental atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Ping; Wei Lifan; Tan Yun

    2002-01-01

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) is an advanced technique of sample pretreatment in environmental atmosphere analysis, i.e., a sampling method of extracting volatile organic compounds from environmental gas. According to the primary survey on the theory and application of SPME, a suitable extraction tip, i.e., a coated fused silica fiber, is selected to construct a SPME apparatus. This SPME apparatus is used to extract volatile organic compounds from environmental atmosphere and a qualitative detection is conducted in gas chromatography-mass spectrometer system. Good experimental results are obtained

  14. Sensitive and fast mutation detection by solid phase chemical cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Lotte; Justesen, Just; Kruse, Torben A

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a solid phase chemical cleavage method (SpCCM) for screening large DNA fragments for mutations. All reactions can be carried out in microtiterwells from the first amplification of the patient (or test) DNA through the search for mutations. The reaction time is significantly...... reduced compared to the conventional chemical cleavage method (CCM), and even by using a uniformly labelled probe, the exact position and nature of the mutation can be revealed. The SpCCM is suitable for automatization using a workstation to carry out the reactions and a fluorescent detection-based DNA...

  15. Solid-Phase Reactions of Iminium Ions: Cyclized Peptide Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanyuan

    formation of N,N’-aminals by nucleophilic attack of the peptide backbone is reversible under strongly acidic conditions and the N,N’-aminal is likely to be the kinetic product of many INCIC reactions. In addition, the N,N’-aminals are stable in the absence of acid but could be converted to the THIQ...... derivatives in solution phase under acid conditions in the presence of an active C-nucleophile in the side chain. The high yielding nature of the aminal formation is confirmed by solution phase synthesis. The introduced azide and alkyne residues in the side chain of N,N’-aminal products were further......BB may undergo auto-oxidation to quinazoline-2,4-diones in the absence of a suitable nucleophile on the side chain or backbone of the peptide (Chapter 4). The structure is confirmed by comparison with products obtained from solution-phase synthesis under the same conditions, one of which was confirmed...

  16. Prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field: interaction solid phase/fluid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingarro, E.

    1995-01-01

    The prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field is presented in the present report. The study begins with the analysis of solid phases stability: solubility of storage waste: UO 2 and solubility of radionuclides the redox and sorption-desorption conditions are the last aspects studied to predict the transport phenomena

  17. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  18. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  19. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  20. Solid phase 125I labelled radioimmunoassay for spermidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shimin

    1991-01-01

    Using 125 I labelled monoclonal antibody against spermidine and solid phase antigen spermidine-bovine serum albumin conjugate, the radioimmunoassay for spermidine was developed. The sensitivity of this method was about 8 times higher than that of liquid phase 14 C labelled spermidine radioimmunoassay, reaching detection limit of 10 ng/ml (0.5 ng/tube). The working range of standard curve was 0-10 5 ng/ml. The new method was suitable for spermidine measurements in saliva, stomach fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. The coefficients of variation (CV) of within and between-assay were 4% and 13%, respectively. Preliminary clinical measurements showed that the spermidine levels in saliva of cancer patients and in cerebrospinal fluid of leukemia patients were significantly elevated

  1. The Gaseous Phase as a Probe of the Astrophysical Solid Phase Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Isnard, Robin; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire, E-mail: gregoire.danger@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR-CNRS 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France)

    2017-09-10

    In support of space missions and spectroscopic observations, laboratory experiments on ice analogs enable a better understanding of organic matter formation and evolution in astrophysical environments. Herein, we report the monitoring of the gaseous phase of processed astrophysical ice analogs to determine if the gaseous phase can elucidate the chemical mechanisms and dominant reaction pathways occurring in the solid ice subjected to vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) irradiation at low temperature and subsequently warmed. Simple (CH{sub 3}OH), binary (H{sub 2}O:CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}), and ternary ice analogs (H{sub 2}O:CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}) were VUV-processed and warmed. The evolution of volatile organic compounds in the gaseous phase shows a direct link between their relative abundances in the gaseous phase, and the radical and thermal chemistries modifying the initial ice composition. The correlation between the gaseous and solid phases may play a crucial role in deciphering the organic composition of astrophysical objects. As an example, possible solid compositions of the comet Lovejoy are suggested using the abundances of organics in its comae.

  2. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  3. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  4. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  5. Radioimmuoassay study of antidigitoxin antibodies in liquid phase and after coupling on a solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignon, A.; German, A.; Scherrmann, J.M.; Bourdon, R.

    1983-01-01

    Antidigitoxin antibodies prepared by immunizing rabbits with a digitoxin-bovine serum albumin conjugate have been studied by radioimmunoassay in the native serum (homogeneous phase antibodies) and after coupling on glass beads (heterogeneous phase antibodies). Homogeneous phase antibodies present a satisfactory titer and affinity constant and react very specifically with digitoxin. Fixation of antibodies on a solid phase induce a loss of their immunoreactivity as it is showed by modification of the inhibition curves, by a greater sensitivity to the chemical structure of the tracer and by a decrease of the affinity constant. Reactionnal kinetic and sensitivity to the incubation temperature are not modified. Heterogeneous phase antibodies present a greater stability. Both antibodies types can be used for a digitoxin radioimmunoassay [fr

  6. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  7. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Smac Peptidomimetics Incorporating Triazoloprolines and Biarylalanines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Ishoey, Mette; Petersen, Mette T.

    2011-01-01

    by deactivating proteolytic caspases. The Smac protein has an antagonistic effect on IAPs, thus providing structural clues for the synthesis of new pro-apoptotic compounds. Herein, we report a solid-phase approach for the synthesis of Smac-derived tetrapeptide libraries. On the basis of a common (N......-Me)AVPF sequence, peptides incorporating triazoloprolines and biarylalanines were synthesized by means of Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition and Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. Solid-phase procedures were optimized to high efficiency, thus accessing all products in excellent crude purities...... and yields (both typically above 90%). The peptides were subjected to biological evaluation in a live/dead cellular assay which revealed that structural decorations on the AVPF sequence indeed are highly important for cytotoxicity toward HeLa cells....

  9. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  10. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Page, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The graphite waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance to other phase II studies. (UK)

  11. Solid-solid synthesis and structural phase transition process of SmF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi-Cao; Guo, Xing-Min

    2018-04-01

    Mazes of contradictory conclusions have been obtained by previous researches about structural phase transition process of SmF3. In this paper, the single crystals of SmF3 (hexagonal and orthorhombic) were prepared by solid-solid synthesis, which have shown gradual changes in crystal growth modes with the increase temperature and holding time. Furthermore, we propose the phase transition process of in SmF3. Hexagonal symmetry of SmF3 (space group Pnma) was prepared firstly by heating Sm2O3 and NH4HF2 over 40 min at 270 °C. And then orthorhombic symmetry of SmF3 (space group P63mc) was obtained by heating hexagonal symmetry over 10 h at 650 °C. The reaction of SmF3 (hexagonal) = SmF3 (orthorhombic) is extremely sluggish at a low temperature (less than 650 °C), which was seen as a Mixed Grown Region.

  12. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Page, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies, which consist of fuel pins held inside a graphite sleeve by means of stainless steel support grids and braces. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  13. Solid-Phase Synthesis of RNA Analogs Containing Phosphorodithioate Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2017-09-18

    The oligoribonucleotide phosphorodithioate (PS2-RNA) modification uses two sulfur atoms to replace two non-bridging oxygen atoms at an internucleotide phosphorodiester backbone linkage. Like a natural phosphodiester RNA backbone linkage, a PS2-modified backbone linkage is achiral at phosphorus. PS2-RNAs are highly stable to nucleases and several in vitro assays have demonstrated their biological activity. For example, PS2-RNAs silenced mRNA in vitro and bound to protein targets in the form of PS2-aptamers (thioaptamers). Thus, the interest in and promise of PS2-RNAs has drawn attention to synthesizing, isolating, and characterizing these compounds. RNA-thiophosphoramidite monomers are commercially available from AM Biotechnologies and this unit describes an effective methodology for solid-phase synthesis, deprotection, and purification of RNAs having PS2 internucleotide linkages. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Use of solid-phase salt catalysts in furfural preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, E.F.; Shkut, V.M.; Kebich, M.S.; Kuznetsova, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The manufacture of furfural (I) from tanning waste, birch sawdust, or corncobs at 220-230 degrees in the presence of 2.0-3.0% double superphosphate, ammophos, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, or NH/sub 4/Cl was evaluated. Most of I is formed within 40 minutes in the presence of NH4NO3 or NH4Cl, and within 55 minutes in the presence of double superphosphate. The highest yield of I was obtained in the presence of NH4NO3 and/or NH4Cl. The solid-phase catalyst caused a little degradation of lignocellulose.

  15. Amino-modified diamond as a durable stationary phase for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Yang, Li; Lee, Milton L; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael A; Linford, Matthew R

    2008-08-15

    We report the formation of a highly stable amino stationary phase on diamond and demonstrate its use in solid-phase extraction (SPE). This process consists of spontaneous and self-limiting adsorption of polyallylamine (PAAm) from aqueous solution onto oxidized diamond. Thermal curing under reduced pressure or chemical cross-linking with a diepoxide was shown to fix the polymer to the particles. The resulting adsorbents are stable under even extreme pH conditions (from at least pH 0-14) and significantly more stable than a commercially available amino SPE adsorbent. Coated diamond particles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Model silicon surfaces were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and wetting. Solid-phase extraction was demonstrated using cholesterol, hexadecanedioic acid, and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine as analytes, and these results were compared to those obtained with commercially available materials. Breakthrough curves indicate that, as expected, porous diamond particles have higher analyte capacity than nonporous solid particles.

  16. Comparative solution and solid-phase glycosylations toward a disaccharide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agoston, K.; Kröger, Lars; Agoston, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study on solution-phase and solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis was performed. A 16-member library containing all regioisomers of Glc-Glc, Glc-Gal, Gal-Glc, and Gal-Gal disaccharides was synthesized both in solution and on solid phase. The various reaction conditions for different...

  17. Production of organic-semiconductor nanostructures by solid-phase wetting. Guided growth, molecular data storage, and local coadsorption; Erzeugung organischer Halbleiter-Nanostrukturen durch Festphasenbenetzung. Gefuehrtes Wachstum, molekulare Datenspeicherung und lokale Koadsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trixler, Frank

    2007-09-10

    The present thesis treats questions from the interdisciplinary field of nanosciences by studies by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and computer chemistry. The main part of this thesis is the presentation of a novel structure formation process on molecular level. The presented model describes this process by nanocrystals, which show - suspended in a matrix - in contact with a crystal surface a behaviour, which is in spite present solid-state properties (crystalline order) similar to the behaviour of liquid drops in the wetting of surfaces. Starting from this the technological potential of this new process is made accessible.: 1.) Adsorbate structures of a series of organic semiconductors are described for the first time. By this it is additionally shown that by supramolecular solid-phase wetting unsolvable semiconductor molecules can be very simply and under environmental conditions orderedly adsorbed. 2.) An explanation model is developed, by which the hitherto not understandable molecular data storage by means of PTCDA molecules can be theoretically explained and extended to further molecules. 3.) The development of a nanofabrication concept is presented, which allows a local control of the growth of nanostructures. The advance against a classical molecule-for-molecule performed nanostructuration lies therein that by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope solely the information of growth directions is locally to be brought into the system, the actual formation of the structures however takes place by independently running and by this qualitatively and timely highly efficient growth processes. 4.) A procedure is presented, which allows a local adsorption of molecules to ordered layers within a layer of other molecules and by this makes possible the formation of heterogeneous adsorbate layers.

  18. Application of solid-phase microextraction in analytical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz

    2007-08-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a miniaturized and solvent-free sample preparation technique for chromatographic-spectrometric analysis by which the analytes are extracted from a gaseous or liquid sample by absorption in, or adsorption on, a thin polymer coating fixed to the solid surface of a fiber, inside an injection needle or inside a capillary. In this paper, the present state of practical performance and of applications of SPME to the analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and hair in clinical and forensic toxicology is reviewed. The commercial coatings for fibers or needles have not essentially changed for many years, but there are interesting laboratory developments, such as conductive polypyrrole coatings for electrochemically controlled SPME of anions or cations and coatings with restricted-access properties for direct extraction from whole blood or immunoaffinity SPME. In-tube SPME uses segments of commercial gas chromatography (GC) capillaries for highly efficient extraction by repeated aspiration-ejection cycles of the liquid sample. It can be easily automated in combination with liquid chromatography but, as it is very sensitive to capillary plugging, it requires completely homogeneous liquid samples. In contrast, fiber-based SPME has not yet been performed automatically in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. The headspace extractions on fibers or needles (solid-phase dynamic extraction) combined with GC methods are the most advantageous versions of SPME because of very pure extracts and the availability of automatic samplers. Surprisingly, substances with quite high boiling points, such as tricyclic antidepressants or phenothiazines, can be measured by headspace SPME from aqueous samples. The applicability and sensitivity of SPME was essentially extended by in-sample or on-fiber derivatization. The different modes of SPME were applied to analysis of solvents and inhalation narcotics, amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites

  19. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  20. Solid-phase Synthesis of Combinatorial 2,4-Disubstituted-1,3,5-Triazine via Amine Nucleophilic Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Won [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jungyeob [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Tae [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Jae Wook [University of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    In combinatorial chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a popular approach formass production of small molecules. Compared to solution-phase synthesis, it is easy to prepare and purify a large number of heterocyclic small molecules via solid-phase chemistry; the overall reaction time is decreased as well. 1,3,5-Triazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic scaffold that was shown to be a druggable scaffold in recent studies. These structures have been reported as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiretroviral compounds, as CDKs and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, as estrogen receptor modulators, and as inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. we designed and synthesized disubstituted triazine compounds as an analog of disubstituted pyrimidine compounds. These disubstituted triazine compounds possess a linear structure which may have biological activity similar to that of disubstituted pyrimidine. Here we report the solid-phase synthesis of disubstituted triazine compounds.

  1. Solid-phase Synthesis of Combinatorial 2,4-Disubstituted-1,3,5-Triazine via Amine Nucleophilic Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Won; Ham, Jungyeob; Chang, Young-Tae; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-01-01

    In combinatorial chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a popular approach formass production of small molecules. Compared to solution-phase synthesis, it is easy to prepare and purify a large number of heterocyclic small molecules via solid-phase chemistry; the overall reaction time is decreased as well. 1,3,5-Triazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic scaffold that was shown to be a druggable scaffold in recent studies. These structures have been reported as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiretroviral compounds, as CDKs and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, as estrogen receptor modulators, and as inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. we designed and synthesized disubstituted triazine compounds as an analog of disubstituted pyrimidine compounds. These disubstituted triazine compounds possess a linear structure which may have biological activity similar to that of disubstituted pyrimidine. Here we report the solid-phase synthesis of disubstituted triazine compounds

  2. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Cumming, I.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste occurs as the product of the process to remove carbon-14 from the THORP dissolver off-gas using a caustic scrubber. The carbon dioxide released during fuel dissolution is ultimately fixed as barium carbonate. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  3. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  4. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  5. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  6. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated that banana peel provided necessary nutrients for cell growth and cellulase synthesis. It can be used as a potential substrate for cellulase production by T. viride GIM 3.0010 under solid-state fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cellulase production using banana peel.

  7. Production, properties, and applications of hydrocolloid cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Amos

    2005-02-01

    Many common synthetic and edible materials are, in fact, cellular solids. When classifying the structure of cellular solids, a few variables, such as open vs. closed cells, flexible vs. brittle cell walls, cell-size distribution, cell-wall thickness, cell shape, the uniformity of the structure of the cellular solid and the different scales of length are taken into account. Compressive stress-strain relationships of most cellular solids can be easily identified according to their characteristic sigmoid shape, reflecting three deformation mechanisms: (i) elastic distortion under small strains, (ii) collapse and/or fracture of the cell walls, and (iii) densification. Various techniques are used to produce hydrocolloid (gum) cellular solids. The products of these include (i) sponges, obtained when the drying gel contains the occasionally produced gas bubbles; (ii) sponges produced by the immobilization of microorganisms; (iii) solid foams produced by drying foamed solutions or gels containing oils, and (iv) hydrocolloid sponges produced by enzymatic reactions. The porosity of the manufactured cellular solid is subject to change and depends on its composition and the processing technique. The porosity is controlled by a range of methods and the resulting surface structures can be investigated by microscopy and analyzed using fractal methods. Models used to describe stress-strain behaviors of hydrocolloid cellular solids as well as multilayered products and composites are discussed in detail in this manuscript. Hydrocolloid cellular solids have numerous purposes, simple and complex, ranging from dried texturized fruits to carriers of vitamins and other essential micronutrients. They can also be used to control the acoustic response of specific dry food products, and have a great potential for future use in countless different fields, from novel foods and packaging to medicine and medical care, daily commodities, farming and agriculture, and the environmental, chemical

  8. Solid-phase glycan isolation for glycomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most significant protein PTMs. The biological activities of proteins are dramatically changed by the glycans associated with them. Thus, structural analysis of the glycans of glycoproteins in complex biological or clinical samples is critical in correlation with the functions of glycans with diseases. Profiling of glycans by HPLC-MS is a commonly used technique in analyzing glycan structures and quantifying their relative abundance in different biological systems. Methods relied on MS require isolation of glycans from negligible salts and other contaminant ions since salts and ions may interfere with the glycans, resulting in poor glycan ionization. To accomplish those objectives, glycan isolation and clean-up methods including SPE, liquid-phase extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis have been developed. Traditionally, glycans are isolated from proteins or peptides using a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic columns: proteins and peptides remain on hydrophobic absorbent while glycans, salts, and other hydrophilic reagents are collected as flowthrough. The glycans in the flowthrough are then purified through graphite-activated carbon column by hydrophilic interaction LC. Yet, the drawback in these affinity-based approaches is nonspecific binding. As a result, chemical methods by hydrazide or oxime have been developed for solid-phase isolation of glycans with high specificity and yield. Combined with high-resolution MS, specific glycan isolation techniques provide tremendous potentials as useful tools for glycomics analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Diffusion relaxation times of nonequilibrium isolated small bodies and their solid phase ensembles to equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).

  10. Non-affine fields in solid-solid transformations: the structure and stability of a product droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arya; Sengupta, Surajit; Rao, Madan

    2014-01-08

    We describe the microstructure, morphology, and dynamics of growth of a droplet of martensite nucleating in a parent austenite during a solid-solid transformation, using a Landau theory written in terms of both conventional affine elastic deformations and non-affine deformations. Non-affineness, φ, serves as a source of strain incompatibility and screens long-ranged elastic interactions. It is produced wherever the local stress exceeds a threshold and anneals diffusively thereafter. Using a variational calculation, we find three types of stable solution (labeled I, II, and III) for the structure of the product droplet, depending on the stress threshold and the scaled mobilities of φ parallel and perpendicular to the parent-product interface. The profile of the non-affine field φ is different in these three solutions: I is characterized by a vanishingly small φ, II admits large values of φ localized in regions of high stress within the parent-product interface, and III is a structure in which φ completely wets the parent-product interface. The width l and size W of the twins follow the relation l is proportional to √W in solution I; this relation does not hold for II or III. We obtain a dynamical phase diagram featuring these solutions, and argue that they represent specific solid-state microstructures.

  11. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing 99m Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.

  13. Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing {sup 99m}Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.

  14. Microencapsulated Comb-Like Polymeric Solid-Solid Phase Change Materials via In-Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the thermal stability and permeability resistance, a comb-like polymer with crystallizable side chains was fabricated as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs inside the cores of microcapsules and nanocapsules prepared via in-situ polymerization. In this study, the effects on the surface morphology and microstructure of micro/nanocapsules caused by microencapsulating different types of core materials (i.e., n-hexadecane, ethyl hexadecanoate, hexadecyl acrylate and poly(hexadecyl acrylate were systematically studied via field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The confined crystallization behavior of comb-like polymer PCMs cores was investigated via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Comparing with low molecular organic PCMs cores, the thermal stability of PCMs microencapsulated comb-like polymer enhanced significantly, and the permeability resistance improved obviously as well. Based on these resultant analysis, the microencapsulated comb-like polymeric PCMs with excellent thermal stability and permeability resistance showed promising foreground in the field of organic solution spun, melt processing and organic coating.

  15. Phase stability in wear-induced supersaturated Al-Ti solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Yokoyama, K. [Dept. of Functional Machinery Mechanics Shinshu Univ., Ueda (Japan); Hosoda, H. [Precision and Intelligence Lab., Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Al-Ti supersaturated solid solutions were introduced by wear testing and the rapid quenching of an Al/Al{sub 3}Ti composite (part of an Al/Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material) that was fabricated using the centrifugal method. The phase stability of the supersaturated solid solution was studied through systematic annealing of the supersaturated solid solution. It was found that the Al-Ti supersaturated solid solution decomposed into Al and Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compound phases during the heat treatment. The Al-Ti supersaturated solid solutions fabricated were, therefore, not an equilibrium phase, and thus decomposed into the equilibrium phases during heat treatment. It was also found that heat treatment leads to a significant hardness increase for the Al-Ti supersaturated solid solution. Finally, it was concluded that formation of the wear-induced supersaturated solid solution layer was a result of severe plastic deformation. (orig.)

  16. Solid-phase thermolysis of hexachlororuthenates (4) of onium type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, Yu N; Maslov, E I; Ryabkova, T P; Lobadyuk, V I [Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1982-10-01

    Methods of thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electron absorption spectra and magnetic moment measurings were used to a study thermal solid-phase behaviour of onium hexachlororuthenates (4) of (AH)/sub 2/(RuCl/sub 6/) and (A'H/sub 2/)(RuCl/sub 6/) type, where A-benzimidazole (BAZ), pyridine (py), ammonia, A'-phenanthroline-ortho (o-phen), ethylenediamine (en). It was established that heating of solid (BAZH)/sub 2/(RuCl/sub 6/)x2H/sub 2/O and (o-phen H/sub 2/)(RuCl/sub 6/)xH/sub 2/O in 20-500 deg C range leads to separation of crystallization water and the following extraction of hydrogen chloride with formation of cis-(Ru(BAZ)/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/) and (Ru(o-phen)Cl/sub 4/). (pyH)/sub 2/(RuCl/sub 6/) heating causes initially the separation of two moles of hydrogen chloride with formation of cis-(Ru(py)/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/); further increase of temperature leads to reduction separation of chloride with formation of (Ru(py)/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/)/sub 2/ dimer. The mixture of ruthernium chlorides is prepared under conditions of isothermal heating of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/(RuCl/sub 6/) and (enH/sub 2/)(RuCl/sub 6/) compounds at temperatures close to the beginning of their decomposition. The separation of intermediate ruthenium compounds of diamine type with ammonia and ethylendiamine failed.

  17. Potential useful products from solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golueke, C G; Diaz, L F

    1991-10-01

    Wastes have been aptly defined as "items, i.e. resources, that have been discarded because their possessors no longer have an apparent use for them". Accordingly, "wastes" have a significance only in relation to the items and those who have discarded them. The discarded items now are resources awaiting reclamation. Reclamation usually involves either salvage or conversion--or in modern terminology, "reuse" or "recycling". Reclamation for reuse consists in refurbishing or other upgrading without significantly altering original form and composition. Examples of wastes amenable to reuse are containers (bottles, etc.), cartons and repairable tires. With "recycling" (i.e. conservation), the discarded items are processed such that they become raw material, i.e. resources in the manufacture of "new" products. The variety of processes is wide, ranging from simply physical (grinding) through thermal (melting, gasification, combustion), to biological (composting, biogasification, hydrolysis, microbial protein production). In the paper, reuse and recycling (conversion) are evaluated in terms of advantages and disadvantages (limitations) and their respective technologies are described and discussed in detail.

  18. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  19. Kinetic study of solid phase demineralization by weak acids in one-step enzymatic bio-refinery of shrimp cuticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Regis; Socol, Marius; Arhaliass, A.; Bruzac, Sandrine; Le Roux, Karine; Del Pino, J. Rodriguez; Berge, Jean-pascal; Kaas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We describe a one-step bio-refinery process for shrimp composites by-products. Its originality lies in a simple rapid (6 h) biotechnological cuticle fragmentation process that recovers all major compounds (chitins, peptides and minerals in particular calcium). The process consists of a controlled exogenous enzymatic proteolysis in a food-grade acidic medium allowing chitin purification (solid phase), and recovery of peptides and minerals (liquid phase). At a pH of between 3.5 and 4, protease ...

  20. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  1. IN SITU SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of 1-L samples. A 1-L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition.We have developed an on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-s

  2. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are required to verify that a target analyte has been found by comparison with the mass spectra of fragrance compounds in the NIST mass spectral library. A I -L sample usually provides insufficient analyte for full scan data acquisition. This paper describes an on-site extraction method developed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)- Las Vegas Nevada - for synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for a wide array of synthetic musks. Quantification of these compounds was achieved from the full-scan data directly, without the need to acquire SIM data. The detection limits obtained with this method are an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from liquid-liquid and other solid phase extraction methods. This method is highly reproducible, and recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% in spiked sewage treatment plant effluent. The high rate of sorbent-sample mass transfer eliminated the need for a methanolic activation step, which reduced extraction time, labor, and solvent use, More samples could be extracted in the field at lower cost. After swnple extraction, the light- weight cartridges ar

  3. Application of solid-phase antibodies to radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConway, M.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of polymeric microparticle, Dynospheres and reprecipitated acid-hydrolysed nylon 6/6, and two methods of activating these particles with either tresyl chloride or carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) prior to covalent linkage of antibodies were investigated with a view towards their respective adoption for the preparation of general solid-phase reagents for immunoassay applications. Activation of each particle and coupling of antibodies was rapid irrespective of the activator. CDI proved to be the activator of choice since it was cheap, less hazardous, more efficient and less pH dependent than tresyl chloride. Both types of microparticle remain buoyant during the RIA incubation periods and form stable pellets after centrifugation. In second antibody applications immobilisation of the first antibody occurs with a short incubation period of 30 min. Nylon microparticles have a higher antibody-coupling capacity and are the particles of choice in both first and second antibody applications. However, the nylon microparticles possess marginally higher non-specific binding characteristics. (Auth.)

  4. Solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon carbide: Ion fluence dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, I.-T.; Ishimaru, Manabu; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of radiation damage and impurity concentration on solid phase epitaxial growth of amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) as well as microstructures of recrystallized layer using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystals of 6H-SiC with (0001) orientation were irradiated with 150 keV Xe ions to fluences of 10 15 and 10 16 /cm 2 , followed by annealing at 890 deg. C. Full epitaxial recrystallization took place in a specimen implanted with 10 15 Xe ions, while retardation of recrystallization was observed in a specimen implanted with 10 16 /cm 2 Xe ions. Atomic pair-distribution function analyses and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results suggested that the retardation of recrystallization of the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample is attributed to the difference in amorphous structures between the 10 15 and 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted samples, i.e., more chemically disordered atomistic structure and higher Xe impurity concentration in the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample

  5. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  6. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  7. Complement fixation by solid phase immune complexes. Reduced capacity in SLE sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Jonsson, H; Sjöholm, A

    1988-01-01

    We describe an ELISA for assessment of complement function based on the capacity of serum to support fixation of complement components to solid phase immune complexes (IC). Microplates were coated with aggregated bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by rabbit anti-BSA IgG. The solid phase IC were...

  8. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.

    2004-01-01

    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formatio...

  9. Three-phase boundary length in solid-oxide fuel cells: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    A mathematical model to calculate the volume specific three-phase boundary length in the porous composite electrodes of solid-oxide fuel cell is presented. The model is exclusively based on geometrical considerations accounting for porosity, particle diameter, particle size distribution, and solids phase distribution. Results are presented for uniform particle size distribution as well as for non-uniform particle size distribution.

  10. Faults of solid-phase welding in titanium joints and their effect on strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushkin, B.A.; Redchits, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of the usage of thermal arc energy for the determination of the kinetics of solid-phase joint formation of the VT20 titanium alloy is found out experimentally. Positive action of diffusion annealing upon mechanical properties. of solid-phase joints is explained by the defect elimination

  11. Electrochemical characterisation of solid oxide cell electrodes for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Knibbe, Ruth; He, Zeming

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes and steam electrodes are designed and tested to develop improved solid oxide electrolysis cells for H2 production with the cell support on the oxygen electrode. The electrode performance is evaluated by impedance spectroscopy testing of symmetric cells at open circuit voltage (OCV...

  12. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  13. Separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W W

    1915-10-19

    A process is set forth for the separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials, in which the vapors produced from the carbonaceous material at higher temperatures and withdrawn into the separate vapor chamber are led in succession through the lower temperature vapors as continuously to deposit their condensible ingredients in the chamber by the action of the successive cooler vapors.

  14. Production of lignin peroxidase by Ganoderma leucidum using solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objectives of this study were to optimize the culture conditions for the production of lignin peroxidase by Ganoderma leucidum, economic utilization of waste corn cobs as inducers substrate by pollution free fermentation technology and to optimize the solid state fermentation (SSF) process for lignin peroxidase ...

  15. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  16. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At submerged cultivation of A. terreus 4 and A. terreus 20 on five different glucose and lactose based media the highest titer of lovastatin has been obtained on lactose based media, namely 276 mg/l and 236 mg/l, respectively. Five various types of bran have been tested as solid substrates for production of lovastatin in SSF ...

  17. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  18. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  19. Solid-state diffusion-controlled growth of the phases in the Au-Sn system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Varun A.; Kashyap, Sanjay; Kumar, Praveen; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Paul, Aloke

    2018-01-01

    The solid state diffusion-controlled growth of the phases is studied for the Au-Sn system in the range of room temperature to 200 °C using bulk and electroplated diffusion couples. The number of product phases in the interdiffusion zone decreases with the decrease in annealing temperature. These phases grow with significantly high rates even at the room temperature. The growth rate of the AuSn4 phase is observed to be higher in the case of electroplated diffusion couple because of the relatively small grains and hence high contribution of the grain boundary diffusion when compared to the bulk diffusion couple. The diffraction pattern analysis indicates the same equilibrium crystal structure of the phases in these two types of diffusion couples. The analysis in the AuSn4 phase relating the estimated tracer diffusion coefficients with grain size, crystal structure, the homologous temperature of experiments and the concept of the sublattice diffusion mechanism in the intermetallic compounds indicate that Au diffuses mainly via the grain boundaries, whereas Sn diffuses via both the grain boundaries and the lattice.

  20. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  1. Petrographic characterization of the solid products of coal- pitch coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Kybett, B.D.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Rahimi, P.; Price, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    Petrographic studies were conducted on four solid residues resulting from the hydrogenation process of 1) Forestburg sub- bituminous coal alone, 2) the coal with a non-coking solvent (anthracene oil), 3) pitch (Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits), and 4) a mixture of coal and pitch. The purpose was to determine the amounts of coal and pitch-derived solids in the residues. All the residues were produced under identical severe conditions of liquefaction to promote the formation of solids. The coal processed with anthracene oil gives a residue consisting mainly of isotropic huminitic solids. If the coal is hydrogenated under similar conditions but without a solvent, the predominant residual solids are anisotropic semicokes displaying coarse mosaic textures, which form from vitroplast. The residual products from the hydrogenated Cold Lake vacuum- bottom deposits are also dominantly anisotropic semicokes; these display coarse mosaics and flow textures, and form by the growth and coalescence of mesophase spherules. Both coal- and pitch-derived solids are identified in a residue produced by coprocessing the Forestburg coal with the pitch from the Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits. It is concluded that the huminite macerals in the coal generate the fine-grained, mosaic-textured semicokes, whereas the pitch produces the coarse mosaics and flow-textured semicokes.

  2. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  3. Production and Innovative Applications of Cryogenic Solid Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    For over two decades Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing cryogenic pellet injectors for fueling hot, magnetic fusion plasmas. Cryogenic solid pellets of all three hydrogen isotopes have been produced in a size range of 1- to 10-mm diameter and accelerated to speeds from <100 to ∼3000 m/s. The pellets have been formed discretely by cryocondensation in gun barrels and also by extrusion of cryogenic solids at mass flow rates up to ∼0.26 g/s and production rates up to ten pellets per second. The pellets traverse the hot plasma in a fraction of a millisecond and continuously ablate, providing fresh hydrogenic fuel to the interior of the plasma. From this initial application, uses of this technology have expanded to include (1) cryogenic xenon drops or solids for use as a debris-less target in a laser plasma source of X-rays for advanced lithography systems, (2) solid argon and carbon dioxide pellets for surface cleaning or decontamination, and (3) methane pellets in a liquid hydrogen bath for use as an innovative moderator of cold neutrons. Methods of production and acceleration/transport of these cryogenic solids will be described, and examples will be given of their use in prototype systems

  4. Phase transitions in solid Kr-CH4 solutions and rotational excitations in phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagatskii, M.I.; Mashchenko, D.A.; Dudkin, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The heat capacity C p of solid Kr-n CH 4 solutions with the CH 4 concentrations n=0.82, 0.86, 0.90 as well as solutions with n=0.90, 0.95 doped with 0.002 O 2 impurity has been investigated under equilibrium vapor pressure over the internal 1-24 K. The (T,n)-phase diagram was refined and the region of two-phase states was determined for Kr-n CH 4 solid solutions. The contribution of the rotational subsystem, C r ot, to the heat capacity of the solutions has been separated. Analysis of C r ot(T) at T 1 and E 2 between the tunnel levels of the A-, T- and A-, E--nuclear-spin species of CH 4 molecules in the orientationally ordered subsystem, and to determine the effective energy gaps E 1 between lowest levels of the A- and T- species. The relations τ(n) and E 1 (n) stem from changes of the effective potential field caused as the replacement of CH 4 molecules by Kr atoms at sites of the ordered sublattices. The effective gaps E L between a group of tunnel levels of the ground-state liberation state and the nearest group of excited levels of the liberation state of the ordered CH 4 molecules in the solutions with n=0.90 (E L =52 K) and 0.95 (E L =55 K) has been estimated

  5. Radiation Polymerization in the Solid Phase; Polymerisation radiochimique en phase solide; Radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya v tverdoj faze; Radiopolimerizacion en fase solida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, I. M.; Gol' danskij, V. I.; Enikolopov, N. S.; Terekhova, S. F.; Trofimova, G. M.

    1963-11-15

    The radiation polymerization of solid and frozen monomers has recently attracted a great deal of attention because of its theoretical and practical importance in chemical kinetics and radiation chemistry. The strict spacing of monomer units in a polymer brings about a sharp improvement in the physico-chemical properties without any change of chemicai composition. In the synthesis of stereo-regular polymers, the matrix principle is used, i.e. the monomer unit is strictly oriented spatially by the formation of a complex with a catalyst or some other compound. In the radiation polymerization of a number of monomers oriented in clathrate complexes of urea and thio-urea, for instance, crystal stereo-regular polymers were obtained. The simplest variation, however, is the orientation of a monomer in its own crystal lattice. Although many of the theoretical questions involved remain obscure, the technique is extremely promising. Thus, highly crystalline polyoxymethylene has already been obtained by the radiation polymerization of crystalline trioxane. Nevertheless, a more detailed theoretical investigation of the technique is required. For each separate monomer, the contribution to the general picture made by the different types of reaction taking place during irradiation and the subsequent fusion of the solid monomers (specific radiation reaction, post-polymerization and polymerization at phase transition points) needs clarification. Recent detailed research at the Institute of Chemical Physics, USSR, into the solid-phase radiation-polymerization kinetics of a number of monomers, using the calorimetric method and an EPR signal, has revealed the essential role of the specific radiation reaction during the irradiation. The polymerization process for acrylonitrile (from -196{sup o}C to -140{sup o}C) and vinyl acetate (-196{sup o}C to -100{sup o}C) ceases when irradiation is discontinued despite the retention of the shape and intensity of the EPR signal and despite the long

  6. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  7. MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF DIAZINON IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani ، F. Golbabaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst organophosphate pesticides, the one most widely used and common environmental contaminant is diazinon; thus methods for its trace analysis in environmental samples must be developed. Use of diazinon imprinted polymers such as sorbents in solid phase extraction, is a prominent and novel application area of molecular imprinted polymers. For diazinon extraction, high performance liquid chromatography analysis was demonstrated in this study. During optimization of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure for efficient solid phase extraction of diazinon, Plackett-Burman design was conducted. Eight experimental factors with critical influence on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction performance were selected, and 12 different experimental runs based on Plackett-Burman design were carried out. The applicability of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in solid phase extraction, presented obtained good recoveries of diazinon from LC-grade water. An increase in pH caused an increase in the recovery on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. From these results, the optimal molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure was as follows: solid phase extraction packing with 100 mg diazinon imprinted polymers; conditioning with 5 mL of methanol and 6 mL of LC-grade water; sample loading containing diazinon (pH=10; washing with 1 mL of LC-grade water, 1 mL LC- grade water containing 30% acetonitrile and 0.5 mL of acetonitrile, respectively; eluting with 1 mL of methanol containing 2% acetic acid. The percentage recoveries obtained by the optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were more than 90% with drinking water spiked at different trace levels of diazinon. Generally speaking, the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography analysis can be a relatively fast and proper approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diazinon in

  8. Pressure Effects on Solid State Phase Transformation of Aluminium Bronze in Cooling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Yan, Wang; Jian-Hua, Liu; Gui-Rong, Peng; Yan, Chen; Yu-Wen, Liu; Fei, Li; Wen-Kui, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of high pressure (6 GPa) on the solid state phase transformation kinetic parameters of aluminum bronze during the cooling process are investigated, based on the measurement and calculation of its solid state phase transformation temperature, duration and activation energy and the observation of its microstructures. The results show that high pressure treatment can reduce the solid phase transformation temperature and activation energy in the cooling process and can shorten the phase transformation duration, which is favorable when forming fine-grained aluminum bronze

  9. Behaviour of solid phase ethyl cyanide in simulated conditions of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, I.; Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.

    2018-01-01

    In order to simulate different altitudes in the atmosphere of Titan, we investigated using infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry the photochemistry of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) ices at different temperatures. Heating experiments of the solid phase until complete desorption showed up three phase transitions with a first one appearing to be approximately at the temperature of Titan's surface (94 K), measured by the Huygens probe. Ethyl cyanide, whose presence has been suggested in solid phase in Titan, can be considered as another nitrile for photochemical models of the Titan atmosphere after our first study (Toumi et al., 2016) concerning vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). The desorption energy of ethyl cyanide has been calculated to be 36.75 ( ± 0.55) kJ mol-1 using IRTF and mass spectroscopical techniques. High energetic photolysis (λ > 120 nm) have been performed and we identified ethyl isocyanide, vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, ethylene, acetylene, cyanhydric acid and a methylketenimine form as photoproducts from ethyl cyanide. The branching ratios of the primary products were determined at characteristic temperatures of Titan thanks to the value of the νCN stretching band strength of ethyl cyanide that has been calculated to be 4.12 × 10-18 cm molecule-1. We also report here for the first time the values of the photodissociation cross sections of C2H5CN for different temperatures.

  10. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing

  11. Investigation of impurity-helium solid phase decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltnev, R.E.; Gordon, E.B.; Krushinskaya, I.N.; Martynenko, M.V.; Pel'menev, A.A.; Popov, E.A.; Khmelenko, V.V.; Shestakov, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The element composition of the impurity-helium solid phase (IHSP), grown by injecting helium gas jet, involving Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms and N 2 molecules, into superfluid helium, has been studied. The measured stoichiometric ratios, S = N H e / N I m, are well over the values expected from the model of frozen together monolayer helium clusters. The theoretical possibility for the freezing of two layers helium clusters is justified in the context of the model of IHSP helium subsystem, filled the space between rigid impurity centers. The process of decomposition of impurity-helium (IH)-samples taken out of liquid helium in the temperature range 1,5 - 12 K and the pressure range 10-500 Torr has been studied. It is found that there are two stages of samples decomposition: a slow stage characterized by sample self cooling and a fast one accompanied by heat release. These results suggest, that the IHSP consists of two types of helium - weakly bound and strongly bound helium - that can be assigned to the second and the first coordination helium spheres, respectively, formed around heavy impurity particles. A tendency for enhancement of IHSP thermo stability with increasing the impurity mass is observed. Increase of helium vapor pressure above the sample causes the improvement of IH sample stability. Upon destruction of IH samples, containing nitrogen atoms, a thermoluminescence induced by atom recombination has been detected in the temperature region 3-4,5 K. This suggests that numerous chemical reactions may be realized in solidified helium

  12. Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Dong, Zelin; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong; Qu, Liangti

    2013-12-13

    Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were fabricated through a dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy and their extraction performance was evaluated. For the fiber fabrication, a glass pipeline was innovatively used as a hydrothermal reactor instead of a Teflon-lined autoclave. Compared with conventional methods for SPME fibers, the proposed strategy can fabricate a uniform graphene fiber as long as several meters or more at a time. Coupled to capillary gas chromatography (GC), the monolithic graphene fibers in a direct-immersion (DI) mode achieved higher extraction efficiencies for aromatics than those for n-alkanes, especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thanks to π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic effect. Additionally, the fibers exhibited excellent durability and can be repetitively used more than 160 times without significant loss of extraction performance. As a result, an optimum extraction condition of 40°C for 50min with 20% NaCl (w/w) was finally used for SPME of PAHs in aqueous samples. For the determination of PAHs in water samples, the proposed DI-SPME-GC method exhibited linear range of 0.05-200μg/L, limits of detection (LOD) of 4.0-50ng/L, relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 9.4% and 12.1% for one fiber and different fibers, respectively, and recoveries of 78.9-115.9%. The proposed method can be used for analysis of PAHs in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  14. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.P.; Irvine, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  15. Review of the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil using Solid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Said

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for fossil fuels and the emissions generated from these fuels are increasing daily. Researchers are concerned with global warming as well as climate change; and energy sustainability and material usages are important issues today. Waste cooking oil (WCO can be processed into biodiesel as an alternative fuel to replace diesel. Production of biodiesel using WCO as the feedstock has been of growing interest for the last two decades. A number of research papers related to the improvements in production, raw materials and catalyst selection have been published. This paper reviews the various types of heterogeneous solid catalyst in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification of WCO. The catalysts used can be classified according to their state presence in the transesterification reaction as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts act in the same liquid phase as the reaction mixture, whereas heterogeneous catalysts act in a solid phase with the reaction mixture. Heterogeneous catalysts are non-corrosive, a green process and environmentally friendly. They can be recycled and used several times, thus offering a more economic pathway for biodiesel production. The advantages and drawbacks of these heterogeneous catalysts are presented. Future work focuses on the application of economically and environmentally friendly solid catalysts in the production of biodiesel using WCO as the raw material.

  16. Method for calculating solid-solid phase transitions at high temperature: An application to N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchta, B.; Etters, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Two similar techniques for calculating solid-solid phase transitions at high temperatures are developed, where the contribution of the entropy may be a decisive factor. They utilize an artificial reversible path from one phase to another by application of a control parameter. Thermodynamic averages are calculated using constant-volume and constant-pressure Monte Carlo techniques. An application to N 2 O at room temperature shows that the cubic Pa3 to orthorhombic Cmca transition occurs near 4.9-GPa pressure, very close to the value calculated at very low temperatures. These results support experimental evidence that the transition pressure is virtually independent of temperature

  17. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

    1995-10-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

  18. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H 2 S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H 2 S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H 2 S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H 2 S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H 2 S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H 2 S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H 2 S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H 2 S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H 2 S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the

  19. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  20. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  1. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  2. Preparation of molybdenum borides by combustion synthesis involving solid-phase displacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.L.; Hsu, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of molybdenum borides of five different phases in the Mo-B binary system (including Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 , Mo 2 B 5 , and MoB 4 ) was performed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with two kinds of the reactant samples. When elemental powder compacts with an exact stoichiometry corresponding to the boride phase were employed, self-sustaining reaction was only achieved in the sample with Mo:B = 1:1 and nearly single-phase MoB was yielded. Therefore, the other four boride compounds were prepared from the reactant compacts composed of MoO 3 , Mo, and B powders, within which the displacement reaction of MoO 3 with boron was involved in combustion synthesis. Experimental evidence shows that the extent of displacement reaction in the overall reaction has a significant impact on sustainability of the synthesis reaction, combustion temperature, reaction front velocity, and composition of the end product. An increase in the solid-phase displacement reaction taking place during the SHS process contributes more heat flux to the synthesis reaction, thus resulting in the increase of combustion temperature and enhancement of the reaction front velocity. Based upon the XRD analysis, formation of Mo 2 B, MoB 2 , and Mo 2 B 5 as the dominant boride phase in the end product was successful through the SHS reaction with powder compacts under appropriate stoichiometries between MoO 3 , Mo, and B. However, a poor conversion was observed in the synthesis of MoB 4 . The powder compact prepared for the production of MoB 4 yielded mostly Mo 2 B 5

  3. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  4. The growth and tensile deformation behavior of the silver solid solution phase with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Lee, Chin C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of homogeneous silver solid solution phase with zinc are conducted at two different compositions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) are carried out for phase identification and chemical composition verification. The mechanical properties of silver solid solution phase with zinc are evaluated by tensile test. The engineering and true stress vs. strain curves are presented and analyzed, with those of pure silver in comparison. According to the experimental results, silver solid solution phase with zinc at both compositions show tempered yield strength, high tensile strength and large uniform strain compared to those of pure silver. Fractography further confirmed the superior ductility of silver solid solution phase with zinc at both compositions. Our preliminary but encouraging results may pave the way for the silver based alloys to be applied in industries such as electronic packaging and structure engineering.

  5. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  6. Ultrasonic detection of solid phase mass flow ratio of pneumatic conveying fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guang Bin; Pan, Hong Li; Wang, Yong; Liu, Zong Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic attenuation detection and weight balance are adopted to evaluate the solid mass ratio in this paper. Fly ash is transported on the up extraction fluidization pneumatic conveying workbench. In the ultrasonic test. McClements model and Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law model were applied to formulate the ultrasonic attenuation properties of gas-solid flow, which can give the solid mass ratio. While in the method of weigh balance, the averaged mass addition per second can reveal the solids mass flow ratio. By contrast these two solid phase mass ratio detection methods, we can know, the relative error is less.

  7. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  8. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  9. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied) increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application. PMID:23336604

  10. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  11. Solid-phase thermal decomposition of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R. Jr. [Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy). Space Physics Research Center; Bulusu, S. [Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (United States). Energetic Materials Div.

    1996-12-31

    The solid-phase thermal decomposition of the insensitive energetic nitroaromatic heterocycle 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI: mp 265--274C) is studied utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) between 200 and 247C. The pyrolysis products have been identified using perdeuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled isotopomers. The products consist of low molecular-weight gases and a thermally stable solid residue. The major gaseous products are NO, CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, HNCO and H{sub 2}O. Minor gaseous products are HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sub 3}O and NH{sub 3}. The elemental formula of the residue is C{sub 2}HN{sub 2}O and FTIR analysis suggests that it is polyurea- and polycarbamate-like in nature. Rates of formation of the gaseous products and their respective quantities have been determined for a typical isothermal decomposition experiment at 235C. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates indicate that the overall decomposition is characterized by a sequence of four events; (1) an early decomposition period induced by impurities and water, (2) an induction period where C0{sub 2} and NO are the primary products formed at relatively constant rates, (3) an autoacceleratory period that peaks when the sample is depleted and (4) a final period in which the residue decomposes. Arrhenius parameters for the induction period are E{sub a} = 46.9 {plus_minus} 0.7 kcal/mol and Log(A) = 16.3 {plus_minus} 0.3. Decomposition pathways that are consistent with the data are presented.

  12. Perspectives of advanced thermal management in solar thermochemical syngas production using a counter-flow solid-solid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Sizmann, Andreas; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    A modular reactor model is presented for the description of solar thermochemical syngas production involving counter-flow heat exchangers that recuperate heat from the solid phase. The development of the model is described including heat diffusion within the reactive material as it travels through the heat exchanger, which was previously identified to be a possibly limiting factor in heat exchanger design. Heat transfer within the reactive medium is described by conduction and radiation, where the former is modeled with the three-resistor model and the latter with the Rosseland diffusion approximation. The applicability of the model is shown by the analysis of heat exchanger efficiency for different material thicknesses and porosities in a system with 8 chambers and oxidation and reduction temperatures of 1000 K and 1800 K, respectively. Heat exchanger efficiency is found to rise strongly for a reduction of material thickness, as the element mass is reduced and a larger part of the elements takes part in the heat exchange process. An increase of porosity enhances radiation heat exchange but deteriorates conduction. The overall heat exchange in the material is improved for high temperatures in the heat exchanger, as radiation dominates the energy transfer. The model is shown to be a valuable tool for the development and analysis of solar thermochemical reactor concepts involving heat exchange from the solid phase.

  13. Improved detection limits for phthalates by selective solid-phase micro-extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2016-03-30

    Presented research reports on an improved method and enhanced limits of detection for phthalates; a hazardous additive used in the production of plastics by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) polymer in comparison to molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) polymer. The polymers were functionalized on an interdigital capacitive sensor for selective binding of phthalate molecules from a complex mixture of chemicals. Both polymers owned predetermined selectivity by formation of valuable molecular recognition sites for Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Polymers were immobilized on planar electrochemical sensor fabricated on a single crystal silicon substrate with 500 nm sputtered gold electrodes fabricated using MEMS fabrication techniques. Impedance spectra were obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the spiked sample solutions with various phthalate concentrations. Experimental results revealed that the ability of SPME polymer to adsorb target molecules on the sensing surface is better than that of MISPE polymer for phthalates in the sensing system. Testing the extracted samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detectors validated the results.

  14. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  16. Phase transition of solid bismuth under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hai-Yan; Xiang Shi-Kai; Yan Xiao-Zhen; Zhang Yi; Liu Sheng-Gang; Bi Yan; Zheng Li-Rong

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used pressure calibrator, the structural phase transitions of bismuth from phase I, to phase II, to phase III, and then to phase V with increasing pressure at 300 K have been widely confirmed. However, there are different structural versions for phase III, most of which are determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. Using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements combined with ab initio calculations, we show that the proposed incommensurate composite structure of bismuth of the three configurations is the best option. An abnormal continuous increase of the nearest-neighbor distance of phase III with elevated pressure is also observed. The electronic structure transformation from semimetal to metal is responsible for the complex behavior of structure transformation. (paper)

  17. Thermal transformations of oxohalide complexes of rhenium(5) and molybdenum(5) with diazo-18-crown-6 in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurova, N.Kh.; Yakubov, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for synthesis and separation in solid state of the rhenium(5) and molybdenum(5) onium complexes with diaza-18-crown-6(L), the content of which according to the data of elementary analysis, IRS in the close and remote areas, thermogravimetry, conductometry and potentiometry corresponds to the (H 2 L)[EOX 5 ], where E = Re, Mo; X = Cl - , Br - . Thermotransformation of onium compounds is studied by methods of thermal methods (TG-DTG-DTA combined study). Their avility to be affected by solid-phase dehydrohalogenization, e.i. anderson regrouping. The thermolysis products, corresponding to the general formula (EOLX 3 ), are separated and studied

  18. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  19. Phase nucleation and evolution mechanisms in heterogeneous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Anirudh

    Phase nucleation and evolution is a problem of critical importance in many applications. As the length scales are reduced, it becomes increasingly important to consider interfacial and micro-structural effects that can be safely ignored at larger length scales owing to randomness. The theory of phase nucleation has been addressed usually by the classical nucleation theory, which was originally derived for single component fluid systems, after making an assumption of equilibrium. The criterion has not been rigorously derived for solids, which are far from equilibrium due to dissipation by multiple physical drivers. In this thesis, a thermodynamically sound nucleation criterion is derived for systems with multiple interacting physical phenomena and multiple dissipating mechanisms. This is done, using the tools of continuum mechanics, by determining the change in free energy upon the introduction of a new nucleus into the system. The developed theory is demonstrated to be a generalization of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The developed theory is then applied to the problem of electromigration driven void nucleation, a serious reliability concern for the microelectronics industry. The void grows and eventually severs the line making the chip nonfunctional. There are two classes of theories at present in the electromigration literature to address the problem of void nucleation, the vacancy supersaturation theory and the entropic dissipation theory, both of which are empirical and based on intuition developed from experimental observations. When the developed theory was applied to the problem of electromigration, it was found to be consistent with the vacancy supersaturation theory, but provided the correct energetic quantity, the chemical potential, which has contribution from both the vacancy concentration as well as the hydrostatic stress. An experiment, consisting of electromigration tests on serpentine lines, was developed to validate the developed

  20. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  2. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  4. Utilizing ion-pairing hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction for efficient glycopeptide enrichment in glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Højrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Glycopeptide enrichment is a prerequisite to enable structural characterization of protein glycosylation in glycoproteomics. Here we present an improved method for glycopeptide enrichment based on zwitter-ionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction (ZIC-HILIC SPE...

  5. Evaluation of a Solid Phase DNA Binding Matrix for Downstream PCR Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, Douglas E; Fisher, Glen R; Stratilo, Chad W

    2005-01-01

    A commercially available solid-phase DNA binding matrix (FTA cards) was evaluated for its ability to capture and release DNA for downstream gene amplification and detection assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  6. Ion-selective solid-phase electrode sensitive to ammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.G.; Milonova, M.S.; Antonov, P.P.; Bychkov, E.A.; Ehfa, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    Ammonium phosphomolybdate is investigated for the purpose of using it as membrane material of ammonium-selective solid-phase electrodes. Estimation of proton mobility and ion conductivity of ammonium phosphomolybdate is performed

  7. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  8. Development of solid phase radioimmunoassay using antibody coupled magnetizable particles for measurement of progesterone in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehany, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents. Development as well as optimization and validation of RIA system using solid phase magnetic particles for the measurement of progesterone in human serum are described. The production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out by immunizing five white New-Zealand rabbits subcutaneously. Low density magnetizable cellulose iron oxide particles have been used to couple covalently to the IgG fraction of polyclonal anti-progesterone using carbonyl diimidazole activation method and applied as a solid phase separating agent for RIA of serum progesterone. 125 I-progesterone tracer was prepared using chloramine-T and iodogen oxidation methods and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The progesterone standards were prepared using highly purified progesterone powder with hormone free serum as standard matrix. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a low cost, simple, sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of progesterone based on magnetizable solid phase separation. This may be extremely helpful in diagnosis and proper management of ovulation during childbearing years

  9. Development Of Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay Using Antibody Coupled Cellulose Particles For Measurement Of Prolactin In Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, I.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents. Development as well as optimization and validation of RIA system using solid phase cellulose particles for the measurement of prolactin (PRL) in human serum were described. The production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out by immunizing three Balb/C mice intraperitoneal through primary injection and two booster doses. The activation of cellulose particles using 1,1-carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and coupling of these solid phase particles with IgG fraction of mouse anti-PRL were carried out. Preparation of 125 I-PRL tracer was prepared using lactoperoxidase method then purified by gel filtration using sephadex G-100. The PRL standards were prepared using a highly purified PRL antigen with assay buffer as standard matrix. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a low cost, simple, sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of prolactin based on solid phase separation. These cellulose particles retain their characteristics during storage for 6 months at 4 degree C. In conclusion, this assay could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for pituitary dysfunctions and possible reproductive disability

  10. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  12. Solid-phase micro-extraction in bioanalysis, exemplified by lidocaine determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, GJ; Koster, EHM

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) is a never sample preparation technique that can be used for gaseous, liquid or solid samples in conjunction with GC, HPLC or CE (e.g. [1]). The use of SPME for the analysis of drugs in biofluids is also becoming popular (e.g. [2]). The principle is that a fused

  13. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium) Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  14. The Pictet-Spengler reaction in solid-phase combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas E; Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    The Pictet-Spengler reaction is an important reaction for the generation of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines and tetrahydroisoquinoline ring systems, which exhibit a range of biological and pharmacological properties. This review covers the solid-phase Pictet-Spengler reaction, as employed in solid...

  15. Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous mediacontaining sorbing nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.

    2014-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the speciation analysis of the hydrophobic compound triclosan in an aqueous medium containing sorbing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). It is found that these NPs, as well as their complexes with triclosan, partition between the bulk medium and the solid

  16. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  17. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  18. Binding of monoclonal antibody to protein antigen in fluid phase or bound to solid supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, S J

    1982-01-01

    Rat monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to fragment D (FgD) of human fibrinogen was used to characterize the direct binding of antibody to protein in solution or bound to solid supports. Purified IgG, F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab' were prepared from ascites fluid of hybridoma 104-14B which is a fusion product of spleen cells from a rat immunized with FgD and the mouse myeloma cell line, P3-X63-Ag8. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of radioiodinated antibody preparations demonstrated the presence of hybrid immunoglobulin molecules, but only structures having rat heavy and rat light chains had active antibody combinig sites. The affinity constant for IgG as well as F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab', 6x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/, was identical when tested using fluid phase antigen (/sup 125/I-labeled FgD). Affinity constants determined for direct binding of iodinated IgG using FgD immobilized on solid supports showed a slight dependence on the antigen concentration used in the measurement. These values ranged from 0.5x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ at high antigen concentrations (1.3x10/sup -7/ M) to 9x10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ at low antigen concentration (1.3x10/sup -10/ M). Binding constants for F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab' gave similar results indicating that binding was homogeneous and univalent. The capacity of solid state antigen to bind antibody varied with the method used to bind FgD to the solid support. FgD bound directly to polystyrene plates was least efficient at binding labeled antibody; FgD bound to plates through intermediate carriers poly(L-lysine) was only slightly more efficient, while antigen bound to Sepharose beads by cyanogen bromide activation was the most active.

  19. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Three-phase boundary length in solid-oxide fuel cells: A mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M. [Institutefor Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf [Institute for Applied and Numerical Mathematics, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    A mathematical model to calculate the volume specific three-phase boundary length in the porous composite electrodes of solid-oxide fuel cell is presented. The model is exclusively based on geometrical considerations accounting for porosity, particle diameter, particle size distribution, and solids phase distribution. Results are presented for uniform particle size distribution as well as for non-uniform particle size distribution. (author)

  1. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-03-01

    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C 18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  3. Solid-Phase Synthesis of PEGylated Lipopeptides Using Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    A versatile methodology for efficient synthesis of PEGylated lipopeptides via CuAAC “Click” conjugation between alkyne-bearing solid-supported lipopeptides and azido-functionalized PEGs is described. This new and very robust method offers a unique platform for synthesizing PEGylated lipopeptides ...

  4. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  5. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    is obtained for hydrocarbon mixtures. Such behavior is mainly caused by compositional changes in the bulk phase due to selective adsorption of the heavier components onto the rock, while the change in bubble point pressure is mainly due to capillary pressure. This study has developed several robust......Production of oil and gas from shale reservoirs has gained more attention in the past few decades due to its increasing economic feasibility and the size of potential sources around the world. Shale reservoirs are characterized by a more tight nature in comparison with conventional reservoirs......, having pore size distributions ranging in the nanometer scale. Such a confined nature introduces new challenges in the fluid phase behavior. High capillary forces can be experienced between the liquid and vapor, and selective adsorption of components onto the rock becomes relevant. The impact...

  6. Studies on Purification and Coatation of Polyclonal Antibody for Prolactin Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Shafik, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was oriented to produce purified polyclonal antibody to prepare a prolactin solid phase coated tubes radioimmunoassay system. In the present study, production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out through immunization of three healthy white male mature New Zealand rabbits with a highly purified sheep prolactin antigen. The obtained anti-sera was purified using an anion exchange reactive group, diethylamino ethyle (DEAE) covalently linked to Sepharose. The purified polyclonal antibody was used for coating polystyrene tubes. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin tracer was carried out using chloramine-T method. The preparation of standards was performed using assay buffer to cover the range from 2 to 200 ng/ml. The optimization and validation tests of the assay were performed to evaluate the validity of the prepared system. In conclusion, this low cost assay would be used in diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction and diagnosis of infertility in males and females

  7. Development Of Radioimmunoassay For Prolactin HORMONE Using Solid Phase Magnetic Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAFIK, H.M.; MEHANY, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and development of primary reagents of prolactin (PRL) radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique using solid phase magnetic particles with low cost is considered to be the main objective of the present study. The production of polyclonal antibodies was undertaken by immunizing four female New-Zealand rabbits through primary injection and four booster doses subcutaneously. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin radiotracer was carried out using chloramine-T. The preparation of standard prolactin was undertaken by preparing stock standard solution of prolactin and diluted with assay buffer. Activation and coupling of low magnetizable particles with the purified anti-PRL was carried out. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a highly sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of PRL. In conclusion, this assay could be used in diagnosis of galactorrhea, prolactinoma, visual impairment and diagnosis of infertility in males and females.

  8. Studies on Purification and Coatation of Polyclonal Antibody for Prolactin Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Shafik, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was oriented to produce purified polyclonal antibody to prepare a prolactin solid phase coated tubes radioimmunoassay system. In the present study, production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out through immunization of three healthy white male mature New Zealand rabbits with a highly purified sheep prolactin antigen. The obtained anti-sera was purified using an anion exchange reactive group, diethylamino ethyle (DEAE) covalently linked to Sepharose. The purified polyclonal antibody was used for coating polystyrene tubes. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin tracer was carried out using chloramine-T method. The preparation of standards was performed using assay buffer to cover the range from 2 to 200 ng/ml. The optimization and validation tests of the assay were performed to evaluate the validity of the prepared system. In conclusion, this low cost assay would be used in diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction and diagnosis of infertility in males and females.

  9. Chemically and geographically distinct solid-phase iron pools in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heyden, B P; Roychoudhury, A N; Mtshali, T N; Tyliszczak, T; Myneni, S C B

    2012-11-30

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in many parts of the oceans, including the unproductive regions of the Southern Ocean. Although the dominant fraction of the marine iron pool occurs in the form of solid-phase particles, its chemical speciation and mineralogy are challenging to characterize on a regional scale. We describe a diverse array of iron particles, ranging from 20 to 700 nanometers in diameter, in the waters of the Southern Ocean euphotic zone. Distinct variations in the oxidation state and composition of these iron particles exist between the coasts of South Africa and Antarctica, with different iron pools occurring in different frontal zones. These speciation variations can result in solubility differences that may affect the production of bioavailable dissolved iron.

  10. Influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkova Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering is spread technology today. The main advantage of this method is the ability to produce parts which have a very complex geometry and which can be produced only in very complicated way by classical conventional methods. Special category of such components are parts with porous structure, which can give to the product extraordinary combination of properties. The article deals with some aspects that influence the manufacturing of regular porous structures in spite of the fact that input technological parameters at various samples were the same. The main goal of presented research has been to investigate the influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure. Realized tests have indicated that the unit of regular porous structure with lower volume ratio is able to carry a greater load to failure than the unit with higher volume ratio.

  11. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  12. Behavior of solid fission products in irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Kim, Hee Moon; Yoo, Byun Gok; Kim, Do Sik; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2004-01-01

    Many fission products are generated by fission events in UO 2 fuel under irradiation in nuclear reactor. Concentration of each fission product is changed by conditions of neutron energy spectrum, fissile material, critical thermal power, irradiation period and cooling time. Volatile materials such as Cs and I, the fission products, degrade nuclear fuel rod by the decrease of thermal conductivity in pellet and the stress corrosion cracking in cladding. Metal fission products (white inclusion) make pellet be swelled and decrease volume of pellet by densification. It seems that metal fission products are filled in the pore in pellet and placed between UO 2 lattices as interstitial. In addition, metal oxide state may change structural lattice volume. Considering behavior of fission products mentioned above, concentration of them is important. Fission products could be classified as bellows; solid solution in matrix : Sr, Zr, Nb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm - metal precipitates : Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Te - oxide precipitates : Ba, Zr, Nb, Mo, (Rb, Cs, Te) - volatile and gases : Kr, Xe, Br, I, (Rb, Cs, Te)

  13. Temperature and phase dependence of positron lifetimes in solid cyclohexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1985-01-01

    The temperature dependence of position lifetimes in both the brittle and plastic phases of cyclohaxane has been examined. Long-lived components in both phases are associated with the formation of positronium (Ps). Two long lifetimes attributable to ortho-Ps are resolvable in the plastic phase....... The longer of these (≈ 2.5 ns), which is temperature dependent, is ascribed to ortho-Ps trapped at vacancies. The shorter lifetime (≈ 0.9 ns), shows little temperature dependence. In contrast to most other plastic crystals, no sigmoidal behaviour of the average ortho-Ps lifetime is observed. A possibility...

  14. Solid phase transport in series fluidised bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    In a multistage counter-current fluidised bed column, fluidised bed material is recycled within each stage and a fraction is continuously withdrawn to the next lower stage at a rate dependent only on the rate of removal of the fluidised bed material from the base of the column. It has a particular application to the ion exchange treatment of liquids containing suspended solids, for example leach solutions from uranium ores. (author)

  15. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  16. Quantum Phase Transitions in Matrix Product States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Min, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous

  17. Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingmin

    2008-01-01

    We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous. (authors)

  18. Vapour phase synthesis of salol over solid acids via transesterification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rate of reactants, WHSV and time-on-stream on the conversion (%) of phenol and selectivity (%) of salol ... Possible reaction mechanisms for the formation of salol and diphenyl ether over ... Hence, vapour-phase conditions of the experiment.

  19. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  20. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  1. Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Fried, Eliot; Jiao Xiangmin

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures

  2. Improvements in or relating to process for the production of fuel gas from a carbonaceous solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process was designed for the generation of fuel gas from a solid carbonaceous fuel containing volatilizable constituents, which comprises admixing the solid carbonaceous fuel in particle form with sufficient water to form a fluid suspension, passing the suspension through a heating zone at an elevated temperature such that substantially all of the water is vaporized, thereby forming a dispersion of coal in steam and causing the dispersion to attain a velocity of at least 60 ft. per second to shatter the particles of coal by collision, passing the resulting dispersion into a fluidized bed of solid carbonaceous material in a methanization zone into contact with carbon monoxide and hydrogen at a temperature within the range of from 900/sup 0/ to 1,800/sup 0/F whereby carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to methane and volatilizable constituents of the solid carbonaceous material are distilled therefrom, withdrawing carbonaceous material from the methanization zone and passing it into contact with oxygen and steam in dilute phase in a gasification zone maintained at a temperature within the range of 2,000/sup 0/ to about 3,000/sup 0/F, passing the resulting gases comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen from the gasification zone into the methanization zone as the source of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and discharging the gaseous products of the methanization zone as the raw-product fuel gas.

  3. Basal plane shift as an order parameter of transitions between antiferromagnetic phases of solid oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonay, E.V.; Loktev, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    A phenomenological model in the spirit of the Landau theory of phase transitions is derived, and the conditions for existence and phase transitions between different magnetocrystal structures of solid oxygen are analyzed for wide ranges of pressure, temperature and external magnetic field

  4. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomforde, G.M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies

  5. A solid phase radio immunoassay on hydrophobic membrane filters: detection of antibodies to gonocal surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambden, P.R.; Watt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) has been developed for detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal outer membrane components. Gonococcal antigens was immobilised on a solid support by covalent coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose in the presence of the detergent Triton X-100. Binding of specific antibody to the Sepharose-antigen complex was detected using radiolabelled Protein A as the antiglobulin. Protein A was labelled by radioacetylation with tritiated acetic anhydride, yielding a product of high specific activity and high stability. No detectable loss of activity was observed over a ten month period. The entire assay was performed on Mitex teflon hydrophobic membrane filters which held the Sepharose beads and aqueous supernatant as a discrete drop of liquid. The supernatants and incubation were easily and rapidly removed from the beads by suction on a specially-designed manifold system. This procedure removed the need for repeated and time-consuming centrifugations. Titres were obtained graphically from double log plots of cpm bound versus antiserum dilution by extrapolation of the straight line to a point corresponding to twice the control level of radioactivity binding. The assay proved to be a very reliable and simple procedure for the detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal surface antigens. (Auth.)

  6. SOLID-STATE FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Aigbodion Omogbai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan production was investigated using a laboratory-scale solid substrate fermentation (SSF technique with four species of fungi: Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme.The peak growth for the organisms was after 16 days. Aspergillus niger had the highest growth with a maximal dry cell biomass of 15.8g/kg after 16 days cultivation on corn straw under solid substrate fermentation. This was closely followed by Rhizopus oryzae (14.6g/kg, Penicillium expansum (13.8g/kg and Fusarium moniliforme (10.6g/kg respectively. The fungus Rhizopus oryzae had the highest chitosan production with a maximum of 8.57g/kg in 16 days under solid substrate fermentation (SSF with a medium containing corn straw. Aspergillus niger showed a modest chitosan yield of 6.8g/kg. Penicillium expansum and Fusarium moniliforme had low chitosan yields of 4.31g/kg and 3.1g/kg respectively. The degree of deacetylation of fungal chitosans ranged between 75.3-91.5% with a viscosity of 3.6-7.2 centipoises (Cp.Chitosan extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was found to have antibacterial activity on some bacterial isolates. At a concentration of 50mg/L, Rhizopus oryzae chitosan paralleled crab chitosan in susceptibility testing against some food-borne bacterial pathogens. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis showed inhibition rates of 83.2%, 67.9%, 63.8% and 62.4% respectively in response to 50mg/l Rhizopus oryzae chitosan in 24 h. The rate of inhibition (% increased with increase in chitosan concentration.

  7. A multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead. The thermodynamically consistent equation of state is constructed by calculating separate equations of state for the solid and liquid phases. The melt curve is the curve in the pressure, temperature plane where the Gibb's free energy of the solid and liquid phases are equal. In each phase a complete equation of state is obtained using the assumptions that the specific heat capacity is constant and that the Grueneisen parameter is proportional to the specific volume. The parameters for the equation of state are obtained from experimental data. In particular they are chosen to match melt curve and principal Hugoniot data. Predictions are made for the shock pressure required for melt to occur on shock and release

  8. Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Boehm, Leonard [Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ) Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Research Centre for BioSystems, Giessen (Germany); Schlechtriem, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    An important aim of the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use is the identification of (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. In other regulatory chemical safety assessments (pharmaceuticals, biocides, pesticides), the identification of such (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances is of increasing importance. Solid-phase microextraction is especially capable of extracting total water concentrations as well as the freely dissolved fraction of analytes in the water phase, which is available for bioconcentration in fish. However, although already well established in environmental analyses to determine and quantify analytes mainly in aqueous matrices, solid-phase microextraction is still a rather unusual method in regulatory ecotoxicological research. Here, the potential benefits and drawbacks of solid-phase microextraction are discussed as an analytical routine approach for aquatic bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305, with a special focus on the testing of hydrophobic organic compounds characterized by log K{sub OW}> 5. (orig.)

  9. Solid phase extraction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the determination of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranaw Kumar; Telmore, Vijay M.; Jaison, P.G.; Sarkar, Arnab; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum group of element (PGEs) are extensively used as a catalyst and anticancer reagent. Due to the soft nature of PGEs, sulphur based donar ligands are used for the separation of these elements. Studies on the formation of different species are helpful for obtaining the ideas about separation of these elements from the complex matrices. Palladium (Pd) is studied as a representative element which is also formed by nuclear fission of fissile nuclides. In view of the relatively small amount of solvent required for separation, solid phase extraction is preferred over most of the separation methods. Solid phase extraction method using DPX as a stationary phase was previously reported for the separation of Pd in SHLLW using benzoylthiourea as a ligand. However, in case of large volume samples manual extraction by DPX is tedious task. In the present studies, the feasibility of extraction using benzoylthiourea on automated solid phase extraction system was carried out for the extraction of Pd

  10. Transitional phase inversion of crude oil emulsions by solid particles; Inversao transicional de emulsoes de petroleo com particulas solidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Troner A. de; Scheer, Agnes P.; Soares, Cristyan R.; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In petroleum production water-in-oil emulsions (W/O) can be found, due to simultaneous flowing of the oil and formation water. This emulsions provide an increase in the viscosity; that can be reduced for the phase inversion in oil-in-water emulsions (O/W), resulting in pressure drop and consequently cost production reduction. The petroleum emulsions W/O were prepared at 60 deg C, with 50% v/v of saline water containing 50 g.L{sup -1} of NaCl. The hydrophilic solids content was varied between 0,5% and 8%, mass fraction, related to the water. The quantity of solids needed to phase inversion of the emulsion was measured by conductivimetry. The stability of the emulsions was verified, at 60 deg C, for the time determination in order to have two phases in four hours, checking the viability for production; and during 24 hours, checking the viability for transportation. Under dynamics conditions, was also noted the stability at 20 deg C, for reproduce the flowing condition. Two of the hydrophilic particles tested in the transitional phase inversion of petroleum emulsions presented better results in quantity and stability. Preliminaries rheological properties measurements were carried out adjusting the temperature of the sample in the range of 30 deg C to 12 deg C a shear rate from 20s{sup -1} to 250s {sup -1}, viscosity decrease was observed until two orders of magnitude. (author)

  11. Anaerobic digestion of onion residuals using a mesophilic Anaerobic Phased Solids Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Rowena T.; Zhang, Ruihong

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of onion residual from an onion processing plant was studied under batch-fed and continuously-fed mesophilic (35 ± 2 o C) conditions in an Anaerobic Phased Solids (APS) Digester. The batch digestion tests were performed at an initial loading of 2.8 gVS L -1 and retention time of 14 days. The biogas and methane yields, and volatile solids reduction from the onion residual were determined to be 0.69 ± 0.06 L gVS -1 , 0.38 ± 0.05 L CH 4 gVS -1 , and 64 ± 17%, respectively. Continuous digestion tests were carried out at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 . Hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) was added to the APS-Digester along with the onion residual at 16 mg Ca(OH) 2 gVS -1 to control the pH of the biogasification reactor above 7.0. At steady state the average biogas yields were 0.51, 0.56, and 0.62 L gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The methane yields at steady state were 0.29, 0.32, and 0.31 L CH 4 gVS -1 for the OLRs of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 gVS L -1 d -1 respectively. The study shows that the digestion of onion residual required proper alkalinity and pH control, which was possible through the use of caustic chemicals. However, such chemicals will begin to have an inhibitory effect on the microbial population at high loading rates, and therefore alternative operational parameters are needed. -- Highlights: → An APS-Digester was used to study biogas production from onion solid residues. → Biogas and methane yields from onion solids were determined. → Study showed substantial findings for treating onion solid residues.

  12. Coupling Solid Oxide Electrolyser (SOE) and ammonia production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Giovanni; Frattini, Domenico; Jannelli, Elio; Desideri, Umberto; Bidini, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative NH 3 production plant was designed. • CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are studied in three different designs. • High temperature electrolysis allows to achieve high efficiency and heat recovery. • The coupling permits storage of electricity into a liquid carbon free chemical. - Abstract: Ammonia is one of the most produced chemicals worldwide and is currently synthesized using nitrogen separated from air and hydrogen from natural gas reforming with consequent high consumption of fossil fuel and high emission of CO 2 . A renewable path for ammonia production is desirable considering the potential development of ammonia as energy carrier. This study reports design and analysis of an innovative system for the production of green ammonia using electricity from renewable energy sources. This concept couples Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOE), for the production of hydrogen, with an improved Haber Bosch Reactor (HBR), for ammonia synthesis. An air separator is also introduced to supply pure nitrogen. SOE operates with extremely high efficiency recovering high temperature heat from the Haber-Bosch reactor. Aspen was used to develop a model to study the performance of the plant. Both the SOE and the HBR operate at 650 °C. Ammonia production with zero emission of CO 2 can be obtained with a reduction of 40% of power input compared to equivalent plants.

  13. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  14. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  15. A molecular dynamics calculation of solid phase of malonic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent studies suggest that hydrogen bonds, in particular, hydrogen bond chains play an important role in determining the properties of a substance.We report an investigation into the triclinic phase of crystalline malonic acid. One of two intermolecular interaction potentials proposed here is seen to predict the lattice ...

  16. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine mitragynine (MG) in rat and human urine, and to investigate the influence of caffeine (CF) on urinary excretion of MG in rats. Methods: A two-dimensional wash-elute ...

  17. Solid phase stability of molybdenum under compression: Sound velocity measurements and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiulu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 621010 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Zhongli [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); College of Physics and Electric Information, Luoyang Normal University, 471022 Luoyang, Henan (China); Jin, Ke; Xi, Feng; Yu, Yuying; Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Cai, Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-07

    The high-pressure solid phase stability of molybdenum (Mo) has been the center of a long-standing controversy on its high-pressure melting. In this work, experimental and theoretical researches have been conducted to check its solid phase stability under compression. First, we performed sound velocity measurements from 38 to 160 GPa using the two-stage light gas gun and explosive loading in backward- and forward-impact geometries, along with the high-precision velocity interferometry. From the sound velocities, we found no solid-solid phase transition in Mo before shock melting, which does not support the previous solid-solid phase transition conclusion inferred from the sharp drops of the longitudinal sound velocity [Hixson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 637 (1989)]. Then, we searched its structures globally using the multi-algorithm collaborative crystal structure prediction technique combined with the density functional theory. By comparing the enthalpies of body centered cubic structure with those of the metastable structures, we found that bcc is the most stable structure in the range of 0–300 GPa. The present theoretical results together with previous ones greatly support our experimental conclusions.

  18. The use of solid sorbents for direct accumulation of organic compounds from water matrices : a review of solid-phase extraction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liska, I.; Krupcik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of solid-phase extraction techniques are reviewed in this paper. Various solid sorbents can be used as a suitable trap for direct accumulation of organic compounds from aqueous solutions. The trapped analytes can be desorbed by elution with suitably chosen liquid phases. These

  19. Theoretical study on phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoyan, E-mail: luxy@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu; Li, Hui [Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control of the Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Limei [Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Cao, Wenwu [Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Mathematics and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point has been theoretically analyzed by using the Landau-Devonshire theory. Results revealed that different phases having similar potential wells could coexist in a narrow composition range near the tricritical point in the classical Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} system. The potential barrier between potential wells increases with the decrease of temperature. Coexisting phases or different domains of the same phase can produce adaptive strains to maintain atomic coherency at the interfaces or domain walls. Such compatibility strains have influence on the energy potential as well as the stability of relative phases, leading to the appearance of energetically unfavorable monoclinic phases. Those competing and coexisting phases also construct an easy phase transition path with small energy barrier in between, so that very small stimuli can produce large response in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary, especially near the tricritical point.

  20. Theoretical study on phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Li, Hui; Zheng, Limei; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point has been theoretically analyzed by using the Landau-Devonshire theory. Results revealed that different phases having similar potential wells could coexist in a narrow composition range near the tricritical point in the classical Pb(Zr 1−x Ti x )O 3 system. The potential barrier between potential wells increases with the decrease of temperature. Coexisting phases or different domains of the same phase can produce adaptive strains to maintain atomic coherency at the interfaces or domain walls. Such compatibility strains have influence on the energy potential as well as the stability of relative phases, leading to the appearance of energetically unfavorable monoclinic phases. Those competing and coexisting phases also construct an easy phase transition path with small energy barrier in between, so that very small stimuli can produce large response in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary, especially near the tricritical point

  1. New practical algorithm for modelling analyte recovery in bioanalytical reversed phase and mixed-mode solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.; Uges, D. R. A.; Franke, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a widely used method for sample cleanup and sample concentration in bioanalytical sample preparation. A few methods to model the retention behaviour on SPE cartridges have been described previously but they are either not applicable to ionised species or are not

  2. Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  3. Fixing arsenic contained in a gas phase using solid hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balladares, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Rarra, R.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Feasibility to obtain ferric arsenate starting from arsenic containing gas in contact with Fe 3 O 3 has been studied. Thermodynamic stability of the system Fe-As-O was analysed in order to verify conditions to form Fe x As y O z type compounds. Experiments were made using a hematite sample suspended in a thermogravimetric device. As 4 O 6 was generated starting from solid As 2 O 3 which was circulating through the iron oxide. Final samples were analysed chemically and by means of DRX, verifying the formation of FeAsO 4 , FeAsO 4 .2h 2 O and FeAsO 4 .(H 2 O) 2 in small quantities. Tests in porous bed and pellets were carried out, studying the effect of: porosity, temperature and oxygen potential. The largest conversion obtained was 10% at 800 degree centigrade, pO 2 =50% and porosity=0.883. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  5. The synthesis and properties of the phases obtained by solid-solid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blonska-Tabero A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented work encompasses the subject of the studies and the results obtained over the last years by the research workers of the Department of Inorganic Chemistry. They include mainly the studies on the reactivity of metal oxides, searching for new phases in binary and ternary systems of metal oxides as well as describing phase relations establishing in such systems. They also encompass works on the extensive characteristics of physico-chemical properties of the newly obtained compounds.

  6. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  7. Solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jing; Gu Zhengfei; Cheng Gang; Zhou Huaiying

    2005-01-01

    The solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K (Pr ≤ 70%) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The 1173 K isothermal section consists of 13 single-phase regions, 22 two-phase regions and 10 three-phase regions. At 1173 K, we have observed that the maximum solid solubility of Pt in α-Fe is below 1.5 at.% and the solid solution region of Pt in γ-Fe is from 2 to 35 at.%; the maximum solid solubility of Fe in Pt is 18 at.%. The maximum solubility of Fe in PrPt 5 , PrPt 3 , PrPt 2 , Pr 3 Pt 4 , PrPt, Pr 3 Pt 2 and Pr 7 Pt 3 is below 1 at.%. The maximum solubility of Pr in α-(Fe, Pt), γ-(Fe, Pt), FePt, FePt 3 and (Pt, Fe) (the solid solution of Fe in Pt) is 6, 2, 4, 4.5 and 1.5 at.%, respectively. In this work, it is found that the phase Pr 3 Pt 4 does not exist in the ternary system. The binary compounds Fe 7 Pr and Fe 2 Pr and any new ternary compounds were not observed

  8. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  9. Package selection for moisture protection for solid, oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; MacDonald, Bruce C

    2010-11-01

    This review describes how best to select the appropriate packaging options for solid, oral drug products based on both chemical and physical stability, with respect to moisture protection. This process combines an accounting for the initial moisture content of dosage form components, moisture transfer into (out of) packaging based on a moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), and equilibration between drug products and desiccants based on their moisture sorption isotherms to provide an estimate of the instantaneous relative humidity (RH) within the packaging. This time-based RH is calculationally combined with a moisture-sensitive Arrhenius equation (determined using the accelerated stability assessment program, ASAP) to predict the drug product's chemical stability over time as a function of storage conditions and packaging options. While physical stability of dosage forms with respect to moisture has been less well documented, a process is recommended based on the threshold RH at which changes (e.g., dosage form dissolution, tablet hardness, drug form) become problematic. The overall process described allows packaging to be determined for a drug product scientifically, with the effect of any changes to storage conditions or packaging to be explicitly accounted for. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu-Al alloy in cooling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Liao, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Shuqing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruijun

    2012-07-01

    The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu-Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as well as the observation of alloy's microstructure. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment can increase the solid-phase transformation activation energy and shorten the phase transformation duration, which is helpful to the formation of fine grains in Cu-Al alloy.

  11. A novel magnetic ion imprinted polymer as a selective magnetic solid phase for separation of trace lead(II) ions from agricultural products, and optimization using a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahaghin, Zohreh; Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar; Sajjadi, S Maryam

    2017-12-15

    In this work, a magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @IIP) as a novel and selective nanosorbent for selective extraction of Pb(II) ions from various agricultural products is presented. The novel lead magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized by imidazole as a new ligand and grafted onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 NPs. A Box-Behnken (BBD) design was used for optimization of the extraction and elution steps. In the selected conditions, the limit of detection was 0.48ngmL -1 , preconcentration factor was 300, the sorption capacity of this new magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was 105mgg -1 , and the precision of the method (RSD%) for six replicate measurements was found 3.2%. Finally, the feasibility of the new magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was evaluated by extraction and determination of trace Pb 2+ ions in different agricultural products including (orange, mango, apple, kiwi, lettuce, broccoli, carrot, squash, eggplant, radish, mushroom, cucumber, and tomato). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave assisted solid phase extraction for separation preconcentration sulfamethoxazole in wastewater using tyre based activated carbon as solid phase material prior to spectrophotometric determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogolodi Dimpe, K.; Mpupa, Anele; Nomngongo, Philiswa N.

    2018-01-01

    This work was chiefly encouraged by the continuous consumption of antibiotics which eventually pose harmful effects on animals and human beings when present in water systems. In this study, the activated carbon (AC) was used as a solid phase material for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater samples. The microwave assisted solid phase extraction (MASPE) as a sample extraction method was employed to better extract SMX in water samples and finally the analysis of SMX was done by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The microwave assisted solid phase extraction method was optimized using a two-level fractional factorial design by evaluating parameters such as pH, mass of adsorbent (MA), extraction time (ET), eluent ratio (ER) and microwave power (MP). Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg L- 1 and 1.7 μg L- 1, respectively, and intraday and interday precision expressed in terms of relative standard deviation were > 6%.The maximum adsorption capacity was 138 mg g- 1 for SMX and the adsorbent could be reused eight times. Lastly, the MASPE method was applied for the removal of SMX in wastewater samples collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river water.

  13. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  14. An ordered metallic glass solid solution phase that grows from the melt like a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Long, Gabrielle G.; Bendersky, Leonid A.; Levine, Lyle E.; Mompiou, Frédéric; Stalick, Judith K.; Cahn, John W.

    2014-01-01

    We report structural studies of an Al–Fe–Si glassy solid that is a solid solution phase in the classical thermodynamic sense. We demonstrate that it is neither a frozen melt nor nanocrystalline. The glass has a well-defined solubility limit and rejects Al during formation from the melt. The pair distribution function of the glass reveals chemical ordering out to at least 12 Å that resembles the ordering within a stable crystalline intermetallic phase of neighboring composition. Under isothermal annealing at 305 °C the glass first rejects Al, then persists for approximately 1 h with no detectable change in structure, and finally is transformed by a first-order phase transition to a crystalline phase with a structure that is different from that within the glass. It is possible that this remarkable glass phase has a fully ordered atomic structure that nevertheless possesses no long-range translational symmetry and is isotropic

  15. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  16. Biological nitrate removal from water and wastewater by solid-phase denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Chu, Libing

    2016-11-01

    Nitrate pollution in receiving waters has become a serious issue worldwide. Solid-phase denitrification process is an emerging technology, which has received increasing attention in recent years. It uses biodegradable polymers as both the carbon source and biofilm carrier for denitrifying microorganisms. A vast array of natural and synthetic biopolymers, including woodchips, sawdust, straw, cotton, maize cobs, seaweed, bark, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polylactic acid (PLA), have been widely used for denitrification due to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. This paper presents an overview on the application of solid-phase denitrification in nitrate removal from drinking water, groundwater, aquaculture wastewater, the secondary effluent and wastewater with low C/N ratio. The types of solid carbon source, the influencing factors, the microbial community of biofilm attached on the biodegradable carriers, the potential adverse effect, and the cost of denitrification process are introduced and evaluated. Woodchips and polycaprolactone are the popular and competitive natural plant-like and synthetic biodegradable polymers used for denitrification, respectively. Most of the denitrifiers reported in solid-phase denitrification affiliated to the family Comamonadaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. The members of genera Diaphorobacter, Acidovorax and Simplicispira were mostly reported. In future study, more attention should be paid to the simultaneous removal of nitrate and toxic organic contaminants such as pesticide and PPCPs by solid-phase denitrification, to the elucidation of the metabolic and regulatory relationship between decomposition of solid carbon source and denitrification, and to the post-treatment of the municipal secondary effluent. Solid-phase denitrification process is a promising technology for the removal of nitrate from water and wastewater. Copyright © 2016

  17. Tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate as solid phase extractant for preconcentrative separation of thorium from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na Liu; Yanfei Wang; Chuhua He

    2016-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for solid phase extraction of thorium using tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate is presented. The solid phase extraction process was optimized at equilibrium time 3 h, pH = 4.5, initial concentration 30 mg L -1 and extractant dosage 0.01 g with 98.95 % of removal efficiency and 29.68 mg g -1 of adsorption capacity. The interfering ions experiments indicated that it had almost no effect on thorium adsorption. Kinetics data follow the pseudo-first-order model and equilibrium data agreed with the Langmuir isotherm model very well. FT-IR analysis indicated that imino group and phosphoryl acted as the significant roles in the solid phase extraction process. (author)

  18. Solid-phase route to Fmoc-protected cationic amino acid building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jacob Dahlqvist; Linderoth, Lars; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2012-01-01

    Diamino acids are commonly found in bioactive compounds, yet only few are commercially available as building blocks for solid-phase peptide synthesis. In the present work a convenient, inexpensive route to multiple-charged amino acid building blocks with varying degree of hydrophobicity...... was developed. A versatile solid-phase protocol leading to selectively protected amino alcohol intermediates was followed by oxidation to yield the desired di- or polycationic amino acid building blocks in gram-scale amounts. The synthetic sequence comprises loading of (S)-1-(p-nosyl)aziridine-2-methanol onto...... of simple neutral amino acids as well as analogs displaying high bulkiness or polycationic side chains was prepared. Two building blocks were incorporated into peptide sequences using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis confirming their general utility....

  19. Extraction of Pesticides from Plants using Solid Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, pesticide, plant sample, green techniques. 1. Introduction ... been used as pesticides3,4 whilst others are used in industrial processes as well as in the production of a range of goods such as solvents ...

  20. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  1. Possible superconductivity in the Bismuth IV solid phase under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ariel A; Rodríguez, Isaías; Hinojosa-Romero, David; Valladares, Alexander; Valladares, Renela M

    2018-04-13

    The first successful theory of superconductivity was the one proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in 1957. This breakthrough fostered a remarkable growth of the field that propitiated progress and questionings, generating alternative theories to explain specific phenomena. For example, it has been argued that Bismuth, being a semimetal with a low number of carriers, does not comply with the basic hypotheses underlying BCS and therefore a different approach should be considered. Nevertheless, in 2016 based on BCS we put forth a prediction that Bi at ambient pressure becomes a superconductor at 1.3 mK. A year later an experimental group corroborated that in fact Bi is a superconductor with a transition temperature of 0.53 mK, a result that eluded previous work. So, since Bi is superconductive in almost all the different structures and phases, the question is why Bi-IV has been elusive and has not been found yet to superconduct? Here we present a study of the electronic and vibrational properties of Bi-IV and infer its possible superconductivity using a BCS approach. We predict that if the Bi-IV phase structure were cooled down to liquid helium temperatures it would also superconduct at a T c of 4.25 K.

  2. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-01

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention of the kernel, which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 , BaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and CsAlSi 2 O 6 in the additional aluminasilica phase of the kernel. (orig.) [de

  3. Soft x-ray induced femtosecond solid-to-solid phase transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tavella, F.; Höppner, H.; Tkachenko, V.; Medvedev, Nikita; Capotondi, F.; Golz, T.; Kai, Y.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Prandolini, M.J.; Stojanovic, N.; Tanikawa, T.; Teubner, U.; Toleikis, S.; Ziaja, B.

    Roč. 24, Sep (2017), s. 22-27 ISSN 1574-1818 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : soft x-ray * ultrashort x-ray pulses * grafitization of diamond * non-thermal phase transition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2016

  4. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  5. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  6. Finite element modeling for integrated solid-solid PCM-building material with varying phase change temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Fung, A.S.; Siddiqui, O. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Solid-solid phase change materials (SSPCMs) are used to enhance thermal storage performance and reduce indoor temperature fluctuations in buildings. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was used to investigate the thermal properties of different types of SSPCMs. An effective heat capacity method was used to develop the model. An integrated PCM-building material was analyzed in relation to temperature and heat flux profiles. Governing equations for the heat transfer process were composed of Navier-Stokes momentum equations; a mass conservation equation; and an energy conservation equation. Effective heat capacity was described as a linear function of the latent heat of fusion on both the heating and cooling processes. Data from the simulation were then compared with an experiment suing drywall, concrete and gypcrete samples. Heat flux across the surfaces and temperatures on the surfaces of the materials were measured. Data were used to validate the finite element model (FEM). Results of the study suggested that heat flux profiles are an effective means of understanding phase change processes. It was concluded that PCMs with lower phase change temperatures lengthened energy releases and improved thermal comfort in the building. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Finite-deformation phase-field chemomechanics for multiphase, multicomponent solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bob; Shanthraj, Pratheek; Raabe, Dierk

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a framework for the formulation of geometrically non-linear inelastic chemomechanical models for a mixture of multiple chemical components diffusing among multiple transforming solid phases. The focus here is on general model formulation. No specific model or application is pursued in this work. To this end, basic balance and constitutive relations from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and continuum mixture theory are combined with a phase-field-based description of multicomponent solid phases and their interfaces. Solid phase modeling is based in particular on a chemomechanical free energy and stress relaxation via the evolution of phase-specific concentration fields, order-parameter fields (e.g., related to chemical ordering, structural ordering, or defects), and local internal variables. At the mixture level, differences or contrasts in phase composition and phase local deformation in phase interface regions are treated as mixture internal variables. In this context, various phase interface models are considered. In the equilibrium limit, phase contrasts in composition and local deformation in the phase interface region are determined via bulk energy minimization. On the chemical side, the equilibrium limit of the current model formulation reduces to a multicomponent, multiphase, generalization of existing two-phase binary alloy interface equilibrium conditions (e.g., KKS). On the mechanical side, the equilibrium limit of one interface model considered represents a multiphase generalization of Reuss-Sachs conditions from mechanical homogenization theory. Analogously, other interface models considered represent generalizations of interface equilibrium conditions consistent with laminate and sharp-interface theory. In the last part of the work, selected existing models are formulated within the current framework as special cases and discussed in detail.

  8. A Photolabile Linker for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide Hydrazides and Heterocycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2014-01-01

    A photolabile hydrazine linker for the solid-phase synthesis of peptide hydrazides and hydrazine-derived heterocycles is presented. The developed protocols enable the efficient synthesis of structurally diverse peptide hydrazides derived from the standard amino adds, including those with side......-chain protected residues at the C-terminal of the resulting peptide hydrazide, and are useful for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles. The linker is compatible with most commonly used coupling reagents and protecting groups for solid-phase peptide synthesis....

  9. Solid-phase extraction and determination of trace elements in environmental samples using naphthalene adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourreza, N.

    2004-01-01

    Naphthalene co-precipitated with quaternary ammonium salt such as tetraoctyl ammonium bromide and methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride have been used as adsorbent for solid phase extraction of metal ions such as Hg, Cd and Fe. The metal ions are retained on the adsorbent in a column as their complexes with suitable ligands and eluted by an eluent before instrumental measurements. The optimization of the procedures for solid phase extraction and consequent determination of trace elements and application to environmental samples especially water samples will be discussed. (author)

  10. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, W.D.; Legler, K.; Gerlich, W.; Stamm, B.; Zimmer, S.; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main; Goettingen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  11. Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.

  12. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohm, W D; Legler, K; Gerlich, W; Stamm, B; Zimmer, S [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Gastroenterologie; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.); Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Hygiene-Institut)

    1978-09-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis.

  13. Use of the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin for microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Androutsou, Maria Eleni; Pantelia, Anna; Friligou, Irene; Crisp, Molly; High, Kirsty; Penkman, Kirsty; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    A fast and efficient microwave (MW)-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol using the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and the Fmoc/tBu methodology, has been developed. The established protocol combines the advantages of MW irradiation and the acid labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin. The effect of temperature during the MW irradiation, the degree of resin substitution during the coupling of the first amino acids and the rate of racemization for each amino acid were evaluated. The suggested solid phase methodology is applicable for orthogonal peptide synthesis and for the synthesis of cyclic peptides. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningfang; Ma, Kun; Jin, Jing; Teng, Fei; Cai, Wei

    2017-10-26

    A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10 -5 deg/√h.

  15. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  16. Thermal decomposition and isomerization of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin in the solid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Audino, Paola; Licastro, Susana A; Zerba, Eduardo

    2002-02-01

    The stability to heart of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin in the solid phase was studied and the decomposition products identified. Samples heated at 210 degrees C in an oven in the dark showed that, in the absence of potassium chlorate (the salt present in smoke-generating formulations of these pyrethroids), cis-permethrin was not isomerized, although in the presence of that salt, decomposition was greater and thermal isomerization occurred. Other salts of the type KXO3 or NaXO3, with X being halogen or nitrogen, also led to a considerable thermal isomerization. Heating the insecticides in solution in the presence of potassium chlorate did not produce isomerization in any of the solvents assayed. Salt-catalysed thermal cis-trans isomerization was also found for other pyrethroids derived from permethrinic or deltamethrinic acid but not for those derived from chrysanthemic acid. The main thermal degradation processes of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin decomposition when potassium chlorate was present were cyclopropane isomerization, ester cleavage and subsequent oxidation of the resulting products. Permethrinic acid, 3-phenoxybenzyle chloride, alcohol, aldehyde and acid were identified in both cases, as well as 3-phenoxybenzyl cyanide from beta-cypermethrin. A similar decomposition pattern occurred after combustion of pyrethroid fumigant formulations.

  17. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase separation in biopolymer gels: a low- to high-solid exploration of structural morphology and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapis, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    Phase separation in protein and polysaccharide gels remains one of the basic tools of achieving the required structural properties and textural profile in food product formulations. As ever, the industrialist is faced with the challenge of innovation in an increasingly competitive market in terms of ingredient cost, product added-value, and expectations of a healthy life-style to mention but a few. It appears, however, that a gap persists between the fundamental knowledge and a direct application to food related concepts with a growing need for scientific input. Furthermore, within the context of materials science, there is a tendency to examine research findings in either low- or high-solid systems without considering synergistic insights/benefits to contemporary needs, spanning the full range of relevant time-, length-, and concentration scales. This review highlights the latest attempts made to utilize and further develop fundamental protocols from the advanced synthetic polymer research as a source of inspiration for contemporary bio-related applications in low- and intermediate-solid composite gels. Then, it takes advantage of this school of thought to "force a passage" through the phase topology and molecular dynamics of binary biopolymer mixtures at high levels of co-solute. It is hoped that these phenomenological and fundamental tools should be able to bridge the divide in the analysis of the two "types" of composite materials (from low to high solids) thus dealing effectively with the specific and often intricate problems of their science and applications.

  20. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzym...

  2. Solid solution and amorphous phase in Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn systems synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzman, P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Parra, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bejar, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Medina, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. España 485, Copiapó (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    This work discusses the formation of Ti–30Nb–13Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt%) solid solution by mechanical alloying using a shaker mill. A solid solution was formed after 15 h of milling and an amorphous phase was formed after 30 h of milling, according to X-ray diffraction results. Disappearance of strongest X-ray diffraction peaks of Nb, Ta and Mn indicated the formation of solid solution, while, X-ray diffraction patterns of powders milled for 30 h showed an amorphous hump with crystalline peaks in the angular range of 35–45° in 2θ. TEM image analysis showed the presence of nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds embedded in an amorphous matrix. Mn{sub 2}Ti, MnTi and NbTi{sub 4} intermetallic compounds were detected and revealed crystallites with size ranging from 3 to 20 nm. The Gibbs free energy for the formation of solid solution and amorphous phase of three ternary systems (Ti–Nb–Ta, Ti–Nb–Mn and Ti–Ta–Mn) was calculated using extended Miedema's model. Experimental and thermodynamic data confirmed that solid solution was first formed in the alloy with 6wt% Mn followed by the formation of an amorphous phase as milling time increases. The presence of Mn promoted the formation of amorphous phase because the atomic radius difference between Mn with Ti, Nb and Ta. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of extension of solid solution of the Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn system. • Formation of amorphous phase and intermetallic compounds were observed. • Nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds were formed with the sizes between 3 and 20 nm.

  3. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  5. Influence of pressure on the solid state phase transformation of Cu–Al–Bi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Jian-Hua, Liu; Wen-Kui, Wang; Ri-Ping, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The solid state phase transformation of Cu-Al-Bi alloy under high pressure was investigated by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results show that the initial crystalline phase in the Cu-Al-Bi alloy annealed at 750 °C under the pressures in the range of 0–6 GPa is α-Cu solid solution (named as α-Cu phase below), and high pressure has a great influence on the crystallisation process of the Cu-Al-Bi alloy. The grain size of the α-Cu phase decreases with increasing pressure as the pressure is below about 3 GPa, and then increases (P > 3 GPa). The mechanism for the effects of high pressure on the crystallisation process of the alloy has been discussed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  6. A reactor/separator device for use in automated solid phase immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, P.R.; Ordonez, K.P.; Siewers, I.J.

    1979-01-01

    A reactor/separator device is described for use in automated solid phase immunoassay, including radioimmunoassays. The device is a column fitted at the bottom portion with a water impermeable disc which can hold, for example, immunoabsorbents, immobilized antisera or ion exchange resins. When the contents of the column supported by the disc are brought into contact with an aqueous phase containing reagents or reactants, a chemical reaction is initiated. After the reaction, centrifugally applied pressure forces the aqueous phase through the filter disc making it water permeable and separating a desired component for subsequent analysis. The reactor/separator device of the present invention permits kinetic solid phase assays (non-equilibrium conditions) to be carried out which would be difficult to perform by other conventional methods. (author)

  7. REE interactions with hydroxyapatite. Formation of secondary solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, F.; Pablo, J. de; Bruno, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lighter rare earth elements (REE) commonly occur in nature as the phosphate mineral monazite, while the heavier REE and Yttrium occur as the phosphate mineral xenotime, which has a similar composition, but different coordination environment of the cation. The geochemical behaviour of REE is mainly controlled by their interactions with phosphate minerals such as hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, which is a very common phosphate phase in subsurface environments. Furthermore, is a material considered to be used in a High Level Nuclear Waste repository due to its high capacity in the retention of radionuclides. The objective of this work has been to study the reaction mechanisms and thermodynamics of the interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with hydroxyapatite as a model for general Ln(III) and Ac(III) behaviour. The surface interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with synthetic hydroxyapatite has been investigated in batch experiments with low REE 3+ initial concentrations in constant 0.1 M NaClO 4 , at room temperature and in N 2 (g) atmosphere to avoid carbonate complex formation. The initial kinetic experiments indicated that a short contact time is needed to reach equilibrium ( 4 .nH 2 O, where a 0.83 4 .nH 2 O with 1.78 4 medium and under N 2 (g) atmosphere. The experimental data indicate that the solubility equilibria is mainly controlled by the aqueous species REE 3+ until approximately pH=5 where the formation of aqueous complexes of the form REEHPO 4 + , REEPO 4 and REE(PO 4 ) 2 3- must be considered. (authors)

  8. Durability of solid oxide electrolysis cells for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauch, A.; Hoejgaard Jensen, S.; Dalgaard Ebbesen, S.

    2007-05-15

    In the perspective of the increasing interest in renewable energy and hydrogen economy, the reversible solid oxide cells (SOCs) is a promising technology as it has the potential of providing efficient and cost effective hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES). Furthermore development of such electrolysis cells can gain from the results obtained within the R and D of SOFCs. For solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) to become interesting from a technological point of view, cells that are reproducible, high performing and long-term stable need to be developed. In this paper we address some of the perspectives of the SOEC technology i.e. issues such as a potential H2 production price as low as 0.71 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} using SOECs for HTES; is there a possible market for the electrolysers? and what R and D steps are needed for the realisation of the SOEC technology? In the experimental part we present electrolysis test results on SOCs that have been optimized for fuel cell operation but applied for HTES. The SOCs are produced on a pre-pilot scale at Risoe National Laboratory. These cells have been shown to have excellent initial electrolysis performance, but the durability of such electrolysis cells are not optimal and examples of results from SOEC tests over several hundreds of hours are given here. The long-term tests have been run at current densities of -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} and -1 A/cm{sup 2}, temperatures of 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C and p(H{sub 2}O)/p(H{sub 2}) of 0.5/0.5 and 0.9/0.1. Long-term degradation rates are shown to be up to 5 times higher for SOECs compared to similar SOFC testing. Furthermore, hydrogen and synthetic fuel production prices are calculated using the experimental results from long-term electrolysis test as input and a short outlook for the future work on SOECs will be given as well. (au)

  9. Composition, production rate and characterization of Greek dental solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalidis, Alexandros; Topalidis, Antonios; Voudrias, Evangelos A; Iosifidis, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the composition, characterization and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW). This information is important to design and cost management systems for DSW, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 141 kg of DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of four working weeks. The waste was separated in 19 sub fractions, which were classified in 2 major categories, according to Greek regulations: Domestic-type waste comprising 8% and hazardous waste comprising 92% by weight of total DSW. The latter was further classified in infectious waste, toxic waste and mixed type waste (infectious and toxic together), accounting for 88.5%, 3.5% and 0.03% of total DSW by weight, respectively. The overall unit production rates (mean ± standard error of the mean) were 381 ± 15 g/practice/d and 53.3 ± 1.4 g/patient/d for total DSW, 337 ± 14 g/practice/d and 46.6 ± 1.2 g/patient/d for total infectious DSW, 13.4 ± 0.7 g/practice/d and 2.1 ± 0.1 g/patient/d for total toxic DSW and 30.4 ± 2.5 g/practice/d and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/patient/d for domestic-type waste. Daily DSW production was correlated with daily number of patients and regression correlations were produced. DSW was subject to laboratory characterization in terms of bulk density, calorific value, moisture, ash and volatile solids content. Measured calorific values were compared to predictions from empirical models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HPLC WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatographic determination of organophosphorous compound has been done by reverse phase chromatography in goats. The goats were dying showing the symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning. The viscera and stomach contents sample were received from Project Co-Ordinator, Animal Disease Research Institute, Phulnakhara, Cuttack, Orissa. The analysis of samples by HPLC with UV detector after cleaning up in Solid Phase Extraction (SPE revealed presence of malathion that was later quantified.

  11. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three ident...

  12. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Bárbara; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiabl...

  13. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareither, Christopher A., E-mail: christopher.bareither@colostate.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80532 (United States); Geological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wolfe, Georgia L., E-mail: gwolfe@wisc.edu [Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McMahon, Katherine D., E-mail: tmcmahon@engr.wisc.edu [Bacteriology, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Benson, Craig H., E-mail: chbenson@wisc.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ► Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ► Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ► Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ► Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and

  14. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ► Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ► Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ► Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ► Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and

  15. Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ENGINEERING GUIDANCE REPORT Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion ESTCP Project ER-200933 JUNE...Defense. Page Intentionally Left Blank Renewable Energy Production From DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion ii June 2016 REPORT...3. DATES COVERED (2009 – 2016) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion 5a

  16. Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun

    2016-11-01

    It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.

  17. Enhancing liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase separation by integrating alternating current electrocoagulators with processing and wastewater control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.E.; Stanczyk, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    Coal, pigments, pharmaceutical solids, ceramics, carbon, clays, metallic powders and ores are among the categorical groups of products which are wasted as suspended solids in aqueous-based wash solutions. Phase separation and recovery of these solids by conventional dewatering systems is costly and relatively inefficient. Alternating current can be used to neutralize the electrical charge on fine and ultra-fine particles in aqueous suspensions, and facilitate agglomeration and settling of these particulates without using chemicals while improving recovery efficiencies. This paper provides an overview of the technology and discusses applications and benefits in the areas of in-plant processing, industrial wastewater treatment, site remediation and water purification

  18. The Effects of Solid Phase Additives on Sintering Properties of Alumina Bioceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yu; LI Shi-pu; HE Jian-hua; JIANG Xin; LI Jian-hua

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the preparing conditions of alumina bioceramics,the Mg-Zr-Y composite solid phase additives were added into high purity Al2O3 micro-powder by chemical coprecipitation method.The powder was shaped under 200MPa cold isostatic pressure,and then the biscuits were sintered at 1600℃ under normal pressure.The sintered alumina materials were tested and the sintering mechanism was discussed.The results show that physical properties of the material were improved comparatively.The Mg-Zr-Y composite solid additives could promote the sintering of alumina bioceramics and the mechanism is solid phase sintering.

  19. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  20. Automated Solid-Phase Subcloning Based on Beads Brought into Proximity by Magnetic Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Elton P.; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlén, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and th...

  1. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  2. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  3. Solid-phase synthesis of head and tail bis-acridinylated peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Matějka, P.; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2004), s. 1203-1205 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : 9-amino acridine * solid phase synthesis * head and tail peptide conjugates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2004

  4. Solid-phase synthesis of an apoptosis-inducing tetrapeptide mimicking the Smac protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette; Petersen, Mette Terp

    2011-01-01

    An approach for the solid-phase synthesis of apoptosis-inducing Smac peptidomimetics is presented. Using a Rink linker strategy, tetrapeptides mimicking the N-4-terminal residue of the Smac protein [(N-Me)AVPF sequence] were synthesized on PEGA resin in excellent purities and yields. Following two...

  5. A convenient procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids on PEGA resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandurkar, Nitin Subhash; Petersen, Rico; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids is described. The method comprises the nucleophilic displacement of esters immobilized on PEGA resins with hydroxylamine/sodium hydroxide in isopropanol. The hydroxyaminolysis protocol is compatible with a broad range of PEGA...

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of polyfunctional polylysine dendrons using aldehyde linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenssen, Daniel K.; Mirsharghi, Sahar; Boas, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    A straightforward method for the solid-phase synthesis of C-terminally modified polylysine dendrons has been developed by applying bisalkoxybenzaldehyde and trisalkoxybenzaldehyde linkers. The method has been used for the synthesis of polylysine dendrons with a variety of C-terminal ‘tail groups’...

  7. Electronic structure of elements and compounds and electronic phases of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadykto, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews technique and computed energies for various electronic states of many-electron multiply charged ions, molecular ions, and electronic phases of solids. The model used allows computation of the state energy for free many-electron multiply charged ions with relative accuracy ∼10 -4 suitable for analysis of spectroscopy data

  8. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  9. A new solid-phase sandwich radioimmunoassay and its application to the detection of snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, A.R.; Cox, J.C.; Sutherland, S.K.; Waddel, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    A solid-phase sandwich radioimmunoassay is described which can be used for the detection and quantitative estimation of crude snake venom and a snake neurotoxin in clinical and experimental situations. Rabbit IgG antivenom or antineurotoxin, covalently coupled to a solid phase (CH-Sepharose 4B) is incubated with sample of unknown venom concentration. Venom bound by the solid-phase antibody is detected by reaction with 125 I-labelled rabbit IgG antivenom or antineurotoxin ([ 125 I]IgG). The resultant count, T, is the total (specific and non-specific) uptake of [ 125 I]IgG. Non-specific binding N, is similarly determined, but with normal rabbit IgG antivenom or antineurotoxin ([ 125 I]IgG). The resultant count, T, is the total (specific and non-specific) uptake of [ 125 I]IgG. Non-specific binding N, is similarly determined, but with normal rabbit IgG bound to the solid phase. A T:N value greater than 1.8 for human serum or urine indicates the presence of venom in a sample (P>0.95). Positive samples are assayed at several dilutions and the venom present estimated from the specific count (T-N). Levels of 0.4 ng/ml of crude tiger snake venom (TSV) and 0.1 ng/ml of neurotoxin can be reliably detected by this procedure. (Auth.)

  10. Influence of Calcium on Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase Uranium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium on microbial reduction of a solid phase U(VI), sodium boltwoodite (NaUO2SiO3OH · 1.5H2O), was evaluated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. Batch experiments were performed in a non-growth bicarbonate medium with lactate as electron donor at pH 7 buffered with PIPES. Calcium increased both the rate and extent of Na-boltwoodite dissolution by increasing its solubility through the formation of a ternary aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate species. The ternary species, however, decreased the rates of microbial reduction of aqueous U(VI). Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) is a sequentially coupled process of Na-boltwoodite dissolution, U(VI) aqueous speciation, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI) to U(IV) that accumulated on bacterial surfaces/periplasm. The overall rates of microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) can be described by the coupled rates of dissolution and microbial reduction that were both influenced by calcium. The results demonstrated that dissolved U(VI) concentration during microbial reduction was a complex function of solid phase U(VI) dissolution kinetics, aqueous U(VI) speciation, and microbial activity

  11. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  12. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, "ready for use" MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours.

  13. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water

    OpenAIRE

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, “ready for use” MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours.

  14. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John

    2014-01-01

    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  15. Detection and specifity of class specific antibodies to whole bacteria cells using a solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerkinsky, C.; Rees, A.S.; Bergimeier, L.A.; Challacombe, S.J. (Guy' s Hospital Medical and Dental Schools, London (UK))

    1983-07-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which can be used for the detection of isotype specific antibodies to whole bacteria and other particulate antigens, and is applicable to a variety of species. Bacteria are bound to the solid phase by the use either of antibodies, or of methyl glyoxal. Both methods result in a sensitive and reproducible assay, and bacteria do not appear to desorb from the solid phase. The specificity of antibodies to whole bacteria was examined by absorption of antisera with various species of bacteria and retesting, or by determining the binding of antisera to various bacteria bound to the solid phase. Both methods revealed specificity for the bacteria examined. Inhibition studies showed that antibodies to Streptococcus mutans whole cells could be inhibited by purified cell surface antigens glucosyltransferase and antigen I/II, but only minimally by lipoteichoic acid, c polysaccharide or dextran. In murine antisera antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes could be detected at amounts of less than 1 ng/ml.

  16. Solid-phase extraction of berries’ anthocyanins and evaluation of their antioxidative properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Číž, Milan; Ambrožová, Gabriela; Lojek, Antonín; Yanakieva, I.; Kratchanova, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 4 (2010), s. 1055-1061 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : anthocyanins * solid-phase extraction * berry extracts Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.458, year: 2010

  17. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  18. Technical note: New applications for on-line automated solid phase extraction

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, John D.

    1997-01-01

    This technical note explains the disadvantages of manual solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques and the benefits to be gained with automatic systems. The note reports on a number of general and highly specific applications using the Sample Preparation Unit OSP-2A.

  19. Solution and solid-phase halogen and C-H hydrogen bonding to perrhenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massena, Casey J; Riel, Asia Marie S; Neuhaus, George F; Decato, Daniel A; Berryman, Orion B

    2015-01-28

    (1)H NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic investigations of a 1,3-bis(4-ethynyl-3-iodopyridinium)benzene scaffold with perrhenate reveal strong halogen bonding in solution, and bidentate association in the solid state. A nearly isostructural host molecule demonstrates significant C-H hydrogen bonding to perrhenate in the same phases.

  20. Speciation analysis of aqueous nanoparticulate diclofenac complexes by solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Thibault, S.; Town, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic sorption of an organic compound by nanoparticles (NPs) is analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the example case of the pharmaceutical diclofenac in dispersions of impermeable (silica, SiO(2)) and permeable (bovine serum albumin, BSA) NPs. It is shown that only the

  1. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  2. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  3. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A P; Rezapkin, G V; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A [Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  4. Chemically and geographically distinct solid-phase iron pools in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, TN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a limiting nutrient in many parts of the oceans, including the unproductive regions of the Southern Ocean. Although the dominant fraction of the marine iron pool occurs in the form of solid-phase particles, its chemical speciation...

  5. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-04-15

    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  7. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  8. Development of an interface for directly coupled solid-phase extraction and GC-MS analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öllers, M.J.H.; van Lieshout, H.P.M.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is widely used as a sample preparation technique in numerous application areas of chromatography. Large-volume injection is an attractive technique for coupling SPE to gas chromatography (GC) because it provides improved detection limits and circumvents the need for

  9. A simplified radiometabolite analysis procedure for PET radioligands using a solid phase extraction with micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ryuji; Halldin, Christer

    2013-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed for simple and high-speed direct determination of PET radioligands in plasma. Methods: This methodology makes use of a micellar medium and a solid-phase extraction cartridge for displacement of plasma protein bound radioligand and separation of PET radioligands from their radiometabolites without significant preparation. The plasma samples taken from monkey or human during PET measurements were mixed with a micellar eluent containing an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate and loaded onto SPE cartridges. The amount of radioactivity corresponding to parent radioligand (retained on the cartridge) and its radioactive metabolites (eluted with micellar eluent) was measured. Results: Under the optimized conditions, excellent separation of target PET radioligands from their radiometabolites was achieved with a single elution and short run-time of 1 min. This method was successfully applied to study the metabolism for 11 C-labelled radioligands in human or monkey plasma. The amount of parent PET radioligands estimated by micellar solid phase extraction strongly corresponded with that determined by radio-LC. The improved throughput permitted the analysis of a large number of plasma samples (up to 13 samples per one PET study) for accurate estimation of metabolite-corrected input function during quantitative PET imaging studies. Conclusion: Solid phase extraction together with micellar medium is fast, sensitive and easy to use, and therefore it is an attractive alternative method to determine relative composition of PET radioligands in plasma

  10. Graft-copolymerization of styrene on polypropylene in the solid phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, W.; VanderWal, D.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Buijtenhuijs, A.; Hogt, A.H.; Wal, Douwe J. v.d.

    The graft-copolymerization of styrene on PP in the solid phase has been studied under various reaction conditions using a radical initiator. Polymerization kinetics were investigated by DSC experiments and reactions in glass ampoules. The conversion rate and grafting efficiency of styrene appeared

  11. Linkers, resins, and general procedures for solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Anne Pernille Tofteng; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    and linkers for solid-phase synthesis is a key parameter for successful peptide synthesis. This chapter provides an overview of the most common and useful resins and linkers for the synthesis of peptides with C-terminal amides, carboxylic acids, and more. The chapter finishes with robust protocols for general...

  12. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhabib, K.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the

  13. Ergot alkaloids in rye flour determined by solid-phase cation-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Strobel, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that are undesirable contaminants of cereal products, particularly rye. A method was developed employing clean-up by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, separation by high-performance liquid chromatography under alkaline conditions and fluorescence detection...

  14. LC-UV-solid-phase extraction-NMR-MS combined with a cryogenic flow probe and its application to the identification of compounds present in Greek oregano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Godejohann, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Gerothanassis, I.P.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Structure elucidation of natural products usually relies on a combination of NMR spectroscopy with mass spectrometry whereby NMR trails MS in terms of the minimum sample amount required. In the present study, the usefulness of on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in LC-NMR for peak storage after the

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD 535 FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CHLOROACETANILIDE AND OTHER ACETAMIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATES IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 535 has been developed in order to provide a method for the analysis of "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide degradation products" which are listed on U.S. EPA's 1998 Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Method 535 uses solid phase extraction with a nonporous gr...

  16. Phase relations and Gibbs energies of spinel phases and solid solutions in the system Mg-Rh-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.T., E-mail: katob@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Prusty, Debadutta [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Kale, G.M. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refinement of phase diagram for the system Mg-Rh-O and thermodynamic data for spinel compounds MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solid-state electrochemical cell is used for thermodynamic measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An advanced design of the solid-state electrochemical cell incorporating buffer electrodes is deployed to minimize polarization of working electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regular solution model for the spinel solid solution MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} - Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} based on ideal mixing of cations on the octahedral site is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors responsible for stabilization of tetravalent rhodium in spinel compounds are identified. - Abstract: Pure stoichiometric MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} could not be prepared by solid state reaction from an equimolar mixture of MgO and Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3} in air. The spinel phase formed always contained excess of Mg and traces of Rh or Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The spinel phase can be considered as a solid solution of Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} in MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The compositions of the spinel solid solution in equilibrium with different phases in the ternary system Mg-Rh-O were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The oxygen potential established by the equilibrium between Rh + MgO + Mg{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} was measured as a function of temperature using a solid-state cell incorporating yttria-stabilized zirconia as an electrolyte and pure oxygen at 0.1 MPa as the reference electrode. To avoid polarization of the working electrode during the measurements, an improved design of the cell with a buffer electrode was used. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} were deduced from the measured electromotive force (e.m.f.) by invoking a model for the spinel solid solution. The parameters of the model were optimized using the measured

  17. Silica Modified with Polyaniline as a Potential Sorbent for Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) of Plant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Sawicki, Jan; Staniak, Michał; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Mołdoch, Jarosław; Latalski, Michał

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and matrix solid–phase extraction (MSPD). The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) quantitative analysis. The quality of the sorbent was verified by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy combined with automated procedure using computer image analysis. For extraction experiments, triterpenes were chosen as model compounds. The optimal conditions were as follows: protonated Si-PANI impregnated with water, 160/1 sorbent/analyte ratio, 3 min of extraction time, 4 min of desorption time and methanolic solution of ammonia for elution of analytes. The proposed procedure was successfully used for pretreatment of plant samples. PMID:29565297

  18. Silica Modified with Polyaniline as a Potential Sorbent for Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD and Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE of Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Sowa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANI is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME. In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE and matrix solid–phase extraction (MSPD. The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD quantitative analysis. The quality of the sorbent was verified by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy combined with automated procedure using computer image analysis. For extraction experiments, triterpenes were chosen as model compounds. The optimal conditions were as follows: protonated Si-PANI impregnated with water, 160/1 sorbent/analyte ratio, 3 min of extraction time, 4 min of desorption time and methanolic solution of ammonia for elution of analytes. The proposed procedure was successfully used for pretreatment of plant samples.

  19. Thermal conductivity of solid cyclohexane in orientationally ordered and disordered phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, V. A.; Revyakin, V. P.; Sagan, V. V.; Pursky, O. I.; Sysoev, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conductivity Λ P of solid cyclohexane is measured at a pressure P = 0.1 MPa in the temperature range from 80 K to the melting point, which covers the ranges of low-temperature orientationally ordered phase II and high-temperature orientationally disordered phase I. Thermal conductivity Λ V is measured at a constant volume in orientationally disordered phase I. The thermal conductivity measured at atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing temperature as Λ P ∝ T −1.15 in phase II, whereas Λ P ∝ T −0.3 in phase I. As temperature increases, isochoric thermal conductivity Λ V in phase I increases gradually. The experimental data are described in terms of a modified Debye model of thermal conductivity with allowance for heat transfer by both phonons and “diffuse” modes.

  20. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using solid-phase extraction and bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion to quantify the fungicide tebuconazole in controlled frog exposure study: analysis of water and animal tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    and on tissue from exposed and non-exposed adult X. laevis. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), the analytical method allows for quantification of tebuconazole at concentrations as low as 3.89 pg mL(-1) in 10 mL water samples. Using bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), it was possible...

  1. New Approaches in Soil Organic Matter Fluorescence; A Solid Phase Fluorescence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, M. M.; Sanclements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique to investigate the composition of organic matter in aquatic systems and is increasingly applied to soil organic matter (SOM). Current methods require that SOM be extracted into a liquid prior to analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil extractions introduce an additional layer of complexity as the composition of the organic matter dissolved into solution varies based upon the selected extractant. Water is one of the most commonly used extractant, but only extracts the water-soluble fraction of the SOM with the insoluble soil organic matter fluorescence remaining in the soil matrix. We propose the use of solid phase fluorescence on whole soils as a potential tool to look at the composition of organic matter without the extraction bias and gain a more complete understand of the potential for fluorescence as a tool in terrestrial studies. To date, the limited applications of solid phase fluorescence have ranged from food and agriculture to pharmaceutical with no clearly defined methods and limitations available. We are aware of no other studies that use solid phase fluorescence and thus no clear methods to look at SOM across a diverse set of soil types and ecosystems. With this new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy there are new challenges, such as blank correction, inner filter effect corrections, and sample preparation. This work outlines a novel method for analyzing soil organic matter using solid phase fluorescence across a wide range of soils collected from the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) eco-domains. This method has shown that organic matter content in soils must be diluted to 2% to reduce backscattering and oversaturation of the detector in forested soils. In mineral horizons (A) there is observed quenching of the humic-like organic matter, which is likely a result of organo-mineral complexation. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons between solid and liquid phase

  2. Development of a solid-phase assay for measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.; Johnson, K.; Kaplan, J.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase, plate assay was developed for the measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity. In this assay procedure, radiolabeled substrates were dried onto the surface of microtiter wells. Following drying, the wells were washed two times with saline to remove the nonadherent substrate. When proteolytic enzymes were added to the wells, protein hydrolysis occurred, releasing radioactivity into the supernatant fluid. The amount of protein hydrolysis that occurred was reflected by the amount of radioactivity in the supernatant fluid. When 125 I-hemoglobin was used as the substrate, it was as susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid-phase assay as it was in solution in a standard assay procedure. Protease activity from a variety of sources (including from viable cells as well as from extracellular sources) were also able to hydrolyze the hemoglobin on the plate. 125 I-Labeled serum albumen, fibrinogen, and rat pulmonary basement membrane were also susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid phase. When [ 14 C]elastin was dried onto the plate, it behaved in a similar manner to elastin in solution. It was resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin but was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by elastase. The solid-phase plate assay has several features which recommended it for routine use. It is as sensitive as standard tube assays (and much more sensitive than routinely used colormetric assays). It is quick and convenient; there are no precipitation, centrifugation, or filtration steps. In addition, very small volumes of radioactive wastes are generated. Another advantage of the solid-phase plate assay is the resistance of the dried substrates to spontaneous breakdown and to microbial contamination. Finally, this assay is suitable for use with viable cells as well as for extracellular proteases

  3. The study of long-term stability in liquid-solid phases for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, J.Y.; Ke, C.H.; Wang, T.H.; Jan, Y.L.; Lee, C.B.; Lan, P.L.; Hsu, C.N.; Tsai, S.C.; Li, M.H.; Teng, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This study is conducted to observe changes in both chemical properties of buffer materials and liquid phases over an experimental period of 2 years. In our experiments, bentonite powder and crushed granite are separately mixed with synthetic groundwater, synthetic seawater and de-ionised water at a fixed liquid-solid ratio of 30. A mixed set with both bentonite and granite together as solid phase is also investigated. During this study, aliquots of the liquid phases are sampled every two months and pH and Eh values are measured immediately. Concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ba, Fe, Sr, Li and Th are analyzed in the liquid phase directly by ICP-AES. After separation by centrifugation followed by freeze drying and digestion, the solid phases are analyzed as well for elemental composition. Alteration of solid phases during the experimental period is discussed. The preliminary results show that the pH values of the three solutions vary considerably in the individual experimental systems containing bentonite, granite or the mixed system. In general, higher pH values are found in DI-water for all solid phases. Eh values fluctuate a lot in the range 100 to 300 mV in all experiment sets. Different to the experiments with granite for which similar Eh values are found in all solutions, a significantly different Eh-value is found in the experiment with bentonite in DI-water as compared to the other solutions. The results from element analysis indicate that equilibrium is achieved after only two months and element concentrations change only slightly thereafter. We conclude from our experiments that both bentonite and granite keep their characteristics as radionuclide sorbents in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. Reaction equilibria appear to be attained rapidly. Because there are just a few alterations in this study, it would be a huge error source in analyzing from the inhomogeneous solid phase such as granite and losses

  4. Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth

  5. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  6. Homogeneous nucleation in phase separation of solid 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.; Smith, A.; Maidanov, V.A.; Rudavskii, E.Ya.; Grigor'ev, V.N.; Slezov, V.V.; Saunders, J.; Cowan, B.

    2003-01-01

    NMR and pressure have been measured during phase separation in solid 3 He- 4 He mixtures. Spin echoes were used to observe bounded diffusion and to estimate the diffusion coefficient, size and nuclei concentration in the 3 He-enriched phase. The characteristic phase separation time constant of the mixture was found from pressure measurements. The results argue convincingly for homogeneous nucleation. The surface tension of the nuclei is found independently from NMR and from pressure measurements; the two determinations agree well and yield a surface tension coefficient of 4.9x10 -6 J m -2

  7. Application of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) in profiling hydrocarbons in oil spill cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraidah Abdullah Munir; Norashikin Saim; Nurul Huda Mamat Ghani

    2008-01-01

    In environmental forensic, it is extremely important to have a fast and reliable method in identifying sources of spilled oil and petroleum products. In this study, solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of hydrocarbons in diesel and petroleum contaminated soil samples. Optimization of SPME parameters such as extraction time, extraction temperature and desorption time, was performed using 100-μm poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. These parameters were studied at three levels by means of a central composite experimental design and the optimum experimental conditions were determined using response surface method. The developed SPME method was applied to determine the profiles of hydrocarbons in several oil contaminated soil sample. The SPME method was also used to study the effects of weathering on the profiles of hydrocarbons in unleaded gasoline, diesel and kerosene contaminated soil samples. After several days, significant losses of the lighter hydrocarbons were observed compared to the heavier ones. From these data, SPME method can be used to differentiate possible candidate sources in oil spill cases. (author)

  8. Preparation of milk samples for immunoassay and liquid chromatographic screening using matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A; Long, A R

    1994-01-01

    The use of drugs to maintain the health and maximize the output of dairy cattle has made the monitoring of milk for such agents essential. Screening tests based on immunological, microbial inhibition, and bacterial receptor assays have been developed for the detection of violative levels of therapeutic substances. However, such assays are not infallible, and false positive or negative results can occur when contaminants bind receptors or compete for the binding of the target residues. Such effects may arise from dietary sources, diseases, or other variables. Thus, a violation by such a test is not definitive until further confirmation is obtained. Our laboratory has developed extraction procedures for several drugs used in dairy production. Our method uses matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) to isolate drugs away from contaminants and to eliminate many possible interferences. MSPD can also be used to enhance the specificity of such assays by fractionating various classes of drugs that may cross-react. Similarly, such methods may be used for liquid chromatographic screening and confirmation of a suspect sample.

  9. Investigation of solid-phase hydrogenation of amino acids and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, Yu.A.; Myasoedov, N.F.; Zajtsev, D.A.; Lubnin, M.Yu.; Tatur, V.Yu.; Kozik, V.S.; Dorokhova, E.M.; Rozenberg, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of synthesizing amino acids and peptides multiply labelled with tritium or deuterium by the method of solid-phase isotopic exchange with gaseous hydrogen isotopes was verified. Establishment of the isotopic hydrogen equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the solid phase formed by the amino acid molecules was found experimentally. The activation energy of the isotopic exchange is 13 kcal/mol. A mathematical model was set up for the isotopic exchange with a probable substitution of hydrogen atoms. Uniformly labelled amino acids were obtained in a high optical purity and with 80 to 90% hydrogen substitution by deuterium and tritium. Tritiated peptides were prepared in high yields at molar activities of 1.5 to 3.7 TBq/mmol. (author). 4 tabs

  10. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  11. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  12. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  13. A photolabile linker for the solid-phase synthesis of 4-substituted NH-1,2,3-triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2011-01-01

    A novel photolabile linker for solid-phase synthesis is presented. The linker displays an azido handle for copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reactions with a variety of alkynes, remains intact under typical solid-phase reaction conditions, and enables a mild photolytic release of 4...

  14. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Binesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  15. Reaction of hydrogen atoms produced by radiolysis and photolysis in solid phase at 4 and 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of H atoms in the solid phase has been reviewed with special attention to comparison of H atoms produced by radiolysis with those produced by photolysis. The paper consists of three parts. I -Production of H atoms: (1) the experimental results which indicate H-atom formation in the radiolysis of solid alkane are summarized; (2) ESR saturation behavior of trapped H atoms depends upon the method of H-atom-production, i.e. photolysis or radiolysis, and upon the initial energy of H atoms in the photolysis. II - Diffusion of H atoms: (1) activation energies for thermally-activated diffusion of H atoms are shown; (2) quantum diffusion of H atoms in solid H 2 is explained in terms of repetition of tunneling reaction H 2 + H → H + H 2 . III -Reaction of H atoms: (1) reactions and trapping processes of hot H atoms have been shown in solid methane and argon by use of hot H atoms with specified initial energy; (2) when H atoms are produced by the radiolysis of solvent alkane or by the photolysis of HI in the alkane mixtures at 77 K, the H atoms react very selectively with solute alkane at low concentration. The selective reaction of the H atom has been found in eight matrices; (3) activation energy for a hydrogen-atom-abstraction reaction by thermal H atoms at low temperatures is less than than several kJ mol -1 because of quantum tunneling. The absolute rate constants for H 2 (D 2 , HD) + H(D) tunneling reactions have been determined experimentally in solid hydrogen at 4.2K; (4) theoretical studies for tunneling reactions H 2 (D 2 ,HD) + H(D) at ultralow temperatures were reviewed. The calculated rate constants were compared with the rate constants obtained experimentally. (author)

  16. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  17. Phase characteristics of solid-state amplifiers in sub-harmonic bunchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rong; Ma Xinpeng; Zhao Fengli; Wang Xiangjian; Wang Guangwei; Huang Yongqing; Zhang Donghui

    2009-01-01

    To study the phase characteristics of solid-state amplifiers(20 kW/142.8 MHz,10 kW/571.2 MHz) in sub-harmonic bunchers(SHBs) of the BEPC II linear accelerator, phase shift in pulse and phase stability are measured using a digital measurement method based on field programmable gate array(FPGA). The hardware of the measurement system includes the frequency synthesizer, digital signal processing board(FPGA) and PC, and the software includes an internal algorithm on FPGA, communication procedures and PC client interface procedures. The measurement results of phase characteristics are consistent with the actual situation, which is the basis for the further implement of phase compensation in SHBs. (authors)

  18. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Iron using Lanthanum Silicate ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiarostami, V.; Husain, W.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is gaining wide use as an effective and speedy technique which reduces solvent usage, disposal costs and extraction time. The analyte is adsorbed from solution onto a solid adsorbent, which is followed by elution of the analyte with a solvent appropriate for instrumental analysis. However, there is an increasing need for new selective adsorbents to expand the area of this technique. Lanthanum silicate ion exchanger, which shows unusual selectivity elements and in this study, it was employed to develop a SPE method for iron ion. Special experiments such as determination of distribution coefficient for iron ion in different solvent systems have been determined

  19. Kinetics of solid-phase in ion exchange on tin hydrogen phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislitsyn, M.N.; Ketsko, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Solid state reactions in mixture of tin hydrogen phosphate and alkali metal (M=Na, K, Cs) chlorides have been studied both in the mode of polythermal heating and at a fixed temperature, using data of X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyses. In the range 400-750 Deg C solid state ion exchange reactions occur in the systems studied and yield mono-- and dialkali phosphates MHSn(PO 4 ) 2 and M 2 Sn(PO 4 ) 2 . Counter diffusion coefficients for alkali metal cations and protons in the matrices of compositions MHSn(PO 4 ) 2 and M 2 Sn(PO 4 ) 2 have been determined [ru

  20. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Ghaderi, Ali R. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 {mu}g of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  1. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Ghaderi, Ali R.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO 3 and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 μg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO 3 solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL -1 Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL -1 Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments

  2. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ghaderi, Ali R

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5M HNO(3) and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 microg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5M HNO(3) solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ngmL(-1) Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ngmL(-1) Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  3. Direct determination of enthalpies of solid phase reactions by immersion method; Determination directe des enthalpies de reaction en phase solide par une methode de plongee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, A; Richard, M; Eyraud, L; Stevanovic, M; Elston, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    It is not generally possible to measure the enthalpy change corresponding to solid phase reactions using the dynamic differential thermal analysis method because these reactions are usually too slow at the temperature of operation of present equipment. A ballistic differential thermal analysis apparatus has been developed which is based on an immersion-compensation method; it overcomes the difficulties previously encountered. This apparatus has been used after calibration for determining the enthalpies of formation of calcium and cadmium titanates. and also the Wigner energies of BeO, MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples irradiated at variable dose at a temperature of under 100 deg. C. (authors) [French] Il n'est generalement pas possible de mesurer la variation d'enthalpie correspondant aux reactions en phase solide par la methode d'analyse thermique differentielle dynamique. En effet, ces reactions sont le plus souvent trop lentes aux temperatures d'utilisation des dispositifs actuels. Un appareil d'analyse thermique differentielle balistique, base sur une methode de plongee avec compensation, a ete mis au point et permet de surmonter les difficultes precedentes. Apres etalonnages, cet appareil a ete utilise pour la determination des enthalpies de formation du titanate de calcium et du titanate de cadmium ainsi que pour celle des energies Wigner emmagasinees dans des echantillons de BeO, MgO et Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradies a une temperature inferieure a 100 deg. C et a differentes doses. (auteurs)

  4. Evaluation of a solid-phase RIA technique and a solid-phase ELISA technique for demonstrating hepatitis-B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranckx, R.; Cole, J.; Peetermans, M.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivities of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA), a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and a haemagglutination test (RPHA) for the detection of the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) were compared (1) by screening a panel of 300 sera (97 positives and 203 negatives), and (2) by titrating serial dilutions of 10 positive sera. Ninety-seven sera were positive by RIA, 95% were detected by ELISA and 81% were detected by RPHA. In the serial dilutions, the average end-points of the titrations were 0.005ng/ml for RIA, 0.01ng/ml for ELISA and 0.04 ng/ml for RPHA. It can be concluded that the sensitivity of the ELISA test is intermediate between that of the RIA and the RPHA. The ELISA and the RPHA tests seem to be a little more sensitive for the detection of subtype ay than for the detection of subtype ad. (author)

  5. Quantum chemistry of solids and materials technology: solid-phase compounds of d- and f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studies aimed at the development of methods of theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of solid phase compounds of α- and f-elements and the modelling of physicochemical properties of materials developed on their basis, are presented. The possibilities of cluster and zone calculations of the electronic structure of refractory compounds of d-metals with light elements are considered. The regularities of changes in the chemical bond and properties during crystal lattice alloying with metals, metalloids are found. The methods of quantum chemical modeling of optically active and luminescent materials on the base of oxides, fluorides, chalcogenides of d- and f-metals are developed. The compositions of new optically active compositions and protective coatings are suggested. New approaches to the study of magnetic properties of metals, alloys and compounds are developed. The results of calculations of the energy spectra of high-temperature oxide superconductors are given

  6. Production of biochar from olive mill solid waste for heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Samya O; Dosoretz, Carlos G; Rytwo, Giora; Gerchman, Yoram; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Commercial activated carbon (CAC) and biochar are useful adsorbents for removing heavy metals (HM) from water, but their production is costly. Biochar production from olive solid waste from two olive cultivars (Picual and Souri) and two oil production process (two- or three-phase) and two temperatures (350 and 450°C) was tested. The biochar yield was 24-35% of the biomass, with a surface area of 1.65-8.12m 2 g -1 , as compared to 1100m 2 g -1 for CAC. Picual residue from the two-phase milling technique, pyrolysed at 350°C, had the best cumulative removal capacity for Cu +2 , Pb +2 , Cd +2 , Ni +2 and Zn +2 with more than 85% compared to other biochar types and CAC. These results suggest that surface area cannot be used as a sole predictor of HM removal capacity. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups in the different biochar types, which may be related to the differences in absorbing capacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of multi-class herbicides in soil by liquid-solid extraction coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović-Pejčev Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for simultaneous determination of five herbicides (metribuzin, acetochlor, clomazone, oxyfluorfen and dimethenamid belonging to different pesticides groups in soil samples. Developed headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS-SPME in combination with liquid-solid sample preparation (LS was optimized and applied in the analysis of some agricultural samples. Optimization of microextraction conditions, such as temperature, extraction time and sodium chloride (NaCl content was perfor-med using 100 μm polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS fiber. The extraction effi-ciencies of methanol, methanol:acetone=1:1 and methanol:acetone:hexane= =2:2:1 and the optimum number of extraction steps during the sample prepa-ration, were tested, as well. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantification, obtaining relative standard deviation (RSD below 13%, and recovery values higher than 83% for multiple analyses of soil samples fortified at 30 μg kg-1 of each herbicide. Limits of detection (LOD were less than 1.2 μg kg-1 for all the studied herbicides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31043 i br. III43005

  8. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  9. The binary (solid + liquid) phase diagrams of (caprylic or capric acid) + (1-octanol or 1-decanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Castagnaro, Thamires; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of mixtures of caprylic acid, (capric acid + 1-octanol), 1-decanol were studied. • Experimental data were obtained through DSC and Stepscan DSC. • Systems presented eutectic and peritectic points. • Liquidus line was modeled using Margules and NRTL models. • Solid phase was modeled using the Slaughter and Doherty approach. - Abstract: In the present study the phase diagrams of four (fatty acid + fatty alcohol) binary mixtures composed of caprylic (C8O2) or capric acid (C10O2) + 1-octanol (C8OH) or 1-decanol (C10OH) were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Eutectic and peritectic reactions occurred in the systems. In standard DSC analyses of the (C8O2 + C10OH) and (C10O2 + C8OH) systems, an exothermic transition occurs in association with the melting of a metastable phase. A Stepscan DSC method was used in order to avoid the formation of this metastable phase during the heating of the mixtures. The approach suggested by Slaughter and Doherty (1995) [24] was used for modeling the solid phase, and the Margules 2-suffix, Margules 3-suffix and NRTL models were applied for calculating the activity coefficients of the liquid phase. The best modeling results were obtained using the Margules-3-suffix with an average deviation between experimental and calculated values ranging from T = (0.3 to 0.9) K

  10. THE ROLE OF 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE IN ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID-PHASE ELECTRON TRANSFER BY SHEWANELLA ONEIDENSIS MR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2007-06-01

    While mechanistic details of dissimilatory metal reduction are far from being understood, it is postulated that the electron transfer to solid metal oxides is mediated by outer membrane-associated c-type cytochromes and redox active electron shuttling compounds. This study focuses on the production of homogensitate in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an intermediate of tyrosine degradation pathway, which is a precursor of a redox cycling metabolite, pyomelanin. In this study, we determined that two enzymes involved in this pathway, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) and homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase are responsible for homogentisate production and oxidation, respectively. Inhibition of 4-HPPD activity with the specific inhibitor sulcotrione (2-(2-chloro-4-methane sulfonylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione), and deletion of melA, a gene encoding 4-HPPD, resulted in no pyomelanin production by S. oneidensis MR-1. Conversely, deletion of hmgA which encodes the putative homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, resulted in pyomelanin overproduction. The efficiency and rates, with which MR-1 reduces hydrous ferric oxide, were directly linked to the ability of mutant strains to produce pyomelanin. Electrochemical studies with whole cells demonstrated that pyomelanin substantially increases the formal potential (E{sup o}{prime}) of S. oneidensis MR-1. Based on this work, environmental production of pyomelanin likely contributes to an increased solid-phase metal reduction capacity in Shewanella oneidensis.

  11. Solid Phase Characterization Of Heel Samples From Tank 241-C-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    During sluicing operations of tank 241-C-110, a significant amount of solids were unable to be retrieved. These solids (often referred to as the tank 'heel') were sampled in 2010 and chemically and mineralogically analyzed in the 222-S Laboratory. Additionally, dissolution tests were performed to identify the amount of undissolvable material after using multiple water contacts. This report covers the solid phase characterization of six samples from these tests using scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The chemical analyses, particle size distribution analysis, and dissolution test results are reported separately. Two of the samples were from composites created from as-received material - Composite A and Composite B. The main phase in these samples was sodium-fluoride-phosphate hydrate (natrophosphate) - in the X-ray diffraction spectra, this phase was the only phase identifiable. Polarized light microscopy showed the presence of minor amounts of gibbsite and other phases. These phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as sodium aluminosilicates, sodium diuranate, and sodium strontium phosphate hydrate (nastrophite) crystals. The natrophosphate crystals in the scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a variety of erosive and dissolution features from perfectly shaped octahedral to well-rounded appearance. Two samples were from water-washed Composites A and B, with no change in mineralogy compared to the as-received samples. This is not surprising, since the water wash had only a short period of water contact with the material as opposed to the water dissolution tests. The last two samples were residual solids from the water dissolution tests. These tests included multiple additions of water at 15 C and 45 C. The samples were sieved to separate a coarser fraction of > 710 μm and a finer fraction of < 710 μm. These two fractions were analyzed separately. The coarser

  12. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  13. Radioimmunoassay of diagoxin with the aid of the solid phase - microtitre plating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported here on the development of a digoxin-radioimmunoassay with an anti-digoxin antibody (goat) in a solid phase technique (mictrotitre plate). The advantages compared to conventional RIAs are: Cross reactions towards digoxin is minimal, both in vitro and in vivo. The calibraton range extends from 0.25 to 8 ng/ml. The radioactive load could be reduced significantly by use of smaller amounts of tracer (0.004 μCi/single determination) and by reduction of waste volume (solid), waste weight (solid) and liquid waste. The DIGOXIN RIA BIOTEST MTP is, in addition, the only digoxin radioimmunoassay where radioactive waste is produced in a sealed form. The test is a simple one and can be carried out without the need for complicated apparatus and techniques. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Hydrodynamic and thermal modeling of solid particles in a multi-phase, multi-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Wider, H.U.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the new thermal hydraulic models describing the hydrodynamics of the solid fuel/steel chunks during an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident. These models, which account for two-way coupling between the solid and fluid phases, describe the mass, momentum and energy exchanges which occur when the chunks are present at any axial location. They have been incorporated in LEVITATE, a code for the analysis of fuel and cladding dynamics under Loss-of-Flow (LOF) conditions. Their influence on fuel motion is presented in the context of the L6 TREAT experiment analysis. It is shown that the overall hydrodynamic behavior of the molten fuel and solid fuel chunks is dependent on both the size of the chunks and the power level. At low and intermediate power levels the fuel motion is more dispersive when small chunks, rather than large ones, are present. At high power levels the situation is reversed

  15. Double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay: a simplified phase-separation procedure applied to various ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevaarwerk, G.J.M.; Boyle, D.A.; Hurst, C.J.; Anguish, I.; Uksik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose was to develop a simplified and reliable method of separating free from antibody-bound ligand using a precipitating antibody linked to a cellulose derivative. Dose-response curves and control sera were set up in parallel for various pituitary and placental polypeptides, steroid hormones, insulin, glucagon, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, angiotensin I, calcitonin, gastrin, cyclic AMP, and digoxin. After first-antibody reactions had reached equilibrium, free and bound ligand were separated using a double-antibody solid-phase system in parallel with conventional methods, including dextran-coated charcoal, double-antibody precipitation, single-antibody solid phase, organic solvents, salt precipitation, and anion-exchange resins. The effect of variations in temperature, incubation time, protein content, pH, and amount of separating material added were studied. The results showed that separation was complete within 1 hr for small ligand molecules and within 2 hr for larger ones. Dose-response curves and control-sera results closely paralleled those obtained with conventional methods. The method was not affected by moderate variations in incubation variables. Nonspecific binding was less than 3% in all assays, while intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were similar to those obtained with conventional phase-separation methods. It is concluded that the method is a simple and rapid alternative phase-separation system. It has the advantage of being free from common nonspecific intersample variations, and can be applied to any assay system based on rabbit or guinea pig antibodies without preliminay time- or reagent-consuming titration or adjustments to establish optimum phase-separating conditions

  16. A competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for quantitation of the major allergen of Parietaria pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbi, A.L.; Ayuso, R.; Lombardero, M.; Duffort, O.; Carreira, J.

    1985-01-01

    A competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed for quantitation of the major allergen of Parietaria judaica pollen. The assay is based on: (1) the ability of AC/1.1 monoclonal antibody to bind specifically to the P. judaica major allergen, and (2) the ability of crude pollen extracts or purified allergen to inhibit the binding of 125 I-labelled allergen to solid-phase-bound AC/1.1 monoclonal antibody. The assay is sensitive enough to detect as little as 10 ng of allergen. A good correlation is found when the results obtained are compared with those produced by RAST inhibition (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). Thus, this method can also be used for the estimation of the allergenic activity of P. judaica pollen extracts. The assay is easily completed in 2 h, allowing simultaneous analysis of a number of extracts. (Auth.)

  17. Aqueous Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis Using Boc-Amino Acid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Fukumori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously developed water-based microwave (MW-assisted peptide synthesis using Fmoc-amino acid nanopaticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for peptide synthesis. Here we describe water-based MW-assisted solid-phase synthesis using Boc-amino acid nanoparticles. The microwave irradiation allowed rapid solid-phase reaction of nanoparticle reactants on the resin in water. We also demonstrated the syntheses of Leu-enkephalin, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH, and difficult sequence model peptide, Val-Ala-Val-Ala-Gly-OH, using our water-based MW-assisted protocol with Boc-amino acid nanoparticles.

  18. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction in the analysis of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling-Xiao; Fang, Rou; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The molecular imprinting technique is a highly predeterminative recognition technology. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be applied to the cleanup and preconcentration of analytes as the selective adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE). In recent years, a new type of SPE has formed, molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (MISPE), and has been widely applied to the extraction of agrochemicals. In this review, the mechanism of the molecular imprinting technique and the methodology of MIP preparations are explained. The extraction modes of MISPE, including offline and online, are discussed, and the applications of MISPE in the analysis of agrochemicals such as herbicides, fungicides and insecticides are summarized. It is concluded that MISPE is a powerful tool to selectively isolate agrochemicals from real samples with higher extraction and cleanup efficiency than commercial SPE and that it has great potential for broad applications.

  19. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.

    2016-01-01

    describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds...... that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms....... Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude...

  20. Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysis--historical development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, I

    2000-07-14

    The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an established sample preparation technique. The initial experimental applications of SPE resulted in widespread use of this technique in current water analysis and also to adoption of SPE into standardized analytical methods. During the decades of its evolution, chromatographers became aware of the advantages of SPE and, despite many innovations that appeared in the last decade, new SPE developments are still expected in the future. A brief overview of 50 years of the history of the use of SPE in organic trace analysis of water is given in presented paper.

  1. Gibbs Energy Modeling of Digenite and Adjacent Solid-State Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Peter

    2017-08-01

    All sulfur potential and phase diagram data available in the literature for solid-state equilibria related to digenite have been assessed. Thorough thermodynamic analysis at 1 bar total pressure has been performed. A three-sublattice approach has been developed to model the Gibbs energy of digenite as a function of composition and temperature using the compound energy formalism. The Gibbs energies of the adjacent solid-state phases covelitte and high-temperature chalcocite are also modeled treating both sulfides as stoichiometric compounds. The novel model for digenite offers new interpretation of experimental data, may contribute from a thermodynamic point of view to the elucidation of the role of copper species within the crystal structure and allows extrapolation to composition regimes richer in copper than stoichiometric digenite Cu2S. Preliminary predictions into the ternary Cu-Fe-S system at 1273 K (1000 °C) using the Gibbs energy model of digenite for calculating its iron solubility are promising.

  2. Solid-phase extraction NMR studies of chromatographic fractions of saponins from Quillaja saponaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Nils T; Baumann, Herbert; Kenne, Lennart

    2003-01-15

    The saponin mixture QH-B from the tree Quillaja saponaria var. Molina was fractionated by RP-HPLC in several steps. The fractions were analyzed by solid-phase extraction NMR (SPE-NMR), a technique combining the workup by solid-phase extraction with on-line coupling to an NMR flow probe. Together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and comparison with chemical shifts of similar saponins, the structures of both major and minor components in QH-B could be obtained. The procedure described is a simple method to determine the structure of components in a complex mixture. The two major fractions of the mixture were found to contain at least 28 saponins, differing in the carbohydrate substructures. Eight of these have not previously been determined. The 28 saponins formed 14 equilibrium pairs by the migration of an O-acyl group between two adjacent positions on a fucosyl residue.

  3. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay of immunoglobulins G, A and M: applicability in analysis of sucrose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, E F; Danielsen, H [Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Medical Department C; Johansen, A S [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Institute of Medical Biochemistry; Larsson, L I [Unit of Histochemistry, University Institute of Pathology, Copenhagen, Denmark

    1984-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of immunoglobulins G, A and M in sucrose gradients is described. The solid-phase consisted of immunoglobulins adsorbed to polystyrene tubes. Using buffers without detergent and /sup 125/I-labeled sheep anti-rabbit IgA as radioligand, the assay was able to detect 0.8 ng per tube in the IgG assay and 1.6 ng per tube in the IgA and IgM assays. Standard curves with antigen dissolved in 10% and 32% sucrose were superimposable and did not deviate from standard curves with antigen dissolved in buffer without sucrose. Using these techniques on ultracentrifugation samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Schoenlein-Henoch nephritis and IgA glorulonephritis is was possible to detect both immunoglobulin fragments and immunoglobulin aggregates at the same time without prior dialysis of the samples.

  4. Development of a solid phase technic for radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine (T3) in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-10-01

    We have developed a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) system for triiodothyronine (T 3 ), by immobilizing triiodothyronine antibodies on the inner wall of reaction tubes. The antibody-coated tubes were made via reaction of antibody with glutaraldeyde residue pre coated on the inner wall of the tubes by alkaline self-polimerization. The quality of the coated tubes was tested through its performance in the RIA methodology, by analysing the following RIA parameters: minimum detectable dose (MDD), nonspecific binding (NSB), ''X 50% '', slope of the standard curve, intra and inter-assay precision, accuracy of the method and figure of merit. The serum levels of T 3 in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and the normal values range were determined for the solid phase RIA system. The results are in agreement with found in the literature. (author) [pt

  5. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  6. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction in the sample preparation of environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Helena

    2014-05-23

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  7. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prosen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc. published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  8. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1975-08-01

    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)

  9. Diffusionless phase transition with two order parameters in spin-crossover solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Linares, Jorge [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMAC), UMR 8635, CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2014-11-07

    The quantitative analysis of the interface boundary motion between high-spin and low-spin phases is presented. The nonlinear effect of the switching front rate on the temperature is shown. A compressible model of spin-crossover solid is studied in the framework of the Ising-like model with two-order parameters under statistical approach, where the effect of elastic strain on interaction integral is considered. These considerations led to examination of the relation between the order parameters during temperature changes. Starting from the phenomenological Hamiltonian, entropy has been derived using the mean field approach. Finally, the phase diagram, which characterizes the system, is numerically analyzed.

  10. Phase-field-crystal model for magnetocrystalline interactions in isotropic ferromagnetic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Niloufar; Provatas, Nikolas; Elder, K. R.; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2013-09-01

    An isotropic magnetoelastic phase-field-crystal model to study the relation between morphological structure and magnetic properties of pure ferromagnetic solids is introduced. Analytic calculations in two dimensions were used to determine the phase diagram and obtain the relationship between elastic strains and magnetization. Time-dependent numerical simulations in two dimensions were used to demonstrate the effect of grain boundaries on the formation of magnetic domains. It was shown that the grain boundaries act as nucleating sites for domains of reverse magnetization. Finally, we derive a relation for coercivity versus grain misorientation in the isotropic limit.

  11. Solid-phase synthesis of yttrium ferrites with structures of perovskite and garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, E V; Shapovalov, A G; Aksel' rod, N L; Pazdnikov, I P [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1980-09-01

    The solid phase synthesis of yttrium ferrites having a perovskite- and garnet-like structure has been investigated in the temperature range from 800 to 1500 deg C and temper times of up to 80 hours by reaction zone simulation and magnetic phase analysis. It is shown that for conversion degrees d<0.15 the reactions are diffusion-controlled. The rate constants and effective diffusion in the formation of YFeO/sub 3/ and Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ have been determined.

  12. Integration of Solid-phase Extraction with Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Trace Elements

    OpenAIRE

    NUKATSUKA, Isoshi; OHZEKI, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    An enrichment step in a sample treatment is essential for trace analysis to improve the sensitivity and to eliminate the matrix of the sample. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is one of the widely used enrichment technique. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a well-established determination technique for trace elements. The integration of SPE with ETAAS leads to further improvement of sensitivity, an automation of the measurement and the economy in the sample size, amounts o...

  13. Optimization of the solid-phase microextraction method in the determination of Ixodes ricinus (L.) volatiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2006), s. 236-241 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GC/MS * Ixodes ricinus * solid-phase microextraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2006

  14. R. Bruce Merrifield and Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Historical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-12-04

    Bruce Merrifield, trained as a biochemist, had to address three major challenges related to the development and acceptance of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The challenges were (1) to reduce the concept of peptide synthesis on a insoluble support to practice, (2) overcome the resistance of synthetic chemists to this novel approach, and (3) establish that a biochemist had the scientific credentials to effect the proposed revolutionary change in chemical synthesis. How these challenges were met is discussed in this article.

  15. Fast thermal annealing of implantation defects in silicon. Solid phase epitaxy and residual imperfection recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekoya, O.A.

    1987-06-01

    Basic processes ruling the crystal reconstitution in solid phase during fast thermal annealing are studied; the role of electronic and thermodynamic effects at the interface is precised, following the implantations of a donor element (p + ), an acceptor element (B + ) and an intrinsic element (Ge + ). Then, after recrystallization, the electric role of residual point defects is shown together with the possibility of total recovery and an important electric activation of the doping [fr

  16. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A P; Rezapkin, G V; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A

    1984-05-01

    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  17. Solid phase carrier for radioimmuno analyses, as well as its manufacture and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    The solid phase carrier is in the form of a tablet containing freeze-dried protein-bonded gel, dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate. It is able to absorb 0.400 microlitre of an a solution containing antigen-antibody. When contacted with the solution, the tablet swells up and adapts to the shape of the column. The carrier is suitable for the TSH RIA test. (DG) [de

  18. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Dick, W. A. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  19. Abnormal gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water observed with in situ environmental SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shu, Jiapei; Chen, Qing

    2017-04-24

    Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets. Later, the ice crystals grow continuously through desublimation. At 600 Pa, the metastable liquid grows quickly, with some ice nuclei floating in it, and the liquid-solid coexistence state exists for a long time. By lowering the vapour pressure and/or increasing the substrate temperature, ice sublimates into vapour phase, and especially, the remaining ice forms a porous structure due to preferential sublimation in the concave regions, which can be explained with surface tension effect. Interestingly, although it should be forbidden for ice to transform into liquid phase when the temperature is well below 0 °C, liquid like droplets form during the ice sublimation process, which is attributed to the surface tension effect and the quasiliquid layers.

  20. Phase I study of afatinib combined with nintedanib in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahleda, Rastislav; Hollebecque, Antoine; Varga, Andrea; Gazzah, Anas; Massard, Christophe; Deutsch, Eric; Amellal, Nadia; Farace, Françoise; Ould-Kaci, Mahmoud; Roux, Flavien; Marzin, Kristell; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2015-11-17

    This Phase I study evaluated continuous- and intermittent-dosing (every other week) of afatinib plus nintedanib in patients with advanced solid tumours. In the dose-escalation phase (n=45), maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) were determined for continuous/intermittent afatinib 10, 20, 30 or 40 mg once daily plus continuous nintedanib 150 or 200 mg twice daily. Secondary objectives included safety and efficacy. Clinical activity of continuous afatinib plus nintedanib at the MTD was further evaluated in an expansion phase (n=25). The most frequent dose-limiting toxicities were diarrhoea (11%) and transaminase elevations (7%). Maximum tolerated doses were afatinib 30 mg continuously plus nintedanib 150 mg, and afatinib 40 mg intermittently plus nintedanib 150 mg. Treatment-related adverse events (mostly Grade⩽3) included diarrhoea (98%), asthenia (64%), nausea (62%) and vomiting (60%). In the dose-escalation phase, two patients had partial responses (PRs) and 27 (60%) had stable disease (SD). In the expansion phase, one complete response and three PRs were observed (all non-small cell lung cancer), with SD in 13 (52%) patients. No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed. MTDs of continuous or intermittent afatinib plus nintedanib demonstrated a manageable safety profile with proactive management of diarrhoea. Antitumour activity was observed in patients with solid tumours.