WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid organic compound

  1. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...

  2. Vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectroscopy of gaseous and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.; Otto, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental arrangements used by the authors for the study of optical vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectra of organic compounds are described and some theoretical aspects of studies of higher excited states are considered. Results for alkanes, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and some more complex hydrocarbons are reviewed. Recent results obtained by reflection and electron energy loss spectroscopy for single crystals of anthracene are included and their relevance for gas phase work as well as for the understanding of exciton effects in organic solids is described. (author)

  3. Solid phase microextraction: measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Dhaka City air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, A; Alauddin, M; Khan, A H; Chowdhury, D; Bibi, H; Bhattacharjee, M; Sultana, S

    2002-08-01

    A solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique was applied for the sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air polluted by two stroke autorickshaw engines and automobile exhausts in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The methodology was tested by insitu sampling of an aromatic hydrocarbon mixture gas standard with a precision of +/-5% and an average accuracy of 1-20%. The accuracy for total VOCs concentration measurement was about 7%. VOC's in ambient air were collected by exposing the SPME fiber at four locations in Dhaka city. The chromatograms showed signature similar to that of unburned gasoline (petrol) and weathered diesel containing more than 200 organic compounds; some of these compounds were positively identified. These are normal hydrocarbons pentane (n-C5H2) through nonacosane (n-C29H60), aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1-isocyanato-3-methoxybenzene. Two samples collected near an autorickshaw station contained 783000 and 1479000 microg/m3 of VOCs. In particular, the concentration of toluene was 50-100 times higher than the threshold limiting value of 2000 microg/m3. Two other samples collected on street median showed 135000 microg/m3 and 180000 microg/m3 of total VOCs. The method detection limit of the technique for most semi-volatile organic compounds was 1 microg/m3.

  4. [Optimization of solid-phase extraction for enrichment of toxic organic compounds in water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-quan; Li, Feng-min; Wu, Qian-yuan; Hu, Hong-ying

    2013-05-01

    A concentration method for enrichment of toxic organic compounds in water samples has been developed based on combined solid-phase extraction (SPE) to reduce impurities and improve recoveries of target compounds. This SPE method was evaluated in every stage to identify the source of impurities. Based on the analysis of Waters Oasis HLB without water samples, the eluent of SPE sorbent after dichloromethane and acetone contributed 85% of impurities during SPE process. In order to reduce the impurities from SPE sorbent, soxhlet extraction of dichloromethane followed by acetone and lastly methanol was applied to the sorbents for 24 hours and the results had proven that impurities were reduced significantly. In addition to soxhlet extraction, six types of prevalent SPE sorbents were used to absorb 40 target compounds, the lgK(ow) values of which were within the range of 1.46 and 8.1, and recovery rates were compared. It was noticed and confirmed that Waters Oasis HLB had shown the best recovery results for most of the common testing samples among all three styrenedivinylbenzene (SDB) polymer sorbents, which were 77% on average. Furthermore, Waters SepPak AC-2 provided good recovery results for pesticides among three types of activated carbon sorbents and the average recovery rates reached 74%. Therefore, Waters Oasis HLB and Waters SepPak AC-2 were combined to obtain a better recovery and the average recovery rate for the tested 40 compounds of this new SPE method was 87%.

  5. Release of non-methane organic compounds during simulated landfilling of aerobically pretreated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Peng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-06-30

    Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (Q(VS)) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg Q(VS) for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg Q(VS) for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of solid sorbents for direct accumulation of organic compounds from water matrices : a review of solid-phase extraction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liska, I.; Krupcik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of solid-phase extraction techniques are reviewed in this paper. Various solid sorbents can be used as a suitable trap for direct accumulation of organic compounds from aqueous solutions. The trapped analytes can be desorbed by elution with suitably chosen liquid phases. These

  7. Characterization of organic compounds in biochars derived from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherymoosavi, Sarasadat; Verheyen, Vince; Munroe, Paul; Joseph, Stephen; Reynolds, Alicia

    2017-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been growing in many countries, which has led to numerous environmental problems. Converting MSW into a valuable biochar-based by-product can manage waste and, possibly, improve soil fertility, depending on the soil properties. In this study, MSW-based biochars, collected from domestic waste materials and kerbsides in two Sydney's regions, were composted and pyrolysed at 450°C, 550°C and 650°C. The characteristics of the organic components and their interactions with mineral phases were investigated using a range of analytical techniques, with special attention given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metal concentrations. The MSW biochar prepared at 450°C contained the most complex organic compounds. The highest concentration of fixed C, indicating the stability of biochar, was detected in the high-temperature-biochar. Microscopic analysis showed development of pores and migration of mineral phases, mainly Ca/P/O-rich phases, into the micro-pores and Si/Al/O-rich phases on the surface of the biochar in the MSW biochar produced at 550°C. Amalgamation of organic phases with mineral compounds was observed, at higher pyrolysis temperatures, indicating chemical reactions between these two phases at 650°C. XPS analysis showed the main changes occurred in C and N bonds. During heat treatment, N-C/C=N functionalities decomposed and oxidized N configurations, mainly pyridine-N-oxide groups, were formed. The majority of the dissolved organic carbon fraction in both MSW biochar produced at 450°C and 550°C was in the form of building blocks, whereas LMW acids was the main fraction in high-temperature-biochar (59.9%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic compound emissions from a landfarm used for oil and gas solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Seth N; Mansfield, Marc L

    2018-04-13

    Solid or sludgy hydrocarbon waste is a by-product of oil and gas exploration and production. One commonly used method of disposing of this waste is landfarming. Landfarming involves spreading hydrocarbon waste on soils, tilling it into the soil, and allowing it to biodegrade. We used a dynamic flux chamber to measure fluxes of methane, a suite of 54 nonmethane hydrocarbons, and light alcohols from an active and a remediated landfarm in eastern Utah. Fluxes from the remediated landfarm were not different from a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet or from undisturbed soils in the region. Fluxes of methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and alcohols from the landfarm in active use were 1.41 (0.37, 4.19) (mean and 95% confidence limits), 197.90 (114.72, 370.46), and 4.17 (0.03, 15.89) mg m -2  hr -1 , respectively. Hydrocarbon fluxes were dominated by alkanes, especially those with six or more carbons. A 2-ha landfarm with fluxes of the magnitude we observed in this study would emit 95.3 (54.3, 179.7) kg day -1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.2 (4.3, 33.9) kg day -1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes). Solid and sludgy hydrocarbon waste from the oil and gas industry is often disposed of by landfarming, in which wastes are tilled into soil and allowed to decompose. We show that a land farm in Utah emitted a variety of organic compounds into the atmosphere, including hazardous air pollutants and compounds that form ozone. We calculate that a 2-ha landfarm facility would emit 95.0 ± 66.0 kg day -1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.1 ± 1.5 kg day -1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

  9. Some laws governing the electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, N.A.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M. Ya.; Khrizolitova, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte (SPE) makes it possible to carry out the process in the absence of a supporting electrolyte. This facilitates the recovery of the desired product, eliminates the inorganic waste products, and allows a small interelectrode distance, and the absence of the accumulation of gases lowers the voltage in the cell. Some laws governing syntheses of SPE were studied in the example cases of the electrochemical reduction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine, the reduction of triacetonamine oxime and triacetonamine azine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- aminopiperidine and the oxidation of isobutanol to isobutyric acid. The electrolysis with an SPE was carried out under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyzer of the filter-press type with forced circulation of the catholyte and anolyte. Low reaction rates are found to be characteristic of all the compounds investigated when the electrolysis is carried out with an SPE.

  10. Field measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere using solid-phase microextraction Arrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó Barreira, Luís Miguel; Duporté, Geoffroy; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Hyrsky, Lydia; Heikkinen, Enna; Jussila, Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by terrestrial vegetation participate in a diversity of natural processes. These compounds impact both short-range processes, such as on plant protection and communication, and long-range processes, for example by participating in aerosol particle formation and growth. The biodiversity of plant species around the Earth, the vast assortment of emitted BVOCs, and their trace atmospheric concentrations contribute to the substantial remaining uncertainties about the effects of these compounds on atmospheric chemistry and physics, and call for the development of novel collection devices that can offer portability with improved selectivity and capacity. In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow sampling system was used for the static and dynamic collection of BVOCs from a boreal forest, and samples were subsequently analyzed on site by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This system offers higher sampling capacity and improved robustness when compared to traditional equilibrium-based SPME techniques, such as SPME fibers. Field measurements were performed in summer 2017 at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiälä, Finland. Complementary laboratory tests were also performed to compare the SPME-based techniques under controlled experimental conditions and to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on their extraction performance. The most abundant monoterpenes and aldehydes were successfully collected. A significant improvement on sampling capacity was observed with the new SPME Arrow system over SPME fibers, with collected amounts being approximately 2 × higher for monoterpenes and 7-8 × higher for aldehydes. BVOC species exhibited different affinities for the type of sorbent materials used (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-carbon wide range (WR) vs. PDMS-divinylbenzene (DVB)). Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic

  11. Process for the restoration of solids contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.; Jackson, J.D.; McMillin, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Processes have been developed for the restoration of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organics. The intended product is a field deployable materials handling system and phase separation process ranging in size from 1 yd 3 /hr to 50 yd 3 /hr for commercial application to environmental problems associated with the exploration, production, refining and transport of petroleum, petroleum products and organic chemicals. Effluents from contaminated sites will be clean solids (classified by size if appropriate), and the concentrated contaminant. The technology is based on biochemical solvation, liquid/liquid and liquid/solid extractions, materials classification, mechanical and hydraulic scrubbing, and phase separation of organic and aqueous phases. Fluid use is minimized through utilization of closed-loop (recycle) systems. Contaminants that are removed from the solid materials may be destroyed, disposed of using existing technologies, or used on-site for cogeneration of /power for plant operations. Additionally, if the contaminant is a valued product, the material may be recovered for application or sale. Clean solid material is not sterilized and may be returned to normal agricultural, commercial, residential or recreational use in most instances

  12. Development of Solid Ceramic Dosimeters for the Time-Integrative Passive Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Riza Gabriela; Nam, Go-Un; Eom, In-Yong; Hong, Yong-Seok

    2017-11-07

    Time-integrative passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water can now be accomplished using a solid ceramic dosimeter. A nonporous ceramic, which excludes the permeation of water, allowing only gas-phase diffusion of VOCs into the resin inside the dosimeter, effectively captured the VOCs. The mass accumulation of 11 VOCs linearly increased with time over a wide range of aqueous-phase concentrations (16.9 to 1100 μg L -1 ), and the linearity was dependent upon the Henry's constant (H). The average diffusivity of the VOCs in the solid ceramic was 1.46 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 25 °C, which was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that in air (8.09 × 10 -6 m 2 s -1 ). This value was 60% greater than that in the water-permeable porous ceramic (0.92 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 ), suggesting that its mass accumulation could be more effective than that of porous ceramic dosimeters. The mass accumulation of the VOCs in the solid ceramic dosimeter increased in the presence of salt (≥0.1 M) and with increasing temperature (4 to 40 °C) but varied only slightly with dissolved organic matter concentration. The solid ceramic dosimeter was suitable for the field testing and measurement of time-weighted average concentrations of VOC-contaminated waters.

  13. Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 38 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semivolatile organic compounds in solid samples is described. Samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from the solid sample twice at 13,800 kilopascals; first at 120 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (50:50, volume-to-volume ratio), and then the sample is extracted at 200 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio). The compounds are isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing divinylbenzene-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer resin. The cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted from the SPE material using a dichloromethane/diethyl ether mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio) and passed through a sodium sulfate/Florisil SPE cartridge to remove residual water and to further clean up the extract. The concentrated extract is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate and the solvent volume reduced to 0.5 milliliter. Internal standard compounds are added prior to analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Comparisons of PAH data for 28 sediment samples extracted by Soxhlet and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method described in this report produced similar results. Extraction of PAH compounds from standard reference material using this method also compared favorably with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of PAHs less than molecular weight 202 (pyrene or fluoranthene) are higher by up to 20 percent using this ASE method, whereas the recoveries of PAHs greater than or equal to molecular weight 202 are equivalent. This ASE method of sample extraction of solids has advantages over conventional Soxhlet extraction by increasing automation of the extraction process, reducing extraction time, and using less solvent. Extract cleanup also is greatly simplified because SPE replaces

  14. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  15. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  16. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  17. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m 3 which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m 3 . In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m 3 . High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m 3 , a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was

  18. Liquid-Mercury Free Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode - Tool for Electroanalysis of Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šelešovská-Fadrná, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vlček, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 911-929 ISSN 0009-2223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ascorbic acid * solid silver amalgam electrodes * cysteine * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2007

  19. Use of molecular beams for the analysis of liquid and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Giroud, Josiane.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical composition of every solid can be determined by the M.B.S.A. method (Molecular Beam Surface Analysis). The method was used to analyze deposits on a filter paper, obtained by evaporation of a liquid solution, as well a liquid films with very low evaporation rate (dioctyl-azelate for instance). The S.C.I.C. method (Separation of Ions by Collision) was used to know exactly the composition of ions of fixed mass, separated by an electromagnet. The separated ions collide a target gas (helium or argon); apart of them are dissociated and the composition and structure of the primary ions can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the dissociated ions. Results obtained from such analysis of a thin film of baryum acetate on a platinum substrate are given [fr

  20. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with cryotrap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Hong; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with cryotrap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions. The highly volatile organic compounds were separated successfully with high sensitivity by the employment of a cryotrap device, with the construction of a cold column head by freezing a segment of metal capillary with liquid nitrogen. A total of 76 volatile organic compounds were identified in 50 pleural effusion samples (20 malignant effusions and 30 benign effusions). Among them, 34 more volatile organic compounds were detected with the retention time less than 8 min, by comparing with the normal headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method. Furthermore, 24 volatile organic compounds with high occurrence frequency in pleural effusion samples, 18 of which with the retention time less than 8 min, were selected for the comparative analysis. The results of average peak area comparison and box-plot analysis showed that except for cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and tetramethylbenzene, which have been reported as potential cancer biomarkers, cyclohexanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-heptane, ethylbenzene, and xylene also had differential expression between malignant and benign effusions. Therefore, the proposed approach was valuable for the comprehensive characterization of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Potential sources for nonlinear sorption of organic compounds to soils and natural solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C. T.

    2003-04-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water to the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the same solutes on whole peat from which the humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (Ce/Sw). The HA fraction as prepared by a density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumably enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET-(N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  2. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Organic Compounds from Municipal Solid Waste in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    , and xylenes as dominating. No pesticides were identified, but some phenoxy acids, which could be metabolites of known pesticides, were found. In a distance of approximately 60 m from the landfill, most of the specific organic compounds were no longer detectable. Since dilution and sorption apparently cannot......The distribution of organic compounds in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill was mapped along two 300 m long transects (285 groundwater samples). At the border of the landfill, elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter 30-1 10 mg of C L-' (measured as nonvolatile...... organic carbon, NVOC) were found. In a distance of 130 m downgradient of the landfill, the NVOC had decreased to background level, which is 1-3 mg of C L-l. More than 15 organic compounds were identified in the groundwater at the downgradient border of the landfill with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene...

  4. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  5. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  6. Solid-phase extraction element based on epoxy polymer monolith for determination of polar organic compounds in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Odagiri, Kayo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Chuichi; Kubo, Takuya; Hosoya, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A solid-phase extraction element based on epoxy polymer monolith was fabricated for sorptive enrichment of polar compounds from liquid and gaseous samples. After ultrasonication of the element in an aqueous solution for a given period of time, the thermal desorption (TD) using a pyrolyzer with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in which TD temperature was programmed from 50 to 250 °C for the analytes absorbed in the element, was used to evaluate the element for basic extraction performance using the aqueous standard mixtures consisting of compounds having varied polarities such as hexanol, isoamyl acetate, linalool, furfural and decanoic acid, in concentrations ranging from 10 μg/L to 1 mg/L. Excellent linear relationships were observed for all compounds in the standard mixture, except decanoic acid. In the extraction of beverages such as red wine, the extraction element showed stronger adsorption characteristics for polar compounds such as alcohols and acids than a non-polar polydimethylsiloxane-based element. This feature is derived from the main polymer structure along with hydroxyl and amino groups present in the epoxy-based monolith polymer matrix. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  8. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32......Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...

  9. Solid-phase reduction of silico-12-molybdic acid H4SiMo12O40 by some organic oxygen containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvaev, V.F.; Pinchuk, I.N.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made on reduction reactions of anhydrous silico-12-molybdic acid by vapors of organic oxygen-containing compounds at 170 deg C: alcohols, simple carbonyl compounds. Methods of thermal analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, paramagnetic resonance were used to established that depending on the nature of organic reagent and temperature, H 6 SiMo 2 5 Mo 10 6 O 40 two-electron or H 8 SiMo 4 5 Mo 8 6 O 40 four-electron flues form. It is shown that the increase of heterogeneous reduction temperature can lead to formation of anhydrous phases of SiMo 12 O 38 -(n/2), able to attach water reversibly with formation of corresponding blue. Characteristics of blues, prepared during solid-phase reduction of silico-12-molybdic acid and mixed valent forms with corresponding reduction degree, separated from water solutions, were compared

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of recalcitrant organic compounds in biologically treated municipal solid waste leachate in a flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xuejun; Cheng, Zhiliang; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Xincai

    2013-10-01

    Biologically-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate still contains many kinds of bio-recalcitrant organic matter. A new plate and frame electrochemical reactor was designed to treat these materials under flow conditions. In the electrochemical oxidation process, NH3 and color could be easily removed by means of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite within 20 min. The effects of major process parameters on the removal of organic pollutants were investigated systematically. Under experimental conditions, the optimum operation parameters were current density of 65 mA/cm2, flow velocity of 2.6 cm/sec in electrode gap, and initial chloride ion concentration of 5000 mg/L. The COD in the leachate could be reduced below 100 mg/L after 1 hr of treatment. The kinetics and mechanism of COD removal were investigated by simultaneously monitoring the COD change and chlorine/hypochlorite production. The kinetics of COD removal exhibited a two-stage kinetic model, and the decrease of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite production was the major mechanism for the slowing down of the COD removal rate in the second stage. The narrowing of the electrode gap is beneficial for COD removal and energy consumption.

  11. Concentration of organic compounds in natural waters with solid-phase dispersion based on advesicle modified silica prior to liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisis, Nikolaos A; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Evmiridis, Nicholaos P

    2005-12-02

    The ability of vesicle-coated silica to aid the extraction of organic compounds from water prior to liquid chromatographic analysis is presented for the first time. The method is based on the formation of silica supported cationic multi-lamellar vesicles of gemini surfactants inherently ensuring the presence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites for the partitioning of analytes bearing different properties. Method development is illustrated by studying the adsolubilization of UV absorbing chemicals from swimming pool water. Due to the requirement for external energy input (intense shearing) a method based on solid-phase dispersion (SPD) was applied producing better results than off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). Meticulous investigation of the experimental parameters was conducted in order to elucidate the mechanisms behind the proposed extraction pattern. Analyte recoveries were quantitative under the optimum experimental conditions offering recoveries higher than 96% with RSD values below 5%.

  12. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and nature of solid extraction sorbent on recoverable DOM composition: Implication into potential lability of different compound groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Jae-Eun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Noting the source-dependent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), this study explored the recoverable compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE) of two common sorbents (C18 and PPL) eluted with methanol solvent for contrasting DOM sources via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Fresh algae and leaf litter extracts DOM, one riverine DOM, and one upstream lacustrine DOM were selected for the comparison. C18 sorbent was generally found to extract more diverse molecular formula, relatively higher molecular weight, and more heteroatomic DOM compounds within the studied mass range than PPL sorbent except for the leaf litter extract. Even with the same sorbent, the main molecular features of the two end member DOM were distributed on different sides of the axes of a multivariate ordination, indicating the source-dependent characteristics of the recoverable compounds by the sorbents. In addition, further examination of the molecular formula uniquely present in the two end members and the upstream lake DOM suggested that proteinaceous, tannin-like, and heteroatomic DOM constituents might be potential compound groups which are labile and easily degraded during their mobilization into downstream watershed. This study provides new insights into the sorbent selectivity of DOM from diverse sources and potential lability of various compound groups.

  13. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  14. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile organic sulphur and selenium compounds in beers, wines and spirits using gas chromatography and atomic emission detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Natalia; Peñalver, Rosa; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-09-25

    A rapid and solvent-free method for the determination of eight volatile organic sulphur and two selenium compounds in different beverage samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with atomic emission detection has been developed. The bonded carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was the most suitable for preconcentrating the analytes from the headspace of the sample solution. Volumes of 20 mL of undiluted beer were used while, in the case of wines and spirits, sample:water ratios of 5:15 and 2:18, respectively, were used, in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Quantitation was carried out by using synthetic matrices of beer and wine, and a spiked sample for spirits, and using ethyl methyl sulphide and isopropyl disulphide as internal standards. Detection limits ranged from 8 ng L(-1) to 40 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound and the beverage sample analyzed, with a fiber time exposure of 20 min at ambient temperature. The optimized method was successfully applied to different samples, some of the studied compounds being detected at concentration levels in the 0.04-152 ng mL(-1) range.

  16. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  17. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  18. Impact of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of furan derivatives (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) and phenolic compounds (vanillin and syringaldehyde) on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. The inhibitors were applied in the concentration ranges of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5g/L each. Inhibition coefficients of phenolic compounds were higher than those of furan derivatives and vanillin exhibited maximum inhibition coefficients correspondingly lowest hydrogen yield among all inhibitors. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural addition resulted in an average decrease of 26.99% and 37.16% in hydrogen yield respectively, while vanillin and syringaldehyde resulted in 49.40% and 42.26% average decrease in hydrogen yield respectively. Further analysis revealed that Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were completely degraded up to concentrations of 1g/L, while vanillin and syringaldehyde were degraded completely up to the concentration of 0.5g/L. Volatile fatty acid generation decreased with inhibitors addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, M.I.; Beltran, J.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. → Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. → Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. → HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 μm fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 μg L -1 ). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs

  20. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera, M.I. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Beltran, J., E-mail: joaquim.beltran@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. {yields} Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. {yields} Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. {yields} HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 {mu}m fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with

  1. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) near a municipal solid waste incinerator using black kites (Milvus migrans) as sentinel organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Merino, R. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Olie, K. [Univ. of Amterdam (Netherlands); Blanco, G.; Frias, O. [CSIC, IREC, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Wildlife has received much attention during last decades as an indicator of ecosystems health. Kubiak at al. (1989) showed that there are significant effect on reproductive success due to organochlorines, not only in hatching success, but also in chick health. Due to the widespread distribution of these xenoestrogens, there is a need for screening and risk evaluation of these endocrine disrupters in living organisms from the global point of view of ecosystems health. Aspects of the life history of the black kites (Milvus migrans) make them a useful species for contaminants monitoring. They are long-lived birds, adapt well to human areas and many feeds at dumps, garbage tips, etc. where a wide range of contaminants can be found3. Effects of chlorinated pollutants have not been widely studied in this species. In 2001, a monitoring program was initiated in order to evaluate the health of a population of black kites nesting in the Regional Park of the Southeastern of Madrid (RPSM), Spain. This study is part of a larger research investigation of the influence of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) on the kites'surroundings. Since Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are suspected to produce some highly toxic POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) as well as other short of toxic chemicals (e.g. PCBs and heavy metals) this study was initiated with the aim of investigating the potential toxicity of these compounds on the kites population. The purpose of this study was to conduct the evaluation in a non-destructive way. Since eggs are known to reflect the accumulation of lipophilic contaminants in birds, the study was based on the use of unhatched eggs obtained from black kites.

  2. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  3. Radiolysis of other organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of radiolysis of organic halogen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen (including amines, amides, nitriles et al.) compounds in liquid phase are discussed. Intermediate and stable finish products of radiolysis of the given compounds, properties and radiochemical yields of these products are considered

  4. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  5. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  6. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  7. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuomin; Wang Qingtang; Li Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. ► NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. ► NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7–4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the potential study of trace and small molecular

  8. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  9. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  10. Improved quantification of livestock associated odorous volatile organic compounds in a standard flow-through system using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuyan; Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Jenks, William S; Laor, Yael; Leeuwen, J Hans van; Hoff, Steven J

    2015-10-02

    Aerial emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important nuisance factor from livestock production systems. Reliable air sampling and analysis methods are needed to develop and test odor mitigation technologies. Quantification of VOCs responsible for livestock odor remains an analytical challenge due to physicochemical properties of VOCs and the requirement for low detection thresholds. A new air sampling and analysis method was developed for testing of odor/VOCs mitigation in simulated livestock emissions system. A flow-through standard gas generating system simulating odorous VOCs in livestock barn emissions was built on laboratory scale and tested to continuously generate ten odorous VOCs commonly defining livestock odor. Standard VOCs included sulfur VOCs (S-VOCs), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and p-cresol. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized for sampling of diluted odorous gas mixtures in the moving air followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. CAR/PDMS 85μm fiber was shown to have the best sensitivity for the target odorous VOCs. A practical 5-min sampling time was selected to ensure optimal extraction of VFAs and p-cresol, as well as minimum displacement of S-VOCs. Method detection limits ranged from 0.39 to 2.64ppbv for S-VOCs, 0.23 to 0.77ppbv for VFAs, and 0.31ppbv for p-cresol. The method developed was applied to quantify VOCs and odorous VOC mitigation with UV light treatment. The measured concentrations ranged from 20.1 to 815ppbv for S-VOCs, 10.3 to 315ppbv for VFAs, and 4.73 to 417ppbv for p-cresol. Relative standard deviations between replicates ranged from 0.67% to 12.9%, 0.50% to 11.4%, 0.83% to 5.14% for S-VOCs, VFAs, and p-cresol, respectively. This research shows that a simple manual SPME sampler could be used successfully for quantification of important classes of odorous VOCs at concentrations relevant for real aerial emissions from livestock operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  11. Batch tests of a microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from spent organic extracts from hydrogenogenic fermentation of organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Martinez, A.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenogenic fermentative processes of organic solid wastes produce spent solids that contain substantial concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids and solvents. The spent solids can be extracted with wastewater to give a stream containing concentrated, degradable organic compounds. (Author)

  12. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  13. The radiation chemistry of organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The yields of primary products (ions, electrons, and excited state) produced by exposure of an organic compound to ionizing radiation are essentially independent of whether it is in the gas, liquid, or solid state. However, the nature and yields of the final products are often dependent on the state. This is the result of the effects of density and temperature on the relative probabilities of competing reactions of the primary species and of the radicals which they produce. The density effects are of two types. First, the dose proximity of neighboring molecules in the solid favors reactivation rather than decomposition of excited molecules and favors prompt recombination in the parent cage of the fragments of any that do decompose. Second, since the distance traveled by an energetic electron is depositing its energy is inversely proportional to the density of the medium, the tracks are shorter and the spur radii smaller in the solid than in the liquid (and in great contrast to the gas, where spur effects are negligible). The increased role of intraspur reactions of radicals, electrons, and cations in solids is shown by the results discussed in this chapter

  14. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...

  15. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of stereochemistry models on students' ... consistent with the names given to organic compounds. Some of ... Considering class level, what is the performance of the students in naming organic.

  16. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John R; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Davila, Gilberto; Hammond, S Katharine; Ryde, Ian T; Meyer, Joel N; Benowitz, Neal; Thompson, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers. Urine was collected from 23 women who were 3 months post-partum three times over 72h: morning (fasting), after lunch, and following dinner or use of wood-fired traditional sauna baths (samples=68). Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations of metabolites of four PAHs and eight VOCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Long-term (pregnancy through 3 months prenatal) exposure to particulate matter and airborne PAHs were measured. Women using wood-fueled chimney stoves are exposed to high levels of particulate matter (median 48h PM 2.5 105.7μg/m 3 ; inter-quartile range (IQR): 77.6-130.4). Urinary PAH and VOC metabolites were significantly associated with woodsmoke exposures: 2-naphthol (median (IQR) in ng/mg creatinine: 295.9 (74.4-430.9) after sauna versus 23.9 (17.1-49.5) fasting; and acrolein: 571.7 (429.3-1040.7) after sauna versus 268.0 (178.3-398.6) fasting. Urinary PAH (total PAH: ρ=0.89, p0.85) or PAH and VOC biomarkers (ρ=-0.20 to 0.38, p>0.07). Urinary metabolite concentrations were significantly greater than those of heavy smokers (mean cigarettes/day=18) across all PAHs. In 15 (65%) women, maximum 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit of coke-oven workers. The high concentrations of urinary PAH and VOC metabolites among

  17. Quantification of selected volatile organic compounds in human urine by gas chromatography selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-SRI-TOF-MS) coupled with head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl

    2016-08-07

    Selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with NO(+) as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS(NO(+))) in conjunction with gas chromatography (GC) and head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to determine selected volatile organic compounds in human urine. A total of 16 volatiles exhibiting high incidence rates were quantified in the urine of 19 healthy volunteers. Amongst them there were ten ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 4-heptanone), three volatile sulphur compounds (dimethyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, and methyl propyl sulfide), and three heterocyclic compounds (furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran). The concentrations of the species under study varied between 0.55 nmol L(-1) (0.05 nmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for allyl methyl sulfide and 11.6 μmol L(-1) (1.54 μmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for acetone considering medians. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.08 nmol L(-1) for allyl methyl sulfide to 1.0 nmol L(-1) for acetone and furan (with RSDs ranging from 5 to 9%). The presented experimental setup assists both real-time and GC analyses of volatile organic compounds, which can be performed consecutively using the same analytical system. Such an approach supports the novel concept of hybrid volatolomics, an approach which combines VOC profiles obtained from two or more body fluids to improve and complement the chemical information on the physiological status of an individual.

  18. Organic halogen compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    There are 20 research reports on selected problems concerning the analysis, the occurence, and the behaviour of a wide spectrum of organic halogen compounds. The work was carried out in the framework of the project 'Organic Halogen Compounds in the Environment', financed by the BMFT, between 1975 and 1978. (orig.) [de

  19. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  1. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  2. Organic compounds in concrete from demolition works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H; Trygg, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to verify the effect of physically removing the outer surface of contaminated concrete on total contents and on potential mobility of pollutants by means of leaching tests. Reclaimed concrete from 3 industrial sites in Sweden were included: A tar impregnated military storage, a military tar track-depot, as well as concrete constructions used for disposing of pesticide production surplus and residues. Solid materials and leachates from batch and column leaching tests were analysed for metals, Cl, F, SO4, DOC and contents of suspected organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH, and pesticides/substances for pesticide production such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols, respectively). In case of PAH contaminated concrete, results indicate that removing 1 or 5 mm of the surface lead to total concentrations below the Swedish guidelines for recycling of aggregates and soil in groundwork constructions. 3 out of 4 concrete samples contaminated with pesticides fulfilled Swedish guidelines for contaminated soil. Results from batch and column leaching tests indicated, however, that concentrations above environmental quality standards for certain PAH and phenoxy acids, respectively, might occur at site when the crushed concrete is recycled in groundwork constructions. As leaching tests engaged in the study deviated from leaching test standards with a limited number of samples, the potential impact of the leaching tests' equipment on measured PAH and pesticide leachate concentrations has to be evaluated in future work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. pH-specific hydrothermal assembly of binary and ternary Pb(II)-(O,N-carboxylic acid) metal organic framework compounds: correlation of aqueous solution speciation with variable dimensionality solid-state lattice architecture and spectroscopic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C; Perikli, M; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Psycharis, V; Mateescu, C; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Bertmer, M; Salifoglou, A

    2012-09-03

    Hydrothermal pH-specific reactivity in the binary/ternary systems of Pb(II) with the carboxylic acids N-hydroxyethyl-iminodiacetic acid (Heida), 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Dpot), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) afforded the new well-defined crystalline compounds [Pb(Heida)](n)·nH(2)O(1), [Pb(Phen)(Heida)]·4H(2)O(2), and [Pb(3)(NO(3))(Dpot)](n)(3). All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solution or/and solid-state NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures in 1-2 reveal the presence of a Pb(II) center coordinated to one Heida ligand, with 1 exhibiting a two-dimensional (2D) lattice extending to a three-dimensional (3D) one through H-bonding interactions. The concurrent aqueous speciation study of the binary Pb(II)-Heida system projects species complementing the synthetic efforts, thereby lending credence to a global structural speciation strategy in investigating binary/ternary Pb(II)-Heida/Phen systems. The involvement of Phen in 2 projects the significance of nature and reactivity potential of N-aromatic chelators, disrupting the binary lattice in 1 and influencing the nature of the ultimately arising ternary 3D lattice. 3 is a ternary coordination polymer, where Pb(II)-Dpot coordination leads to a 2D metal-organic-framework material with unique architecture. The collective physicochemical properties of 1-3 formulate the salient features of variable dimensionality metal-organic-framework lattices in binary/ternary Pb(II)-(hydroxy-carboxylate) structures, based on which new Pb(II) materials with distinct architecture and spectroscopic signature can be rationally designed and pursued synthetically.

  4. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  6. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ''packing''. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel

  7. Organic compounds in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Impressive supporting evidence for the concept of the chemical evolution of life has appeared in the discovery of biologically important compounds in extraterrestrial samples. The approaches pursued to detect extraterrestrial organic compounds include the study of interstellar space by radioastronomy, the evaluation of the Apollo lunar samples, and the analysis of meteorites, both ancient and recent. It has been found that the clouds of gas in the interstellar medium contain a wide variety of molecules, most of which are organic in nature. The carbonaceous chondrites contain polymeric organic matter. Amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite.

  8. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...... compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  9. Organic astatine compounds, their preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasaros, L; Berei, K

    1985-01-01

    Aromatic astatine compounds of possible medical application were prepared by high energy substitutions, by astatine-halogen, and by electrophil astatine-hydrogen substitutions at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches, Dubna. Physico-chemical properties of organic astatine compounds such as boiling point and evaporation heat, and the refraction and dissociation energy of carbon-astatine bonds were determined experimentally by gas chromatography. The results are compared with extrapolated data. (V.N.). 41 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tables.

  10. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiqiang [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Mortensen, Ninell P. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Qu, Di [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Molin, Soren [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ulstrup, Jens, E-mail: ju@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  11. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Qu, Di; Molin, Soren; Ulstrup, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  12. Behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyholdt, T.

    1982-01-01

    The retention behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in the reverse-bonded-phase chromatography is characterized by determining the retention indices according to Kovats. The results of these studies show that the solubility of organic compounds in the eluting agent and the molar sorption surfaces of the solutes are the main factors determining the retention behaviour. Knowledge of the retention indices of above-mentioned compounds allows a quick interpretation of chromatograms obtained through a product analysis of γ-irradiated aqueous solutions of organic sulfur compounds. Dithia compounds of the type CH 3 -S-(CH 2 )sub(n)-S-Ch 3 (1 1. 2,4-Dithiapentane (n = 1) however will yield primarily monothio-S-methyl formate as a stable end product. The formation of oxygenic reaction products proceeds via sulfur-centred radical kations. Spin trapping experiments with nitroxyl radicals show that it is possible to trap radiation-chemically produced radicals of sulfurous substrates, but the thus obtained adducts with half-life periods of 4-5 min. cannot be identified by means of NMR, IR or mass spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  13. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame ret...... remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients....

  14. Synthesis of organic compounds 15 N enriched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia Raquel de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Prestes, Clelber Vieira; Tavares, Glauco Arnold

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop urea- 15 N and glycine- 15 N synthesis for agronomic and biological studies. The production of these compounds was evaluated due to the fact of increasing use of urea, comparing to others solid fertilizers and the importance of glycine in the studies of protein metabolism. A non-conventional method was carried out to synthesize urea. The process involved reaction among Co, NH 3 anidrid and S at low temperature (100 deg C) and of pressure (0,81 mPa) compared to the conventional method. Monolise halets reaction was carried out for glycine synthesis with chloroacetic and ammonia 2 deg C. Both compounds are economic viable, they can be produced at a lower price than the trade market one. (author)

  15. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of uranium compound adsorption on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Yuki; Takizawa, Yuji; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Particles mixed in the UF6 gas have the property of accumulating on the inside of piping or units. This type of accumulation will cause material unaccounted for (MUF) in the UF6 gas processing facilities. Development of a calculation model for estimating the accumulation rate of uranium compounds has been expected. And predicting possible part of the units where uranium compounds adsorb will contribute to design an effective detection system. The purpose of this study is to take the basic knowledge of the particle's adsorption mechanism from the microscopic point of view. In simulation analysis, UF5 model particle is produced, then two types of solid surfaces are prepared; one is a solid surface at rest and the other is a moving solid surface. The result obtained by the code 'PABS' showed that when the solid surface moves at a lower velocity, the particle's adsorption process dominates over the particle's breakup one. Besides the velocity of the solid surface, other principal factors affecting an adsorption ratio were also discussed. (author)

  17. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan

    2009-01-01

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S....... epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both...... air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamicle derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four...

  18. Graft microvascular disease in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinguo; Sung, Yon K; Tian, Wen; Qian, Jin; Semenza, Gregg L; Nicolls, Mark R

    2014-08-01

    Alloimmune inflammation damages the microvasculature of solid organ transplants during acute rejection. Although immunosuppressive drugs diminish the inflammatory response, they do not directly promote vascular repair. Repetitive microvascular injury with insufficient regeneration results in prolonged tissue hypoxia and fibrotic remodeling. While clinical studies show that a loss of the microvascular circulation precedes and may act as an initiating factor for the development of chronic rejection, preclinical studies demonstrate that improved microvascular perfusion during acute rejection delays and attenuates tissue fibrosis. Therefore, preservation of a functional microvasculature may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing chronic rejection. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of the microvasculature in the long-term survival of transplanted solid organs. We also highlight microvessel-centered therapeutic strategies for prolonging the survival of solid organ transplants.

  19. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  20. Thorium-d-metals compounds and solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachkhiani, Z.B.; Chechernikov, V.I.; Chachkhiani, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium compounds with Fe, Co, Ni dependence of their magnetic properties on temperature, pressure and concentration of the second element are considered. Anomalous magnetic behaviour of alloys in the Th-Fe system is noted. Special attention is paid to compounds with CaCu 5 type hexagonal structure and their solid solutions. Th-Co-Ni specimens containing up to 25% Ni are ferromagnetics and the rest are paramagnetics. Specimens with 60% cobalt content do not display ferromagnetic properties up to 4.2 K. Hydrides of Th 7 M 3 H 30 type (M - Fe, Co, Ni) are also considered. Highly hydrogenized specimens (under high pressure) appear to be stronger ferromagnetics

  1. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo O, E.L.; Lizama S, B.E.; Vazquez A, O.; Luna C, P.C.; Arredondo H, S.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m 3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m 3 . In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO 2 and H 2 O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  2. Organic compounds in circumstellar and interstellar environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  3. Breast Reconstruction After Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Stephanie L; Giles, Brian; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Perdikis, Galen; Waldorf, James; Lemaine, Valerie; TerKonda, Sarvam

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplant patients frequently develop posttransplant malignancies including breast cancer. They may desire breast reconstruction after mastectomy, which could potentially be complicated by their transplant status, immunosuppressive regimen, and previous operations. We review our experience with patients who have undergone solid organ transplant and subsequent breast reconstruction after mastectomy After institutional review board approval, we queried our prospective breast reconstruction and solid organ transplant databases for corresponding patients. Inclusion criteria comprised breast reconstruction after solid organ transplant. A chart review was conducted of identified patients. Seventeen patients were identified: 1 pulmonary transplant, 4 cardiac transplants, 2 liver transplants, 1 pancreas transplant, 2 combined kidney/pancreas transplants, and 7 kidney transplants. Indications for mastectomy included posttransplant malignancy and prophylaxis. Median time from transplant to completion of reconstruction was 186 months (range, 11-336 months). Median age at transplant was 34.5 years (range, 21-65 years) with the median age of the patients at reconstructive surgery 51.5 years (range, 34-71 years). Median body mass index was 25.3 (range, 21.3-46.5). No significant complications were noted after reconstructive surgery. All patients were on full immunosuppression at time of reconstruction. Breast reconstruction is a viable option for transplant patients after mastectomy and should not be refused based on their transplant status. Close coordination with the transplant team and careful preoperative planning is essential for optimal outcomes.

  4. Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures. The electron beam (EB) process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non-toxic substances by one process. The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. (author)

  5. Sono-catalytic degradation of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, N.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike aqueous effluents from the PUREX process, aqueous effluents from advanced separation processes developed to separate the minor actinides (Am, Cm) contain organic reagents in large amounts. To minimize the impact of these organic compounds on the next steps of the process, and to respect standard discharges, it is necessary to develop new techniques of degradation of organic compounds. Sono-chemistry appears as a very promising solution to eliminate organic species in aqueous nuclear effluents. Indeed, the propagation of an ultrasonic wave in a liquid medium induces the appearance of cavitation bubbles which will quickly grow and implode, causing local conditions and extreme temperatures and pressures. Each cavitation bubble can then be considered as a microreactor at high temperature and high pressure able to destroy organic molecules without the addition of specific reagents. The first studies on the effect of ultrasonic frequency on sono-luminescence and sono-lysis of formic acid have shown that the degradation of formic acid occurs at the bubble/liquid interface. The most striking difference between low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound is that the sono-lysis of HCOOH at high ultrasonic frequencies initiates secondary reactions not observed at 20 kHz. However, despite a much higher sono-chemical activity at high frequency, highly concentrated carboxylic acids in the aqueous effluents from advanced separation processes cannot be destroyed by ultrasound alone. To increase the efficiency of sono-chemical reactions, the addition of supported platinum catalysts has been studied. In these conditions, an increase of the kinetics of destruction of carboxylic acids such as oxalic acid is observed. (author) [fr

  6. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three

  8. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E.

    1960-01-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [fr

  9. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process....... The asphaltene content of the different oil samples were determined by the TP 143 method. The standard asphaltenes and the solid organic deposit recovered from the swelling tests were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC-SEC and H-1 NMR. The aim of these analyses is to reveal the molecular nature of the deposits formed...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  11. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for semivolatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burbank, T.L.; Olson, M.C.; Iverson, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper describes a method to determine the distribution of PAH and alkylated homolog groups in sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, was developed to decrease sample preparation time, to reduce solvent consumption, and to minimize background interferences for full-scan GC-MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, environmental stream sediment, and commercially available topsoil, fortified at 1.5-15 ??g per compound, averaged 94.6 ?? 7.8%, 90.7 ?? 5.8% and 92.8 ?? 12.8%, respectively. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 20 to 302 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 28 environmental sediment samples, excluding homologs, show 35 of 41 compounds (85.4%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, was detected in 23 of the 28 (82%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 15 to 907 ??g/kg. The results from the 28 environmental sediment samples for the homolog series showed that 27 of 28 (96%) samples had at least one homolog series present at concentrations ranging from 20 to 89,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected homolog series, C2-alkylated naphthalene, was detected in 26 of the 28 (93%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 25 to 3900 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction also are compared. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Corrected Title: Solid-Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds from Water] Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey; Schultz, John

    2005-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) process has been developed for removing alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, amines, and other polar organic compounds from water. This process can be either a subprocess of a water-reclamation process or a means of extracting organic compounds from water samples for gas-chromatographic analysis. This SPE process is an attractive alternative to an Environmental Protection Administration liquid-liquid extraction process that generates some pollution and does not work in a microgravitational environment. In this SPE process, one forces a water sample through a resin bed by use of positive pressure on the upstream side and/or suction on the downstream side, thereby causing organic compounds from the water to be adsorbed onto the resin. If gas-chromatographic analysis is to be done, the resin is dried by use of a suitable gas, then the adsorbed compounds are extracted from the resin by use of a solvent. Unlike the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process works in both microgravity and Earth gravity. In comparison with the liquid-liquid process, the SPE process is more efficient, extracts a wider range of organic compounds, generates less pollution, and costs less.

  15. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  16. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Building Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte

    The presence of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the indoor air may be a contributory cause of complaints about irritation of mucous membranes in eyes, nose and throat, difficulty in breathing, frequent airway inflammation, skin irritation, fatigue, concentration difficulty, dizziness and hea...... (6 pages). Detailed summary in English (15 pages). Background (23 pages). Objective and hypotheses (2 pages). Methods and materials (20 pages). Results (26 pages). Discussion (12 pages). Conclusion (3 pages). References (14 pages). Appendices (95 pages)....... on sorption equilibrium and kinetics of temperature, relative humidity, VOC concentrations and air velocity past the surface of the building product. Four common building materials were carefully selected for the sorption/desorption experiments: Painted gypsum board, lacquered beechwood parquet, PVC flooring...

  17. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  18. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  19. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  20. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  1. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  2. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  3. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  4. New uranium compounds preparation and use as catalyst for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudet, L.; Folcher, G.

    1985-01-01

    Preparation of new organic uranium compounds and their use as catalysts for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds are described. These compounds include Uranium III, a cyclopentadienic group, an alkyl group and an acetylenic derivative C 6 H 5 C triple bonds CR fixed by a π bond. Catalysts can be prepared with depleted uanium for hydrogenation of olefins for example [fr

  5. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  6. Solid-state quantum chemistry and materials science: Solid compounds of the d and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods have been developed for calculating electron structures for solid compounds of d and f elements and for simulating physicochemical properties of materials based on them. Cluster and band calculations are considered for refractory compounds of d metals formed with light elements. There are bond and property regularities in doping by meals and metalloids, and defects and impurities have certain effects, where studies have been made on the electron structures for disordered phases and solid solutions in relation to sublattice compositions. Quantum-chemical simulation methods have been developed for optically active and fluorescent materials based on d and f metal oxides, fluorides, and chalcogenides, and compositions have been proposed for new optically active composites and protective coatings. New approaches have been defined to the magnetic parameters of metals, alloys, and compounds; these can be applied in simulating new magnetic materials. Calculations are given on energy spectra for high-temperature oxide superconductors. There is interesting scope for quantum-chemical methods in application to many topics in materials science

  7. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  8. International protocol on volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    In August 1991, negotiations between Canada, the USA, and 33 European countries led to an international protocol on reducing the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are responsible for serious ozone pollution problems. This was the third transborder pollution agreement developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Certain aspects of negotiations related to an earlier protocol developed for SO 2 and nitrogen oxide emissions had reappeared during the VOC negotiations, and these aspects are discussed. The VOC protocol proposes three approaches to satisfy basic obligations: reducing VOC emissions of a country by 30%, reducing VOC emissions by 30% in certain regions, and ensuring a freeze in VOC emissions in a country starting on a specified date. The protocol also introduces a new concept, that of zones of tropospheric ozone management. In Canada, plans for management of nitrogen oxides and VOC have been adapted to the ozone problem, and the management plan has been developed by a consultation process involving all sectors of society including industry, environmental groups, and governments. In Canada, it will be sufficient to reduce total VOC emissions by 16% during a first phase and to increase these reductions slightly in the second phase. Special ozone management zones in the Quebec City/Windsor corridor and the Fraser River valley have been established

  9. Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Hannigan, Michael P.; Trenary, Laurie; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    New stainless steel active fogwater collectors were designed and used in Davis (CA, USA) to collect fogwater for the speciation of organic matter. Organic compounds in fog samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Numerous organic compounds, including various alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanoic acids, have been identified in the fogwater samples. Higher molecular weight (MW) compounds are preferentially associated with an insoluble phase inside the fog drops, whereas lower molecular weight and more polar compounds are found predominantly in the dissolved phase. Concentrations in the dissolved phase were sometimes much higher than estimated by the compounds' aqueous solubilities.

  10. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhov, Nikolai Z; Grigorieva, Tatiana F; Barinova, Antonina P; Vorsina, I A [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-13

    The results of experimental studies in the mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation published over the last 15 years are described systematically. The key reactions of organic compounds are considered: synthesis of the salts of organic acids, acylation, substitution, dehalogenation, esterification, hydrometallation and other reactions. Primary attention is devoted to systems and compounds that cannot be obtained by traditional chemistry methods.

  12. Analysis of Wastewater for Organic Compounds Unique to RDX/HMX manufacturing and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    manufacture of acetic anhydride and the concentration of weak acetic acid, recovered at Area B, to yield * Holston Defense Corporation 2 Kingsport...washing nor Soxhlet extraction techniques proved to be effective in recovering the organic compounds from the type of activated carbon available at the...ice ?nd acetone mixture.J Approximately one liter of dewater yielded approximately 200 mg (0.2 grams) of freeze-dried solids: These solids were

  13. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  14. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of new organic compounds containing cyanoacrylic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Mogheiseh, M.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Chow, T.J.; Maddahi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1098, Oct (2015), s. 318-323 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic compounds * cyanoacrylic acid * single-crystal structure analysis * dye-sensitized solar cells * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  17. Total Oxidation of Model Volatile Organic Compounds over Some Commercial Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Topka, Pavel; Jirátová, Květa; Šolcová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 443, NOV 7 (2012), s. 40-49 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/059 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : volatile organic compounds * oxidation * ethanol Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.410, year: 2012

  18. Identifying organic nitrogen compounds in Rocky Mountain National Park aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, K. B.; Desyaterik, Y.; Ozel, M. Z.; Hamilton, J. F.; Collett, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition is an important issue in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). While inorganic nitrogen contributions to the ecosystems in this area have been studied, the sources of organic nitrogen are still largely unknown. To better understand the potential sources of organic nitrogen, filter samples were collected and analyzed for organic nitrogen species. Samples were collected in RMNP using a Thermo Fisher Scientific TSP (total suspended particulate) high-volume sampler with a PM2.5 impactor plate from April - November of 2008. The samples presented the opportunity to compare two different methods for identification of individual organic nitrogen species. The first type of analysis was performed with a comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) system using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). The filter samples were spiked with propanil in dichloromethane to use as an internal standard and were then extracted in water followed by solid phase extraction. The GCxGC system was comprised of a volatility based separation (DB5 column) followed by a polarity based separation (RXI-17 column). A NCD was used to specifically detect nitrogen compounds and remove the complex background matrix. Individual standards were used to identify peaks by comparing retention times. This method has the added benefit of an equimolar response for nitrogen so only a single calibration is needed for all species. In the second analysis, a portion of the same filter samples were extracted in DI water and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). The separation was performed using a C18 column and a water-methanol gradient elution. Electrospray ionization into a time of flight mass spectrometer was used for detection. High accuracy mass measurement allowed unambiguous assignments of elemental composition of resulting ions. Positive and negative polarities were used since amines tend to show up in positive mode and nitrates in

  19. Chemical Reductive Transformations of Synthetic Organic Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyton, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can be used to selectively remove DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene) from a complex waste stream by adding a precursor compound such as ethanol which forms a reducing radical upon reaction with hydroxyl radical...

  20. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... have entered the commercial market, both in rural areas ... nation of volatile compounds include: gas chromate- graphy (GC) ... prior to the actual analysis, various extraction methods ..... traditional and industrial 'orujo' spirits.

  1. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward

  2. Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarielashvili, V.O.; Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.

    1992-01-01

    Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic compounds was conducted. Ionization was performed by electron shock. Possibility of determining boron isotope content is all analyzed organic boron vinyl-substituted compounds by direct method is shown. This simplifies sufficiently and lowers the price of analysis, improves its accuracy and rapidity

  3. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo

    2015-07-15

    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  4. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  5. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T; Arsene, C

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  6. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  7. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  8. Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 82 kinds of volatile compounds were identified, including alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, alkynes and benzenes. The subtle aroma of the soy sauce seemed to depend not only on particular key compounds but also on a “critical balance” or a “weighted concentration

  9. Photocatalytic fluoroalkylation reactions of organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Barata Vallejo, Sebastian; Bonesi, Sergio Mauricio; Postigo, Jose Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalytic methods for fluoroalkyl-radical generation provide more convenient alternatives to the classical perfluoroalkyl-radical (Rf) production through chemical initiators, such as azo or peroxide compounds or the employment of transition metals through a thermal electron transfer (ET) initiation process. The mild photocatalytic reaction conditions tolerate a variety of functional groups and, thus, are handy to the late-stage modification of bioactive molecules. Transition metal-photoc...

  10. Mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist Simon

    This thesis presents data pertaining to the mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media. Physical properties of porous solids, including surface and pore areas, are studied. Information from these studies, along with dissolution data, are used to develop correlations relating the Sherwood Number to the Peclet Number. The contaminant used in this study is naphthalene; the solids used are Moffett Sand (MS), Borden Sand (BS), Lampblack (LB), and Silica Gel (SG). Surface area results indicate that contamination at 0.1% reduces the area of MS and SG by 48 and 37%, respectively, while contamination at 1.0% reduces the area of MS, BS, and SG by 59, 56, and 40%, respectively. Most of the reduction in area originates in the reduction of pore areas and volumes, where the contaminant precipitates. After long-term storage, surface areas did not recover to their original values due to an "irreversible" fraction of naphthalene. Treatment with heat or solvent or both was necessary to completely remove the contamination. For lampblack, treatment at 100°C decreased areas while treatment at 250°C increased them. Treatment at 250°°C probably opened pores while that at 100°C may have blocked more pores by redistributing the tar-like contaminant characteristic of lampblack. Contaminated MS and SG solids are packed in columns through which water is pumped. The effluent began at a relatively high concentration (˜70% of solubility) for both samples. However, SG column concentrations dropped quickly, never achieving steady state while the MS samples declined more gradually towards steady state. The high pore areas of the SG samples are believed to cause this behavior. The steady state portion of the MS dissolution history is used to develop mass transfer correlations. The correlation in this study differs from previous work in two major ways: (1) the exponent on the Pe is three times larger and (2) the limiting Sh is 106 times smaller. These results suggest that

  11. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  12. Analysis of organic compounds by secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewinger, H.P.

    1993-05-01

    This study is about the use of secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as analytical techniques with depth resolution in determining organic components in environmental solid microparticles. The first application of plasma SNMS to organic compounds revealed the spectra to be composed mainly of signals from the atoms of all participating elements, such as C, H, O, N, S, P, and Cl. In addition, signals produced by multi-atomic clusters can be detected, such as CH, C 2 , CH 2 , C 2 H, and C 3 , as well as signals indicating the presence of organic compounds with hetero elements, such as OH, NH, and CN. Their intensity decreases very markedly with increasing numbers of atoms. Among the signals from bi-atomic clusters, those coming from elements with large mass differences are most intense. The use of plasma SNMS with organic compounds has shown that, except for spurious chemical reactions induced by ion bombardment and photodesorption by the photons of the plasma, it is possible to analyze with resolution in depth, elements of organic solids. A more detailed molecular characterization of organic compounds is possible by means of SIMS on the basis of multi-atomic fragments and by comparison with suitable signal patterns. (orig./BBR) [de

  13. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic compounds preparation with 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, Gholam Hossein.

    1996-09-01

    Active urea is a basic reagent for the synthesis of active uric-8- 14 C acid. In our manner, activated Barium carbonate with specified activity was placed in a special furnace with ability of passing gases. Then, ammonia gas was passed through it at about 850 Degree C to obtain Barium Cyanamide. Reaction of the produced compound with CO 2 , and then acidification of the mixture, gave activated urea. Condensation of the urea with Ethylcyanoacetate, produce 6-Aminouracil which upon nitrosation, reduction and then condensation with urea, the desired Uric-8- 14 C acid was synthesized. (author). 148 refs.,

  15. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, I.; Ivanko, S.

    1976-01-01

    32 P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of 32 P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of 32 P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The 32 P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time. (author)

  16. Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate volatile organic compounds (VOCs emanating from urine samples to determine whether they can be used to classify samples into those from prostate cancer and non-cancer groups. Participants were men referred for a trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination. Urine samples were collected from patients with prostate cancer (n = 59 and cancer-free controls (n = 43, on the day of their biopsy, prior to their procedure. VOCs from the headspace of basified urine samples were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Classifiers were developed using Random Forest (RF and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classification techniques. PSA alone had an accuracy of 62-64% in these samples. A model based on 4 VOCs, 2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol, pentanal, 3-octanone, and 2-octanone, was marginally more accurate 63-65%. When combined, PSA level and these four VOCs had mean accuracies of 74% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. With repeated double cross-validation, the mean accuracies fell to 71% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. Results from VOC profiling of urine headspace are encouraging and suggest that there are other metabolomic avenues worth exploring which could help improve the stratification of men at risk of prostate cancer. This study also adds to our knowledge on the profile of compounds found in basified urine, from controls and cancer patients, which is useful information for future studies comparing the urine from patients with other disease states.

  17. Solid organ fabrication: comparison of decellularization to 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jangwook P; Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Ogle, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ fabrication is an ultimate goal of Regenerative Medicine. Since the introduction of Tissue Engineering in 1993, functional biomaterials, stem cells, tunable microenvironments, and high-resolution imaging technologies have significantly advanced efforts to regenerate in vitro culture or tissue platforms. Relatively simple flat or tubular organs are already in (pre)clinical trials and a few commercial products are in market. The road to more complex, high demand, solid organs including heart, kidney and lung will require substantive technical advancement. Here, we consider two emerging technologies for solid organ fabrication. One is decellularization of cadaveric organs followed by repopulation with terminally differentiated or progenitor cells. The other is 3D bioprinting to deposit cell-laden bio-inks to attain complex tissue architecture. We reviewed the development and evolution of the two technologies and evaluated relative strengths needed to produce solid organs, with special emphasis on the heart and other tissues of the cardiovascular system.

  18. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Tables S3 and S4 list emission factors in g/kg of speciated volatile and particulate organic compounds emitted from peat burning. Peat samples...

  19. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge- up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  20. Metal organic frameworks for removal of compounds from a fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-03

    Embodiments provide a method of compound removal from a fluid. The method includes contacting one or more metal organic framework (MOF) compositions with a fluid and sorbing one or more compounds, such as CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons. One or more of CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons can be sorbed simultaneously or in series. The metal organic framework can be an M-soc-MOF.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds estimation methods, principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, George J

    1967-01-01

    Thermodynamic Properties of Organic Compounds: Estimation Methods, Principles and Practice, Revised Edition focuses on the progression of practical methods in computing the thermodynamic characteristics of organic compounds. Divided into two parts with eight chapters, the book concentrates first on the methods of estimation. Topics presented are statistical and combined thermodynamic functions; free energy change and equilibrium conversions; and estimation of thermodynamic properties. The next discussions focus on the thermodynamic properties of simple polyatomic systems by statistical the

  2. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in indoor air quality investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, L.; Clausen, Geo; Berglund, B.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air, usually called TVOC (total volatile organic compounds), has been measured using different definitions and techniques which yield different results. This report recommends a definition of TVOC referring to a specified range of VOCs...... for characterizing indoor pollution and for improving source control as required from the points of view of health, comfort, energy efficiency and sustainability. (C) Indoor Air (1997)....

  3. Metal organic frameworks for removal of compounds from a fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments provide a method of compound removal from a fluid. The method includes contacting one or more metal organic framework (MOF) compositions with a fluid and sorbing one or more compounds, such as CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons. One or more of CO2, H2S and condensable hydrocarbons can be sorbed simultaneously or in series. The metal organic framework can be an M-soc-MOF.

  4. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds Pt.1. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    A simple method allowing the preparation of 82 Br labelled organic bromine compounds from olefins with chemical and radiochemical yields between 75 and 95% and the specific activities required, is described [fr

  5. Impact of organic-mineral matter interactions on thermal reaction pathways for coal model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Struss, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    Coal is a complex, heterogeneous solid that includes interdispersed mineral matter. However, knowledge of organic-mineral matter interactions is embryonic, and the impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction is incomplete. Clay minerals, for example, are known to be effective catalysts for organic reactions. Furthermore, clays such as montmorillonite have been proposed to be key catalysts in the thermal alteration of lignin into vitrinite during the coalification process. Recent studies by Hatcher and coworkers on the evolution of coalified woods using microscopy and NMR have led them to propose selective, acid-catalyzed, solid state reaction chemistry to account for retained structural integrity in the wood. However, the chemical feasibility of such reactions in relevant solids is difficult to demonstrate. The authors have begun a model compound study to gain a better molecular level understanding of the effects in the solid state of organic-mineral matter interactions relevant to both coal formation and processing. To satisfy the need for model compounds that remain nonvolatile solids at temperatures ranging to 450 C, model compounds are employed that are chemically bound to the surface of a fumed silica (Si-O-C{sub aryl}linkage). The organic structures currently under investigation are phenethyl phenyl ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) derivatives, which serve as models for {beta}-alkyl aryl ether units that are present in lignin and lignitic coals. The solid-state chemistry of these materials at 200--450 C in the presence of interdispersed acid catalysts such as small particle size silica-aluminas and montmorillonite clay will be reported. Initial focus will be on defining the potential impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction.

  6. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A; Putschew, A; Jekel, M [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  7. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  8. Calixarene Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Films For Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) such as benzene, toluene, chloroform are chemicals that evaporate easily at room temperature and create many health effects on young children, elderly and a person with heightened sensitivity to chemicals. Concentrations of many VOC's are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors because many household products (for example paints, varnishes, many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, hobby products etc.) contains VOC's. Some effects of VOC's for human beings can be followed as the eye, nose, and throat irritations; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. These are big incentives for the development of portable, user-friendly VOC's sensors and for the investigation of the sensing properties of new materials to be prepared as a thin film sensing element. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin film technique allows us to produce monolayer or multilayer organic thin films that can be used as chemical sensing elements.In this work, materials known as the calix[n]arene are investigated for the production of sensing material against several VOC's such as the chloroform, benzene, ethylbenzene and toluene by using LB thin film techniques. UV-visible, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) system and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurement techniques are used to check the quality of the deposition process onto a solid substrate. Surface morphology and sensing properties of the final sensing layers are then studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and SPR techniques. Our results indicated that selected calixarene materials are sensitive enough and quite suitable to fabricate a highly ordered, reproducible and uniform LB film that can be used as a very thin sensing layer against VOC's.

  9. Current Trends in the Management of Blunt Solid Organ Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    The management of patients with solid organ injuries has changed since the introduction of technically advanced imaging tools, such as ultrasonography and multiple scan computerized tomography, interventional radiological techniques and modern intensive care units. In spite of this development in the management of these patients, major solid organ traumas can still be challenging. There has been great improvement in the non-operative management (NOM) of intra-abdominal solid organ injury in recent decades. In most cases treatment of injuries has shifted from early surgical treatment to NOM.

  10. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, J; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Ríos-Fernández, R; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2015-11-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is considered a high risk factor for any kind of surgery. Considering that all solid organ transplants are critically dependent on the patency of vascular anastomosis, there is much concern about the consequences this pro-thrombotic condition may have on transplantation. Relatively little information is available in the literature assessing the real risk that antiphospholipid syndrome or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies represent in solid organ transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Treating contaminated organic compounds using the DETOX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsberry, K.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste matrices containing organic compounds, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. This paper describes the results of bench-scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for designing a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent reaction rate orders for organic compounds and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on solution composition and the contact area were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. Reaction rate was superior in chloride-based solutions and was proportional to the contact area above about 20 g/kg loading of organic material. Oxidations in 4-L volume, mixed bench-top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 0.999999+ g/g for common organic compounds. Reaction rates achieved in the mixed bench-top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10 to 100+ g of organic material per L-hr. Results are also presented on the solvation efficiency of DETOX for mercury, cerium, and neodymium, and for removal/destruction of organic compounds sorbed on vermiculite. The next stage of development will be converting the bench-top unit to continuous processing

  12. Evolution of interstellar organic compounds under asteroidal hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Remusat, L.

    2018-05-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CC) contain a diversity of organic compounds. No definitive evidence for a genetic relationship between these complex organic molecules and the simple organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) has yet been reported. One of the many difficulties arises from the transformations of organic compounds during accretion and hydrothermal alteration on asteroids. Here, we report results of hydrothermal alteration experiments conducted on a common constituent of interstellar ice analogs, Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT - C6H12N4). We submitted HMT to asteroidal hydrothermal conditions at 150 °C, for various durations (up to 31 days) and under alkaline pH. Organic products were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Results show that, within a few days, HMT has evolved into (1) a very diverse suite of soluble compounds dominated by N-bearing aromatic compounds (> 150 species after 31 days), including for instance formamide, pyridine, pyrrole and their polymers (2) an aromatic and N-rich insoluble material that forms after only 7 days of experiment and then remains stable through time. The reaction pathways leading to the soluble compounds likely include HMT dissociation, formose and Maillard-type reactions, e.g. reactions of sugar derivatives with amines. The present study demonstrates that, if interstellar organic compounds such as HMT had been accreted by chondrite parent bodies, they would have undergone chemical transformations during hydrothermal alteration, potentially leading to the formation of high molecular weight insoluble organic molecules. Some of the diversity of soluble and insoluble organic compounds found in CC may thus result from asteroidal hydrothermal alteration.

  13. Solid phase extraction of hydroxyaromatic compounds from aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Sukhanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of extraction parameters of hydroxyaromatic compounds on sort of polyurethane foam, nature and composition of solution deposited on a polymer foam, content of inorganic salt in solution.

  14. Trace organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Johnson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the occurrence of organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition is given. Multiplicity of sources and problems associated with source identification are discussed. Available literature is reviewed by using citations from Chemical Abstracts and Water Resources Abstracts through June 1985 and includes reports published through December 1984 that summarize current knowledge. Approaches to the chemical determination of organic compounds in precipitation are examined in addition to aspects of sampling protocols. Best methods for sample collection and preparation for instrumental analysis continue to be discussed among various investigators. Automatic wet-deposition-only devices for collection and extraction are preferred. Classes of organic compounds that have been identified in precipitation include a spectrum of compounds with differing properties of acidity or basicity, polarity, and water solubility. Those compounds that have been reported in rainfall, snowfall, and ice include hydrocarbons (both aromatic and nonaromatic), chlorinated derivatives of these hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds (both acidic and nonacidic), and carboxylic acids and esters. Formic and acetic are the most abundant organic acids present. Cloudwater, fogwater, and mist also have been collected and analyzed for organic composition.

  15. Investigation of second-order hyperpolarizability of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajalli, H.; Zirak, P.; Ahmadi, S.

    2003-04-01

    In this work, we have measured the second order hyperpolarizability of some organic materials with (EFISH) method and also calculated the second order hyperpolarizability of 13 organic compound with Mopac6 software and investigated the different factors that affect the amount of second order hyperpolarizability and ways to increase it.

  16. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  17. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  18. Removal of organic compounds from shale gas flowback water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Faber, Ann-Hélène; Wang, Yue; Grolle, Katja; Hofman-Caris, Roberta; Bruning, Harry; Van Wezel, Annemarie P.; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback

  19. On the enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsaraj, K. T.; Thoma, G. J.; Reible, D. D.; Thibodeaux, L. J.

    The unusual degree of enrichment of hydrophobic organics in fogwater droplets reported by several investigators can be interpreted as a result of (a) the effects of temperature correction on the reported enrichment factors, (b) the effects of colloidal organic matter (both filterable and non-filterable) in fog water and (c) the effects of the large air-water interfacial adsorption of neutral hydrophobic organics on the tiny fog droplets. The enrichment factor was directly correlated to the hydrophobicity (or the activity coefficient in water) of the compounds, as indicated by their octanol-water partition constants. Compounds with large octanol-water partition coefficients (high activity coefficients in water) showed the largest enrichment. Available experimental data on the adsorption of hydrophobic compounds at the air-water interface and on colloidal organic carbon were used to show that the large specific air-water interfacial areas of fog droplets contribute significantly to the enrichment factor.

  20. Studies about behavior of microbial degradation of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Makiko

    2003-02-01

    Some of TRU waste include organic compounds, thus these organic compounds might be nutrients for microbial growth at disposal site. This disposal system might be exposed to high alkali condition by cement compounds as engineering barrier material. In the former experimental studies, it has been supposed that microbial exist under pH = 12 and the microbial activity acclimated to high alkali condition are able to degrade asphalt under anaerobic condition. Microbes are called extremophile that exist in cruel habitat as high alkali or reductive condition. We know less information about the activity of extremophile, though any recent studies reveal them. In this study, the first investigation is metabolic pathway as microbial activity, the second is microbial degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, and the third is microbial activity under high alkali. Microbial metabolic pathway consist of two systems that fulfill their function each other. One system is to generate energy for microbial activities and the other is to convert substances for syntheses of organisms' structure materials. As these systems are based on redox reaction between substances, it is made chart of the microbial activity region using pH, Eh, and depth as parameter, There is much report that microbe is able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic or molecular O 2 utilizing condition. For degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, supplying electron acceptor is required. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia has important role, too. Alcalophile has individual transporting system depending Na + and acidic compounds contained in cell wall. Generating energy is key for survival and growth under high alkali condition. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia are effective for microbial degradation of aromatic compounds under high alkali and reductive condition, and utilizable electron acceptor and degradable organic compounds are required for keeping microbial activity and

  1. Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Małgorzata; Słomka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microbiological, biochemical and physiological aspects of phytoremediation of soil and water environments polluted to different degrees with heavy metals has very important theoretical and practical implications. In this study, a comparison was made between total cadmium concentration in root and shoot tissues as well as concentrations of particular fractions of Cd immobilized by roots of Festuca ovina (Sheep’s fescue) hydroponically cultivated in nutrient solutions supplemented with 1 μg Cd ml(–1) and those cultivated at 10 μg Cd ml(–1). After three weeks of F. ovina cultivation, the number of bacterial CFU and the amounts of organic chelators, siderophores, proteins and reducing sugars in the growth medium and on the root surface were higher at 10 than at 1 μg Cd ml(–1). The grass also reacted to the high Cd concentration by a decrease in plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in root tissues. The concentration of Cd determined in fractions bound with different strength in roots was significantly dependent on Cd concentration in the growth medium. When the plants were grown at 1 μg Cd ml(–1), 9% of the immobilized cadmium was loosely bound to the root surface, 20% was exchangeable adsorbed, and 28% was bound by chelation; at 10 μg Cd ml(–1), the respective values were 12%, 25%, and 20%. About 43% of the immobilized cadmium remained in roots after sequential extraction, and bioaccumulation factors in shoots had the same values independently of Cd concentration. At both Cd concentrations, the cadmium translocation index for F. ovina was low (< 1), which is why this grass can be recommended for phytostabilization of the metal under study.

  2. Self-association and infrared spectres of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulloev, N.; Nurulloev, M.; Narziev, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to self-association and infrared spectres of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol in solid state. The study results of self-association specified by molecular hydrogen bonds of some heterocyclic compounds based on pyrrol on spectres of infrared absorption of stretching vibrations of N-H group were considered.

  3. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  4. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  5. Aqueous processing of organic compounds in carbonaceous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep Maria; Rimola, Albert; Martins, Zita

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence pointing towards a prebiotic synthesis of complex organic species in water-rich undifferentiated bodies. For instance, clays have been found to be associated with complex organic compounds (Pearson et al. 2002; Garvie & Buseck 2007; Arteaga et al. 2010), whereas theoretical calculations have studied the interaction between the organic species and surface minerals (Rimola et al., 2013) as well as surface-induced reactions (Rimola at al. 2007). Now, we are using more detailed analytical techniques to study the possible processing of organic molecules associated with the mild aqueous alteration in CR, CM and CI chondrites. To learn more about these processes we are studying carbonaceous chondrites at Ultra High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (UHR-TEM). We are particularly interested in the relationship between organics and clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) matrixes (Trigo-Rodríguez et al. 2014, 2015).We want to address two goals: i) identifying the chemical steps in which the organic molecules could have increased their complexity (i.e., surface interaction and catalysis); and ii) studying if the organic matter present in CCs experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals at the time in which these planetary bodies experienced aqueous alteration. Here, these two points are preliminarily explored combing experimental results with theoretical calculations based on accurate quantum mechanical methods. References Arteaga O, Canillas A, Crusats J, El-Hachemi Z, Jellison GE, Llorca J, Ribó JM (2010) Chiral biases in solids by effect of shear gradients: a speculation on the deterministic origin of biological homochirality. Orig Life Evol Biosph 40:27-40. Garvie LAJ, Buseck PR (2007) Prebiotic carbon in clays from Orgueil and Ivuna (CI) and Tagish lake (C2 ungrouped) meteorites. Meteorit Planet Sci 42:2111-2117. Pearson VK, Sephton MA, Kearsley AT, Bland AP, Franchi IA, Gilmour

  6. Numerically robust geometry engine for compound solid geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachoudis, V.; Sinuela-Pastor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo programs heavily rely on a fast and numerically robust solid geometry engines. However the success of solid modeling, depends on facilities for specifying and editing parameterized models through a user-friendly graphical front-end. Such a user interface has to be fast enough in order to be interactive for 2D and/or 3D displays, but at the same time numerically robust in order to display possible modeling errors at real time that could be critical for the simulation. The graphical user interface Flair for FLUKA currently employs such an engine where special emphasis has been given on being fast and numerically robust. The numerically robustness is achieved by a novel method of estimating the floating precision of the operations, which dynamically adapts all the decision operations accordingly. Moreover a predictive caching mechanism is ensuring that logical errors in the geometry description are found online, without compromising the processing time by checking all regions. (authors)

  7. Surface microlayer enrichment of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds in drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Ya-juan; Zhang, Ai-qian; Han, Shuo-kui; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Enrichment of volatile organic compounds(VOC) and semi-volatility organic compounds(SVOC) in surface microlayer(SM) of three drinking water sources were studied. The enrichment factor(EFs) were 0.67 to 13.37 and 0.16 to 136, respectively. The results showed some VOC and most SVOC could enrich in SM. Some EFs of SVOC was quite high. Suspension and temperature could affect EFs of SVOC, slim wind and water movement do not destroy enrichment of organic in SM.

  8. Changes in volatile compound composition of Antrodia camphorata during solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongjun; Zhang, Baorong; Li, Weijiang; Xu, Ganrong

    2011-10-01

    Although the volatiles present in mushrooms and fungi have been investigated by many researchers, including Antrodia camphorata in submerged fermentation, there are few data available regarding changes in volatile compounds during fermentation. Our research has revealed that solid state fermentation of A. camphorata is highly odiferous compared with submerged cultures and the odor changed with increasing culture time. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in volatile compound composition of A. camphorata during solid state fermentation. Altogether, 124 major volatile compounds were identified. The volatile compounds produced by A. camphorata during growth in solid state fermentation were quite different. Oct-1-en-3-ol, octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate were predominant in exponential growth phase production, while the dominant volatiles produced in stationary phase were octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate. In stationary phase, lactone compounds in A. camphorata, such as 5-butyloxolan-2-one, 5-heptyloxolan-2-one, 6-heptyloxan-2-one, contributed greatly to peach and fruit-like flavor. Terpene and terpene alcohol compounds, such as 1-terpineol, L-linalool, T-cadinol, (E, E)-farnesol, β-elemene, cis-α-bisabolene and α-muurolene, made different contributions to herbal fresh aroma in A. camphorata. Nineteen volatile sesquiterpenes were detected from solid state fermentation of A. camphorata. The compounds 5-n-butyl-5H-furan-2-one, β-ionone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, aromadendrene oxide, diepi-α-cedrene epoxide, β-elemene, α-selinene, α-muurolene, azulene, germacrene D, γ-cadinene and 2-methylpyrazine have not hitherto been reported in A. camphorata. The preliminary results suggest that the aroma-active compounds produced by A camphorata in solid state fermentation might serve as an important source of natural aroma compounds for the food and cosmetic industries or antibiotic activity compounds. The sesquiterpenes could be

  9. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 degree C, 30 degree C, 40 degree C, and 50 degree C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic

  10. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biokinetics and dosimetry of radioactively labelled organic C-14 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krins, A.; Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T.

    2003-12-01

    The report starts with summarising research work and the resulting scientific information in connection with the dosimetry of C-14 labelled organic compounds. Biokinetic models are developed for compounds such as benzene, phenol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and a selection of pharmaceuticals, in order to show the radioactivity distribution after administration of the C-14 labelled substances. Based on the those models, dose coefficients and excretion rates are derived. The following synoptic view of the available data library leads on to a discussion of various aspects, as eg. the question of whether and how monitoring for detection of incorporation of C-14 administered with labelled organic compounds is possible. None of the questions and aspects arising in connection with this subject can be adequately dealt with in the present document, but concepts and methods are presented which permit an interpretation of radioactivity excretion data measured after incorporation of C-14 labelled organic substances. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Isotopic exchange in mixed valence compounds in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Valverde, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work aims at the determination of isotopic exchange kinetics and mechanism in two mixed valence compounds: Cs 10 (Sbsup(V)Cl 6 ) (Sbsup(III)Cl 6 ) 3 and Tl 3 sup(I)(Tlsup(III)Cl 6 ). The synthesis of the first compound is very difficult because in most of the cases mixtures of chloroantimoniates are obtained. Exchange in Tl 4 Cl 6 labelled on Tlsup(III) is studied in detail by radiochemical analysis and physical techniques: ionic conductivity and positon annihilation. Cation vacancies are easily created in the lattice with formation enthalpy of 0.35 eV and migration enthalpy of 0.52 eV. Isochronic and isothermal exchange curves are described by a kinetic based on species diffusion. Models are given. Exchange is increased by grinding probably because extrinseque defects are introduced [fr

  13. Radiolytic formation of organic iodides from organic compounds released from ripolin paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, S.; Evans, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of a serious nuclear reactor accident is governed to a large extent by the possible release of airborne organic iodides to the environment. This research examines the identification and behavior of organic iodides formed in the containment due to the release of organic compounds from Ripolin paint, into the aqueous phase, following a nuclear reactor accident. A bench scale apparatus installed in the irradiation chamber of a Gammacell was used to analyze the formation of organic iodides. Iodo-organics, transferred to the gas phase above irradiated aqueous samples, were analyzed using a Thermal Desorption method coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Detailed studies of the identity of the organic compounds released and the organic iodides formed were conducted. The effects of parameters such as irradiation dose were also examined. All the organic iodides formed, under radiolytic conditions, were identified as iodo-alkanes. The organic compounds that were released from the Ripolin paint, such as methyl isobutyl ketone, were found to decompose, by a series of reactions, to produce the organic iodides. The precursor organic compounds and the organic iodides formed were observed to consist of the same alkyl group. These results indicate that organic compounds released from surface paints directly influence the formation of radiolytic organic iodide. (author)

  14. WinPSSP : a revamp of the computer program PSSP and its performance solving the crystal structures of small organic compounds and solids of biological and pharmaceutical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagola, Silvina; Polymeros, Alekos; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    The direct-space methods softwarePowder Structure Solution Program(PSSP) [Pagola & Stephens (2010).J. Appl. Cryst.43, 370–376] has been migrated to the Windows OS and the code has been optimized for fast runs.WinPSSPis a user-friendly graphical user interface that allows the input of preliminary crystal structure information, integrated intensities of the reflections and FWHM, the definition of structural parameters and a simulated annealing schedule, and the visualization of the calculated and experimental diffraction data overlaid for each individual solution. The solutions are reported as filename.cif files, which can be used to analyze packing motifs and chemical bonding, and to input the atomic coordinates into the Rietveld analysis softwareGSAS. WinPSSPperformance in straightforward crystal structure determinations has been evaluated using 18 molecular solids with 6–20 degrees of freedom. The free-distribution program as well as multimedia tutorials can be accessed at http://users.uoi.gr/nkourkou/winpssp/.

  15. Inventory of volatile organic compound emissions in Finland, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroueh, U.M.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compile an inventory of the emissions of volatile organic compounds in Finland for the year 1985. The report was prepared for the ECE Task Force on Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Stationary Sources according to the classification given by the Task Force. It considers anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Mobile sources are excluded. The quantities as well as the main components are listed, as far as possible. The values given exclude methane which according to the present understanding is regarded as unreactive

  16. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  17. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H [comp.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  18. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H. [comp.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  19. Aromatic C-Nitroso Compounds and Their Dimers: A Model for Probing the Reaction Mechanisms in Crystalline Molecular Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Biljan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on the dimerization and dissociation of aromatic C-nitroso compounds and their dimers, the reactions that could be used as a convenient model for studying the thermal organic solid-state reaction mechanisms. This molecular model is simple because it includes formation or breaking of only one covalent bond between two nitrogen atoms. The crystalline molecular solids of nitroso dimers (azodioxides dissociate by photolysis under the cryogenic conditions, and re-dimerize by slow warming. The thermal re-dimerization reaction is examined under the different topotactic conditions in crystals: disordering, surface defects, and phase transformations. Depending on the conditions, and on the molecular structure, aromatic C-nitroso compounds can associate to form one-dimensional polymeric structures and are able to self-assemble on gold surfaces.

  20. Detection of organic compounds with whole-cell bioluminescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Smartt, Abby; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Natural and manmade organic chemicals are widely deposited across a diverse range of ecosystems including air, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediment, and marine environments. Some organic compounds, despite their industrial values, are toxic to living organisms and pose significant health risks to humans and wildlife. Detection and monitoring of these organic pollutants in environmental matrices therefore is of great interest and need for remediation and health risk assessment. Although these detections have traditionally been performed using analytical chemical approaches that offer highly sensitive and specific identification of target compounds, these methods require specialized equipment and trained operators, and fail to describe potential bioavailable effects on living organisms. Alternatively, the integration of bioluminescent systems into whole-cell bioreporters presents a new capacity for organic compound detection. These bioreporters are constructed by incorporating reporter genes into catabolic or signaling pathways that are present within living cells and emit a bioluminescent signal that can be detected upon exposure to target chemicals. Although relatively less specific compared to analytical methods, bioluminescent bioassays are more cost-effective, more rapid, can be scaled to higher throughput, and can be designed to report not only the presence but also the bioavailability of target substances. This chapter reviews available bacterial and eukaryotic whole-cell bioreporters for sensing organic pollutants and their applications in a variety of sample matrices.

  1. Quantum interference between multi photon absorption pathways in organic solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, A.; Christensson, N.; Drobizhev, M.; Stepanenko, Y.; Spangler, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate spatial interference fringe pattern by simultaneous one- and three-photon absorption of UV and near-IR femtosecond pulses in thin film organic solid at room temperature. We use organic dendrimers that are specially designed to have strong fluorescence and very large three-photon absorption cross-section. High fringe visibility allows the quantum interference to be observed by eye

  2. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  3. The electrochemical reduction processes of solid compounds in high temperature molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua

    2014-05-21

    Solid electrode processes fall in the central focus of electrochemistry due to their broad-based applications in electrochemical energy storage/conversion devices, sensors and electrochemical preparation. The electrolytic production of metals, alloys, semiconductors and oxides via the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds (especially solid oxides) in high temperature molten salts has been well demonstrated to be an effective and environmentally friendly process for refractory metal extraction, functional materials preparation as well as spent fuel reprocessing. The (electro)chemical reduction of solid compounds under cathodic polarizations generally accompanies a variety of changes at the cathode/melt electrochemical interface which result in diverse electrolytic products with different compositions, morphologies and microstructures. This report summarizes various (electro)chemical reactions taking place at the compound cathode/melt interface during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts, which mainly include: (1) the direct electro-deoxidation of solid oxides; (2) the deposition of the active metal together with the electrochemical reduction of solid oxides; (3) the electro-inclusion of cations from molten salts; (4) the dissolution-electrodeposition process, and (5) the electron hopping process and carbon deposition with the utilization of carbon-based anodes. The implications of the forenamed cathodic reactions on the energy efficiency, chemical compositions and microstructures of the electrolytic products are also discussed. We hope that a comprehensive understanding of the cathodic processes during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts could form a basis for developing a clean, energy efficient and affordable production process for advanced/engineering materials.

  4. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, I; Ivanko, S [Vysoka Skola Polnohospodarska, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    /sup 32/P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of /sup 32/P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of /sup 32/P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The /sup 32/P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time.

  5. Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Abdominal Solid Organ Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Demetrios; Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Constantinou, Costas; Brown, Carlos; Inaba, Kenji; Rhee, Peter; Salim, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and safety of selective nonoperative management in penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries. Background: Nonoperative management of blunt abdominal solid organ injuries has become the standard of care. However, routine surgical exploration remains the standard practice for all penetrating solid organ injuries. The present study examines the role of nonoperative management in selected patients with penetrating injuries to abdominal solid organs. Patients and Methods: Prospective, protocol-driven study, which included all penetrating abdominal solid organ (liver, spleen, kidney) injuries admitted to a level I trauma center, over a 20-month period. Patients with hemodynamic instability, peritonitis, or an unevaluable abdomen underwent an immediate laparotomy. Patients who were hemodynamically stable and had no signs of peritonitis were selected for further CT scan evaluation. In the absence of CT scan findings suggestive of hollow viscus injury, the patients were observed with serial clinical examinations, hemoglobin levels, and white cell counts. Patients with left thoracoabdominal injuries underwent elective laparoscopy to rule out diaphragmatic injury. Outcome parameters included survival, complications, need for delayed laparotomy in observed patients, and length of hospital stay. Results: During the study period, there were 152 patients with 185 penetrating solid organ injuries. Gunshot wounds accounted for 70.4% and stab wounds for 29.6% of injuries. Ninety-one patients (59.9%) met the criteria for immediate operation. The remaining 61 (40.1%) patients were selected for CT scan evaluation. Forty-three patients (28.3% of all patients) with 47 solid organ injuries who had no CT scan findings suspicious of hollow viscus injury were selected for clinical observation and additional laparoscopy in 2. Four patients with a “blush” on CT scan underwent angiographic embolization of the liver. Overall, 41 patients (27

  6. Contraception and fertility awareness among women with solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Valerie A; Davis, John S; Sayles, Harlan S; Wu, Serena S

    2013-10-01

    To assess the contraception and fertility counseling provided to women with solid organ transplants. A telephone survey of 309 women aged 19-49 years who had received a solid organ transplant at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Of the 309 eligible women, 183 responded. Patients were asked 19 questions regarding pretransplant and posttransplant fertility awareness and contraception counseling. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Patients had undergone a variety of solid organ transplantations: 40% kidney (n=73); 32% liver (n=59); 6% pancreas (n=11); 5% heart (n=9); 3% intestine (n=5); and 14% multiple organs (n=26). Before their transplantations, 79 women (44%) reported they were not aware that a woman could become pregnant after transplantation. Only 66 women aged 13 and older at the time of transplantation reported that a health care provider discussed contraception before transplantation. Approximately half of women surveyed were using a method of contraception. Oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly recommended method. Twenty-two of the 31 pregnancies after organ transplantation were planned, which is higher than that of the general population. Few women with transplants are educated regarding the effect of organ transplantation on fertility and are not routinely counseled about contraception or the potential for posttransplant pregnancy. Health care providers should incorporate contraceptive and fertility counseling as part of routine care for women with solid organ transplants. : II.

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  8. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    digestate, are acknowledged for their potential to serve as organic amendments and fertilizers however, their characteristics constitutes them prone to N losses, and their management (handling, storage, transportation) costly. Thermal drying of manures is known to facilitate transportation by volume...... reduction, nutrient concentration and hygienization of the final product. However, thermal treatment of ammonium rich organic wastes such as digestate solids has been linked with relative high volatilization of NH3 and therefore decrease in N fertilizing value of the final product. Temperature and air...... solids had low N fertilizing value due to the excessive loses of inorganic N during the drying process. On the contrary, acidification minimized ammonia volatilization from solids during the thermal treatment with direct impact on the N fertilizing value of acid treated solids. In addition, acidification...

  9. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  10. Exposure to organic compounds during heat treatment of cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Zaciera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumes from cooking oils were found to be genotoxic in several short-term tests. Epidemiological research among Taiwanese and Chinese women has shown high incidence of lung cancer. These women were not smoking or rarely smoking , but they cooked meals every day. A lot of organic compounds have been identified from cooking oils including PAH.

  11. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test, required by § 60.8, is completed, but no later than...

  12. Determination of hydrogen isotope composition in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.; Tarielashvili, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    method for determination of hydrogen isotope composition just in organic compounds using mass-spectrometer of the second class is suggested. The method enables to determine atomic fraction of hydrogen without multiplet separation. The accuracy of determination of deuterium atomic fraction in acetone in 1-99% range was equal to 3-0.2% respectively

  13. Nitrosonium complexes of organic compounds. Structure and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, Gennady I; Shubin, Vyacheslav G

    2001-01-01

    Data on the structures and reactivities of nitrosonium complexes of organic compounds are systematised and generalised. The characteristic features of the electronic structure of the NO + cation are responsible for a wide structural variety of nitrosonium complexes. Reactions of nitrosonium complexes are described. The bibliography includes 172 references.

  14. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  15. The growth of bacteria on organic compounds in drinking water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der D.

    1984-01-01

    Growth ("regrowth") of bacteria In drinking water distribution systems results in a deterioration of the water quality. Regrowth of chemoheterotrophic bacteria depends on the presence of organic. compounds that serve as a nutrient source for these bacteria. A batch-culture technique was

  16. ambient volatile organic compounds pollution and ozone formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUMAYEDE

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Volatile organic compound (VOC) species react at different rate and exhibit differences in reactivity with respect to ozone formation in polluted urban atmosphere. To assess this, the variations pattern, reactivity relative to OH radical and ozone creation potential of ambient VOCs were investigated in field.

  17. Green chemistry principles in organic compound synthesis and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review focus on various green chemistry approaches which could be utilized in the organic compounds in practical classes for undergraduate level in comparison of conventional methods. These methods avoid the usage of hazardous substances and are environmental friendly.

  18. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  19. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds. Pt. 2. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    Studies on isotopic exchange between organic bromine compounds and 82 Br labelled dioxane dibromide in the presence of AlCl 3 are described. The results obtained enable to develop a simple and quick preparation method for the labelling with 82 Br [fr

  20. Ion beam effects in organic molecular solids and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.; Calcagno, L.; Elman, B.S.; Foti, G.

    1987-01-01

    In general ion implantation leads to irreversible changes in organic films and hence it is important to understand the damage mechanisms in these solids. Most of the technology based on irradiation effects in organics must somehow make use of the fact that the chemistry of the organic films is easily changed. This chapter is organized to explore the various ion induced chemical changes in the organic films followed by a description of the optical and electrical property changes produced in the films due to the ion irradiation

  1. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  2. Determination of organic compounds in water using ultraviolet LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a method of detecting organic compounds in water using an ultraviolet LED (280 nm) spectroscopy system and a photodetector. The LED spectroscopy system showed a high correlation between the concentration of the prepared potassium hydrogen phthalate and that calculated by multiple linear regression, indicating an adjusted coefficient of determination ranging from 0.953-0.993. In addition, a comparison between the performance of the spectroscopy system and the total organic carbon analyzer indicated that the difference in concentration was small. Based on the close correlation between the spectroscopy and photodetector absorbance values, organic measurement with a photodetector could be configured for monitoring.

  3. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  4. Gas-Solid Reaction Properties of Fluorine Compounds and Solid Adsorbents for Off-Gas Treatment from Semiconductor Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yasui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been developing a new dry-type off-gas treatment system for recycling fluorine from perfluoro compounds present in off-gases from the semiconductor industry. The feature of this system is to adsorb the fluorine compounds in the exhaust gases from the decomposition furnace by using two types of solid adsorbents: the calcium carbonate in the upper layer adsorbs HF and converts it to CaF2, and the sodium bicarbonate in the lower layer adsorbs HF and SiF4 and converts them to Na2SiF6. This paper describes the fluorine compound adsorption properties of both the solid adsorbents—calcium carbonate and the sodium compound—for the optimal design of the fixation furnace. An analysis of the gas-solid reaction rate was performed from the experimental results of the breakthrough curve by using a fixed-bed reaction model, and the reaction rate constants and adsorption capacity were obtained for achieving an optimal process design.

  5. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szulczyński; Jacek Gębicki

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric), photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their ...

  6. Sorption of Heterocyclic Organic Compounds to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Funck, Matin; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-01-16

    Sorption is an important natural and technical process. Sorption coefficients are typically determined in batch experiments, but this may be challenging for weakly sorbing compounds. An alternative method enabling analysis of those compounds is column chromatography. A column packed with the sorbent is used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. In this study, column chromatography was applied for the first time to study sorption of previously hardly investigated heterocyclic organic compounds to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sorption data for these compounds are very limited in literature, and weak sorption is expected from predictions. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model and data showed reasonable agreement with predicted values. Sorption was exothermic and physisorption was observed. H-bonding may contribute to overall sorption, which is supported by reduced sorption with increasing ionic strength due to blocking of functional groups. Lowering pH reduced sorption of ionizable compounds, due to electrostatic repulsion at pH 3 where sorbent as well as sorbates were positively charged. Overall, column chromatography was successfully used to study sorption of heterocyclic compounds to MWCNTs and could be applied for other carbon-based sorbents.

  7. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  8. Main regularities of radiolytic transformations of bifunctional organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Shadyro, O.I.

    1985-01-01

    General regularities of the radiolysis of bifunctional organic compounds (α-diols, ethers of α-diols, amino alcohols, hydroxy aldehydes and hydroxy asids) in aqueous solutions from the early stages of the process to formation of finite products are traced. It is pointed out that the most characteristic course of radiation-chemical, transformation of bifunctional compounds in agueous solutions in the fragmentation process with monomolecular decomposition of primary radicals of initial substrances and simultaneous scission of two vicinal in respect to radical centre bonds via five-membered cyclic transient state. The data obtained are of importance for molecular radiobiology

  9. Quantum chemistry of solids and materials technology: solid-phase compounds of d- and f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studies aimed at the development of methods of theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of solid phase compounds of α- and f-elements and the modelling of physicochemical properties of materials developed on their basis, are presented. The possibilities of cluster and zone calculations of the electronic structure of refractory compounds of d-metals with light elements are considered. The regularities of changes in the chemical bond and properties during crystal lattice alloying with metals, metalloids are found. The methods of quantum chemical modeling of optically active and luminescent materials on the base of oxides, fluorides, chalcogenides of d- and f-metals are developed. The compositions of new optically active compositions and protective coatings are suggested. New approaches to the study of magnetic properties of metals, alloys and compounds are developed. The results of calculations of the energy spectra of high-temperature oxide superconductors are given

  10. Preliminary study on the occurrence of brominated organic compounds in Dutch marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Veen, van der I.; Hesselingen, van J.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Osinga, R.; Boer, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracts of three marine organisms; the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the sponge Halichondria panicea, all elicited a number of brominated compounds, some of which were tentatively identified. Tribromophenol was observed in all species. This compound, also

  11. Holographic detection of hydrocarbon gases and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hurtado, J L; Davidson, C A B; Blyth, J; Lowe, C R

    2010-10-05

    There is a need to develop sensors for real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbon gases in both external and indoor environments, since these compounds are of growing concern in human health and welfare. Current measurement technology for VOCs requires sophisticated equipment and lacks the prospect for rapid real-time monitoring. Holographic sensors can give a direct reading of the analyte concentration as a color change. We report a technique for recording holographic sensors by laser ablation of silver particles formed in situ by diffusion. This technique allows a readily available hydrophobic silicone elastomer to be transformed into an effective sensor for hydrocarbon gases and other volatile compounds. The intermolecular interactions present between the polymer and molecules are used to predict the sensor performance. The hydrophobicity of this material allows the sensor to operate without interference from water and other atmospheric gases and thus makes the sensor suitable for biomedical, industrial, or environmental analysis.

  12. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, K.; Verta, M.; Marttinen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  13. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  14. Distribution of enantiomers of volatile organic compounds in selected fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyviurska, Olga; Zvrškovcová, Helena; Špánik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The enantiomer ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in fruit distillates were determined by multidimensional gas chromatography using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a sample treatment procedure. Linalool and its oxides, limonene, α-terpineol, and nerolidol, were present at the highest concentration levels, while significantly lower amounts of β-citronellol and lactones were found in the studied samples. However, almost all terpenoids mainly occur as a racemic or near-racemic mixture; enantiomer distribution of some chiral organic compounds in fruit distillates correlated to a botanical origin. In particular, a significant enantiomeric excess of (R)-linalool and (S)-α-terpineol was found only for pear brandy, and likewise the dominance (R)-limonene and the second eluted enantiomer of nerolidol for Sorbus domestica and strawberry, respectively. The distribution of γ-lactones stereoisomers was more nonspecific, with a general excess of the R-enantiomer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Through-furnace for burning solid organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, G.; Schlich, E.

    1984-01-01

    The through-furnace for burning radio-active organic solid waste consists of a reaction pipe heated from the outside, an input device and an output device. A solid pump is used as the input device, which has a common longitudinal axis with the reaction pipe. The reaction pipe is widened in the transport direction of the combustion pipe, where the angle between the longitudinal axis and the pipe wall is 0.5 to 5 0 . The pipe wall is wholely or partially permeable to gas. The thermal treatment of the solid organic substances can occur by combustion or by pyrohydrolysis or pyrolysis in the through-furnace. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Release of organic nitrogen compounds from Kerogen via catalytic hydropyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett B

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available High hydrogen pressure pyrolysis (hydropyrolysis was performed on samples of solvent extracted Kimmeridge Clay Formation source rock with a maturity equivalent to ca. 0.35% vitrinite reflectance. We describe the types and distributions of organic nitrogen compounds in the pyrolysis products (hydropyrolysates using GC-MS. Compounds identified included alkyl-substituted indoles, carbazoles, benzocarbazoles, quinolines and benzoquinolines. The distributions of the isomers of methylcarbazoles, C2-alkylcarbazoles and benzocarbazoles in the hydropyrolysates were compared to a typical North Sea oil. The hydropyrolysates compared to the North Sea oil, showed increased contributions from alkylcarbazole isomers where the nitrogen group is "exposed" (no alkyl substituents adjacent to the nitrogen functionality and appreciable levels of benzo[b]carbazole relative to benzo[a]- and benzo[c]carbazoles. Hydropyrolysis is found to be an ideal technique for liberating appreciable quantities of heterocyclic organic nitrogen compounds from geomacromolecules. The products released from the immature Kimmeridge Clay are thought to represent a potential source of nitrogen compounds in the bound phase (kerogen able to contribute to the free bitumen phase during catagenesis.

  17. Physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the level of physical activity after solid organ transplantation and factors associated with this level. Functional recovery after transplantation is not as good as expected. However, higher levels of physical activity after transplantation are associated with better

  18. Indirect recognition of HLA epitopes in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geneugelijk, C.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Alloreactivity due to HLA mismatches between donor and recipient remains the major limiting factor in successful graft outcome after solid organ transplantation. However, the immunogenicity of individual HLA mismatches is highly variable. Therefore, epitope-based HLA matching may be a sophisticated

  19. Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Deepa; Nanda, Neha

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C. difficile in this population. Preliminary data from animal studies suggests excellent efficacy with immunization against C. difficile toxins. Over the last decade, number of individuals receiving solid organ transplants has increased exponentially making peri-transplant complications a common occurrence.C. difficile is a frequent cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Early and accurate diagnosis of C. difficile requires a stepwise approach. Differentiating between asymptomatic carriage and infection is a diagnostic challenge. Microbial diversity is inversely proportional to risk of C. difficile infection. Antimicrobial stewardship programs help to retain microbial diversity in individuals susceptible to CDI. Recurrent or relapsing C. difficile infection require fecal microbiota transplantation for definitive cure.

  20. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-08-01

    Large quantities of organic chemicals used in reprocessing spent nuclear-fuels at the Hanford Site have accumulated in underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. The organic content of these tanks must he known so that the potential for hazardous reactions between organic components and sodium nitrate/nitrite salts in the waste can he evaluated. The solubilities of organic compounds described in this report will help determine if they are present in the solid phases (salt cake and sludges) as well as the liquid phase (interstitial liquor/supernate) in the tanks. The solubilities of five significant sodium salts of carboxylic acids and aminocarboxylic acids [sodium oxalate, formate, citrate, nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and ethylendiaminetetraacetate (EDTA)] were measured in a simulated supernate solution at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 50 degrees C

  1. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  2. Beyond the network of plants volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Taiti, Cosimo; Caldarelli, Guido; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Plants emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to classify plants species. By using bipartite netwo...

  3. Production of fungal volatile organic compounds in bedding materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LAPPALAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The high relative humidity of the air and many potential growth media, such as bedding materials, hay and grains in the horse stable, for example, provide suitable conditions for fungal growth. Metabolic activity of four common agricultural fungi incubated in peat and wood shavings at 25°C and 4°C was characterized in this study using previously specified volatile metabolites of micro-organisms and CO 2 production as indicators. The volatile organic compounds were collected into Tenax resin and analysed by gas chromatography. Several microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs, e.g. 1-butanol, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octanol were detected in laboratory experiments; however, these accounted for only 0.08-1.5% of total volatile organic com-pounds (TVOCs. Emission rates of MVOCs were 0.001-0.176 mg/kg of bedding materials per hour. Despite some limitations of the analytical method, certain individual MVOCs, 2-hexanone, 2-hep-tanone and 3-octanone, were also detected in concentrations of less than 4.6 mg/m 3 (0.07-0.31% of TVOC in a horse stable where peat and shavings were used as bedding materials. MVOC emission rate was estimated to be 0.2-2.0 mg/kg ´ h -1 from bedding materials in the stable, being about ten times higher than the rates found in the laboratory experiments. Some compounds, e.g. 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, can be assumed to originate mainly from microbial metabolisms.;

  4. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  5. Production of fungal volatile organic compounds in bedding materials

    OpenAIRE

    S. LAPPALAINEN; A. PASANEN; P. PASANEN

    2008-01-01

    The high relative humidity of the air and many potential growth media, such as bedding materials, hay and grains in the horse stable, for example, provide suitable conditions for fungal growth. Metabolic activity of four common agricultural fungi incubated in peat and wood shavings at 25°C and 4°C was characterized in this study using previously specified volatile metabolites of micro-organisms and CO 2 production as indicators. The volatile organic compounds were collected into Tenax resin a...

  6. Incineration method for plutonium recovery from alpha contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Kato, Michiharu; Kurihara, Masayoshi

    1985-01-01

    An incineration method for plutonium recovery from α contaminated organic compounds in a flow of controlled oxygen gas is stated. The species of such thermal decomposition products as hydrocarbons, free carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen were determined by mass spectrography. The mixture of the products which are the source of tar or soot was converted to CO 2 and H 2 O in contact with copper oxide catalyst without flaming. This incineration method is composed of two stages. The first stage is the decomposition of organic compounds in the streams of gas mixtures containing oxygen in low ratios. The second stage is the incineration of the decomposition products by catalytic reaction in the streams of gas with higher oxygen ratios. Plutonium was recovered as the form of plutonium dioxide from the incineration residues of the first stage. The behavior of oil was examined as a representative of liquid organic compounds. It was found to evaporate below ca. 500 0 C, but was completely incinerated by the catalytic reaction with copper oxide catalyst in the flow of gas with controlled oxygen amount and was changed to CO 2 and H 2 O. (author)

  7. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  8. Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  9. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of excess energy on the primary radical cations of bifunctional carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alkynes was simulated by matrix isolation method using rare gas matrices with various ionization potentials. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. It was shown that the radical cations of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 and CH 3 COCOCH 3 ) dissociated effectively yielding · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T≤16 K. In addition to isolated methyl radicals, the radical pairs consisting of two methyl radicals separated by two CO molecules were detected in the case of diacetyl. The probability of fragmentation decreases with the decreasing excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. In general, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to “hot” ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R--C≡CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R=–C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R=–CH 3 . The mechanisms of “hot” reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. - Highlights: ► Radiolysis of bifunctional organic compounds and alkynes. ► Dependence of “hot” fragmentation probability from molecular structure. ► Ions of bifunctional compounds are less stable than those of monofunctional ones. ► Alkynes are rather stable to “hot” fragmentation.

  10. Hydrogen charging/discharging system with liquid organic compounds: a lacunar oxide catalyst to hydrogenate the unsaturated organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalowiecki-Duhamel, L.; Carpentier, J.; Payen, E.; Heurtaux, F.

    2006-01-01

    Lacunar mixed oxides based on cerium nickel and aluminium or zirconium CeM 0.5 Ni x O y s (M = Zr or Al), able to store high quantities of hydrogen, have been analysed in the hydrogenation of toluene into methyl-cyclohexane (MCH). When these solids present very good toluene hydrogenation activity and selectivity towards MCH in presence of H 2 , in absence of gaseous hydrogen, the reactive hydrogen species stored in the solid can hydrogenate toluene into MCH. The hydrogenation activity under helium + toluene flow decreases as a function of time and becomes nil. The integration of the curve obtained allows to determine the extractable hydrogen content of the solid used, and a value of 1.2 wt % is obtained at 80 C on a CeAl 0.5 Ni 3 O y compound pre-treated in H 2 at 300 C. To optimise the system, different parameters have been analysed, such as the catalyst formulation, the metal content, the pre-reducing conditions as well as the reaction conditions under helium + toluene. (authors)

  11. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  13. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel V. Gale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction, and in the water leachates (through direct injection. Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species

  14. (Semi)volatile organic compounds and microbiological entities in snow during OASIS Barrow 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P.; Kos, G.

    2009-12-01

    Gregor Kos (1), Nafissa Adechina (2), Dwayne Lutchmann (2) , Roya Mortazavi, and Parisa Ariya* (1), (2) (1) McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada (2) McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada an active medium for the deposition of (semi-)volatile (bio)organic compounds. We collected surface snow samples during the OASIS Barrow campaign in March 2009 for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (SPME-GC/MS). Additioal gab samples were taken for analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air. More over, we analyzed for microbial species in air and snow. Identifed organic compounds covered a wide range of functionalities andmolecular weigts, including oxygenated reactive speces such as aldehydes (e.g., hexanal to decanal), alcohols (e.g., hexanol, octanol) and aromatic species (e.g., methyl- and ethylbenzenes). Quantification data for selected aromatic species are presented with concentrations in the upper ng/L range. We will present our preliminary data on microbiological species, and will discuss the potential mplications of the results for organic snow chemistry.

  15. Experiments with organic phosphorus compounds for the treatment of cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, G.; Burgmann, F.

    1975-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of organic phosphorus compounds has been investigated. The results obtained, however, do not enable statements as to the behaviour of the precipitating calcium carbonate beyond the stabilizing limit. It is possible that in the presence of hardness stabilizers, precipitating calcium carbonate, due to its specific solid strucutre, does not form hard, adhesive deposits, but soft, loose ones with coatings removable by continuous pipe cleaning systems. The stabilizing effect of hardness stabilizers is not the only criterion responsible for its value. The type and behaviour of the precipitated calcium carbonate must be considered. (HK/LH) [de

  16. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl 4 and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies

  17. Production and Recovery of Aroma Compounds Produced by Solid-State Fermentation Using Different Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane B. P. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds with fruity characteristics were produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata in two different bioreactors: columns (laboratory scale and horizontal drum (semi-pilot scale. Coffee husk was used as substrate for the production of volatile compounds by solid-state fermentation. The production of volatile compounds was significantly higher when horizontal drum bioreactor was used than when column bioreactors were used. These results showed that this model of bioreactor presents good perspectives for scale-up and application in an industrial production. Headspace analysis of the solid-state culture detected twelve compounds, among them: ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and isoamyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was the predominant product in the headspace (28.55 µmol/L/g of initial dry matter. Activated carbon, Tenax-TA, and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested to perform the recovery of the compounds. The adsorbent columns were connected to the column-type bioreactor. All compounds present in the headspace of the columns were adsorbed in Amberlite XAD-2. With Tenax-TA, acetaldehyde was adsorbed in higher concentrations. However, the recovery found by using the activated carbon was very low.

  18. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  19. Microbial degradation of water-insoluble organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of solubilization on biodegradation of water-insoluble organic compounds was investigated. The effect of particle size on solubilization and degradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and naphthalene by a microbial mixture was determined. The concentration of soluble compound was determined using gas-liquid chromatography. The rates of solubilization were inversely related to particle size for both compounds. The rates of mineralization of 14 C-labeled palmitic acid, octadecane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and Sevin (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) by microbial mixtures were determined by trapping the 14 CO 2 formed, and those rates were compared to solubilization rates determined by periodically filtering sterile MS amended with one of the compounds. Mineralization and colonization of the surface of 10 μg palmitic acid per 10 ml MS by Pseudomonas pseudoflava was determined by trapping 14 CO 2 and epifluorescence microscopy. Mineralization began before colonization and was initially exponential, but the rate then declined. The rate of mineralization at the end of the exponential phase approximated the rate of solubilization. The surface was completely covered about the time mineralization stopped. Unbound cells grew exponentially before colonization was detected; however, colonization of the surface was complete after the number of free cells stopped increasing. The data suggest that soluble palmitic acid is utilized before the insoluble phase but colonization is important in the mineralization of palmitic acid when solubilization becomes rate limiting

  20. Some methods for labelling organic compounds by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, C.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid growth of knowledge in the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology reflects to a considerable degree the utilization of stable isotopes (specially deuterium) in the study of chemical reactions and fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry, as well as in the pharmacological and biological studies. Organic compounds maybe labelled by deuterium through classic organic reactions by using special deuterated solvents and reagents. This article discusses some reactions, with examples on how to prepare labelled compounds with high isotopic purety. These reactions are: exchange reactions in acid and alkaline media (the exchange in the chromatographic column in liquid and gas phases, the exchange in homogenous medium), reduction reactions of functional groups as well as saturation of the double bounds by deuterium using hydrogenation catalystes, electrochemical reactions using KOLBE, and photochemical reactions. This article also deals with spectroscopic properties of deuterium and the methods which are used to identify its compounds such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. 37 refs., 2 figs

  1. Advanced Characterization of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Shaw, J. B.; Lipton, M. S.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emits large amounts of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) and primary (directly emitted) particulate matter (PM). NMOGs also react in plume to form secondary PM (i.e., SOA) and ozone. BB-PM has been difficult to represent accurately in models used for chemistry and climate predictions, including for air quality and fire management purposes. Much recent research supports that many previously unconsidered SOA precursors exist, including oxidation of semivolatile compounds (SVOCs). Although many recent studies have characterized relatively volatile BB-derived NMOGs and relatively non-volatile particle-phase organic species, comparatively few studies have performed detailed characterization of SVOCs emitted from BB. Here we present efforts to expand the volatility and compositional ranges of compounds measured in BB smoke. In this work, samples of SVOCs in gas and particle phases were collected from 18 fires representing a range of fuel types during the 2016 FIREX fire laboratory campaign; samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Hundreds of compounds were detectable in both gas and particle phases by GCxGC-TOFMS whereas thousands of peaks were present in the FTICR mass spectra. Data from both approaches highlight that chemical fingerprints of smoke are fuel/burn-dependent. These efforts support our continued research in building the understanding and model representation of BB emissions and BB-derived SOA.

  2. Effects of organic compounds on actinoid transfer in natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Keizo; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Senoo, Muneaki; Nagao, Seiya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it seems necessary to elucidate the geological transfer of radioactive nuclides in the soil and the undersea sediments. It has been known that there exist various organic compounds highly potential to form a complex with TRU elements, uranium, copper etc. in the soil and the sediments and those compounds may play an important role for geological transfer of nuclides. In this study, fluorescent substances contained in underground and river water were focused as the measures to identify the molecular species of organic compounds in natural water and their interactions with radionuclides and minor metals, and their geological transfers were investigated. Spectrophotometric properties of humic acid obtained in the market were examined. Its fluorescent intensity was strongest at pH 10 and stable for 2 weeks or more. Then, highly polluted river water was taken from Yamato river to determine the contents of humic acid and other fluorescent substances. Further, the effects of the additions of Cu and Fe on the fluorescent intensity were examined. (M.N.)

  3. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivovichev, S.V. [Saint Petersburg State Univ., Dept. of Crystallography, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.85}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}] (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.50}(H{sub 2}O) (2), and [C{sub 8}H{sub 20}N]{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (H{sub 2}O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO{sub 7} and SeO{sub 4} polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}NH{sub 3}]{sup 2+} molecules, H{sub 2}O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups but is based upon alternating [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}CH{sub 3}]{sup +}. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in

  4. Biodesulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mehran; Bassi, Amarjeet; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2007-01-01

    The stringent new regulations to lower sulfur content in fossil fuels require new economic and efficient methods for desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization of such compounds is very costly and requires high operating temperature and pressure. Biodesulfurization is a non-invasive approach that can specifically remove sulfur from refractory hydrocarbons under mild conditions and it can be potentially used in industrial desulfurization. Intensive research has been conducted in microbiology and molecular biology of the competent strains to increase their desulfurization activity; however, even the highest activity obtained is still insufficient to fulfill the industrial requirements. To improve the biodesulfurization efficiency, more work is needed in areas such as increasing specific desulfurization activity, hydrocarbon phase tolerance, sulfur removal at higher temperature, and isolating new strains for desulfurizing a broader range of sulfur compounds. This article comprehensively reviews and discusses key issues, advances and challenges for a competitive biodesulfurization process.

  5. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  6. Development of a novel biofilter for aerobic biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govind, R.; Utgikar, V.; Shan, Y.; Zhao, Wang; Sayles, G.D.; Bishop, D.F.; Safferman, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the emission into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has undergone increased regulation by EPA, OSHA and other government agencies due to potential human health hazards. The sources of these VOCs include releases during industrial production and use, from contaminated wastewaters in collection systems and treatment plants, and from hazardous wastes in landfills and contaminated ground water. Conventional methods for treating VOC emissions include adsorption on solids, absorption in solvents, incineration and catalytic oxidation. One alternative to these conventional treatment methods is the biological destruction of the VOCs in gas phase biofilters. This method has the advantage of pollution destruction (as compared to transfer to another medium) at lower operation and maintenance costs. The biofilter method also can be combined with various stripping or vapor extraction separation processes which effectively transfer VOCs from liquid or solid matrices into the gas phase entering biofilters

  7. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  8. Release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the lung cancer cell line CALU-1 in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schubert Jochen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs specifically released or consumed by lung cancer cells. Methods 50 million cells of the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell line CALU-1 were incubated in a sealed fermenter for 4 h or over night (18 hours. Then air samples from the headspace of the culture vessel were collected and preconcentrated by adsorption on solid sorbents with subsequent thermodesorption and analysis by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Identification of altogether 60 compounds in GCMS measurement was done not only by spectral library match, but also by determination of retention times established with calibration mixtures of the respective pure compounds. Results The results showed a significant increase in the concentrations of 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, 2,3,5-trimethylhexane, 2,4-dimethylheptane and 4-methyloctane in the headspace of CALU-1 cell culture as compared to medium controls after 18 h. Decreased concentrations after 18 h of incubation were found for acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, butyl acetate, acetonitrile, acrolein, methacrolein, 2-methylpropanal, 2-butanone, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane, and hexanal. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that certain volatile compounds can be cancer-cell derived and thus indicative of the presence of a tumor, whereas other compounds are not released but seem to be consumed by CALU-1 cells.

  9. Study of the interactions between uranium and organic compounds in the hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salze, David

    2008-01-01

    Formers studies on the relations between organic matter and uranium have shown that these interactions go since the complexation and the transport of uranium in organics fluids until its reduction by the organic matter leading to the uranium-bearing mineral precipitation. An experimental study of these reactions to 200 deg. C and 500 bars between experimental compounds (pure organic compounds) such as the n-alkanes (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane), an n-alkene hydrocarbon (n-dec-1-ene), cycles (butyl-cyclohexane and cyclo-hexane) and the aromatic ones (butyl-benzene and naphthalene), and hexavalent uranium oxides was undertaken. These experiments allowed to show a progressive oxidation of n-alkanes starting from made up C6. The increasing size of the aliphatic chains and the increase in the time of setting in interaction are major factors of the increase in the environment oxidizing capacity in interaction with uranium on the organic compound. The determination of the oxidation step of uranium oxides after experiment made it possible to determine that in aqueous environment the aliphatic model compounds are reducers more powerful than the aromatic compounds. An organic matter from lake or marine origin generally has an aliphatic fraction larger than the organic matter of continental origin and thus will be more likely to reduce uranium. A natural example, the uranium deposits in the sandstones from Arlit, the tectono-lithologic type, was selected in order to apply the results obtained in the experimental part. They are located in fluviatile sandstones rich in organic matter of continental origin (type III) deposited in the paleo-channels. Former authors considered that only this organic matter of type III was responsible for the reduction of U (VI) in U (IV). Work which was undertaken in the present study shows that migrated oils of probable marine origin strongly contributed to the genesis

  10. Is ABPM clinically useful after pediatric solid organ transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Marianne

    2004-10-01

    When ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is performed in populations with a high risk for secondary hypertension, such as solid organ transplant recipients, hypertension or abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability are often discovered even in patients with normal office blood pressure (BP). To discuss whether ABPM should be routinely assessed in pediatric solid organ recipients, the available information on pathological findings, association of ABPM abnormalities with outcome parameters, and treatment options is reviewed. ABPM is a useful tool to optimize therapy in the large proportion of transplant recipients with confirmed hypertension. Whether the use of ABPM on a routine basis should be recommended for pediatric transplantation patients without office hypertension remains to be determined. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Munksgaard

  11. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  12. Energy-effective Grinding of Inorganic Solids Using Organic Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Weibel, Martin; Müller, Thomas; Heinz, Hendrik; Flatt, Robert J

    2017-08-09

    We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide. This is primarily due to the tremendous amounts of cement produced and almost 30% of the associated electrical energy is consumed for grinding. In this paper, we examine the question of how to optimize these grinding aids linking molecular insight into their working mechanisms, and also how to design chemical additives of improved performance for industrial comminution.

  13. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  14. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  15. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-Transform spectra of selected organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.H.; Caton, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of a variety of different organic compounds have been determined. Profiles of the spectra along with the location and relative intensity of the principal bands have been included for each compound studied. In addition both diffuse reflectance and transmittance infrared spectra were obtained for the same samples, and the spectral results were compared. Although some minor variations are observed between a diffuse reflectance spectrum and the corresponding transmittance spectrum, the diffuse reflectance is quite useful and may be a superior technique for the study of many samples because it possesses an inherently higher signal-to-noise response, requires less sample preparation and allows a very wide range of samples (solids, liquids of low volatility, neat sample, or sample diluted in a reflecting medium) to be studied under very similar conditions.

  16. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enantiomeric distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in juniper-flavored distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pažitná, Alexandra; Spánik, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomeric ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in juniper-flavored spirits produced by various processing technologies in different EU countries were determined by multidimensional GC using solid-phase microextraction and liquid-liquid extraction as a sample pretreatment procedure. In total, more than 260 compounds were detected in studied spirits from which linalool, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, linalool oxides, α-pinene, and verbenone were selected for enantiomeric separation. The significant differences in enantiomeric ratio of linalool and cis-linalool oxide allowed us to distinguish between samples produced in Slovakia and the United Kingdom from those produced in Germany, Czech Republic, and Belgium. The pure enantiomer of trans-linalool oxide was found only in samples from Germany. It was shown that the enantiomeric ratio is independent of the sample treatment procedure, and only small differences up to 1% were observed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Šetka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  20. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  1. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    , emitted in order to communicate within and between trophic levels and as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, or as byproducts. Some BVOCs are very reactive, and when entering the atmosphere they rapidly react with for example hydroxyl radicals and ozone, affecting the oxidative capacity......Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... in the atmosphere. This may warm the climate due to a prolonged lifetime of the potent greenhouse gas methane in the atmosphere. However, oxidized BVOCs may participate in formation or growth of aerosols, which in turn may mitigate climate warming. Climate change in the Arctic, an area characterized by short...

  2. Organic Compounds Complexify Transport in the Amargosa Desert—The Case for Phytotritiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Luo, W.; Andraski, B. J.; Baker, R. J.; Maples, S.; Mayers, C. J.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Civilian low-level radioactive waste containing organic compounds was disposed in 2- to 15-m deep unlined trenches in a 110-m deep unsaturated zone at the present-day USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site. Tritium represents the plurality of disposed activity. A plume of gas-phase contaminants surrounds the disposal area, with 60 distinct volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified to date. The distribution of tritiated water in the unsaturated zone surrounding the disposal area is highly enigmatic, with orders of magnitude separating observed levels from those predicted by multiphase models of mass and energy transport. Peaks of tritium and VOCs are coincidently located in sediments tens of meters below the root zone, suggesting abiotic stratigraphic control on lateral transport at depth. Surprisingly, the highest observed levels of tritium occur at a depth of about 1.5 m, the base of the creosote-bush plant-community root zone, where levels of waste-derived VOCs are low (approaching atmospheric levels). Bulk water-vapor samples from shallow and deep unsaturated-zone profile hot spots were trapped as water ice in cold fingers immersed in dry ice-isopropyl alcohol filled Dewar flasks, then melted and sequentially extracted by purge-and-trap VOC degassing followed by elution through activated carbon solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Analysis of tritium activities and mass spectrometer results indicate that over 98% of tritium activity at depth is present as water, whereas about 15% of basal root zone tritium activity is present as organic compounds trapped with the water. Of these, the less-volatile compound group removed by SPE accounted for about 85% of the organic tritium activity, with mass spectrometry identifying 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as the principal compound removed. This plant-produced fatty alcohol is ubiquitous in the root zone of creosote-bush communities and represents a family of hydroxyl-containing plant produced compounds that give the plants their

  3. Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loy, Michael David Van [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-09

    Exposures to a wide range of air pollutants are often dominated by those occurring in buildings because of three factors: 1) most people spend a large fraction of their time indoors, 2) many pollutants have strong indoor sources, and 3) the dilution volume in buildings is generally several orders of magnitude smaller than that of an urban airshed. Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) are emitted by numerous indoor sources, including tobacco combustion, cooking, carpets, paints, resins, and glues, so indoor gasphase concentrations of these compounds are likely to be elevated relative to ambient levels. The rates of uptake and release of reversibly sorbing SVOCS by indoor materials directly affect both peak concentrations and persistence of the pollutants indoors after source elimination. Thus, accurate predictions of SVOC dynamics in indoor air require an understanding of contaminant sorption on surface materials such as carpet and wallboard. The dynamic behaviors of gas-phase nicotine and phenanthrene were investigated in a 20 ms stainless steel chamber containing carpet and painted wallboard. Each compound was studied independently, first in the empty chamber, then with each sorbent individually, and finally with both sorbents in the chamber.

  4. Emission and role of biogenic volatile organic compounds in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are an essential part of the biosphere. Under the influence of climate change, plants respond in multiple ways within the ecosystem. One such way is the release of assimilated carbon back to the atmosphere in form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are produced by plants and are involved in plant growth, reproduction, defense and other . These compounds are emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere under different environmental situations. Plants produce an extensive range of BVOCs, including isoprenoids, sequisterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and terpenes in different tissues above and below the ground. The emission rates vary with various environmental conditions and the plant growth stage in its life span.BVOCs are released under biotic and abiotic stress changes, like heat, drought, land-use changes, higher atmospheric CO concentrations, increased UV radiation and insect or disease attack. Plants emit BVOCs in atmosphere in order to avoid stress, and adapt to harsh circumstances. These compounds also have a significant role in plant-plant interaction, communication and competition. BVOCs have the ability to alter atmospheric chemistry; they readily react with atmospheric pollutant gases under high temperature and form tropospheric ozone, which is a potent air pollutant for global warming and disease occurrence. BVOCs may be a cause of photochemical smog and increase the stay of other GHGs in the atmosphere. Therefore, further study is required to assess the behavior of BVOCs in the biosphere as well as the atmosphere. (author)

  5. Solid-state ionics: Studies of lithium-conducting sulfide glasses and a superconducting oxide compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Tae.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this work studies lithium-conducting sulfide glasses for battery applications, while the second part studies the thermodynamic properties of a superconducting oxide compound by using an oxide electrolyte. Lithium conducting glasses based on the SiS 2 -Li 2 S system are possible solid electrolytes for high-energy-density lithium batteries. The foremost requirement for solid electrolytes is that they should have high ionic conductivities. Unfortunately, most crystalline lithium conductors have low ionic conductivities at room temperature. However, glass ionic conductors show higher ionic conductivities than do crystalline forms of the same material. In addition to higher ionic conductivities, glasses appear to have several advantages over crystalline materials. These advantages include isotropic conductivity, absence of grain boundary effects, ease of glass forming, and the potential for a wide range of stability to oxidizing and reducing conditions. Using pyrolitic graphite-coated quartz ampoules, new ternary compounds and glasses in the SiS 2 -Li 2 S system were prepared. Several techniques were used to characterize the materials: powder x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The measured lithium conductivity of the sulfide glasses was one of the highest among the known solid lithium conductors. Measuring the equilibrium open circuit voltages assisted in determining the electrochemical stabilities of the ternary compounds and glasses with respect to pure Li. A solid-state ionic technique called oxygen coulometric titration was used to measure the thermodynamic stability, the oxygen stoichiometry, and the effects of the oxygen stoichiometry, and the effects of the oxygen stoichiometry and the cooling rate on superconductivity of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x compound were investigated

  6. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramjee Pallela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS, generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM. These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Ugo; Bianchi, Federico; Klein, Felix; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Rossi, Michel J.; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs), such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) with an O : C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and ethylbenzene), as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl). We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AVOCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.

  8. Formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Molteni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs, such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs with an O : C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene, as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl. We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AVOCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  11. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  12. Determination of volatile compounds in grape distillates by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Banović, Mara; Persurić, Dordano; Radeka, Sanja; Sladonja, Barbara

    2006-01-06

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure on octadecylsilica (C18) was developed for accumulation of volatile compounds from grape distillates. The procedure was optimised for final analysis by capillary gas chromatography. At mass concentrations in model solutions ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/l solid-phase extraction recoveries of all analytes ranged from 69% for 2-phenylethanol to 102% for capric acid, with RSD values from 2 to 9%. SPE recoveries of internal standards to be added in the sample solution prior to extraction, higher alcohols 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-undecanol, were 97 and 93%, respectively, with RSD values of 3%. Detection limits of analyzed compounds in model solutions ranged from 0.011 mg/l for isoamyl acetate to 0.037 mg/l for caproic acid. Method efficiency was tested in relation to acetic acid content, volume fraction of ethanol and possible matrix effects. A significant influence of matrix on SPE efficiency for geraniol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol was detected. For the same reason, 2-phenylethanol could not be determined by developed SPE method in samples of grape distillates. The developed solid-phase extraction method was successfully applied to determine the differences in volatile compound content in different grape distillates produced by the distillation of crushed, pressed and fermented grapes.

  13. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of oxygenated and unsaturated organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, James E.; Lam, Chun Ho; Saffron, Christopher M.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2018-04-24

    A process and related electrode composition are disclosed for the electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation of organic substrates such as biomass-derived bio-oil components by the production of hydrogen atoms on a catalyst surface followed by the reaction of the hydrogen atoms with the organic reactants. Biomass fast pyrolysis-derived bio-oil is a liquid mixture containing hundreds of organic compounds with chemical functionalities that are corrosive to container materials and are prone to polymerization. A high surface area skeletal metal catalyst material such as Raney Nickel can be used as the cathode. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation convert the organic substrates under mild conditions to reduce coke formation and catalyst deactivation. The process converts oxygen-containing functionalities and unsaturated bonds into chemically reduced forms with an increased hydrogen content. The process is operated at mild conditions, which enables it to be a good means for stabilizing bio-oil to a form that can be stored and transported using metal containers and pipes.

  14. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guenther

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009 field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (80 mm occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere, as well as a group of compounds considered to be fatty acid

  15. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...

  16. Energy dependence of radiation interaction parameters of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohinder; Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-04-01

    Gamma rays interact with a material through photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering and Pair production in the intermediate energy range. The probability of occurrence of a particular type of process depends on the energy of incident gamma rays, atomic number of the material, scattering angle and geometrical conditions. Various radiological parameters for organic compounds, namely ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), propylene glycol (C3H8O2), glycerin (C3H8O3), isoamyl alcohol (C5H12O), butanone (C4H8O), acetophenone (C8H8O2), cyclohexanone (C6H10O), furfural (C5H4O2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O), cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), aniline (C6H7N), benzyl amine (C6H7N), nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2), ethyl benzene (C8H10), ethyl formate (C3H6O2) and water (H2O) are presented at 81, 122, 356 and 511 keV energies employing NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in narrow-beam transmission geometry. The radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation, molar extinction and mass energy absorption coefficients, half value layer, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and CT number have been evaluated for these organic compounds. The general trend of values of mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, molar extinction coefficients, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and mass energy absorption coefficients shows a decrease with increase in incident gamma photon energy. The values of CT number are found to increases linearly with increase of effective atomic number (Zeff). The variation in CT number around Zeff ≈ 3.3 shows the peak like structure with respect to water and the correlation between CT number and linear attenuation coefficient is about 0.99. Appropriate equations are fitted to these experimentally determined parameters for the organic compounds at incident photon energy ranging from 81 keV to 511 keV used in the present study. Experimental values are compared with the theoretical data obtained using Win

  17. Removal of gasoline volatile organic compounds via air biofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.S.; Saberiyan, A.G.; Esler, C.T.; DeSantis, P.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by vapor extraction and air-stripping systems can be biologically treated in an air biofiltration unit. An air biofilter consists of one or more beds of packing material inoculated with heterotrophic microorganisms capable of degrading the organic contaminant of concern. Waste gases and oxygen are passed through the inoculated packing material, where the microorganisms will degrade the contaminant and release CO 2 + H 2 O. Based on data obtained from a treatability study, a full-scale unit was designed and constructed to be used for treating gasoline vapors generated by a vapor-extraction and groundwater-treatment system at a site in California. The unit is composed of two cylindrical reactors with a total packing volume of 3 m 3 . Both reactors are packed with sphagnum moss and inoculated with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms of Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter spp. The two reactors are connected in series for air-flow passage. Parallel lines are used for injection of water, nutrients, and buffer to each reactor. Data collected during the startup program have demonstrated an air biofiltration unit with high organic-vapor-removal efficiency

  18. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  19. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  20. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  1. Experimental design for extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and organic acids in white "Vinho Verde" grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-01-30

    An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction and clean-up processes of phenolic compounds and organic acids from white "Vinho Verde" grapes. The developed analytical method consisted in two steps: first a solid-liquid extraction of both phenolic compounds and organic acids and then a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, phenolic compounds and organic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-UV, respectively. Plackett-Burman design was carried out to select the significant experimental parameters affecting both the extraction and the clean-up steps. The identified and quantified phenolic compounds were: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol and epicatechin. The determined organic acids were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The obtained results showed that the most important variables were the temperature (40 degrees C) and the solvent (acid water at pH 2 with 5% methanol) for the extraction step and the type of sorbent (C18 non end-capped) for the clean-up step.

  2. Biotransformation and sorption of trace organic compounds in biological nutrient removal treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimman, Narasimman; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Campo-Moreno, Pablo; Dickenson, Eric V; McAvoy, Drew C

    2018-05-28

    This study determined biotransformation rates (k bio ) and sorption-distribution coefficients (K d ) for a select group of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic activated sludge collected from two different biological nutrient removal (BNR) treatment systems located in Nevada (NV) and Ohio (OH) in the United States (US). The NV and OH facilities operated at solids retention times (SRTs) of 8 and 23 days, respectively. Using microwave-assisted extraction, the biotransformation rates of the chosen TOrCs were measured in the total mixed liquor. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and atenolol biotransformed in all three redox regimes irrespective of the activated sludge source. The biotransformation of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), triclosan, and benzotriazole was observed in aerobic activated sludge from both treatment plants; however, anoxic biotransformation of these three compounds was seen only in anoxic activated sludge from NV. Carbamazepine was recalcitrant in all three redox regimes and both sources of activated sludge. Atenolol and DEET had greater biotransformation rates in activated sludge with a higher SRT (23 days), while trimethoprim had a higher biotransformation rate in activated sludge with a lower SRT (8 days). The remaining compounds did not show any dependence on SRT. Lyophilized, heat inactivated sludge solids were used to determine the sorption-distribution coefficients. Triclosan was the most sorptive compound followed by carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, DEET, and benzotriazole. The sorption-distribution coefficients were similar across redox conditions and sludge sources. The biotransformation rates and sorption-distribution coefficients determined in this study can be used to improve fate prediction of the target TOrCs in BNR treatment systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aerial Organs of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Janet Piloto; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Francisco, Marbelis; Romero, Aylema; Valdivia, Dayana; Gonzalez, Maria; Carlos Salas; Lamar, Angel Sanchez; Isla, Maria Inés

    2016-03-01

    Xanthium strumarium L., the main species of the genus Xanthium, is ubiquitously distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of aerial organs of X strumarium, grown in Cuba, against cancer cell lines and the isolation of compounds potentially responsible for this activity. Initially, an ethanol partitioning procedure yielded the XSE extract that was subsequently fractionated with chloroform resulting in a XSCF fraction. Both, XSE and XSCF fractions exhibited cytotoxic effects on MDA MB-23 1, MCF7, A549 and CT26 cell lines by using the MTT assay. Above all, the XSCF fraction was more active than XSE. For this reason, XSCF was subsequently fractionated by silica gel chromatography and the active fractions submitted to semi-preparative HPLC for isolation of bioactive compounds. Six sub-fractions (SF1 to SF6) were recovered. Sub-fractions 3 and 6 were the most active on each assayed cell line, while sub-fractions 4 and 5 were only active against A549 and CT26 cell lines. In each case, sub-fraction 6 showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The HPLC-DAD fingerprint of sub-fraction 6 showed a single peak that was identified by GC-MS as (-) spathulenol, a sesquiterpene with reported antitumor activity.

  4. Measurement of loss rates of organic compounds in snow using in situ experiments and isotopically labelled compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika von Schneidemesser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular marker compounds are widely used to identify emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic air pollution sources in atmospheric samples and in deposition. Specific organic compounds have been detected in polar regions, but their fate after deposition to snow is poorly characterized. Within this context, a series of exposure experiments were carried out to observe the post-depositional processing of organic compounds under real-world conditions in snow on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, at the Summit research station. Snow was prepared from water spiked with isotopically labelled organic compounds, representative of typical molecular marker compounds emitted from anthropogenic activities. Reaction rate constants and reaction order were determined based on a decrease in concentration to a stable, non-zero, threshold concentration. Fluoranthene-d10, docosane-d46, hexadecanoic acid-d31, docosanoic acid-d43 and azelaic acid-d14 were estimated to have first order loss rates within surface snow with reaction rate constants of 0.068, 0.040, 0.070, 0.067 and 0.047 h−1, respectively. No loss of heptadecane-d36 was observed. Overall, these results suggest that organic contaminants are archived in polar snow, although significant post-depositional losses of specific organic compounds occur. This has implications for the environmental fate of organic contaminants, as well as for ice-core studies that seek to use organic molecular markers to infer past atmospheric loadings, and source emissions.

  5. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrazenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elucidation of high-energy reaction pathways in the condensed phase is an important issue for basic understanding of the radiation stability of complex organic molecules. As was shown previously, organic radical cations (RC) may undergo fragmentation or rearrangement in solid matrices due to excess energy. The probability of this process depends on both ionization potential (IP) of the molecule and molecular structure. In the present work we have studied the role of 'hot' ionic reaction channels for RC of some bifunctional compounds and alkynes. The effect of excess energy was simulated by matrix isolation method as described in detail earlier. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. In the present work it was shown that the RC of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 , CH 3 CO(CH 2 ) n COCH 3 , n 0/2) dissociated efficiently producing · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T ≤ 16 K. The probability of fragmentation decreases with decrease of excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. It is worth noting that acetone RC does not show fragmentation under these conditions. Thus, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to 'hot' ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype carbonyl compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R-C ≡ CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R = -C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R = -CH 3 . It means that the presence of triple bond stabilizes the molecular skeleton of linear alkynes toward 'hot' fragmentation, similarly as it was shown for alkenes. The mechanisms of 'hot' reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 09-03-00848a).

  6. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  7. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils...

  8. Control of volatile organic compound emissions: the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, M.; Marlowe, I.

    1989-11-01

    This review paper outlines the problems caused by the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are causing increasing concern because of their part in the formation of photochemical oxidation that causes damage to crops and vegetation and because of the toxic and climatic effects. It briefly summarises current knowledge of VOC emissions and their effects and then suggests options for abatement of VOC emissions in the UK and the EEC. A comparison of anthropogenic VOC emission in the UK and the EEC from various sources is given. Further information is needed on current emissions, on the costs and efficiencies of control technologies and on the effects of control on industry before decisions can be made on the suitability, extent and strategy to control VOC emissions in the UK. The report was prepared for the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Headquarters).

  9. Effects of trace volatile organic compounds on methane oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiemchaisri Wilai

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on methane oxidation in landfill cover soils were examined. The batch experiments were conducted using single and mixed VOCs, such as, dichloromethane (DCM, trichloroethylene (TCE, tetrachloroethylene (PCE, and benzene. The results from all combinations showed a decrease in methane oxidation rate with increase in VOC concentrations. Moreover, inhibition effects of TCE and DCM were found higher than benzene and PCE. The reduction of methane oxidation by benzene and PCE could be attributed to the toxicity effect, whereas TCE and DCM were found to exhibit the competitive-inhibition effect. When the soil was mixed with DCM, no methane oxidation was found. Damage to the cell's internal membrane was found in a methanotrophic culture exposed to VOC gases which is the attachment site of a key enzyme needed for methane oxidation

  10. Imaging subsurface geology and volatile organic compound plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualheim, B.J.; Daley, P.F.; Johnson, V.; McPherrin, R.V.; Laguna, G.

    1992-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Fig. 1) is in the final stages of the Superfund decisionmaking process for site remediation and restoration. In the process of characterizing the subsurface of the LLNL site, we have developed unique methods of collecting, storing, retrieving, and imaging geologic and chemical data from more than 350 drill holes. The lateral and vertical continuity of subsurface paleostream channels were mapped for the entire LLNL site using geologic descriptions from core samples, cuttings, and interpretations from geophysical logs. A computer-aided design and drafting program, SLICE, written at LLNL, was used to create two-dimensional maps of subsurface sediments, and state-of-the-art software produced three-dimensional images of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes using data from water and core fluid analyses

  11. Investigation of michelson interferometer for volatile organic compound sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzuarman; Rivai, Muhammad; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Purwanto, Djoko

    2017-01-01

    The sensor device is required to monitor harmful gases in the environments and industries. Many volatile organic compounds adsorbed on the sensor material will result in changes of the optical properties including the refractive index and the film thickness. This study designed and realized a vapor detection device using the principle of Michelson Interferometer. The laser light beamed with a wavelength of 620 nm was divided by using a beam splitter. Interference occurredwhen the two separated lights were recombined. The phase difference between the two beams determined whether the interference would destruct or construct each other to produce the curved fringes. The vapor samples used in these experiments were ethanol and benzene. The results showed that the ethanol concentration of 1611-32210 ppm produced a fringe shift of 197 pixels, while the concentration of benzene of 964-19290 ppm produced a fringe shift of 273 pixels. (paper)

  12. Obtaining S values for rectangular--solid tumors inside rectangular--solid host organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Durham, J.S.; Fisher, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining S values between a tumor and its host organ for use with the MIRD formalism. It applies the point-source specific absorbed fractions for an infinite water medium, tabulated by Berger, to a rectangular solid of arbitrary dimensions which contains a rectangular tumor of arbitrary dimensions. Contributions from pairs of source and target volume elements are summed for the S values between the tumor and itself, between the remaining healthy host organ and itself, and between the tumor and the remaining healthy host organ, with the reciprocity theorem assumed for the last. This method labeled MTUMOR, is interfaced with the widely used MIRDOSE program which incorporates the MIRD formalism. An example is calculated

  13. Emission of the main biogenic volatile organic compounds in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    2000-01-01

    An estimation of biogenic emissions of the main non-methanic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) due to the forest cover in France has been realized. 32 species representing 98% of French forest have been considered for the estimation. The latter dealt on a net made of 93 irregular spatial grids (Departments) with an average size of 75 km x 75 km. We assigned emission rates and foliar biomass densities specific to each of the 32 species. The environmental variables (temperature, light intensity) have been collected for the whole of French Departments. A special effort was extended so as to use ''Guenther's'' calculation algorithms, and specific emitting factors to species growing in France or in bordering countries. Along the way of the five years (1994-1998) of the study we have calculated the yearly mean of isoprene, mono-terpenes and Other Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOCs) emissions on the scale of the French Departments. At the national level isoprene emission is reckoned at 457 kt yr -1 and represents nearly 49% of the total emission, whereas mono-terpenes with 350 kt yr -1 and OVOCs with 129 kt yr -1 represent respectively 37% and 14% of the total. The yearly biogenic emission of VOCs in France represents virtually half the anthropic source. However in some regions (Mediterranean area) natural emissions can widely exceed anthropic emissions during certain periods. Let's note the whole of our results remains tinged with a great uncertainty because the estimations carried out are presented with correction factors that can reach values comprised between 4 and 7. (author)

  14. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  15. Solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction for organotin compounds - a comparison (P9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothes, S.; Wennrich, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Organotin compounds have been largely used in agricultural and industrial applications. Hyphenated techniques were developed for the sensitive and selective determination of such species. For this task GC has been coupled with atomic emission detection. Derivatization to transform the Sn-compounds into sufficiently volatile compounds was necessary and carried out using sodium tetrapropylborate. For sample preparation the application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) give recent advances in comparison to classical liquid-liquid extraction (LEE). A problem in the usage of SPME exists however in the small volume of the PDMS coating for enrichment the analytes. For improvement of both sample enrichment and extraction of the organotin compounds stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied. It base on the application of stir bars coated with PDMS. Here the extraction yield is substantially higher. Aim of this study was to compare the capabilities of GC-AED in combination with SPME and SBSE. After optimization of the experimental parameters it was possible to reach detection limits in the pg / 1 - level. A comparison of both methods shows the expected results. By application of SBSE it was possible to increase the detection limits one order of magnitude. With SPME the reproducibility of the analytical results (in the 1 ng / 1 concentration range) was found to be between 10 and 15 %, it could be enhanced to 5-8 % by application of SBSE. These low limits of detection and the good reproducibility allowed the determination of organotin compounds according required regulations. Ref. 1 (author)

  16. Solid lipid nanoparticles as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds: Overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sara; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Campos, Débora; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2017-06-13

    Drug delivery systems, accompanied by nanoparticle technology, have recently emerged as prominent solutions to improve the pharmacokinetic properties, namely bioavailability, of therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received much attention from researchers due to their potential to protect or improve drug properties. SLNs have been reported to be an alternative system to traditional carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles. Phenolic compounds are widespread in plant-derived foodstuffs and therefore abundant in our diet. Over the last decades, phenolic compounds have received considerable attention due to several health promoting properties, mostly related to their antioxidant activity, which can have important implications for health. However, most of these compounds have been associated with poor bioavailability being poorly absorbed, rapidly metabolized and eliminated, which compromises its biological and pharmacological benefits. This paper provides a systematic review of the use of SLNs as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds, in order to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations of these compounds and improved nutraceutical potential. In vitro studies, as well as works describing topical and oral treatments will be revisited and discussed. The classification, synthesis, and clinical application of these nanomaterials will be also considered in this review article.

  17. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  18. Benchmarking the DFT+U method for thermochemical calculations of uranium molecular compounds and solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beridze, George; Kowalski, Piotr M

    2014-12-18

    Ability to perform a feasible and reliable computation of thermochemical properties of chemically complex actinide-bearing materials would be of great importance for nuclear engineering. Unfortunately, density functional theory (DFT), which on many instances is the only affordable ab initio method, often fails for actinides. Among various shortcomings, it leads to the wrong estimate of enthalpies of reactions between actinide-bearing compounds, putting the applicability of the DFT approach to the modeling of thermochemical properties of actinide-bearing materials into question. Here we test the performance of DFT+U method--a computationally affordable extension of DFT that explicitly accounts for the correlations between f-electrons - for prediction of the thermochemical properties of simple uranium-bearing molecular compounds and solids. We demonstrate that the DFT+U approach significantly improves the description of reaction enthalpies for the uranium-bearing gas-phase molecular compounds and solids and the deviations from the experimental values are comparable to those obtained with much more computationally demanding methods. Good results are obtained with the Hubbard U parameter values derived using the linear response method of Cococcioni and de Gironcoli. We found that the value of Coulomb on-site repulsion, represented by the Hubbard U parameter, strongly depends on the oxidation state of uranium atom. Last, but not least, we demonstrate that the thermochemistry data can be successfully used to estimate the value of the Hubbard U parameter needed for DFT+U calculations.

  19. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric, photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their metrological parameters—measurement range, limit of detection, measurement resolution, sensitivity and response time—were presented. Moreover, development trends and prospects of improvement of the metrological parameters of these sensors were highlighted.

  20. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  1. Neurotoxicity of fungal volatile organic compounds in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Arati A; Masurekar, Prakash; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom

    2010-10-01

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in indoor environment as products of microbial metabolism. In damp indoor environments, fungi are associated with poor air quality. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that microbial VOCs have a negative impact on human health. Our study was designed to provide a reductionist approach toward studying fungal VOC-mediated toxicity using the inexpensive model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, and pure chemical standards of several important fungal VOCs. Low concentrations of the following known fungal VOCs, 0.1% of 1-octen-3-ol and 0.5% of 2-octanone; 2,5 dimethylfuran; 3-octanol; and trans-2-octenal, caused locomotory defects and changes in green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and antigen-labeled dopaminergic neurons in adult D. melanogaster. Locomotory defects could be partially rescued with L-DOPA. Ingestion of the antioxidant, vitamin E, improved the survival span and delayed the VOC-mediated changes in dopaminergic neurons, indicating that the VOC-mediated toxicity was due, in part, to generation of reactive oxygen species.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds: Characteristics, distribution and sources in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitika; Bartsch, Jennifer; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Salthammer, Tunga; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Long term exposure to organic pollutants, both inside and outside school buildings may affect children's health and influence their learning performance. Since children spend significant amount of time in school, air quality, especially in classrooms plays a key role in determining the health risks associated with exposure at schools. Within this context, the present study investigated the ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in 25 primary schools in Brisbane with the aim to quantify the indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations, identify VOCs sources and their contribution, and based on these; propose mitigation measures to reduce VOCs exposure in schools. One of the most important findings is the occurrence of indoor sources, indicated by the I/O ratio >1 in 19 schools. Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to identify common sources of VOCs and source contribution was calculated using an Absolute Principal Component Scores technique. The result showed that outdoor 47% of VOCs were contributed by petrol vehicle exhaust but the overall cleaning products had the highest contribution of 41% indoors followed by air fresheners and art and craft activities. These findings point to the need for a range of basic precautions during the selection, use and storage of cleaning products and materials to reduce the risk from these sources.

  3. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  4. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site's 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE's Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters

  5. Solid-to-solid oxidation of a vanadium(IV) to a vanadium(V) compound: chemisty of a sulfur-containing siderophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pabitra B; Crans, Debbie C

    2012-09-03

    Visible light facilitates a solid-to-solid photochemical aerobic oxidation of a hunter-green microcrystalline oxidovanadium(IV) compound (1) to form a black powder of cis-dioxidovanadium(V) (2) at ambient temperature. The siderophore ligand pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid), H(2)L, is secreted by a microorganism from the Pseudomonas genus. This irreversible transformation of a metal monooxo to a metal dioxo complex in the solid state in the absence of solvent is unprecedented. It serves as a proof-of-concept reaction for green chemistry occurring in solid matrixes.

  6. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  7. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  8. Future immunosuppressive agents in solid-organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Cerio, Jeffrey

    2004-06-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720. Clinical trials and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720 in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies and published abstracts were selected for inclusion. Mycophenolate sodium has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Adminstration for marketing in the United States; everolimus and FTY720 are immunosuppressive agents that may soon be available in the United States. These agents have proven efficacy in reducing the incidence of acute rejection in solid-organ transplantation. Clinical trials have shown that these newer agents are relatively well tolerated. The most common adverse events associated with these agents were gastrointestinal and hematologic effects (mycophenolate sodium); hyperlipidemia, increased serum creatinine, and hematologic effects (everolimus): and gastrointestinal effects, headache, and bradycardia (FTY720). Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in some European countries and the United States. Everolimus has been approved in some European countries and a new drug application has been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. FTY720 is currently in phase III clinical trials and submission to the Food and Drug Administration for approval is a few years away. The approval of these agents will furnish the transplant practitioner with even more options for immunosuppression.

  9. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  10. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  11. A method to estimate the enthalpy of formation of organic compounds with chemical accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Meier, Robert J.; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    through better correlation of data. For parameter estimation, a data-set containing 861 experimentally measured values of a wide variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds, nitrogenated compounds, multi-functional compounds, etc.) is used. The developed property model for Δf...

  12. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF LITHRAEA CAUSTICA (LITRE) DETERMINATED BY SOLID PHASE MICRO-EXTRACTION (SPME)

    OpenAIRE

    GARBARINO, JUAN A; SALVATORE, GIUSEPPE; PIVANOVO, MARISA; CHAMY, MARÍA CRISTINA; NICOLETTI, MARCELLO; DE IOANNES, ALFREDO

    2002-01-01

    The head space of the aerial parts of Lithraea caustica was analyzed by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) technique, obtaining as main volatile compounds the monoterpenes, myrcene, a -pinene, , p-cymene and limonene, as well as the sesquiterpene caryophylene. De las partes áereas de Lithraea caustica y usando la técnica de Micro-Extracción en Fase Sólida (MEFS), fueron identificados y cuantificados los principales compuestos volátiles: los monoterpenos, mirceno, a -pineno, p-cimeno y lim...

  13. Solid-state studies and antioxidant properties of the γ-cyclodextrin·fisetin inclusion compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Joana M; Barroca, Maria João; Marques, Maria Paula M; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Braga, Susana S

    2017-01-01

    Fisetin is a natural antioxidant with a wide range of nutraceutical properties, including antidiabetic, neuroprotecting, and suppression or prevention of tumors. The present work describes the preparation of a water-soluble, solid inclusion compound of fisetin with gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), a cyclic oligosaccharide approved for human consumption. A detailed physicochemical analysis of the product is carried out using elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman, infrared and 13 C{ 1 H} CP-MAS NMR spectroscopies, and thermal analysis (TGA) to verify fisetin inclusion and to present a hypothetical structural arrangement for the host-guest units. The antioxidant activity of the γ-CD·fisetin inclusion compound is evaluated by the DPPH assay.

  14. Solid-state studies and antioxidant properties of the γ-cyclodextrin·fisetin inclusion compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M. Pais

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin is a natural antioxidant with a wide range of nutraceutical properties, including antidiabetic, neuroprotecting, and suppression or prevention of tumors. The present work describes the preparation of a water-soluble, solid inclusion compound of fisetin with gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD, a cyclic oligosaccharide approved for human consumption. A detailed physicochemical analysis of the product is carried out using elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Raman, infrared and 13C{1H} CP-MAS NMR spectroscopies, and thermal analysis (TGA to verify fisetin inclusion and to present a hypothetical structural arrangement for the host–guest units. The antioxidant activity of the γ-CD·fisetin inclusion compound is evaluated by the DPPH assay.

  15. Single Versus Multiple Solid Organ Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; AbdelAziz, Hiba; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to describe the pattern of solid organ injuries (SOIs) and analyze the characteristics, management and outcomes based on the multiplicity of SOIs. A retrospective study in a Level 1 trauma center was conducted and included patients admitted with blunt abdominal trauma between 2011 and 2014. Data were analyzed and compared for patients with single versus multiple SOIs. A total of 504 patients with SOIs were identified with a mean age of 28 ± 13 years. The most frequently injured organ was liver (45%) followed by spleen (30%) and kidney (18%). One-fifth of patients had multiple SOIs, of that 87% had two injured organs. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher frequency of head injury and injury severity scores (p hepatic injuries (13%) than the other SOIs. SOIs represent one-tenth of trauma admissions in Qatar. Although liver was the most frequently injured organ, the rate of mortality was higher in pancreatic injury. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher morbidity which required frequent operative management. Further prospective studies are needed to develop management algorithm based on the multiplicity of SOIs.

  16. Influences of chlorine content on emission of HCl and organic compounds in waste incineration using fluidized beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Liu, K Y; Yu, W J; Lin, C L; Chang, F Y

    2008-01-01

    HCl and some organic compounds are the precursors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators. In this work, a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator is adopted to study the relationship between the organic and the inorganic chlorine contents of artificial wastes and the emissions of HCl and organic compounds. The lower threshold limit (LTL) of chlorine content below which HCl and organic compounds are not generated is studied. Experimental results showed that organic chlorides had a greater potential to release chlorine than inorganic chlorides. The generation of organic pollutants fell, but the emissions of HCl increased with the temperature. The concentrations of chlorophenols (CPs)/chlorobenzenes (CBs) increased with chlorine contents. No LTL existed for HCl regardless of whether CaO was added. The LTL for CPs was between 0.1 and 0.3wt% of inorganic chloride, but there was none for organic sources. For CBs, the LTL was between 0.5 and 1.0wt% for inorganics at 700 and 800 degrees C, but 0.1-0.3 wt% at 700 degrees C and 0.3-0.5 wt% at 800 degrees C for organics. The production of PAHs and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) was related to the surplus hydrogen ions that were not reacted with the chlorine. Adding CaO inhibited the production of HCl, CBs and CPs, but did not seriously affect PAHs and BTEX.

  17. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are two types of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) that use microorganisms to convert chemical energy in wastewaters into useful energy products such as (bio)electricity (MFC) or hydrogen gas (MEC). These two systems were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate trace organic compounds (TOrCs), commonly found in municipal wastewater, under closed circuit (current generation) and open circuit (no current generation) conditions, using acetate as the carbon source. A biocide was used to evaluate attenuation in terms of biotransformation versus sorption. The difference in attenuation observed before and after addition of the biocide represented biotransformation, while attenuation after addition of a biocide primarily indicated sorption. Attenuation of TOrCs was similar in MFCs and MECs for eight different TOrCs, except for caffeine and trimethoprim where slightly higher attenuation was observed in MECs. Electric current generation did not enhance attenuation of the TOrCs except for caffeine, which showed slightly higher attenuation under closed circuit conditions in both MFCs and MECs. Substantial sorption of the TOrCs occurred to the biofilm-covered electrodes, but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some of the compounds (carbamazepine, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and diphenhydramine) but not for others (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Atenolol also showed high levels of sorption despite being the most hydrophilic in the suite of compounds studied (log DpH 7.4=-1.99). Though BESs do not show any inherent advantages over conventional wastewater treatment, with respect to TOrC removal, overall removals in BESs are similar to that reported for conventional wastewater

  18. Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 μg/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 μg/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 μg/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 μg) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

  19. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  20. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  1. Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, Richard G., E-mail: r.derwent@btopenworld.com [rdscientific, Newbury, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Jenkin, Michael E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Services, Okehampton, Devon (United Kingdom); Utembe, Steven R.; Shallcross, Dudley E. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Murrells, Tim P.; Passant, Neil R. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell International Business Centre, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A photochemical trajectory model has been used to examine the relative propensities of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human activities to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under one set of highly idealised conditions representing northwest Europe. This study applied a detailed speciated VOC emission inventory and the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) gas phase chemistry, coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated chemical reaction product species. In all, SOA formation was estimated from the atmospheric oxidation of 113 emitted VOCs. A number of aromatic compounds, together with some alkanes and terpenes, showed significant propensities to form SOA. When these propensities were folded into a detailed speciated emission inventory, 15 organic compounds together accounted for 97% of the SOA formation potential of UK man made VOC emissions and 30 emission source categories accounted for 87% of this potential. After road transport and the chemical industry, SOA formation was dominated by the solvents sector which accounted for 28% of the SOA formation potential.

  2. Reactivity of group IV (100) semiconductor surfaces towards organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.

    The reactions of simple and multifunctional organic compounds with the clean silicon, germanium, and diamond (100)-2 x 1 semiconductor surfaces have been investigated using a combination of multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry density functional theory calculations. From these studies, an improved understanding of the atomic level reactivity of these semiconductor surfaces has been obtained, along with insights into how to achieve their selective coupling with organics of desired and varied functionality. In addition to the Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces, our results show that cycloaddition chemistry can also be extended to the diamond (100) surface. At room temperature, 1,3-butadiene was found to form a Diels-Alder product with the diamond (100) surface, as evidenced by isotopic substitution experiments and comparison of the surface adduct with its direct molecular analogue, cyclohexene. The reactions of other classes of molecules in addition to alkenes on the Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces, including a series of five-membered cyclic amines, were also examined. For tertiary aliphatic amines on Si(100) and both secondary and tertiary aliphatic amines on Ge(100), a majority of the molecules were observed to become stably trapped in dative-bonded precursor states rather than form energetically favorable dissociation products. For pyrrole, aromaticity was found to play a defining role in its reactivity, and a comparison of its molecular and surface reactivity reveals interesting similarities. To probe the factors controlling the selectivity of organic reactions on clean semiconductor surfaces, the adsorption of acetone and a series of unsaturated ketones was also investigated. The reaction of acetone on Ge(100) was found to be under thermodynamic control at room temperature, resulting in the formation of an "ene" product rather than the kinetically favored [2+2] C=O cycloaddition product previously observed on the Si(100) surface. In

  3. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic compounds in environmental water by solid-phase extraction with activated carbon fiber felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, K; Ibaraki, T; Tanabe, A; Yagoh, H; Shinoda, A; Suzuki, H; Yasuhara, A

    2001-03-09

    Simple gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic organic compounds in environmental water was developed. A cartridge containing activated carbon fiber felt was made by way of trial and was evaluated for solid-phase extraction of the compounds in water. The hydrophilic compounds investigated were acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Overall recoveries were good (80-100%) from groundwater and river water. The relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 16% for the target compounds. The minimum detectable concentrations were 0.02 to 0.03 microg/l. This method was successfully applied to several river water samples.

  4. Estimation of the lower flammability limit of organic compounds as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J R; Rowley, R L; Wilding, W V

    2011-02-15

    A new method of estimating the lower flammability limit (LFL) of general organic compounds is presented. The LFL is predicted at 298 K for gases and the lower temperature limit for solids and liquids from structural contributions and the ideal gas heat of formation of the fuel. The average absolute deviation from more than 500 experimental data points is 10.7%. In a previous study, the widely used modified Burgess-Wheeler law was shown to underestimate the effect of temperature on the lower flammability limit when determined in a large-diameter vessel. An improved version of the modified Burgess-Wheeler law is presented that represents the temperature dependence of LFL data determined in large-diameter vessels more accurately. When the LFL is estimated at increased temperatures using a combination of this model and the proposed structural-contribution method, an average absolute deviation of 3.3% is returned when compared with 65 data points for 17 organic compounds determined in an ASHRAE-style apparatus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on

  6. Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is Σ 28 VOCs). In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m(3)), temperature (°C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (μg/m(3)) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (Σ17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either Σ17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of Σ 28 VOCs (8.05 and 13.38μg/m(3), respectively) compared to the reference homes (4.30 and 4.86μg/m(3), respectively, both Ps ≤0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for Σ fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median Σ 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32μg/m(3), P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on Σ 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of Σ17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (Σ 17 PGEs + TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Σ 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  8. Advances in Biodegradation of Multiple Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil and groundwater containing multiple contaminants remains a challenge in environmental science and engineering because complete biodegradation of all components is necessary but very difficult to accomplish in practice. This presentation provides a brief overview on advances in biodegradation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including chlorinated ethylenes, benzene, toluene and dichloromethane (DCM). Case studies on aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene and DCM, and integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of 7 contaminants, specifically, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), DCM, benzene and toluene will be provided. Recent findings based on systematic laboratory experiments indicated that aerobic toluene degradation can be enhanced by co-existence of benzene. Propioniferax, not a known benzene, toluene and DCM degrader can be a key microorganism that involves in biodegradation when the three contaminants co-exist. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation is capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentrations less than 30 mg/L. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, can survive aerobic conditions for at least 28 days, and can be activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. This presentation may provide a systematic information about biodegradation of multiple VOCs, and a scientific basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ.

  9. [Indoor volatile organic compounds: concentrations, sources, variation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palot, A; Charpin-Kadouch, C; Ercoli, J; Charpin, D

    2008-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (V.O.C.) are part of urban air pollution and are also generated indoors from cleaning and maintenance products. VOC measurements are, on average, 10 times higher within homes than outside. Results of the national survey led by the Observatoire National de la Qualité de l'Air Intérieur demonstrated that up to 25% of French homes have very high or high concentrations of VOC. Indoor levels depend mainly on indoor sources. Aldehydes are included in many everyday life products. VOC originate from various household decorating and cleaning products. Some products are less detrimental to the environment and health and have special labelling. Indoor VOC levels also depend on the rate of air exchange and on household characteristics such as indoor temperature and humidity, age of the building, presence of smokers, and communication with a garage. The public may participate in maintaining good indoor air quality and the authorities should also improve regulations. VOC are part of everyday air pollution. Their sources and concentrations should be better monitored.

  10. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  11. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds in permeable ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The Edison Environmental Center (EEC) has a research and demonstration permeable parking lot comprised of three different permeable systems: permeable asphalt, porous concrete and interlocking concrete permeable pavers. Water quality and quantity analysis has been ongoing since January, 2010. This paper describes a subset of the water quality analysis, analysis of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) to determine if hydrocarbons were in water infiltrated through the permeable surfaces. SVOCs were analyzed in samples collected from 11 dates over a 3 year period, from 2/8/2010 to 4/1/2013.Results are broadly divided into three categories: 42 chemicals were never detected; 12 chemicals (11 chemical test) were detected at a rate of less than 10% or less; and 22 chemicals were detected at a frequency of 10% or greater (ranging from 10% to 66.5% detections). Fundamental and exploratory statistical analyses were performed on these latter analyses results by grouping results by surface type. The statistical analyses were limited due to low frequency of detections and dilutions of samples which impacted detection limits. The infiltrate data through three permeable surfaces were analyzed as non-parametric data by the Kaplan-Meier estimation method for fundamental statistics; there were some statistically observable difference in concentration between pavement types when using Tarone-Ware Comparison Hypothesis Test. Additionally Spearman Rank order non-parame

  12. Ionic liquid technology to recover volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar-García, M J; Ortiz-Martínez, V M; Hernández-Fernández, F J; de Los Ríos, A P; Quesada-Medina, J

    2017-01-05

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a wide variety of carbon-based materials which are volatile at relatively low temperatures. Most of VOCs pose a hazard to both human health and the environment. For this reason, in the last years, big efforts have been made to develop efficient techniques for the recovery of VOCs produced from industry. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) is among the most promising separation technologies in this field. This article offers a critical overview on the use of ionic liquids for the separation of VOCs both in bulk and in immobilized form. It covers the most relevant works within this field and provides a global outlook on the limitations and future prospects of this technology. The extraction processes of VOCs by using different IL-based assemblies are described in detail and compared with conventional methods This review also underlines the advantages and limitations posed by ionic liquids according to the nature of the cation and the anions present in their structure and the stability of the membrane configurations in which ILs are used as liquid phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Jessica P.; Huertas, José I.; Magaña, Miguel; Huertas, María E.; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Watanabe, Takuro; Maeda, Tsuneaki; Wakamatsu, Shinji; Blanco, Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the most polluted megacities in North America. Therefore, it is an excellent benchmark city to understand atmospheric chemistry and to implement pilot countermeasures. Air quality in the MCMA is not within acceptable levels, mainly due to high ground levels of ozone (O3). Tropospheric O3 is a secondary pollutant formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight. To gain a better understanding of O3 formation in megacities, evaluate the effectiveness of already-implemented countermeasures, and identify new cost-effective alternatives to reduce tropospheric O3 concentrations, researchers and environmental authorities require updated concentrations for a broader range of VOCs. Moreover, in an effort to protect human health and the environment, it is important to understand which VOCs exceed reference safe values or most contribute to O3 formation, as well as to identify the most probable emission sources of those VOCs. In this work, 64 VOCs, including 36 toxic VOCs, were measured at four sites in the MCMA during 2011-2012. VOCs related to liquefied petroleum gas leakages exhibited the highest concentrations. Toxic VOCs with the highest average concentrations were acetone and ethanol. The toxic VOC benzene represented the highest risk to Mexican citizens, and toluene contributed the most to O3 formation. Correlation analysis indicated that the measured VOCs come from vehicular emissions and solvent-related industrial sources.

  14. Processing of volatile organic compounds by microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the nonthermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguidebased surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguidebased nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzletype MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented. (author)

  15. Production of volatile organic compounds by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton are known to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. For example, picophytoplankton, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, are distributed in freshwater and oceans worldwide, accounting for a large proportion of biomass and primary production in the open ocean. However, to date, little is known about the production of VOCs by picophytoplankton. In this study, VOCs production by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (NIES-981) was investigated. Synechococcus sp. was obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, and cultured at 24°C in autoclaved f/2-Si medium under 54 ± 3 µE m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) with a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle. VOCs concentrations were determined using a purge-and-trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973). The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also determined using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Bromomethane (CH3Br) and isoprene were produced by Synechococcus sp. Isoprene production was similar to those of other phytoplankton species reported earlier. Isoprene was produced when Chl a was increasing in the early stage of the incubation period (5-15 days of incubation time, exponential phase), but CH3Br was produced when Chl a was reduced in the late stage of the incubation period (30-40 days of incubation time, death phase).

  16. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  17. Volatile organic compound monitoring by photo acoustic radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for sampling and analyzing volatile organics in subsurface pore gas were developed for use at the Hazardous Waste Disposal Site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One is Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TDGCMS), the other is Photoacoustic Radiometry (PAR). Presented here are two years worth of experience and lessons learned as both techniques matured. The sampling technique is equally as important as the analysis method. PAR is a nondispersive infrared technique utilizing band pass filters in the region from 1 to 15 μm. A commercial instrument, the Model 1302 Multigas Analyzer, made by Bruel and Kjaer, was adapted for field use. To use the PAR there must be some a priori knowledge of the constellation of analytes to be measured. The TDGCMS method is sensitive to 50 analytes. Hence TDGCMS is used in an initial survey of the site to determine what compounds are present and at what concentration. Once the major constituents of the soil-gas vapor plume are known the PAR can be configured to monitor for the five analytes of most interest. The PAR can analyse a sample in minutes, while in the field. The PAR is also quite precise in controlled situations

  18. Processing of volatile organic compounds by microwave plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizeraczyk, J. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk (Poland); Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Martime University, Gdynia (Poland); Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the nonthermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguidebased surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguidebased nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzletype MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented. (author)

  19. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2012-09-01

    Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the three industrial cities in the Czech Republic, Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov, while the city of Prague served as a control in a large-scale molecular epidemiological study identifying the impacts of air pollution on human health. Office workers from Ostrava and city policemen from Karvina, Havirov and Prague were monitored in the winter and summer of 2009. Only adult non-smokers participated in the study (N=160). Radiello-diffusive passive samplers were used to measure the exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, meta- plus para-xylene and ortho-xylene (BTEX). All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary (TLAD). The average personal BTEX exposure levels in both seasons were 7.2/34.3/4.4/16.1 μg/m(3), respectively. The benzene levels were highest in winter in Karvina, Ostrava and Prague: 8.5, 7.2 and 5.3 μg/m(3), respectively. The personal exposures to BTEX were higher than the corresponding stationary monitoring levels detected in the individual localities (Pfireplace or gas stove, automobile use and being in a restaurant were important predictors for benzene personal exposure. Ostrava's outdoor benzene pollution was a significant factor increasing the exposure of the Ostrava study participants in winter (P<0.05).

  20. Volatile organic compounds discrimination based on dual mode detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Enxiu; Chen, Yan; Feng, Zhihong; Zheng, Shijun; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua

    2018-06-01

    We report on a volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor that can provide concentration-independent signals toward target gases. The device is based on a dual-mode detection mechanism that can simultaneously record the mechanical (resonant frequency, f r) and electrical (current, I) responses of the same gas adsorption event. The two independent signals form a unique I–f r trace for each target VOC as the concentration varies. The mechanical response (frequency shift, Δf r) resulting from mass load on the device is directly related to the amount of surface adsorptions, while the electrical response (current variation, ΔI) is associated with charge transfer across the sensing interface and changes in carrier mobility. The two responses resulting from independent physical processes reflect intrinsic physical properties of each target gas. The ΔI–Δf r trace combined with the concentration dependent frequency (or current) signals can therefore be used to achieve target both recognition and quantification. The dual-mode device is designed and fabricated using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. It exhibits consistent and stable performance in our tests with six different VOCs including ethanol, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde, benzene and hexane.

  1. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  2. Prediction of boiling points of organic compounds by QSPR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi-min; Zhu, Zhi-ping; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Yue-fei; Zeng, Ju-lan; Li, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The novel electro-negativity topological descriptors of YC, WC were derived from molecular structure by equilibrium electro-negativity of atom and relative bond length of molecule. The quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) between descriptors of YC, WC as well as path number parameter P3 and the normal boiling points of 80 alkanes, 65 unsaturated hydrocarbons and 70 alcohols were obtained separately. The high-quality prediction models were evidenced by coefficient of determination (R(2)), the standard error (S), average absolute errors (AAE) and predictive parameters (Qext(2),RCV(2),Rm(2)). According to the regression equations, the influences of the length of carbon backbone, the size, the degree of branching of a molecule and the role of functional groups on the normal boiling point were analyzed. Comparison results with reference models demonstrated that novel topological descriptors based on the equilibrium electro-negativity of atom and the relative bond length were useful molecular descriptors for predicting the normal boiling points of organic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  4. Volatile organic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Efer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds were determined in stack-gas emissions from the residential burning of brown-coal briquets using adsorptive enrichment on hydrophobic adsorbents, thermal desorption and capillary-gas chromatographic analysis. 152 compounds were identified and quantified. Quantitative emission factors of the identified individual compounds were determined in relation to the amount of the fuel used. These factors permit assessment of the pollution of the city of Leipzig with volatile organic compounds resulting from the burning of indigenous lignite. (orig.) [de

  5. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation and Management of Blunt Solid Organ Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan G; Shah, Jay; Robinson, Craig; Dariushnia, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death in patients under the age of 45 and generally associated with a high kinetic energy event such as a motor vehicle accident or fall from extreme elevations. Blunt trauma can affect every organ system and major vascular structure with potentially devastating effect. When we consider abdominal solid organ injury from blunt trauma, we usually think of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. However, all of the abdominal organs, including the pancreas and adrenal glands, may be involved. Blunt hepatic trauma is more commonly associated with venous bleeding rather than arterial injury. Stable venous injury is often managed conservatively; when the patient is hemodynamically unstable from venous hepatic injury, operative management should be first-line therapy. When the injury is arterial, endovascular therapy should be initiated. Blunt trauma to the spleen is the most common cause of traumatic injury to the spleen. Management is controversial. In our institution unstable patients are taken to the operating room, and stable patients with Grades IV-V injuries and patients with active arterial injury are taken for endovascular treatment. Renal injuries are less common, and evidence of arterial injury such as active extravasation or pseudoaneurysm is warranted before endovascular therapy. Pancreatic trauma is uncommon and usually secondary to steering wheel/handlebar mechanism injuries. Adrenal injuries are rare in the absence of megatrauma or underlying adrenal abnormality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Datasets used in the manuscript titled "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms and organic aerosol"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data used in the manuscript "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic...

  8. Characterization of polar organic compounds and source analysis of fine organic aerosols in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchun

    Organic aerosols, as an important fraction of airborne particulate mass, significantly affect the environment, climate, and human health. Compared with inorganic species, characterization of individual organic compounds is much less complete and comprehensive because they number in thousands or more and are diverse in chemical structures. The source contributions of organic aerosols are far from being well understood because they can be emitted from a variety of sources as well as formed from photochemical reactions of numerous precursors. This thesis work aims to improve the characterization of polar organic compounds and source apportionment analysis of fine organic carbon (OC) in Hong Kong, which consists of two parts: (1) An improved analytical method to determine monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and dicarbonyls collected on filter substrates has been established. These oxygenated compounds were determined as their butyl ester or butyl acetal derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The new method made improvements over the original Kawamura method by eliminating the water extraction and evaporation steps. Aerosol materials were directly mixed with the BF 3/BuOH derivatization agent and the extracting solvent hexane. This modification improves recoveries for both the more volatile and the less water-soluble compounds. This improved method was applied to study the abundances and sources of these oxygenated compounds in PM2.5 aerosol samples collected in Hong Kong under different synoptic conditions during 2003-2005. These compounds account for on average 5.2% of OC (range: 1.4%-13.6%) on a carbon basis. Oxalic acid was the most abundant species. Six C2 and C3 oxygenated compounds, namely oxalic, malonic, glyoxylic, pyruvic acids, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal, dominated this suite of oxygenated compounds. More efforts are therefore suggested to focus on these small compounds in understanding the role of oxygenated

  9. Volatile organic compounds and secondary organic aerosol in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbally, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Recent research, when considered as a whole, suggests that a substantial fraction of both gas-phase and aerosol atmospheric organics have not been, or have very rarely been, directly measured. A review of the global budget for organic gases shows that we cannot account for the loss of approximately half the non-methane organic carbon entering the atmosphere. We suggest that this unaccounted-for loss most likely occurs through formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), indicating that the source for these aerosols is an order of magnitude larger than current estimates. There is evidence that aged secondary organic aerosol can participate in both direct and indirect (cloud modifying) radiative forcing and that this influence may change with other global climate change. Even though our knowledge of the organic composition of the atmosphere is limited, these compounds clearly influence the reactive chemistry of the atmosphere and the formation, composition, and climate impact of aerosols A major challenge in the coming decade of atmospheric chemistry research will be to elucidate the sources, structure, chemistry, fate and influences of these clearly ubiquitous yet poorly constrained organic atmospheric constituents

  10. New organic binary solids with phenolic coformers for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draguta, Sergiu; Fonari, Marina S.; Leonova, Evgenia; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2015-10-01

    Five binary adducts between N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 1, N,N-diethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 2, N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-pyridin-3-yldiazenyl]aniline 3, and coformers that include 4-nitrophenol I, 4-nitrobenzoic acid II, benzene-1,3-diol III, and 2,4-dinitrophenol IV were synthesized to follow the factors influencing the formation of polar crystals. New solids were characterized by melting points and absorption spectra, while their structures were proven by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Adducts differ by the components' ratio and position of the acidic hydrogen atom, thus giving examples of four new cocrystals and one salt. The single crystal X-ray analysis revealed the acentric packing for two compounds, 1 (I) and 3(3) (III) that crystallize in the Pca21 and P1 space groups. The melting point data and the cut-off wavelength from absorption spectra show that these materials are stable till relatively high temperatures and transparent in a wide range of spectrum.

  11. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-01-01

    A biogeochemical connection between the atmosphere and the ocean is demonstrated whereby a marine source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds is identified. Compounds of this type are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which remains one of the most poorly understood components of Earth’s climate system due in part to the diverse sources of its volatile organic compound precursors. This is especially the case for marine environments, where there are more oxygenated vol...

  12. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I - , monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I - , MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba Ghareh; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far there have been few studies on the use of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of vapour phase contaminants. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene vapours by solid potassium permanganate. Results revealed that solid potassium permanganate is able to transform the vapour of these compounds into harmless oxidation products. The degradation rates for TCE and ethanol were higher than for toluene. The degradation process was modelled using a kinetic model, linear in the gas concentration of VOC [ML(-3)] and relative surface area of potassium permanganate grains (surface area of potassium permanganate divided by gas volume) [L(-1)]. The second-order reaction rate constants for TCE, ethanol, and toluene were found to be equal to 2.0×10(-6) cm s(-1), 1.7×10(-7) cm s(-1), and 7.0×10(-8) cm s(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

    2007-02-12

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  15. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Hammond, Mark H.; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  16. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  18. Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Looney, B.B.; Dilek, C.A.E.; Riha, B.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone' The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS)

  19. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  20. Transport of volatile organic compounds across the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to investigate the transport of a dissolved volatile organic compound (trichloroethylene, TCE) from shallow groundwater to the unsaturated zone under a variety of conditions including changes in the soil moisture profile and water table position. Experimental data indicated that at moderate groundwater velocities (0.1 m/d), vertical mechanical dispersion was negligible and molecular diffusion was the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Under these conditions, TCE concentrations decreased nearly 3 orders of magnitude across the capillary fringe and soil gas concentrations remained low relative to those of underlying groundwater. Data collected during a water table drop showed a short-term increase in concentrations throughout most of the unsaturated zone, but these concentrations quickly declined and approached initial values after the water table was returned to its original level. In the deep part of the unsaturated zone, the water table drop resulted in a long-term decrease in concentrations, illustrating the effects of hysteresis in the soil moisture profile. A two-dimensional random walk advection-diffusion model was developed to simulate the experimental conditions, and numerical simulations agreed well with experimental data. A simpler, one-dimensional finite-difference diffusion-dispersion model was also developed. One-dimensional simulations based on molecular diffusion also agreed well with experimental data. Simulations which incorporated mechanical dispersion tended to overestimate flux across the capillary fringe. Good agreement between the one- and two-dimensional models suggested that a simple, one-dimensional approximation of vertical transport across the capillary fringe can be useful when conditions are appropriate.

  1. Virus, protozoa and organic compounds decay in depurated oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Piazza, Rômi Sharon; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; do Nascimento, Mariana de Almeida; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Schmidt, Éder der Carlos; Cargin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; de Araujo, Rafael Alves; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2013-11-01

    (1) Evaluate the dynamic of the depuration process of Crassostrea gigas oysters using different ultraviolet doses with different amounts of contaminants (virus, protozoa and organic contaminants) and (2) investigate the morphological changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration procedures. The oysters were allocated in sites with different degrees of contamination and analyzed after 14 days. Some animals were used as positive controls by artificial bioaccumulation with HAdV2 and MNV1 and subjected to depuration assays using UV lamps (18 or 36 W) for 168 h. The following pollutants were researched in the naturally contaminated oysters, oysters after 14 days in sites and oysters during the depuration processes: virus (HAdV, HAV, HuNoV GI/GII and JCPyV), by (RT) qPCR; protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia species), by immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence; and organic compounds (AHs, PAHs, LABs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-OCs), by chromatography. Changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration processes were also evaluated using histochemical analysis by light microscopy. In the artificially bioaccumulated oysters, only HAdV2 and MNV1 were investigated by (RT) qPCR before the depuration procedures and after 96 and 168 h of these procedures. At 14 days post-allocation, HAdV was found in all the sites (6.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 107 GC g(-1)), and Giardia species in only one site. Levels of PCBs and OCs in the oyster's tissues were below the detection limit for all samples. AHs (3.5 to 4.4 μg g(-1)), PAHs (11 to 191 ng g(-1)) and LABs (57 to 751 ng g(-1)) were detected in the samples from 3 sites. During the depuration assays, we found HAdV, Giardia and Cryptosporidium species until 168 h, independent of UV treatment. AHs, PAHs and LABs were found also after 168 h of depuration (36 W and without UV lamp). The depuration procedures did not produce changes in the oysters' tissues. In the artificially contaminated and depurated

  2. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Batista Padilha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  3. Clinical and immunological relevance of antibodies in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, N K; Baranwal, A K

    2016-12-01

    The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection. Long-term graft survival too is adversely affected by the presence of either pre- or post-transplant DSA. HLA matching status of the recipient - donor pair - is an important factor in the modulation of humoral response following transplantation and in a way affects de novo development of DSA. Data collected over the past decade clearly indicate significantly lower level of DSAs in optimally matched donor-recipient pairs. HLA mismatches especially those on HLA-DR and HLA-C loci have wider implications on post-transplant graft survival. The presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies leads to endothelial damage in the newly grafted organ through complement dependent or independent pathways. Although detection of C4d deposition in renal biopsies serves as an important indicator of humoral rejection, its absence does not preclude the presence of DSAs and humoral rejection, and hence, it cannot be relied upon in every case. The emergence of epitope-based screening for anti-HLA antibodies on Luminex platform with high degree of sensitivity has revolutionized the screening for anti-HLA antibodies and DSAs. Studies indicate that humoral response to non-HLA antigens might also have a detrimental effect on allograft survival. High titres of such circulating antibodies may even lead to hyperacute rejection. Pre-emptive testing of solid organ recipients, especially kidney transplant recipients for anti

  4. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass displays improved growth and fermentative ability in high solids concentrations and in the presence of inhibitory compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Gary M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Softwoods are the dominant source of lignocellulosic biomass in the northern hemisphere, and have been investigated worldwide as a renewable substrate for cellulosic ethanol production. One challenge to using softwoods, which is particularly acute with pine, is that the pretreatment process produces inhibitory compounds detrimental to the growth and metabolic activity of fermenting organisms. To overcome the challenge of bioconversion in the presence of inhibitory compounds, especially at high solids loading, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subjected to evolutionary engineering and adaptation for fermentation of pretreated pine wood (Pinus taeda. Results An industrial strain of Saccharomyces, XR122N, was evolved using pretreated pine; the resulting daughter strain, AJP50, produced ethanol much more rapidly than its parent in fermentations of pretreated pine. Adaptation, by preculturing of the industrial yeast XR122N and the evolved strains in 7% dry weight per volume (w/v pretreated pine solids prior to inoculation into higher solids concentrations, improved fermentation performance of all strains compared with direct inoculation into high solids. Growth comparisons between XR122N and AJP50 in model hydrolysate media containing inhibitory compounds found in pretreated biomass showed that AJP50 exited lag phase faster under all conditions tested. This was due, in part, to the ability of AJP50 to rapidly convert furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural to their less toxic alcohol derivatives, and to recover from reactive oxygen species damage more quickly than XR122N. Under industrially relevant conditions of 17.5% w/v pretreated pine solids loading, additional evolutionary engineering was required to decrease the pronounced lag phase. Using a combination of adaptation by inoculation first into a solids loading of 7% w/v for 24 hours, followed by a 10% v/v inoculum (approximately equivalent to 1 g/L dry cell weight into 17

  5. Solid state photodimerization in an organic salt of 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Malik P Peedikakkal

    compound 1 undergoes photodimerization reaction in solid state to produce stereo-specific rctt-tetrakis(4- pyridyl)cyclobutane .... of isomers was calculated based on the integrated intensity of 1H NMR signals .... A combinatorial math- ematical ...

  6. A field-portable supercritical fluid extractor for characterizing sources of waterborne organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Wright, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a viable alternative to current methods of liquid extraction for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in contaminated solid matrices, such as soil and sediment. Because the SFE method is rapid (less than 30 min), large quantities of glassware and large volumes of solvent are not required, and there are fewer sample-handling and sample-preparation steps than in conventional liquid extraction methods, SFE lends itself to in-the-field extraction of solid samples. Laboratory-scale and portable SFE instruments were designed and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. The SFE method was validated through two recovery studies using individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards ranging from two to six rings in size and through two Soxhlet extraction comparison studies. Supercritical fluid extraction followed by gas chromatography was applied to 20 coal-tar-contaminated soil samples from three locations, 10 petroleum-oil-tar-contaminated soil samples, and 20 polychlorinated-biphenyl-contaminated soil samples. The SFE apparatus was transported and used in the field at four locations across the United States. Carbon dioxide was used as the extraction fluid

  7. Determination of organotin compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, Manuel [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Lespes, Gaetane; Gautier, Martine Potin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, Ida de; Pinochet, Hugo [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France)

    2005-12-01

    A method based on Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, with a 100 {mu}m PDMS-fiber) in combination with gas-chromatography and pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of eight organotin compounds. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), and the semi-volatile diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT), monooctyltin (MOcT), and dioctyltin (DOcT) were determined after derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The conditions used for the extraction and preconcentration step were optimised by experimental design methodology. Tripropyltin (TPrT) and diheptyltin (DHepT) were used as internal standards for quantification of volatile and semi-volatile organotin compounds, respectively. The analytical precision (RSD) for ten successive injections of a standard mixture containing all the organic tin compounds ranged between 2 and 11%. The limits of detection for all the organotin compounds were sub ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in water and close to ng (Sn) kg{sup -1} in sediments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of two certified reference material (CRM) sediment samples. The HS-SPME-GC-PFPD was then applied to the analysis of three harbour sediment samples. The results showed that headspace SPME is an attractive tool for analysis of organotin compounds in solid environmental matrices. (orig.)

  8. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  9. Solid-phase synthesis of compounds of europium and terbium with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds under mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskaya, I.V.; Karasev, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    Effect of solvents and parameters of mechanical treatment on basic regularities of synthesis of rare earth compounds with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds is studied. It is shown that interaction on europium (3) and terbium (3) nitrates with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds leads to formation of compounds of Ln(NO 3 )·2D composition, where Ln=Eu, Tb; D=2,2-dipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, diphenylguanidine. Effect of conditions of mechanical treatment and different additions on process and yield of products is studied. Compounds prepared are characterized by the methods of chemical element analysis, IR spectroscopy and luminescent spectroscopy [ru

  10. Interactions of the Calcite {10.4} Surface with Organic Compounds: Structure and Behaviour at Mineral – Organic Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim, S. S.; Olsson, M. H. M.; Sørensen, H. O.

    2017-01-01

    The structure and the strength of organic compound adsorption on mineral surfaces are of interest for a number of industrial and environmental applications, oil recovery, CO2 storage and contamination remediation. Biomineralised calcite plays an essential role in the function of many organisms...... that control crystal growth with organic macromolecules. Carbonate rocks, composed almost exclusively of calcite, host drinking water aquifers and oil reservoirs. In this study, we examined the ordering behaviour of several organic compounds and the thickness of the adsorbed layers formed on calcite {10...... monolayers. The results of this work indicate that adhered organic compounds from the surrounding environment can affect the surface behaviour, depending on properties of the organic compound....

  11. Heat impact caused molecular level changes in solid and dissolved soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-04-01

    resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics and differences of the FTICR-MS spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed: heated samples showed considerable higher intensities of even numbered peaks. An in-house developed, automated post processing was used for further exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Obtained mass lists were transformed for sorting and preparation/ interpretation of graphics like Kendrick and van Krevelen plots. The heat-treated solid samples show decreasing C/N ratios and the formation cyclic and N-heterocyclic compounds in good agreement among the various methods (Py-FIMS and C- and N-XANES). Detailed insight into the hot-water extracts by FTICR-MS showed clear qualitative as well as quantitative changes in the number and the intensity of nitrogen and nitrogen + sulfur containing compounds, respectively, which generally became enriched under soil heating. This demonstrates for the first time, that not only the bulk SOM is affected in structure by heat impact but also the more mobile DOM. We assume, that heat impact volatilizes and oxidizes parts of the organic substances is as expected but another part of the substances incorporates (further) nitrogen atom(s) similar to the generation of new compounds under the conditions of plasma etching in nitrogen atmosphere. This would explain to some extent, why soils are e.g. after fire clearing of vegetation are highly fertile for a short period (better plant acceptable compounds) but become more infertile in the long run, especially under tropical conditions with frequently heavy rain that would lead to an increased leaching of compounds with higher polarity.

  12. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  13. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  15. Chlorinated and Non chlorinated-Volatile Organic Compounds (Vocs) in Drinking Water of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Chian, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    A survey undertaken in Peninsular Malaysia has shown that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both chlorinated and non-chlorinated, are present in selected drinking water samples. In this study, analyses of VOCs were performed by means of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD). Samples from different points of the distribution system networks were taken and analysed for 54 VOCs of different chemical families. The results of the study indicated that chloroform constituted the major portion of the VOCs in all samples analysed. In addition to trihalo methanes (THMs), other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. However, the measured concentrations did not exceed the National Guideline for Drinking Water Quality 2000 in any case. No clear relationship between the status of development of a state in Malaysia to the levels and types of VOCs detected in its drinking water was noted. Nevertheless, the finding of anthropogenic chemicals, even at low concentrations, gave credibility to the viewpoint that improper development and disposal practices threatened the purity of the drinking water. (author)

  16. Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Shiau-Chian; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.

  17. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eChalal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inducing resistance in plants by application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, especially for grapevine (Vitis vinifera which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Though induced resistance (IR can be successful in controlled conditions, under outdoor conditions IR is in most cases not effective enough for practical disease control. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers in order to identify factors (physiological, environmental… that can impact IR in the vineyard.Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are well-known plant defenses compounds that have only received little or no attention in the case of grape-pathogen interactions to date. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3, actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. Online analysis (PTR-QMS of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas tight bags with solid phase micro extraction (SPME-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited emission of VOCs. Some of them (as (E,E-α-farnesene might be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR whereas methyl salicylate appears to be rather a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases.

  18. A kinetic study of the formation of organic solids from formaldehyde: Implications for the origin of extraterrestrial organic solids in primitive Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.

    2015-03-01

    Aqueous organic solid formation from formaldehyde via the formose reaction and subsequent reactions is a possible candidate for the origin of complex primitive chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) and refractory carbon in comets. The rate of formation of organic solids from formaldehyde was studied as a function of temperature and time, with and without ammonia, in order to derive kinetic expressions for polymer yield. The evolution in molecular structure as a function of time and temperature was studied using infrared spectroscopy. Using these kinetic expressions, the yield of organic solids is estimated for extended time and temperature ranges. For example, the half-life for organic solid formation is ∼5 days at 373 K, ∼200 days at 323 K, and ∼70 years at 273 K with ammonia, and ∼25 days at 373 K, ∼13 years at 323 K, and ∼2 × 104 years at 273 K without ammonia. These results indicate that organic solids could form during the aqueous alteration in meteorite parent bodies. If liquid water existed early in the interiors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), formaldehyde could convert into organic solids at temperatures close to 273 K, and possibly even below 273 K in the ammonia-water system.

  19. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  20. Labelling of some iodinated organic compounds by halogen exchange in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Suhybani, A.Al-; Khowaiter, S.Al-; Abdel-Wahid, M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a general method for labelling Rose Bengal in an organic medium. An isotopic exchange technique with interactive iodine as carrier for radioiodine is used. The effect of temperature, carrier, pH of the solvent and solvent are investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum yield of exchange are: .0.2 micro mole carrier inactive iodine per one micro mole of Rose Bengal, reaction mixture is 10ml ethyl alcohol 96% as a solvent for Rose Bengal and 3ml of ether or carbon tetrachloride containing the inactive and radioiodine. In case of ether, the reaction is slow and is completed in two hours with maximum yield of 90% at boiling temperature. Addition of 175 λ of 1 M acetate buffer with carbon tetrachloride gave a yield of 90% in one hour. This method can be applied successfully to label any iodinated organic compound, such as hypuran, thyroxine, tyrosine or aliphatic fatty acids, for application in nuclear medicine. 10 Ref

  1. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  2. A Review of Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compounds in Highway Runoff and Urban Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Dionne, Shannon G.

    1998-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted since 1970 to characterize concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in highway runoff and urban stormwater. To a lesser extent, studies also have characterized concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), estimated loads of SVOCs, and assessed potential impacts of these contaminants on receiving streams. This review evaluates the quality of existing data on SVOCs and VOCs in highway runoff and urban storm- water and summarizes significant findings. Studies related to highways are emphasized when possible. The review included 44 articles and reports that focused primarily on SVOCs and VOCs. Only 17 of these publications are related to highways, and 5 of these 17 are themselves review papers. SVOCs in urban stormwater and sediments during the late 1970's to mid-1980's were the subject of most studies. Criteria used to evaluate data quality included documentation of sampling protocols, analytical methods, minimum reporting limit (MRL) or method detection limit (MDL), qualityassurance protocols, and quality-control samples. The largest deficiency in documenting data quality was that only 10 percent of the studies described where water samples were collected in the stream cross section. About 80 percent of SVOCs in runoff are in the suspended solids. Because suspended solids can vary significantly even in narrow channels, concentrations from discrete point samples and contaminant loads estimated from those samples are questionable without information on sample location or how well streamflow was mixed. Thirty percent or fewer of the studies documented the MRL, MDL, cleaning of samplers, or use of field quality-control samples. Comparing results of different studies and evaluating the quality of environmental data, especially for samples with low concentrations, is difficult without this information. The most significant factor affecting SVOC concentrations in water is suspended solids concentration. In sediment

  3. Neutron diffraction by monocrystals of inorganic and elementary organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Hauser, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    The phase of preparation and X-ray structural analysis of the compounds has been completed following the synthetical preparation of compounds sensitive to oxidation and pyrolysis, in this case: phosphonic acid, potassium silanide, lithium dihydrogenphosphide * DME, bis[lithium-tri(tert.butyl)alanate], dibromophenylbismuthate, potassium tetrahydride aluminate, and phosphinic acid. The work was started is neutron diffraction experiments for detecting the positions of the hydrogen and carbon atoms, in order to analyse space group problems. (BBR) [de

  4. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  5. Removal of chlorinated organic compounds from gas phase using electron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Chmielewski, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Selected chlorinated organic compounds (Cl-HC), which are emitted from coal fired power plants, waste incinerators, chemical industry etc., are very harmful to the environment and human’s health. Some of them are listed as carcinogenic compounds by USA EPA. Recent studies show that some chlorinated organic compounds are suspected to be precursors for dioxins formation. Chlorinated organic compounds decomposition in air in an electron beam (EB) generated plasma reactor technology was studied. We selected cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), 1,4-dichlorobenznene(1,4-DCB), 1-chloronaphthalene as studied objects. It is found that chlorinated organic compounds can be decomposed in an electron beam generated plasma reactor. The order of decomposition efficiency of these compounds are: cis-DCE > 1,4-DCB> 1-chloronaphthalene. (author)

  6. Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films Grown by Solid Source Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zihong

    1995-01-01

    The conventional liquid source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique is capable of producing large area, high quality, single crystal semiconductor films. However, the growth of complex oxide films by this method has been hampered by a lack of suitable source materials. While chemists have been actively searching for new source materials, the research work reported here has demonstrated the successful application of solid metal-organic sources (based on tetramethylheptanedionate) to the growth of high quality thin films of binary compound cerium dioxide (CeO_2), and two more complex materials, the ternary compound lithium niobate (LiNbO_3), with two cations, and the quaternary compound strontium barium niobate (SBN), with three cations. The growth of CeO_2 thin films on (1012)Al_2O_3 substrates has been used as a model to study the general growth behavior of oxides. Factors affecting deposition rate, surface morphology, out-of-plane mosaic structure, and film orientation have been carefully investigated. A kinetic model based on gas phase prereaction is proposed to account for the substrate temperature dependence of film orientation found in this system. Atomically smooth, single crystal quality cerium dioxide thin films have been obtained. Superconducting YBCO films sputtered on top of solid source MOCVD grown thin cerium dioxide buffer layers on sapphire have been shown to have physical properties as good as those of YBCO films grown on single crystal MgO substrates. The thin film growth of LiNbO_3 and Sr_{1-x}Ba _{x}Nb_2 O_6 (SBN) was more complex and challenging. Phase purity, transparency, in-plane orientation, and the ferroelectric polarity of LiNbO _3 films grown on sapphire substrates was investigated. The first optical quality, MOCVD grown LiNbO _3 films, having waveguiding losses of less than 2 dB/cm, were prepared. An important aspect of the SBN film growth studies involved finding a suitable single crystal substrate material. Mg

  7. Chemical Reductive Transformations of Synthetic Organic Compounds. Probe Compound Studies and Mechanistic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyton, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can be used to selectively remove DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene) from a complex waste stream by adding a precursor compound such as ethanol, which forms a reducing radical upon reaction with hydroxyl radical...

  8. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  9. Crystallization of an organic compound from an ionic liquid using carbon dioxide as anti-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Toussaint, V.A.; Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Spronsen, van J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the anti-solvency behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a way to recover an organic compound from an ionic liquid by crystallization is explored. As an example, the conditions for crystallization of the organic compound methyl-(Z)-a-acetamido cinnamate (MAAC) from the ionic

  10. Coordination compounds of rare-earth metals with organic ligands for electroluminescent diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katkova, M A; Bochkarev, Mikhail N; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G

    2005-01-01

    Data on lanthanide coordination compounds with organic ligands used in the design of electroluminescent diodes are summarised and systematically represented. The molecular and electronic structures and spectroscopic characteristics of these compounds are considered. A comparative analysis of the properties of organic electroluminescent diodes with different compositions of emitting and conductive layers is presented.

  11. End-group-directed self-assembly of organic compounds useful for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Lee, Olivia P.; Yiu, Alan T.; Frechet, Jean M.J.

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for an organic compound comprising electron deficient unit covalently linked to two or more electron rich units. The present invention also provides for a device comprising the organic compound, such as a light-emitting diode, thin-film transistor, chemical biosensor, non-emissive electrochromic, memory device, photovoltaic cells, or the like.

  12. Investigation of extractable organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.

    2015-05-01

    The possibility that deep-sea hydrothermal vents may contain organic compounds produced by abiotic synthesis or by microbial communities living deep beneath the surface has led to numerous studies of the organic composition of vent fluids. Most of these studies have focused on methane and other light hydrocarbons, while the possible occurrence of more complex organic compounds in the fluids has remained largely unstudied. To address this issue, the presence of higher molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids was assessed at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that span a range of temperatures (51 to >360 °C), fluid compositions, and host-rock lithologies (mafic to ultramafic). Samples were obtained at several sites within the Lucky Strike, Rainbow, and Lost City hydrothermal fields. Three methods were employed to extract organic compounds for analysis, including liquid:liquid extraction, cold trapping on the walls of a coil of titanium tubing, and pumping fluids through cartridges filled with solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents. The only samples to consistently yield high amounts of extractable organic compounds were the warm (51-91 °C), highly alkaline fluids from Lost City, which contained elevated concentrations of C8, C10, and C12n-alkanoic acids and, in some cases, trithiolane, hexadecanol, squalene, and cholesterol. Collectively, the C8-C12 acids can account for about 15% of the total dissolved organic carbon in the Lost City fluids. The even-carbon-number predominance of the alkanoic acids indicates a biological origin, but it is unclear whether these compounds are derived from microbial activity occurring within the hydrothermal chimney proximal to the site of fluid discharge or are transported from deeper within the system. Hydrothermal fluids from the Lucky Strike and Rainbow fields were characterized by an overall scarcity of extractable dissolved organic compounds. Trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons including

  13. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  14. Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Susan E; Vatsayan, Anant

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first identified human oncovirus and is also one of the most ubiquitous viral infections known with established infections in more than 90% of individuals by early adulthood. EBV establishes latency by controlling expression of the viral genome making it silent to immune surveillance. In immunocompetent individuals, up to 1% of circulating T cells are directed at maintaining control over EBV replication. In addition to being involved in oncogenesis of lymphoid and epithelial tumors in immune-competent individuals, loss of immune surveillance over EBV predisposes individuals to EBV malignancies. Lymphoid proliferations from EBV-infected B cells arise in up to 20% of recipients of solid organ transplants (SOTs). One question not answered is why, when EBV requires such active immune surveillance, EBV malignancies are not even more prevalent in severely immune-compromised individuals. A better understanding of who develops complications related to EBV and what the immunologic risks are will ultimately make it feasible to perform prophylactic trials in those at highest risk. This review summarizes our current understanding of factors in SOT recipients that predispose them to the development of an EBV malignancy and that predict response to initial therapy. We then review the current landscape of those therapies, focusing on the goal of restoring long-term EBV-directed immunity to patients at risk. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F

    2017-09-01

    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with tacrolimus in solid organ transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.Q.; Rabbani, M.; Habib, M.; Saleem, T.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus in the post-transplant setting is rare. We describe two such cases in solid-organ transplant recipients. The first patient, a 17-year-old male, presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin infusion. He was a known case of Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome and had received a renal transplant 2 years ago and was receiving tacrolimus since then. Although diabetic ketoacidosis resolved in 24 hours, large doses of subcutaneous insulin (unto 130 units per day) were needed to keep serum glucose within the normal range. Substitution of tacrolimus with cyclosporine obviated the need for insulin or oral hypoglycaemics. The second patient, a 55-year-old woman, presented with a history of polyuria for 3 days. She had received a hepatic transplant 2 years ago and tacrolimus was being used since then. Mild diabetic ketoacidosis was managed with fluid resuscitation and subcutaneous insulin. Her insulin requirement after an uneventful recovery has been 54 - 70 units per day. Clinicians should be cognizant of the possibility of hyperglycaemic crisis presenting as sudden onset of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus. Use of an alternative calcineurin inhibitor may provide a safer solution to minimize future morbidity in such patients. (author)

  17. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  18. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  19. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Jiwu; Zhang, Yihe; Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai; Chu, Paul K.; Ye, Zhengfang; Xing, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol. ► The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. ► The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC–MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S–S and/or C–S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  20. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Nga Lee; Brown, Steven S.; Archibald, Alexander T.; Atlas, Elliot; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crowley, John N.; Day, Douglas A.; Donahue, Neil M.; Fry, Juliane L.; Fuchs, Hendrik; Griffin, Robert J.; Guzman, Marcelo I.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hodzic, Alma; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Jimenez, José L.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Lee, Ben H.; Luecken, Deborah J.; Mao, Jingqiu; McLaren, Robert; Mutzel, Anke; Osthoff, Hans D.; Ouyang, Bin; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Platt, Ulrich; Pye, Havala O. T.; Rudich, Yinon; Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Stutz, Jochen; Thornton, Joel A.; Tilgner, Andreas; Williams, Brent J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models.

    This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

  1. Characteristics of organic compounds in PM2.5 at urban and remote areas in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, A.; Lee, J.; Shin, H. J.; Lee, M.; Jin seok, H.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Organic aerosols contain thousands of organic compounds and contribute to 20%-90% of the total fine aerosol mass (Kanakidou et al., 2005). These organic aerosols originate from anthropogenic and natural (biogenic and geologic) sources and alter physical and chemical properties in the atmosphere depending on the atmospheric and meteorological conditions. About one hundred individual organic compounds in PM2.5 at Seoul (urban area) and Baengnyeong Island (remote area) were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in order to understand the characteristics of organic compounds in PM2.5 at these areas. Further, major factors to determine their concentrations in the atmosphere were investigated. Organic compounds analyzed in this study were classified into six groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, fatty acids (FA), dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars. Daily variation of organic compounds concentrations at Seoul were not high, while, the concentrations of organic compounds at Baengnyeong Island showed high daily variation. This is might due to frequent change of source strength and/or SOA formation in this region. Through correlations of organic compounds with other air pollutants and factor analysis at both sites, it found that major factors (or source) for the determination of organic compounds concentrations at Seoul and Baengnyeong Island were different. The major sources at Seoul were anthropogenic sources such as vehicular emission and coal combustions, while, SOA formation and biomass burning were more attributed more to the organic compounds concentrations at Baengnyeong Island.References Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F.J., Facchini, M.C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C.J., Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J.P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G.K., Winterhalter, R., Myhre, C.E.L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E

  2. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2018-02-27

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  3. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (NDMA with partitioning to droplet must be the source of aqueous

  4. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    -state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based......) of > 1. No empirical data are available to support this prediction. For very lipophilic compounds (log K-OW > 5), T&A overestimates the uptake. The conclusion from the Fruit Tree Model is that the transfer of lipophilic compounds into fruits is not relevant. This was also found by an empirical study...... with PCDD/F. According to the Fruit Tree Model, polar chemicals are transferred efficiently into fruits, but empirical data to verify these predictions are lacking....

  5. Effects of climate change on the wash-off of volatile organic compounds from urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-09-01

    The predicted changes in rainfall characteristics due to climate change could adversely affect stormwater quality in highly urbanised coastal areas throughout the world. This in turn will exert a significant influence on the discharge of pollutants to estuarine and marine waters. Hence, an in-depth analysis of the effects of such changes on the wash-off of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from urban roads in the Gold Coast region in Australia was undertaken. The rainfall characteristics were simulated using a rainfall simulator. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the VOC wash-off under climate change. It was found that low, low to moderate and high rain events due to climate change will affect the wash-off of toluene, ethylbenzene, meta-xylene, para-xylene and ortho-xylene from urban roads in Gold Coast. Total organic carbon (TOC) was identified as predominant carrier of toluene, meta-xylene and para-xylene in 300 μm fractions under such dominant rain events due to climate change. However, ortho-xylene did not show such affinity towards either TOC or TSS (total suspended solids) under the simulated climatic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cape, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Possible adverse effects of VOCs on vegetation in urban areas cannot be rejected. - Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than a few days, so there is little information on potential long-term effects of exposure to small concentrations. This review considers the available evidence for long-term effects, based on laboratory and field data. Previous reviews of the literature from Germany and the USA are cited, prior to an assessment of the effects of individual VOCs. Although hydrocarbons from vehicle exhausts have been implicated in the observed effects on roadside vegetation, the evidence suggests that it is the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases that are mostly responsible. There is evidence that aromatic hydrocarbons can be metabolised in plants, although the fate of the metabolites is not known. There is a large literature on the effects of ethylene, because of its role as a plant hormone. Effects have been reported in the field, in response to industrial emissions, and dose-response experiments over several weeks in laboratory studies have clearly identified the potential for effects at ambient concentrations. The main responses are morphological (e.g. epinasty), which may be reversible, and on the development of flowers and fruit. Effects on seed production may be positive or negative, depending on the exposure concentration. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified as potentially harmful to vegetation, but only one long-term experiment has studied dose-response relationships. As for ethylene, the most sensitive indication of effect was on seed production, although long-term accumulation of trichloroacetic acid in

  7. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds and Ionic Liquids. Sublimation, Vaporization, and Fusion Enthalpies from 1880 to 2015. Part 2. C11-C192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2017-03-01

    The second part of this compendium concludes with a collection of phase change enthalpies of organic molecules inclusive of C11-C192 reported over the period 1880-2015. Also included are phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies for organometallic, ionic liquids, and a few inorganic compounds. Paper I of this compendium, published separately, includes organic compounds from C1 to C10 and describes a group additivity method for evaluating solid, liquid, and gas phase heat capacities as well as temperature adjustments of phase changes. Paper II of this compendium also includes an updated version of a group additivity method for evaluating total phase change entropies which together with the fusion temperature can be useful in estimating total phase change enthalpies. Other uses include application in identifying potential substances that either form liquid or plastic crystals or exhibit additional phase changes such as undetected solid-solid transitions or behave anisotropically in the liquid state.

  8. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    efficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity ... Molar extinction coefficients; effective atomic numbers; electron density. PACS Nos 29.30. ... the radiation path and is linearly dependent on the concentration of the absorbing species. This is most ...

  9. Green Synthetic Alternatives to Organic Compounds and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermedia...

  10. Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Shen, Jianheng; Jia, Yunhua; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin J T

    2011-10-12

    Thin stillage contains organic and inorganic compounds, some of which may be valuable fermentation coproducts. This study describes a thorough analysis of the major solutes present in thin stillage as revealed by NMR and HPLC. The concentration of charged and neutral organic compounds in thin stillage was determined by excitation sculpting NMR methods (double pulse field gradient spin echo). Compounds identified by NMR included isopropanol, ethanol, lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, acetic acid, succinic acid, glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, glycerol, and 2-phenylethanol. The concentrations of lactic and acetic acid determined with NMR were comparable to those determined using HPLC. HPLC and NMR were complementary, as more compounds were identified using both methods. NMR analysis revealed that stillage contained the nitrogenous organic compounds betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine, which contributed as much as 24% of the nitrogen present in the stillage. These compounds were not observed by HPLC analysis.

  11. Structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation: raman study at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, Hirotomo; Ishioka, Kunie; Miyatake, Yoko.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we first describe a simple liquid helium cryostat and a device of making and mounting organic solid samples. We then present the Raman spectra for irradiated ethanol crystal that were obtained by using the new cryostat and demonstrate how the Raman method is useful for getting insight into structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  12. Modeling of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds : A statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Kim, T.U.; Kennedy, M.; Amy, G.

    2008-01-01

    Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin) and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Carbontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide) by NF (Filmtec, Saehan)

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; ReVello, R.C.; Smith, S.G.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad range of organic compounds is recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This method was developed to better determine the distribution of 61 compounds that are typically associated with industrial and household waste as well as some that are toxic and known (or suspected) for endocrine-disrupting potential extracted from environmental sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to reduce sample preparation time, reduce solvent consumption to one-fifth of that required using dichloromethane-based Soxhlet extraction, and to minimize background interferences for full scan GC/MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, commercially available topsoil, and environmental stream sediment, fortified at 4-720 ??g per compound, averaged 76 ?? 13%. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 12.5 to 520 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 103 environmental sediment samples show that 36 out of 61 compounds (59%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, was detected in 87 of the 103 (84.5%) environmental samples with a concentration range 360-100,000 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction are also compared. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved approaches are needed to rapidly and accurately assess the bioavailability of persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds in soils at contaminated sites. The performance of a thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) assay using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate polymer was compared to...

  15. Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the solvents. n-Octanal, nonanal, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, which are used catalyzers or intermediates of chemical reactions, are released into the environment. Essential oils have the functions of self-defense, sterilization, and antibiosis in plants. When volatile organic compounds enter the body, there is the possibility that they will pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB and affect the central nervous system (CNS. However, the direct effects of volatile organic compounds on neural function and their toxicities are still unclear. We compared the toxicities of n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with those of five naturally derived fragrant organic compounds (FOCs, linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and n-phenethyl alcohol. MTT assay of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells showed that the IC50 values of linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, isoamyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol were 1.33, 2.3, >5, >5, and 2.39 mM, respectively, and the IC50 values of toluene, n-octanal, nonanal and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were 850, 37.2, 8.31 and 15.1 μM, respectively. FOCs showed lower toxicities than those of VOCs. These results indicate that FOCs are safer than other compounds.

  16. Thermal degradation of the vapours of organic nitrogen compounds in the presence of the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brault, A.; Chevalier, G.; Kerfanto, M.; Loyer, H.

    1983-04-01

    Following a quick survey of the literature on the products originated during the thermal degradation of some organic nitrogen compounds, the experimental results obtained by applying a technique previously used for other organic compounds are presented. The compounds investigated include: methyl and ethylamines at the origin of the bad smells of many gaseous wastes, trilaurylamine and tetraethylenediamine sometimes used in nuclear facilities. Attention is brought on the emission of noxious products during thermal degradation in the presence of the air, at various temperatures, viz. either usual combustion gases such as carbon monoxide, or nitro-derivatives such as hydrogen cyanide present whatever the compound investigated when temperatures are below 850 0 C [fr

  17. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Goncalves, Maraisa; Oliveira, Diana Q.L.; Guerreiro, Mario C.; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Dallago, Rogerio M.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g -1 ) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g -1 ), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

  18. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br; Goncalves, Maraisa [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Diana Q.L. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guerreiro, Mario C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz R.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Ciencia do solo, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Dallago, Rogerio M. [URI-Campus Erechim, Av. 7 Setembro 1621, Centro, CEP 99700-000, Depto de Quimica, Erechim-RS (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g{sup -1}) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g{sup -1}), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  19. Bibliography about silicon non-organic fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, M.

    1963-01-01

    This bibliography is made from Professor I.G. Ryss' book published in Moscow in 1956, translated in English under the title 'The chemistry of fluorine and its inorganic compounds' (Translation series. AEC tr 3927, Pt 1 and 2), and completed with the data found in the 'Chemical Abstracts' of the years 1946 to 1962 [fr

  20. Thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity properties of Co-Si solid solutions and intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Ying; Li, Liuhui; Gu, Qianqian; Zhou, Kai; Yan, Na; Wei, Bingbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Length change difference between rapidly and slowly solidified Co-Si alloy occurs at high temperature. • Generally CTE increases with an increasing Si content. • The thermal diffusion abilities are CoSi 2 > Co 95 Si 5 > Co 90 Si 10 > Co 2 Si > CoSi if T exceeds 565 K. • All the CTE and thermal diffusivity variations with T satisfy linear or polynomial relations. - Abstract: The thermal expansion of Co-Si solid solutions and intermetallic compounds was measured via dilatometric method, compared with the results of first-principles calculations, and their thermal diffusivities were investigated using laser flash method. The length changes of rapidly solidified Co-Si alloys are larger than those of slowly solidified alloys when temperature increases to around 1000 K due to the more competitive atom motion. The coefficient of thermal expansion (α) of Co-Si alloy increases with an increasing Si content, except that the coefficient of thermal expansion of Co 95 Si 5 influenced by both metastable structure and allotropic transformation is lower than that of Co 90 Si 10 at a higher temperature. The thermal expansion abilities of Co-Si intermetallic compounds satisfy the relationship of Co 2 Si > CoSi > CoSi 2 , and the differences of the coefficients of thermal expansion between them increase with the rise of temperature. The thermal diffusivity of CoSi 2 is evidently larger than the values of other Co-Si alloys. If temperature exceeds 565 K, their thermal diffusion abilities are CoSi 2 > Co 95 Si 5 > Co 90 Si 10 > Co 2 Si > CoSi. All the coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity variations with temperature satisfy linear or polynomial relations.

  1. Occurrence and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) relative to water treatment plants in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    A solid phase micro extraction technique with determination analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detector (SPME-GC-MSD) to determine 54 volatile organic compounds (VOC) in drinking water was successfully developed. The optimal conditions lead to mean recoveries of 85 % with the relative standard deviation below 13 %. Limit of detection was ranged from 0.005 μg/ l to 1.121 μg/ l for all VOC. Upon consideration of the complete procedure from sample preparation to instrumental determination, the expanded uncertainty for all VOC under study was in the range of 1.056 to 2.952 μg/ l. The optimised SPME-GC-MSD method was used to determine distributions and occurence of VOC in drinking water for Peninsular Malaysia for one year and a specific study carried out in Semenyih Catchment and Semenyih River Water Treatment Plant. Results from the monitoring programme showed that concentration of VOC ranged from undetectable to 190.9 μg/ l. Chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Apart from trihalomethanes (THM), other abundant compounds detected were 1,2-dibromoethane, cis and trans-1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and benzene. This indicated the presence of VOC in drinking water and thus is required to be frequently monitored in order to ensure and maintain drinking water quality. Based on exposure risks assessment, results from this study showed that total cancer risks was the greatest for benzene, followed by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, 1,2-dibromomethane, chloroform and dichlorobromomethane. Nevertheless, after considering the frequency of detection factor and alteration of cancer risks that has been done, chloroform contributed the highest cancer risks among other VOC compounds. On a specific study in Semenyih Catchment, the declination of water quality in Semenyih River between 1990 and 2004 to a perturbing stage was due to urbanisation process and industrial growth. Apart from raw water

  2. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  3. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    New developments in molecular-level 14 C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level 14 C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ( 14 C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' 14 C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the 14 C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were 14 C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern 14 C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the 14 C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock

  4. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt

    2016-02-02

    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  5. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Straasø , Lasse Arnt; Saleem, Qasim; Hansen, Michael Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  6. Assessing bioavailability of DDT and metabolites in marine sediments using solid-phase microextraction with performance reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Jia, Fang; Crago, J; Zeng, Eddy Y; Schlenk, D; Gan, Jay

    2013-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has often been used to estimate the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of organic contaminants in sediments. A significant limitation in the application of SPME for Cfree measurement is the requirement for attaining equilibrium partition, which is often difficult for strongly hydrophobic compounds such as DDT. A method was developed using SPME with stable isotope-labeled analogues as performance reference compounds (PRCs) to measure Cfree of DDT and metabolites (DDTs) in marine sediments. Six (13) C-labeled or deuterated PRCs were impregnated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber before use. Desorption of PRCs from PDMS fibers and absorption of DDTs from sediment were isotropic in a range of sediments evaluated ex situ under well-mixed conditions. When applied to a historically contaminated marine sediment from a Superfund site, the PRC-SPME method yielded Cfree values identical to those found by using a conventional equilibrium SPME approach (Eq-SPME), whereas the time for mixing was reduced from 9 d to only 9 h. The PRC-SPME method was further evaluated against bioaccumulation of DDTs by Neanthes arenaceodentata in the contaminated sediment with or without amendment of activated carbon or sand. Strong correlations were consistently found between the derived equilibrium concentrations on the fiber and lipid-normalized tissue residues for DDTs in the worms. Results from the present study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of coupling PRCs with SPME sampling to greatly shorten sampling time, thus affording much improved flexibility in the use of SPME for bioavailability evaluation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  8. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05. An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of organic compounds. The empirical model for estimating the PDMS-gas partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique.

  9. Prediction of acid dissociation constants of organic compounds using group contribution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Teng; Jhamb, Spardha; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    data-points with average absolute error of 0.23; (b) a non-linear GC model for organic compounds using 1622 data-points with average absolute error of 1.18; (c) an artificial neural network (ANN) based GC model for the organic compounds with average absolute error of 0.17. For each of the developed......In this paper, group contribution (GC) property models for the estimation of acid dissociation constants (Ka) of organic compounds are presented. Three GC models are developed to predict the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant pKa: (a) a linear GC model for amino acids using 180...

  10. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  11. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor......In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  12. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  13. Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; LeBouf, Ryan F; Son, Youn-Suk; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2017-04-27

    We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.

  14. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  15. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  16. Fluidized-bed design for ICF reactor blankets using solid-lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucov, E.W.; Malick, F.S.; Green, L.; Hall, B.O.

    1983-01-01

    A fluidized-bed concept for blankets of dry or wetted first-wall ICF reactors using solid-lithium compounds is described. The reaction chamber is a right cylinder, 32 m high and 20 m in diameter; the blanket is composed of 36 steel tanks, 32 m high, which carry the sintered Li 2 O particles in the fluidizing helium gas. Each tank has a radial thickness of 2 m which generates a tritium breeding ration (TBR) of 1.27 and absorbs over 98% of the neutron energy; reducing the thickness to 1.2 m produces a TBR of 1.2 and energy absorption of 97% which satisfy the design goals. Calculations of tritium diffusion through the grains and heat removal from the grains showed that neither could be removed by the carrier gas; tritium and heat are therefore removed by removing the grains themselves by varying the helium flow rate. The particles are continuously fed into the bottom of the tanks at 300 0 C and removed at the top at 475 0 C. Tritium and heat extraction are easily and conveniently done outside the reactor

  17. Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, D V; Pani, B M; Beli, L Z

    1997-10-20

    A novel solid-state laser-pumping scheme is proposed that combines a reflective lamp chamber and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) as a light guide. The CPC is made of a transparent material of high refractive index, and light is guided by the total internal reflection, with drastically reduced reflection losses. Material is chosen so that the absorption losses are minimized in the pumping wavelength range. The lamp chamber is designed with the principles of nonimaging optics, which ensures that the radiation is efficiently transferred from the lamp to the input aperture of the CPC. The pumping efficiency was first estimated theoretically, which gave us enough justification for the more accurate calculations with ray tracing. Single as well as multiple pumping cavities are discussed. New pumping geometry results in significantly increased pumping efficiency compared with conventional geometries. Also the lamp and the laser rod are separated, leading to reduced thermal load. We found that the proposed pumping method is also applicable to diode-pumped lasers.

  18. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the White Sea snow-ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of the White Sea snow-ice cover was estimated by examining the distribution of organic compounds, including oil and pyrogenic hydrocarbons. Ice and snow cores were taken from Chupa Bay and the Kandalaksha Gulf in the Cape Kartesh area in the spring of 2004 and from the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina River in the spring of 2005, 2006, and 2007. This paper presented data on the lipid content, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and suspended particulate matter in snow, ice and under-ice water. This paper focused on organic compounds and suspended matter (SM) concentrations in the sea snow-ice cover and described the ice forming conditions and interactions of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The amount of particulate matter and organic compounds in the snow increased sharply near industrial centres. The concentration of compounds decreased further away from these centres, suggesting that most pollutants are deposited locally. The study revealed that organic compounds concentrate in barrier zones, such as snow-ice and water-ice, depending on the source of pollution. There was no obvious evidence of petrogenic sources of PAHs in particulate matter from the White Sea snow-ice cover. The SM and organic compounds accumulated in layers characterized by local depositional processes. The zones remained biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions, but the accumulation of both SM and organic compounds was at its highest during the initial stage of ice formation. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J.J.

    1988-12-01

    The work carried out during the first year of a four year Danish-Irish contract with the European Economic Community is described. The reactions of OH radicals with dialkyl sulfides and nitroalkanes have been studied applying both an absolute technique of pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopy and a relative rate method using conventional smog chamber facilities. The reactions of OH with dimethyl sulfide and nitromethane have been investigated in special detail. Rate constants for reaction of Cl atoms with the same compounds have been determing using the relative rate method. (author)

  1. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  2. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%, terpendiol I (5.0% and vomifoliol (3.0% that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major honey headspace compounds were hotrienol (31.1%–38.5%, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (0.5–6.0%, cis- and trans-linalool oxides (0.9–2.8%, linalool (1.0–3.1% and neroloxide (0.9–1.9%. Methyl syringate was the most abundant compound (38.3-56.2% in the honey solvent extractives followed by vomifoliol (7.0–26.6%. Comparison of the honey organic extractives with the corresponding bee-stomach extractive indicated that methyl syringate and vomofoliol were transferred to the honey while terpendiol I was partially transformed to hotrienol in ripened honey.

  3. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  4. Validation of an experimental setup to study atmospheric heterogeneous ozonolysis of semi-volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pflieger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a need for reliable experimental procedures to follow the heterogeneous processing simulating the atmospheric conditions. This work offers an alternative experimental device to study the behaviour of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC that presumably exhibit extremely slow reactivity (e.g. pesticides towards the atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and OH. Naphthalene was chosen as a test compound since it was widely studied in the past and hence represents a good reference. Prior to ozone exposure, the gaseous naphthalene was adsorbed via gas-solid equilibrium on silica and XAD-4 particles. Then, the heterogeneous reaction of ozone with adsorbed naphthalene was investigated in specially designed flow tube reactors. After the reaction, the remaining naphthalene (adsorbed on particles surface was extracted, filtered and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. Thus, the kinetics results were obtained following the consumption of naphthalene. Using this procedure, the rate constants of heterogeneous ozonolysis of naphthalene (kO3 silica=2.26 (±0.09×10−17 cm3 molec−1 s−1 and kO3 XAD-4=4.29 (±1.06×10−19 cm3 molec−1 s−1 were determined for silica and XAD-4 particles, at 25°C and relative humidity <0.7%. The results show that the nature of the particles significantly affects the kinetics and that heterogeneous ozonolysis of naphthalene is faster than its homogeneous ozonolysis in the gas phase.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, K.E.C.; Thullner, M.; Wick, L.Y.; Harms, H.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase above that attributable to dissolved molecular diffusion alone was tested. In controlled experiments, mass transfer rates of

  6. 75 FR 57390 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Environmental Management (ADEM) on March 3, 2010. The revision modifies the definition of ``volatile organic... the VOC definition on the basis that these compounds make a negligible contribution to tropospheric..., 2009, which excludes these compounds from the regulatory VOC definition. This action is being taken...

  7. Destructive hydrogenation; dehydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes; purifying oils; polynuclear organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-02-08

    Unitary organic compounds containing four or more nuclei are recovered from the high boiling fractions of destructive hydrogenation products of bituminous, resinous, or ligneous materials. Cooling, precipitation, crystallization, selective dissolution and distillation are some of the techniques discussed. These techniques may also be applied to the recovery of polynuclear compounds.

  8. Volatile organic compounds and Photobacterium phosphoreum associated with spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged raw pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Timo T.; Dalgaard, Paw; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile organic compounds was monitored in association with sensory quality, bacterial concentrations and culture-independent microbial community analyses in raw pork loin and pork collar during storage under high-oxygen modified atmosphere at +4°C. Of the 48 volatile compounds...

  9. Sulfurized limonite as material for fast decomposition of organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Kei; Tanaka, Toshinori; Tsuda, Yutaka; Ban, Masahiro; Koveke, Edwin P.; Koinuma, Michio; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Used limonite degrades organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction. • Sulfurized limonite removes methylene blue color in seconds. • Recycled limonite can be used for biogas purification and wastewater treatment. - Abstract: Rapid decomposition of wastewater contaminants using sulfurized limonite (S-limonite) was investigated. Limonite is used for desulfurization of biogases, and S-limonite is obtained from desulfurization plants as solid waste. In this work, the profitable use of S-limonite in water treatment was examined. The divalent Fe in S-limonite was expected to produce OH radicals, as Fe 2+ ions and limonite thermally treated with H 2 do. Methylene blue was used for batch-wise monitoring of the decomposition performance. The decomposition rate was fast and the methylene blue solution color disappeared in only 10 s when a small amount of H 2 O 2 was added (1 mM in the sample solution) in the presence of S-limonite. The OH radicals were formed by a heterogeneous reaction on the S-limonite surface and Fenton reaction with dissolved Fe 2+ . The decomposition of pentachlorophenol was also examined; it was successfully decomposed in batch-wise tests. The surfaces of limonite before sulfurization, S-limonite, and S-limonite after use for water treatment were performed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that S-limonite reverted to limonite after being used for water treatment

  10. Studies on volatile organic compounds of some truffles and false truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco; Rana, Gian Luigi; Laurita, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Results of solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, accomplished on sporophores of 11 species of truffles and false truffles, are reported. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in Gautieria morchelliformis were dimethyl sulphide, 1,3-octadiene, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, amorphadiene, isoledene and cis-muurola-3,5-diene. In Hymenogaster luteus var. luteus, presence of 1,3-octadiene, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol and 4-acetylanisole was revealed. Two VOCs, 4-acetylanisole and β-farnesene, constituted aroma of Hymenogaster olivaceus.Melanogaster broomeanus exhibited as components of its aroma 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylpropanol, isobutyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, 3-octanone and β-curcumene. VOC profile of Octavianina asterosperma was characterised by the presence of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 3-octanone. Tuber rufum var. rufum and Pachyphloeus conglomeratus showed the presence of dimethyl sulphide only.

  11. Sulfurized limonite as material for fast decomposition of organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Kei, E-mail: todakei@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshinori; Tsuda, Yutaka; Ban, Masahiro; Koveke, Edwin P. [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koinuma, Michio [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Ohira, Shin-Ichi [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Used limonite degrades organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction. • Sulfurized limonite removes methylene blue color in seconds. • Recycled limonite can be used for biogas purification and wastewater treatment. - Abstract: Rapid decomposition of wastewater contaminants using sulfurized limonite (S-limonite) was investigated. Limonite is used for desulfurization of biogases, and S-limonite is obtained from desulfurization plants as solid waste. In this work, the profitable use of S-limonite in water treatment was examined. The divalent Fe in S-limonite was expected to produce OH radicals, as Fe{sup 2+} ions and limonite thermally treated with H{sub 2} do. Methylene blue was used for batch-wise monitoring of the decomposition performance. The decomposition rate was fast and the methylene blue solution color disappeared in only 10 s when a small amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added (1 mM in the sample solution) in the presence of S-limonite. The OH radicals were formed by a heterogeneous reaction on the S-limonite surface and Fenton reaction with dissolved Fe{sup 2+}. The decomposition of pentachlorophenol was also examined; it was successfully decomposed in batch-wise tests. The surfaces of limonite before sulfurization, S-limonite, and S-limonite after use for water treatment were performed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that S-limonite reverted to limonite after being used for water treatment.

  12. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds. II. Chromosome segregation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C; Magnusson, J

    1969-01-01

    The genetic effect of organic mercury compounds on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Treatments of larvae with methyl and phenyl mercury gave rise to development disturbances. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted.

  13. Isotopic Constraints on the Sources and Associations of Organic Compounds in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01

    .... The main objective has been to determine the significance of these associations, and to assess how they affect the transport, bioavailability, preservation and residence times of organic compounds in the environment...

  14. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  15. Abstracts of the papers presented at the workshop 'synthesis and application of radioactively labelled organic compounds'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The abstracts of the 12 papers read at the Rossendorf workshop comprise syntheses and radioactive labelling of organic compounds such as herbicides, steroids, peptides and others and their application as tracers, above all in kinetic studies

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, John V.; Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1995-01-01

    Usually landfill leachates contain specific organic compounds as BTEXs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorobenzenes originating from household chemicals and waste from small businesses (I). However, where industrial waste has been landfilled...

  17. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  18. Plant-associated bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds in soil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Martina

    2009-08-01

    A number of toxic synthetic organic compounds can contaminate environmental soil through either local (e.g., industrial) or diffuse (e.g., agricultural) contamination. Increased levels of these toxic organic compounds in the environment have been associated with human health risks including cancer. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria (non-pathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (bacteria that live on and near the roots of plants), have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds (either naturally occurring or genetically enhanced) in contaminated soil in the environment could have positive implications for human health worldwide and is the subject of this review.

  19. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  20. The Study and Development of Metal Oxide Reactive Adsorbents for the Destruction of Toxic Organic Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    ... and other toxic organic compounds. The research program that was developed built upon earlier results achieved in the room temperature oxidative decomposition of a chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP...

  1. PREDICTION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURE, BOILING POINT, HEAT OF VAPORIZATION AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prototype computer program SPARC has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC solute-solute physical process models have been developed and tested...

  2. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Maik A; Yuan, Xue; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2007-03-01

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-microm film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochmann, Maik A.; Schmidt, Torsten C. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany); Chair of Instrumental Analysis, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Yuan, Xue [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-{mu}m film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  4. Lifetimes of organic photovoltaics: photooxidative degradation of a model compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, K.; Alstrup, J.; Jørgensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    A poly phenylene vinylene (PPV-type) oligomer used in organic photovoltaics was designed to facilitate the interpretation of mass spectral data. A film of the oligomer was subjected to various degrees of illumination (1000 W m(-2), AM1.5) in air resulting in photooxidation of the material...

  5. Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solution by Granular Activated Carbon in Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinali, F.; Ghoreyshi, A. A.; Najafpour, G.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatics are the major volatile organic compounds that contaminate the ground water and industrial waste waters. The best way to overcome this problem is to recover the dissolved compounds in water. In order to evaluate the potential ability of granular activated carbon for recovery of volatile organic compounds from water, the equilibrium adsorption was investigated. This study deals with the adsorption of dichloromethane as a typical chlorinated volatile organic compound and toluene as the representative of aromatic volatile organic compounds on a commercial granular activated carbon. The adsorption isotherms of these two volatile organic compounds on granular activated carbon were measured at three different temperatures, toluene at 293, 303 and 313 K and dichloromethane at 298, 303 and 313 K within their solubility concentration range in water. The maximum adsorption capacity of dichloromethane and toluene adsorption by granular activated carbon was 4 and 0.2 mol/Kg-1, respectively. The experimental data obtained were correlated with different adsorption isotherm models. The Langmuir model was well adapted to the description of dichloromethane adsorption on granular activated carbon at all three temperatures, while the adsorption of toluene on granular activated carbon was found to be well described by the Langmuir-BET hybrid model at all three temperatures. The heat of adsorption was also calculated based on the thermodynamic equation of Clausius Clapeyron, which indicates the adsorption process is endothermic for both compounds.

  6. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-Nguyen, Nguyen; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    The antifungal activity of some perdeuterated fatty acids with a normal chain of 11 to 18 carbon atoms was investigated on common dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum under in vitro conditions. A perdeuterated compound is one in which most of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by deuterium. These studies were performed by the dilution technique with respiratory measurements. Perdeuteration of of some fatty acids increases their inhibitory effect on the dermatophyte growth. Perdeuterated n-hendecanoic acid proved to be the most active of the substances tested. Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antifungal activity due to the perdeuteration of fatty acids are discussed. The present study investigates the antifungal properties of some perdeuterated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro

  7. Erythrocyte hemolysis by organic tin and lead compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleszcynska, H. [Agricultural Univ., Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics; Hladyszowski, J. [Agricultural Univ., Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics; Pruchnik, H. [Agricultural Univ., Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics; Przestalski, S. [Agricultural Univ., Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics

    1997-01-01

    The effect of trialkyllead and trialkyltin on pig erythrocyte hemolysis has been studied and compared. The results of experiments showed that the hemolytic activity of organoleads increases with their hydrophobicity and follows the sequence: triethyllead chloride < tri-n-propyllead chloride < tributyllead chloride. And similarly in the case of organotins: triethyltin chloride < tri-n-propyltin chloride < tributyltin chloride. Comparison of the hemolytic activity of organoleads and organotins indicates that the lead compounds exhibit higher hemolytic activity. The methods of quantum chemistry allowed to determine the maximum electric potential of the ions R{sub 3}Pb{sup +} and R{sub 3}Sn{sup +}, and suggest a relationship between the potential and toxicity. (orig.)

  8. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  9. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  10. New methods of arene iodination and functional transformation of multiple bonds in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, V.D.; Chajkovskij, V.K.; Krasnokutskaya, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The review summarizes the latest results of organic chemistry and technology of organic synthesis department of Tomsk polytechnical university concerning iodination of arenes and chemical transformations of unsaturated compounds. Preparative possibilities of the new reactions and reagents for iodination, oxidation of alkenes and alkynes to 1,2- and bis-1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, iodonitration of alkynes, and reaction of oxidative dimerization of the terminal alkynes to unsaturated δ-sultones are discussed [ru

  11. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    OpenAIRE

    Liao Hsuan-Yu; Huang Miao-Ling; Lu Yu-Ting; Chao Keh-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05). An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was ...

  12. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Peng, Zhuoyu; Boone, Eric; Chu, Rosalie K.; Dukett, James E.; Gunsch, Matthew J.; Zhang, Wuliang; Tolic, Nikola; Laskin, Alexander; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on

  13. Removal of volatile organic compounds by a high pressure microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, S.J.; Quintero, M.C.; Rodero, A.; Alvarez, R.

    2004-01-01

    A helium microwave plasma torch was studied and optimised as a destruction system of volatile organic compounds. Attention was focused on trichloroethylene as a prototypical volatile organic compound, which is used technologically and which poses known health risks. The dependence of the destruction efficiency on the plasma conditions was obtained for different values of trichloroethylene concentrations. The results show a destruction and removal efficiency greater than 99.999% (Authors)

  14. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  15. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by polytetra-fluor ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    The sorption of organic vapours by microporous polytetra-fluor ethylene has been studied gravimetrically using a Mc Bain-Baker type sorption balance. The amount of sorption, the peculiarities observed on the isotherm curves, the small influence of temperature, and smallness of hysteresis suggests that mainly physical adsorption occurs when the temperature is around 25 deg. C. The values of the surface areas obtained from the adsorption isotherms using organic vapours differ greatly from those derived from N 2 adsorption measurements. This discrepancy cannot be completely attributed to differences in the structure and chemical function of the adsorbate molecules, or to the porous structure of the adsorbent. On the contrary, the surface area values obtained by sorbing high volatile freons conform with those measured by nitrogen adsorption, which seems to imply a connection between the area of sorbed monolayers and volatility of the adsorbate. (author) [fr

  16. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  17. Organic compound materials used as pipes reinforcement of fluids conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, G; Vargas, F

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental test and the results of the development of a composite organic material (MCO) for the reinforcement and covering of pipelines. MCO is designed to be applied to pipelines with external, damages such as dents or gauges or with surface damages caused by corrosion; The product can recover transport lines with 65% thickness losses due to corrosion in lengths of less than 0,2 m. the system developed by ECOPETROL-ICP can stop progressive picking corrosion, it has an excellent capillary, good adhesion, good resistance in cathodic protection, and mechanical strength that can support the operational pressure of the pipeline. MCO is a mixture of a polymeric resin reinforced with organic fibers, it can be applied to surface or underground pipelines without stopping normal operation. The maximum rupture pressure attained by the MCO was 23,4 MPA in pipelines with a 65% thickness loss due to corrosion. The normal operation pressure is 10-12 MPA

  18. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  19. The Photocatalytic Destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-10

    some common oxidants. It can be seen that the hydroxyl radical is only second to the fluorine ion in oxidation potential. 5 Table 2.1 Dissociation...Potential of Oxidants (Bernardin, 1991) Relative Oxidation Oxidative Power, Chlorine = 1 Species Potential (volts) 2.23 Fluorine 3.03 2.06 Hydroxyl... varnishes . It is used as a universal degreaser, in drycleaning, and in the manufacture of organic chemicals. On military bases it is used as a universal

  20. Non-classical structures of organic compounds: unusual stereochemistry and hypercoordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, Vladimir I; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Hoffmann, Roald

    2002-01-01

    Non-classical structures of organic compounds are defined as molecules containing non-tetrahedral tetracoordinate and/or hypercoordinate carbon atoms. The evolution of the views on this subject is considered and the accumulated theoretical and experimental data on the structures and dynamic transformations of non-classical organic compounds are systematised. It is shown that computational analysis using the methods and the software potential of modern quantum chemistry has now acquired high predictive capacity and is the most important source of data on the structures of non-classical compounds. The bibliography includes 227 references.

  1. Using the properties of organic compounds to help design a treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, E.; Boettcher, G.; Morello, B.

    1991-01-01

    The author provides the physical/chemical and treatability properties of 50 organic compounds. The physical/chemical parameters of the compounds can be used to help evaluate data generated during remedial investigations. The treatability parameters can be used as a basis for the preliminary design of a treatment system that will remove organic compounds from ground water. The main physical/chemical properties that should be evaluated prior to design are solubility, specific gravity, and octanol/water coefficient. Based on this determination, the treatability is determined for carbon adsorption and biodegradability

  2. Graphene and graphene nanocomposites for the removal of aromatic organic compounds from the water: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsores Paixão, Monique; Tadeu Gomes Vianna, Marco; Marques, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic organic pollutants are highly toxic to the human and environmental health and are considered as priority pollutants by regulatory agencies. Managing contaminated sites with organic pollutants is one of the major environmental challenges today. Of all technologies that have been proposed to remove contaminants, adsorption is recognized worldwide as an attractive option due to its versatility, wide applicability and economic viability. Recent studies report the use of graphene (GN), a recently carbon nanomaterial, and its derivatives in sorption processes for the removal of aromatic organic compounds. The present review has shown that GN structures are a promising alternative to traditional adsorbent materials, with excellent results in the removal of organic compounds from water, due to their unique structural characteristics and great adsorption capacity for organic compounds. Although, there is still a long way to go until that practical applications can be implemented.

  3. Identifying bioaccumulative halogenated organic compounds using a nontargeted analytical approach: seabirds as sentinels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Millow

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are typically monitored via targeted mass spectrometry, which potentially identifies only a fraction of the contaminants actually present in environmental samples. With new anthropogenic compounds continuously introduced to the environment, novel and proactive approaches that provide a comprehensive alternative to targeted methods are needed in order to more completely characterize the diversity of known and unknown compounds likely to cause adverse effects. Nontargeted mass spectrometry attempts to extensively screen for compounds, providing a feasible approach for identifying contaminants that warrant future monitoring. We employed a nontargeted analytical method using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS to characterize halogenated organic compounds (HOCs in California Black skimmer (Rynchops niger eggs. Our study identified 111 HOCs; 84 of these compounds were regularly detected via targeted approaches, while 27 were classified as typically unmonitored or unknown. Typically unmonitored compounds of note in bird eggs included tris(4-chlorophenylmethane (TCPM, tris(4-chlorophenylmethanol (TCPMOH, triclosan, permethrin, heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP, as well as four halogenated unknown compounds that could not be identified through database searching or the literature. The presence of these compounds in Black skimmer eggs suggests they are persistent, bioaccumulative, potentially biomagnifying, and maternally transferring. Our results highlight the utility and importance of employing nontargeted analytical tools to assess true contaminant burdens in organisms, as well as to demonstrate the value in using environmental sentinels to proactively identify novel contaminants.

  4. Detecting and Eliminating Interfering Organic Compounds in Waters Analyzed for Isotopic Composition by Crds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, B. A.; Hsiao, G. S.; Rella, C.

    2010-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy based CRDS technology for isotopic analysis of δD and δ18O directly from liquid water has greatly increased the number and type of liquid samples analyzed. This increase has also revealed a previously unrecognized sample contamination problem. Recently West[1] and Brand[2] identified samples containing ethanol, methanol, plant extracts and other organic compounds analyzed by CRDS and other spectroscopy based techniques as yielding erroneous results for δD and δ18O (especially δD) due to spectroscopic interference. Not all organic compounds generate interference. Thus, identifying which samples are contaminated by which organic compounds is of key importance for data credibility and correction. To address this problem a new approach in the form of a software suite, ChemCorrect™, has been developed. A chemometrics component uses a spectral library of water isotopologues and interfering organic compounds to best fit the measured spectra. The best fit values provide a quantitative assay of the actual concentrations of the various species and are then evaluated to generate a visual flag indicating samples affected by organic contamination. Laboratory testing of samples spiked with known quantities of interfering organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and terpenes was performed. The software correctly flagged and identified type of contamination for all the spiked samples without any false positives. Furthermore the reported values were a linear function of actual concentration with an R^2>0.99 even for samples which contained multiple organic compounds. Further testing was carried out against a range of industrial chemical compounds which can contaminate ground water as well as a variety of plant derived waters and juices which were also analyzed by IRMS. The excellent results obtained give good insight into which organic compounds cause interference and which classes of plants are likely to contain interfering compounds. Finally

  5. Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds from carbon disulfide under hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-12-01

    Abiotic formation of organic compounds under hydrothermal conditions is of interest to bio, geo-, and cosmochemists. Oceanic sulfur-rich hydrothermal systems have been proposed as settings for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. Carbon disulfide is a common component of magmatic and hot spring gases, and is present in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal systems. Thus, its reactivity should be considered as another carbon source in addition to carbon dioxide in reductive aqueous thermosynthesis. We have examined the formation of organic compounds in aqueous solutions of carbon disulfide and oxalic acid at 175 degrees C for 5 and 72 h. The synthesis products from carbon disulfide in acidic aqueous solutions yielded a series of organic sulfur compounds. The major compounds after 5 h of reaction included dimethyl polysulfides (54.5%), methyl perthioacetate (27.6%), dimethyl trithiocarbonate (6.8%), trithianes (2.7%), hexathiepane (1.4%), trithiolanes (0.8%), and trithiacycloheptanes (0.3%). The main compounds after 72 h of reaction consisted of trithiacycloheptanes (39.4%), pentathiepane (11.6%), tetrathiocyclooctanes (11.5%), trithiolanes (10.6%), tetrathianes (4.4%), trithianes (1.2%), dimethyl trisulfide (1.1%), and numerous minor compounds. It is concluded that the abiotic formation of aliphatic straight-chain and cyclic polysulfides is possible under hydrothermal conditions and warrants further studies.

  6. The olefin metathesis reaction: reorganization and cyclization of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Daniel; Brocksom, Ursula; Brocksom, Timothy John

    2005-01-01

    The olefin metathesis reaction allows the exchange of complex alkyl units between two olefins, with the formation of a new olefinic link and a sub-product olefin usually ethylene. This reaction has found extensive application in the last ten years with the development of the Grubbs and Schrock catalysts, in total synthesis of complex organic molecules, as opposed to the very important use in the petrochemical industry with relatively simple molecules. This review intends to trace a historical and mechanistic pathway from industry to academy, before illustrating the more recent advances. (author)

  7. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  8. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maverick, Andrew W

    2011-12-17

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  9. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  10. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  11. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  12. Two new POMOF compounds constructed from polyoxoanions, metals and organic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-Na; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Cui, Xiao-Bing

    2018-03-01

    Two new POMOF compounds, namely [PMo12V2O42][Cu3(4,4'-bpy)3]·(DABCO) (1) and [PMo10V4O42][Cu2(4,4'-bpy)2][Cu(phen)2]2 (2) (DABCO = triethylenediamine, bpy = bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XRD, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal structure analyses reveal that compounds 1 and 2 exhibit novel 2-D layered framework structures constructed from bi-capped Keggin molybdenum-vanadium polyoxoanions, metals and organic ligands, respectively. The main difference of the two compounds is that compound 2 contains both Cu2+ and Cu+ complexes. In addition, we also investigate the catalytic properties of the two compounds, both compound 1 and 2 are excellent catalysts for the epoxidation of styrene.

  13. Photocatalysis: A viable alternative for the elimination of organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Pavas, Edison

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of this project is to present photo catalysis as a simple, economic, effective and innovative technology, for the treatment of phenolic waters found in the effluents from several industrial processes, by determining the optimum conditions of operation and by identifying the parameters that govern the process. The attractiveness of this technology is based on its profitability, easy of implementation and use. The required capital investment is minimal in comparison with other technologies. The UV radiation from the sun or artificial sources (lamps) is used to activate the catalyst (TiO) to destroy the organic pollutants present in liquids effluent. The process was carried out continuously with using ph, catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentration and recirculation time as variables

  14. Radioluminescence of organic compounds: specific luminescence of condensed aromatic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes da Silva, J.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of the nature of ionizing particles on the radioluminescence yield of aromatic scintillators is studied. Both prompt and delayed scintillation components are considered. An expression giving the specific luminescence dS/dx as a function of the charge number z and of the incident particle specific energy loss have been derived, following a track model published before, that is consistent with recent conclusions about the nature, evolution and distribution of the primary excitations created by an ionizing particle in the organic scintillator. The good agreement between the theoretical curves derived in this paper and the experimental ones previously reported provided us with a means of evaluating the different parameters included in the proposed expressions. The numerical values of these parameters included in the proposed expressions. The numerical values of these parameters agree with those of other authors and are theoretically discussed and justified [fr

  15. Flexible metal-organic framework compounds: In situ studies for selective CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.J., E-mail: andrew.allen@nist.gov [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Espinal, L.; Wong-Ng, W. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Queen, W.L. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brown, C.M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kline, S.R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Kauffman, K.L. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Culp, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); URS Corporation, South Park, PA 15219 (United States); Matranga, C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Results are presented that explore the dynamic structural changes occurring in two highly flexible nanocrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds during the adsorption and desorption of pure gases and binary mixtures. The Ni(1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene)[Ni(CN){sub 4}] and catena-bis(dibenzoylmethanato)-(4,4′-bipyridyl)nickel(II) chosen for this study are 3-D and 1-D porous coordination polymers (PCP) with a similar gate opening pressure response for CO{sub 2} isotherms at 303 K, but with differing degrees of flexibility for structural change to accommodate guest molecules. As such, they serve as a potential model system for evaluating the complex kinetics associated with dynamic structure changes occurring in response to gas adsorption in flexible MOF systems. Insights into the crystallographic changes occurring as the MOF pore structure expands and contracts in response to interactions with CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures have been obtained from in situ small-angle neutron scattering and neutron diffraction, combined with ex situ X-ray diffraction structure measurements. The role of structure in carbon capture functionality is discussed with reference to the ongoing characterization challenges and a possible materials-by-design approach. - Graphical abstract: We present in situ small-angle neutron scattering results for two flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The figure shows that for one (NiBpene, high CO{sub 2} adsorption) the intensity of the Bragg peak for the expandable d-spacing most associated with CO{sub 2} adsorption varies approximately with the isotherm, while for the other (NiDBM-Bpy, high CO{sub 2} selectivity) the d-spacing, itself, varies with the isotherm. The cartoons show the proposed modes of structural change. - Highlights: • Dynamic structures of two flexible MOF CO{sub 2} sorbent compounds are compared in situ. • These porous solid sorbents serve as models for pure & dual gas adsorption. • Different

  16. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    on these substrata. Oceollo!ogica Acta. 1990, 13,4,471-474. -~----~-------- I.• ABSTRACT --,- RESUME Composition de la matiere organique particulaire adsorbee sur un substrat solide La matiere organique particulaire adsorb&: sur des panneaux d'aluminium et de verre... immerges dans un estuaire a ete analysce: bacteries, chlorophylle a, poids sec, matiere organique, carbone organique, azote, proteines, glueides et lipides. Aucune difference n'a etc dccelee dans lacomposition de la matiere organique et dans les...

  17. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  18. Investigation of solid organic waste processing by oxidative pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibaba, O. B.; Sokolsky, A. I.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2017-11-01

    A thermal analysis of a mixture of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the average morphological composition and its individual components was carried out in order to develop ways to improve the efficiency of its utilization for energy production in thermal reactors. Experimental studies were performed on a synchronous thermal analyzer NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer QMC 403. Based on the results of the experiments, the temperature ranges of the pyrolysis process were determined as well as the rate of decrease of the mass of the sample of solid waste during the drying and oxidative pyrolysis processes, the thermal effects accompanying these processes, as well as the composition and volumes of gases produced during oxidative pyrolysis of solid waste and its components in an atmosphere with oxygen content of 1%, 5%, and 10%. On the basis of experimental data the dependences of the yield of gas on the moisture content of MSW were obtained under different pyrolysis conditions under which a gas of various calorific values was produced.

  19. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient