WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid natural materials

  1. Assessing the extent of decomposition of natural organic materials using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddock, J.A.; Oades, J.M.; Nelson, P.N.; Skene, T.M.; Golchin, A.; Clarke, P.

    1997-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has become an important tool for examining the chemical structure of natural organic materials and the chemical changes associated with decomposition. In this paper, solid-state 13 C NMR data pertaining to changes in the chemical composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials, including wood, peat, composts, forest litter layers, and organic materials in surface layers of mineral soils, were reviewed with the objective of deriving an index of the extent of decomposition of such organic materials based on changes in chemical composition. Chemical changes associated with the decomposition of wood varied considerably and were dependent on a strong interaction between the species of wood examined and the species composition of the microbial decomposer community, making the derivation of a single general index applicable to wood decomposition unlikely. For the remaining forms of natural organic residues, decomposition was almost always associated with an increased content of alkyl C and a decreased content of O-alkyl C. The concomitant increase and decrease in alkyl and O-alkyl C contents, respectively, suggested that the ratio of alkyl to O-alkyl carbon (A/O-A ratio) may provide a sensitive index of the extent of decomposition. Contrary to the traditional view that humic substances with an aromatic core accumulate as decomposition proceeds, changes in the aromatic region were variable and suggested a relationship with the activity of lignin-degrading fungi. The A/O-A ratio did appear to provide a sensitive index of extent of decomposition provided that its use was restricted to situations where the organic materials were derived from a common starting material. In addition, the potential for adsorption of highly decomposable materials on mineral soil surfaces and the impacts which such an adsorption may have on bioavailability required consideration when the A/O-A ratio was used to assess the

  2. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  3. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  4. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  5. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  6. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  7. Surface mobilities on solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Mobilities on Solid Materials held in France in 1981. The goal of the two-week meeting was to review up-to-date knowledge on surface diffusion, both theoretical and experimental, and to highlight those areas in which much more knowledge needs to be accumulated. Topics include theoretical aspects of surface diffusion (e.g., microscopic theories of D at zero coverage; statistical mechanical models and surface diffusion); surface diffusion at the atomic level (e.g., FIM studies of surface migration of single adatoms and diatomic clusters; field emission studies of surface diffusion of adsorbates); foreign adsorbate mass transport; self-diffusion mass transport (e.g., different driving forces for the matter transport along surfaces; measurements of the morphological evolution of tips); the role of surface diffusion in some fundamental and applied sciences (e.g. adatomadatom pair interactions and adlayer superstructure formation; surface mobility in chemical reactions and catalysis); and recent works on surface diffusion (e.g., preliminary results on surface self-diffusion measurements on nickel and chromium tips)

  8. Natural Materials, Systems & Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    system. Linked: FY11 AFRL/RX pgm • Structural Coloration – new area, several PIs moving in and out; MURI (Harvard) • Biopolymers – Mainly silk but...looking at other biopolymers . The silk work is well integrated with AFRL; many exchanges of personnel & material. Some PIs moving out with...it pertains to marking items. • Silk – DARPA has contributed to my existing program. ARO has a single grantee. ONR funds a single investigator. NSF

  9. Dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1984-07-31

    Apparatus is shown for substantially increasing the feed rate of pulverized material into a pressurized container. The apparatus includes a rotor that is mounted internal to the pressurized container. The pulverized material is fed into an annular chamber defined by the center of the rotor. A plurality of impellers are mounted within the annular chamber for imparting torque to the pulverized material.

  10. Natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnustik, J.

    1988-01-01

    Within a study of the natural radioactivity of building materials, coefficients were determined of the emanation from selected materials and raw materials, such as porous concrete, bricks, marlite, quartzite, etc. Measurements were made of ground samples using Lucas scintillation chambers which give an accuracy of determination of the coefficient of about 10%. Specific radium activity was also determined for the samples. Tabulated is a comparison of the average specific activity of radium in concrete, power plant ash and porous concrete in Czechoslovakia and abroad. It is stated that monitoring the content of natural radionuclides in building materials is an indispensable part of the production process in the building industry, this with regard to the radiation protection of the population. This will be enhanced by the new Czechoslovak standard determining methods of measuring the content of natural radionuclides and the coefficient of radon emanation, and the subsequent evaluation of the properties of building materials. (Z.M.) 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Surface and sub-surface regions of solids are modified by rapid melting and quenching, using a high-powered, pulsed (30 ns) ruby laser. The main emphasis of this work is on laser annealing, epitaxy and doping of silicon. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the heat-flow which takes place during pulsed laser irradiation. From such calculations, information can be obtained about temperature profiles, melt depths, recrystallization velocities and quench rates. 13 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  12. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  13. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  14. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  16. Distillation apparatus for solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurmann, F

    1860-06-26

    The distillation room is continuously charged by the charging mechanism with the material to be distilled. The distillation products pass into the chamber, where they are drawn out through the tube for purifying. The distillation residue is finally pushed out by the fresh material from the room and falls in the common room, from which it is removed through the air-tight door. In the canals enclosing the room heating gas circulates, which carries to the room the heat necessary for the distillation.

  17. Thermal conductivity of fusion solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tam, S.W.

    1986-06-01

    Several simple and useful formulae for estimating the thermal conductivity of lithium-containing ceramic tritium breeder materials for fusion reactor blankets are given. These formulae account for the effects of irradiation, as well as solid breeder configuration, i.e., monolith or a packed bed. In the latter case, a coated-sphere concept is found more attractive in incorporating beryllia (a neutron multiplier) into the blanket than a random mixture of solid breeder and beryllia spheres

  18. Fractal nature of humic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Fractals are geometric representatives of strongly disordered systems whose structure is described by nonintegral dimensions. A fundamental tenet of fractal geometry is that disorder persists at any characterization scale-length used to describe the system. The nonintegral nature of these fractal dimensions is the result of the realization that a disordered system must possess more structural detail than an ordered system with classical dimensions of 1, 2, or 3 in order to accommodate this ''disorder within disorder.'' Thus from a fractal perspective, disorder is seen as an inherent characteristic of the system rather than as a perturbative phenomena forced upon it. Humic materials are organic substances that are formed by the profound alteration of organic matter in a natural environment. They can be operationally divided into 3 fractions; humic acid (soluble in base), fulvic acid (soluble in acid or base), and humin (insoluble in acid or base). Each of these fraction has been shown to be an extremely heterogeneous mixture. These mixtures have proven so intractable that they may represent the ultimate in molecular disorder. In fact, based on the characteristics that humic materials must possess in order to perform their functions in natural systems, it has been proposed that the fundamental chemical characteristic of a humic material is not a discrete chemical structure but a pronounced lack of order on a molecular level. If the fundamental chemical characteristic of a humic material is a strongly disordered nature, as has been proposed, then humic materials should be amenable to characterization by fractal geometry. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis

  19. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  20. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800 degree C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280 degree F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found

  1. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing, These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environmental prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase showed that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  2. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing. These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale section of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environment prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase show that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  3. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 ,O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized

  4. Natural Radioactivity in Ceramic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khadra, S.A.; Kamel, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramics are one of the most important types of the industrial building materials. The raw materials of the ceramic are made of a mixture of clay, feldspar, silica, talc kaolin minerals together with zirconium silicates (ZrSiO4).The ceramic raw materials and the final products contain naturally occurring radionuclide mainly U-238 and, Th-232 series, and the radioactive isotope of potassium K-40. Six raw ceramic samples were obtained from the Aracemco Company at Egypt together with a floor tile sample (final product) for measuring radioactive concentration levels., The activity of the naturally U-238, Th-232, and K-40 were determined as (Bq/kg) using gamma spectroscopy (Hyperactive pure germanium detector). Concentration of U and Th were determined in (ppm) using spectrophotometer technique by Arsenazo 111 and Piridy l-Azo -Resorcinol (PAR) indicators. Sequential extraction tests were carried out in order to determine the quantity of the radionuclide associated with various fractions as exchangeable, carbonate, acid soluble and in the residue. The results evaluated were compared to the associated activity indices (AI) that were defined by former USSR and West Germany

  5. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-A19897, R.H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280degF. Table 1 lists the neutron shield materials tested. The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found. The Bisco modified NS-4 and Reactor Experiments HMPP are both acceptable materials from a thermal accident standpoint for use in the shipping cask. Tests of the Kobe PP-R01 and Envirotech HDPE were stopped for safety reasons, due to inability to deal with the heavy smoke, before completion of the 30-minute heating phase. However these materials may prove satisfactory if they could undergo the complete heating. (J.P.N.)

  6. Converters and electric machines. Solid insulating materials. Electrical characteristics; Convertisseurs et machines electriques. Materiaux isolants solides. Caracteristiques electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A. [Institut National Superieur de Chimie Industrielle, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this article is to allow a preselection of a solid insulating material using the most common electrical characteristics: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity, dielectric rigidity, superficial resistivity, transverse resistivity, resistance to high voltage creeping spark currents, index of creeping resistance. The characteristics of the main solid insulating materials are presented in tables for: thermoplastics, thermosetting materials, natural insulating materials, mineral insulating materials, rubber and synthetic elastomers, stratified insulating materials, thermoplastic films, composite synthetic papers. A comparison is made between the different materials using the three properties: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity and resistance to HV spark creeping currents. (J.S.)

  7. Natural radioactivity of Turkish natural stones as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, Guenseli; Yasar, Oezden

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Turkey has very important natural stones potential with over 5 billion m 3 marble reserves. According to 2002 giving data the number of Turkish stones export is 303 million US Dollars. In this regards, the present study deals with 90 Turkish natural stones. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The radon exhalation rates of natural stones were also measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 ). The radium equivalent activity varied from 183 Bq/kg to 522 Bq/kg for granite samples and from 1 Bq/kg to 37 Bq/kg for marble samples. The value of radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.003 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.768 Bq/m 2 h -1 for granite samples and from 0.001 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.02 Bq/m 2 h -1 for marble samples. The total absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 22 to 61 n Gy h -1 for one quarter utilization of granite samples. The annual effective dose rates per person indoors were determined to be between 108 and 298 μSv y -1 for of for one quarter utilization of the materials. Applying the dose criteria recently recommended by UNSCEAR for building materials, the natural stones meet the upper dose limit of 1mSvy -1 . So, there are not restrictions for use of any Turkish commercial marble as covering materials, including Turkish granites. (author)

  8. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  9. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  10. Pressure hydrogenation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Kroenig, W

    1942-09-28

    A process is described for the continuous pressure hydrogenation of solid, nonfusible carbonaceous material, such as coal, oil shale, or peat, in a pasted condition, characterized in that the charge is heated in a known way under pressure, together with water, nearly to the reaction temperature, then it is led into a pressure vessel, whose volume amounts to 20 to 40% of the usual reaction space without any change at the same temperature, and the charge then goes through the reaction vessel, after which its temperature is raised to the reaction height.

  11. Extraction products of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-04

    A method is described for the manufacture of liquid products from pressure extracts of solid carbon-containing material by destructive hydrogenation, characterized in that the pressure extracts are hydrogenated in admixture with products of high-molecular weight formed during a previous destructive hydrogenation of another part of the same or other pressure extract and which has been collected as liquid without extensive cooling of the hot products of the reaction, which came from the reaction chamber where the previous destructive hydrogenation took place.

  12. Nonmetallic and composite materials as solid superleaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschvartz, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter discusses the devices in general solid porous materials in which the so-called diameter of the pores, gaps, inter-crystalline spaces, or small channels, etc, are equal or smaller than 100 0 A. Examines silicon carbide, wonderstone, talc-stone, rocks as superleaks, magnetic superleaks, the onset point of a superleak, determination of the onset point, and some applications of superleaks (as a filter, as an isotope separator, as a separator in the 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator, in a vortex refrigerator, in a servo-valve for liquid helium two (the cocatron), method of measuring the size of sub-microscopic pores, ultra cold neutrons, superconductors pressed into porous materials)

  13. Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste collected during 1961 from the laboratories of the Institute amounted to 22.5 m 3 . This report contains data about activity of the waste collected from january to November 1961. About 70% of the waste are short lived radioactive material. Material was packed in metal barrels and stored in the radioactive storage in the Institute. There was no contamination of the personnel involved in these actions. Liquid radioactive wastes come from the Isotope production laboratory, laboratories using tracer techniques, reactor cooling; decontamination of the equipment. Liquid wastes from isotope production were collected in plastic bottles and stored. Waste water from the RA reactor were collected in special containers. After activity measurements this water was released into the sewage system since no activity was found. Table containing data on quantities and activity of radioactive effluents is included in this report

  14. Status of the solid breeder materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1995-01-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material were critically reviewed and evaluated as part of the ITER/CDA design effort (1988-1990). The results have been documented in a detailed technical report. Emphasis was placed on the physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium retention/release, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Materials properties correlations were selected for use in design analysis, and ranges for input parameters (e.g., temperature, porosity, etc.) were established. Also, areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology were highlighted and prioritized. For Li 2 O, the most significant increase in the database has come in the area of tritium retention as a function of operating temperature and purge flow composition. The database for postirradiation inventory from purged in-reactor samples has increased from four points to 20 points. These new data have allowed an improvement in understanding and modeling, as well as better interpretation of the results of laboratory annealing studies on unirradiated and irradiated material. In the case of Li 2 ZrO 3 , relatively little data were available on the sensitivity of the mechanical properties of this ternary ceramic to microstructure and moisture content. The increase in the database for this material has allowed not only better characterization of its properties, but also optimization of fabrication parameters to improve its performance. Some additional data are also available for the other two ternary ceramics to aid in the characterization of their performance. In particular, the thermal performance of these materials, as well as beryllium, in packed-bed form has been measured and characterized

  15. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  16. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  17. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  18. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  19. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  20. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  1. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  2. Preparation and characterization of a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Peng; Gu Xiaohua; Cheng Bowen; Wang Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Here we reported a two-step procedure for preparing a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material. Firstly, a copolymer monomer containing a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG) phase change unit and a vinyl unit was synthesized via the modification of hydrogen group of MPEG. Secondly, by copolymerization of the copolymer monomer and phenyl ethylene, a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material was prepared. The composition, structure and properties of the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, DSC, WAXD, and POM, respectively. The results show that the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material possesses of excellent crystal properties and high phase change enthalpy.

  3. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  4. Natural Origin Materials for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Walter; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Pornanong, Aramwit; Motta, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Materials selection is a critical aspect for the production of scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering. Synthetic materials are the result of man-made operations and have been investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. Instead, the products of physiological processes and the metabolic activity of living organisms are identified as natural materials. Over the recent decades, a number of natural materials, namely, biopolymers and bioceramics, have been proposed as the main constituent of osteochondral scaffolds, but also as cell carriers and signaling molecules. Overall, natural materials have been investigated both in the bone and in the cartilage compartment, sometimes alone, but often in combination with other biopolymers or synthetic materials. Biopolymers and bioceramics possess unique advantages over their synthetic counterparts due similarity with natural extracellular matrix, the presence of cell recognition sites and tunable chemistry. However, the characteristics of natural origin materials can vary considerably depending on the specific source and extraction process. A deeper understanding of the relationship between material variability and biological activity and the definition of standardized manufacturing procedures will be crucial for the future of natural materials in tissue engineering.

  5. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  6. The nature of cometary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.

    1989-01-01

    Because cometary surfaces are likely to be far colder and of a different composition than planetary surfaces, there are some new considerations that must be examined in regards to placing instrumented packages or sample return devices on their surfaces. The qualitative analysis of the problem of attaching hardware to a comet and not being ejected back into space can be divided into two parts. The first problem is to pierce the mantle and obtain access to the icy core. Drilling through the mantle requires that the drilling forces be reacted. Reacting such forces probably requires attachment to the icy core below. Therefore, some kinetic impact piercing device is likely to be required as the first act of attachment. The second problem for a piercing device to overcome is the force produced by the impact kinetic energy that tries to eject the piercing device back into space. The mantle and icy core can absorb some of the impact kinetic energy in the form of fracture formation and friction energy. The energy that is not absorbed in these two ways is stored by the core as elastic deformation of the mantle and icy core. It is concluded that because the cometary materials are almost certainly brittle and the icy core is likely to be self lubricating, the elastic rebound and gas pressure expulsion forces must be counteracted by forces greater than those that may be provided by a piercing device or its capture devices (barbs)

  7. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  8. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  9. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).

  10. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1984-03-01

    About 120 samples of natural and manufactured building materials have been analyzed by gamma-spectrometry for their Thorium 232-, Radium 226- and Potassium 40 - content. Granites showed generally the greatest amounts of the above mentioned radionuclides, whereas other natural products like sand, gravels, marbles and gypsum contained only traces of radionuclides. As regards the manufactured building materials only some types of bricks and chemical gypsum showed relatively high concentrations of radionuclides, while the rest of the bricks, tiles, plaster and accessory materials fulfilled the criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (Author)

  11. Natural radioactivity for some Egyptian building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M. F.; Mostafa, R. M.; Shahin, F.; Hassan, K. F.; Saleh, Z. A.; Yahia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Study of the radiation hazards for the building materials is interested in most international countries. Measurements of natural radioactivity was verified for some egyptian building materials to assess any possible radiological hazard to man by the use of such materials. The measurements for the level of natural radioactivity in the materials was determined by γ-ray spectrum using HP Ge detector. A track detector Cr-39 was used to measure the radon exhalation rate from these materials. The radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 2.83±0.86 to 41.57 ± 8.38 mBqm -2 h -1 for egyptian alabaster. The absorbed dose rate in air is lower than the international recommended value (55 n Gy h -1 ) for all test samples

  12. Particle-solid interactions and 21st century materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Lupke, G.; Tolk, N.H.; Lopez, R.; Haglund, R.F.; Haynes, T.E.; Boatner, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic physics that governs the interaction of energetic ion beams with solids has its roots in the atomic and nuclear physics of the last century. The central formalism of Jens Lindhard, describing the 'particle-solid interaction', provides a valuable quantitative guide to statistically meaningful quantities such as energy loss, ranges, range straggling, channeling effects, sputtering coefficients, and damage intensity and profiles. Modern materials modification (nanoscience, solid state dynamics) requires atomic scale control of the particle-solid interaction. Two recent experimental examples are discussed: (1) the control of the size distribution of nanocrystals formed in implanted materials and (2) the investigation of the site-specific implantation of hydrogen into silicon. Both cases illustrate unique solid-state configurations, created by ion implantation, that address issues of current materials science interest

  13. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  14. Discrimination of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Plastic Scintillator Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Schweppe, John E.; Warner, Ray A.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic scintillator material is used in many applications for the detection of gamma-rays from radioactive material, primarily due to the sensitivity per unit cost compared to other detection materials. However, the resolution and lack of full-energy peaks in the plastic scintillator material prohibits detailed spectroscopy. Therefore, other materials such as doped sodium iodide are used for spectroscopic applications. The limited spectroscopic information can however be exploited in plastic scintillator materials to provide some discrimination. The discrimination between man-made and naturally occurring sources would be useful in reducing alarm screening for radiation detection applications which target man-made sources. The results of applying the limited energy information from plastic scintillator material for radiation portal monitors are discussed.

  15. Isotope exchange reaction on solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Nishikawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Kawagoe, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ceramic materials such as Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 are considered to be as candidate for the tritium breeding material in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor. In the recent blanket designs, helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas to reduce tritium inventory and promote tritium release from the breeding material. In addition, the rate of isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of the breeding material is necessary to analyze the tritium release behavior from the breeding materials. However, the rate of isotope exchange reactions between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of those materials has not been quantified until recently. Recently, the present authors quantified the rate of isotope exchange reaction on Li 2 O and Li 2 ZrO 3 . The overall mass transfer coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between H 2 and D 2 O on breeding materials or the same between D 2 and H 2 O are experimentally obtained in this study. Comparison to isotope exchange reaction rates on various breeding materials is also performed in this study. Discussions about the effects of temperature, concentration of hydrogen in the purge gas or flow rate of the purge gas on the conversion of tritiated water to tritium gas are also performed

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Developing materials for SOFC applications is one of the key topics in energy research. The book focuses on manganite structured materials, such as doped lanthanum chromites and lanthanum manganites, which have interesting properties: thermal and chemical stability, mixed ionic and electrical conductivity, electrocatalytic activity, magnetocaloric property and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR).

  17. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  18. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  19. Determining the nature of transported material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykes, J.S.; Surzyn, P.M.; Croke, G.M.; Adsley, I.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method is described of determining the nature of a coal/stone mixture, transported on a conveyor, by measuring the relative transmission of two different energy x-ray beams. Details are given of the collimation, scintillation counters and shielding required to obtain the necessary accuracy to obtain information on the mass and the nature of the material being monitored. Compensation is provided for background radioactivity. (U.K.)

  20. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  1. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  2. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  3. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  4. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  5. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  6. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  7. Separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W W

    1915-10-19

    A process is set forth for the separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials, in which the vapors produced from the carbonaceous material at higher temperatures and withdrawn into the separate vapor chamber are led in succession through the lower temperature vapors as continuously to deposit their condensible ingredients in the chamber by the action of the successive cooler vapors.

  8. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and the electrochemical reactions take place at elevated temperatures from 300 and up to 1000 C. This has as consequence that the region around the threephase- boundary (TPB), where the electron conducting electrode, the electrolyte and the gas phase reactants meet, is the region where the electrochemical processes take...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  9. Semiconductor properties of solid combustible materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrushev, S G; Kamneva, A I; Galaktionov, S S; Aleksandrov, I V

    1980-01-01

    The photoelectric e.m.f. with p-type conductivity and the photodielectric effect were examined in specimens of a number of coals and coal microcomponents. These effects are largest in hard coal fusinite. Photosensitive materials show increased dielectric losses in the dark. The authors determined charge carrier mobility, and showed that the charge carriers are injected by oxygen in the presence of an electrolyte, and that the coals oxidise as in electrochemical corrosion.

  10. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as

  11. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  12. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  13. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  14. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowers, Paul, E-mail: paul.blowers@cefas.co.uk [Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Caborn, Jane, E-mail: jane.a.caborn@nnl.co.uk [NNL, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Dell, Tony [Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB (United Kingdom); Gingell, Terry [DSTL, Radiation Protection Services, Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom); Harms, Arvic [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Long, Stephanie [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland (United Kingdom); Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stewart, Charlie [UKAEA (Waste Management Group), Chemical Support Services, D1310/14, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom); Walker, Jill [Radiocarbon Dating, The Old Stables, East Lockinge, Wantage, Oxon OX12 8QY (United Kingdom); Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the {sup 14}C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing {sup 14}C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  15. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E.

    2011-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the 14 C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing 14 C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  16. Some issues for blast from a structural reactive material solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.

    2018-03-01

    Structural reactive material (SRM) is consolidated from a mixture of micro- or nanometric reactive metals and metal compounds to the mixture theoretical maximum density. An SRM can thus possess a higher energy density, relying on various exothermic reactions, and higher mechanical strength and heat resistance than that of conventional CHNO explosives. Progress in SRM solid studies is reviewed specifically as an energy source for air blast through the reaction of fine SRM fragments under explosive loading. This includes a baseline SRM solid explosion characterization, material properties of an SRM solid, and its dynamic fine fragmentation mechanisms and fragment reaction mechanisms. The overview is portrayed mainly from the author's own experimental studies combined with theoretical and numerical explanation. These advances have laid down some fundamentals for the next stage of developments.

  17. Ion-solid interactions for materials modification and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ila, D.; Cheng, Y.T.; Harriott, L.R.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Topics ranged from the very fundamental ion-solid interactions to the highly device-oriented semiconductor applications. Highlights of the symposium featured in this volume include: nanocrystals in insulators, plasma immersion ion implantation. Focused ion beams, molecular dynamics simulations of ion-surface interactions, ion-beam mixing of insulators, GeV ion irradiation, electro-optical materials, polymers, tribological materials, and semiconductor processing. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  18. Natural road construction materials of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weinert, HH

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available respectively. p. 210. column 4: Insert Notre in rect311glc directly below heading Matrix. p. 240, paragraph 5, line 4: J 770 should read I 700. I ~I -~ r THE NATURAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS OF SOUTHERN AFRICA ACADEMICA I PRETORIA ICAPE TOWN ISBN... and the author acknowledges gratefully the valuable assistance and the trouble taken by the following persons: Southern African road authorities: Mr W. J. Biesenbach, Mr H. K. Geel, Mr C. L. Laubscher, Mr G. P. Marais, Mr R. L. Mitchell, Mr I. P. A. Smit, Mr C...

  19. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  20. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  1. Human nature: neither material nor spiritually being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alba Martínez Amorós

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.

  2. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  3. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  4. Solid material evaporation into an ECR source by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkewicz, R.; Stacy, J.; Greene, J.; Pardo, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to explore new methods of producing ion beams from solid materials, we are attempting to develop a laser-ablation technique for evaporating materials directly into an ECR ion source plasma. A pulsed NdYaG laser with approximately 25 watts average power and peak power density on the order of 10 7 W/cm 2 has been used off-line to measure ablation rates of various materials as a function of peak laser power. The benefits anticipated from the successful demonstration of this technique include the ability to use very small quantities of materials efficiently, improved material efficiency of incorporation into the ECR plasma, and decoupling of the material evaporation process from the ECR source tuning operation. Here we report on the results of these tests and describe the design for incorporating such a system directly with the ATLAS PII-ECR ion source

  5. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  6. Natural radioactivity in building materials in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Faghihi, R.; Sina, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Iran. For this purpose, 177 samples of five types of building material, i.e. cement, gypsum, cement blocks, gravel and brick, were gathered from different regions of the country and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a spectroscopy system. According to the results of this investigation, cement samples had maximum values of the mean Ra-226 and Th-232 concentrations, 39.6 and 28.9 Bq/kg, respectively, while the lowest value for mean concentration of these two radionuclides were found in gypsum samples 8.1 and 2.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The highest (851.4 Bq/kg) and lowest (116.2 Bq/kg) value of K-40 mean concentration were found in brick and gypsum samples, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were also calculated from the radioactivity content of the radionuclides. The results show that the maximum values of dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent were 53.72 nGy/h and 0.37 mSv/y in brick samples. The radium equivalent activities R eq calculated were below the permissible level of 370 Bq/kg for all building materials. The values of hazard indexes were below the recommended levels, therefore, it is concluded that the buildings constructed from such materials are safe for the inhabitants. The results of this study are consistent with the results of other investigations in different parts of the world. (authors)

  7. Improvements in or relating to a fluidizing process and apparatus for treating comminuted solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-02-15

    A fluidizing process of treating comminuted solid materials cyclically with different gaseous materials in different treatment zones, which comprises fluidizing comminuted solid material in contiguous treatment zones with different gaseous materials, and establishing unequal fluid-static heads in said zones to effect cyclic flow of said solid material through said zones which are in communication adjacent their respective top and bottom portions and permit the overflow of said solid material from one of said zones to another.

  8. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Reuther, T.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding

  9. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation. 8 claims

  10. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  11. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  13. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  14. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  15. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  16. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  17. Modification of the solid-state nature of sulfathiazole and sulfathiazole sodium by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  19. Materials for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells show great promise for economical production of electricity. These cells are based upon the ability of stabilized zirconia to operate as an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures. The design of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell being pursued at Westinghouse is illustrated. The cell uses a calcia-stabilized zironcia porous support tube, which acts both as a structural member onto which the other cell components are fabricated in the form of thin layers, and as a functional member to allow the passage, via its porosity, of air (or oxygen) to the air electrode. This paper summarizes the materials and fabrication processes for the various cell components

  20. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  1. An automatic granular structure generation and finite element analysis of heterogeneous semi-solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Hamid; Larouche, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of cast metal products depends on the capacity of the semi-solid metal to sustain the stresses generated during the casting. Predicting the evolution of these stresses with accuracy in the solidification interval should be highly helpful to avoid the formation of defects like hot tearing. This task is however very difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of the material. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of a metal during solidification using a mesh generation technique of the heterogeneous semi-solid material for a finite element analysis at the microscopic level. This task is done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain in which the granular structure of the solid phase is generated surrounded by an intergranular and interdendritc liquid phase. Some basic solid grains are first constructed and projected in the 2D domain with random orientations and scale factors. Depending on their orientation, the basic grains are combined to produce larger grains or separated by a liquid film. Different basic grain shapes can produce different granular structures of the mushy zone. As a result, using this automatic grain generation procedure, we can investigate the effect of grain shapes and sizes on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the semi-solid material. The granular models are automatically converted to the finite element meshes. The solid grains and the liquid phase are meshed properly using quadrilateral elements. This method has been used to simulate the microstructure of a binary aluminium–copper alloy (Al–5.8 wt% Cu) when the fraction solid is 0.92. Using the finite element method and the Mie–Grüneisen equation of state for the liquid phase, the transient mechanical behaviour of the mushy zone under tensile loading has been investigated. The stress distribution and the bridges, which are formed during the tensile loading, have been detected. (paper)

  2. Solid-state quantum chemistry and materials science: Solid compounds of the d and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods have been developed for calculating electron structures for solid compounds of d and f elements and for simulating physicochemical properties of materials based on them. Cluster and band calculations are considered for refractory compounds of d metals formed with light elements. There are bond and property regularities in doping by meals and metalloids, and defects and impurities have certain effects, where studies have been made on the electron structures for disordered phases and solid solutions in relation to sublattice compositions. Quantum-chemical simulation methods have been developed for optically active and fluorescent materials based on d and f metal oxides, fluorides, and chalcogenides, and compositions have been proposed for new optically active composites and protective coatings. New approaches have been defined to the magnetic parameters of metals, alloys, and compounds; these can be applied in simulating new magnetic materials. Calculations are given on energy spectra for high-temperature oxide superconductors. There is interesting scope for quantum-chemical methods in application to many topics in materials science

  3. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  4. Simulated study of solid materials used as phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte, Eduardo P.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.; Pinto, Nivia G.Villela; Braz, Delson; Pereira Junior, Sielso B.; Lima, Gilberto S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of electrons in water and compares them with the behavior in the materials you want to analyze. It were simulated, using Monte Carlo code EGS4 (MC), 24 irradiation with electrons of 6 and 20 MeV in different materials (polyethylene C 2 H 4 ) n , polystyrene (C 8 H 8 ) n , lucite (C 5 H 8 O 2 ), nylon (C 6 H 11 NO), water (H 2 O) and solid water (55% polyethylene, polystyrene and 5% 40% calcium oxide). The data show that for the two energies most of radiation does not interact with the first 20 mm materials. However, when analyzed plates of 1 cm, most of the energy is deposited in the first 4 plates in case 6 MeV and in the first ten to 20 MeV electrons, for all materials. In case of similarity in behavior of radiation in water and other materials, it is observed that is in polyethylene and polystyrene that the behaviour of electrons more resembles the behavior in water

  5. Pulsed laser photoacoustic spectrometer for study of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.D.; Kartha, V.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of photoacoustic spectroscopy has wide applications bacause it is extremely sensitive, and can be used to obtain spectra in wide spectral range for solids, liquids, gases, solutions, crystals etc. which may be usually difficult by conventional methods. For studying a variety of materials, a pulsed laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been set up in the laboratory. The report discusses the design and performance of the instrument. Some of the spectra of materials like Nd 2 O 9 powder, Nd-YAG crystal, CoCl 2 6H 2 O etc. are shown. A detailed discussion on assignment of the spectra of Nd-YAG is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess fluoride in water causes health hazards to the natural environment. The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, charcoal, brick, fly-ash and serpentine. Each material was set up in a column for a known volume and the defluoridation capacities of these materials were studied with ...

  7. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  8. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  9. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Pinto, Tatiana; Garc?a, Andr?s C.; Guedes, Jair do N.; do A. Sobrinho, Nelson M. B.; Tavares, Orlando C. H.; Berbara, Ricardo L. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-c...

  10. Microencapsulated Comb-Like Polymeric Solid-Solid Phase Change Materials via In-Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the thermal stability and permeability resistance, a comb-like polymer with crystallizable side chains was fabricated as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs inside the cores of microcapsules and nanocapsules prepared via in-situ polymerization. In this study, the effects on the surface morphology and microstructure of micro/nanocapsules caused by microencapsulating different types of core materials (i.e., n-hexadecane, ethyl hexadecanoate, hexadecyl acrylate and poly(hexadecyl acrylate were systematically studied via field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The confined crystallization behavior of comb-like polymer PCMs cores was investigated via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Comparing with low molecular organic PCMs cores, the thermal stability of PCMs microencapsulated comb-like polymer enhanced significantly, and the permeability resistance improved obviously as well. Based on these resultant analysis, the microencapsulated comb-like polymeric PCMs with excellent thermal stability and permeability resistance showed promising foreground in the field of organic solution spun, melt processing and organic coating.

  11. Material innovation – inspired by nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about biomimetics which also is called biomimicry or bionics. Biomimetics means “copying nature” and during time many examples of successful copying has been seen. However there are at least 2 significant difficulties in learning and copying from nature. The first difficulty is about...... the complexity of nature and the many fantastic solutions we find here. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. As an example of this a case about optical properties in beetle shells will be described...

  12. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  13. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  14. Insights to regenerate materials: learning from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aznar, J. M.; Valero, C.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Javierre, E.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, both biological and engineered, integrate the ability to repair themselves and recover their functionality using the resources inherently available to them. Although significant advances have been made, in recent years, for the design of different concepts of self-healing materials, this work aims to provide some insights into how living materials are able to regenerate or heal when a fracture or injury occurs. The main sensors that regulate this adaptive and regenerative behavior are the cells. These are able to sense the mechanical alterations in their surroundings and regulate their activity in order to remove dead tissue and/or create new tissue. Therefore, understanding how cells are able to regenerate tissues under complex and multiphysics conditions can define the biomimetics guidelines to heal through inert or traditional engineering materials. In this work, we present a combination of experiments and different kinds of multiscale and multiphysics models in order to understand how mechanics regulate some mechanisms at cell and tissue level. This combination of results aims to gain insight into the development of novel strategies for self-healing materials, mimicking the behavior induced by cells and biological tissues.

  15. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  16. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  17. Development of LIBS for online analysis of solid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to implement a fast, online analysis technique for control of solid metal nuclear materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is developed for quantitative analysis in uranium and plutonium. Since these matrices have a very dense emission spectrum in the UV-Visible range, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range, less rich in lines, is explored. The aim of this thesis is to perform the analytical development of VUV-LIBS for quantitative analysis between 500 and 5000 ppm with an uncertainty of 3%. For that purpose, four steps were defined. First, for practical and safety reasons, it is generally better to perform experiments on surrogate materials. LIBS based on laser-material interaction, it is relevant to seek a surrogate of material of interest from the viewpoint of the ablated mass. Thus, a complete study of laser ablation of several metals was enabled to build a predictive model of the ablation efficiency. Titanium and stainless steel were defined as surrogate materials of plutonium and uranium for laser ablation. Secondly, the VUV-LIBS setup analytical performances were optimized for several elements of interest in four metals. Then, two calibration methods are used to determine the analytical performances. The limits of quantification are of the order of a few hundreds of ppm for all studied matrices, which validates the objective of impurities quantitation in the 500-5000 ppm range. Uncertainty is lower than 3% in the best cases. Finally, the calibration transfer between the four matrices was studied. A normalization of the nickel net signal measured in three matrices was presented. (author) [fr

  18. New decontamination processes for liquid effluents and solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    New decontamination processes are being studied in order to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. 2 decontamination processes for liquid nuclear wastes are under studies. First, the coprecipitation process whose improvement is based on a better control of the 2 coupled mechanisms involved in the process: the formation of adsorbent particles and the uptake of radionuclides. Secondly, the column process whose development focuses on new materials that can be used to absorb cesium in a reversible way. 3 new decontamination processes for solid materials are being developed. First, processes using drying gels are under investigation in order to treat materials like lead, aluminium, iron and stainless steel. Real decontamination of hot cells by drying gel process has been performed and a decontamination factor between 16 and 25 has been obtained on stainless steels. Secondly, new foam decontamination processes have been developed, they are based on the use of new foams stabilized by biodegradable non-ionic surfactants: alkyl-poly-glucosides and viscofiers or nano-particles. The aim is to increase the foam lifetime. Thirdly, new surfactants in solution decontamination processes have been studied, the aim is to decontaminate through degreasing by using acidic surfactants. The idea is to combine emulsification and wetting power. (A.C.)

  19. Maillard Reaction in Natural Rubber Latex: Characterization and Physical Properties of Solid Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction in Natural Rubber (NR latex was investigated by treating fresh NR latex with glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 in amounts of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol/kg of latex. Protein cross-linking in fresh NR latex and solid NR was confirmed by using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that degree of protein cross-linking in NR increased with increasing C5H8O2 concentration. Physical properties of untreated and treated NR substances in terms of gel content, initial Wallace plasticity (P0, plasticity retention index (PRI, Mooney viscosity, and tensile strength were carefully explored. Results clearly showed that the Maillard cross-linking of proteins had remarkable effect on bulk NR properties, that is, solvent resistance, hardness, resistance to oxidation, rheological behavior, and resistance to stretching out.

  20. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  1. Measurement of naturally occurring radioactive materials in commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Building materials can cause significant gamma dose indoors, due to their natural radioactivity content. The knowledge of the natural radioactivity level of building materials is important for determination of population exposure, as most people spend 80-90% of their time indoors furthermore, it is useful in setting the standards and national guidelines for the use and management of these materials. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials vary depending on the local geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. The aim of the study is to determine levels of natural radionuclide in the commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

  2. Natural potassium as a teaching material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1993-07-01

    An experience of an educational experiment is presented with results and discussion. It was performed in the introductory course of nuclear energy in the Nuclear Education Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Purpose of the experiment is understanding disintegration rate (Bq, radioactivity or λN) through measurement of low radioactivity of natural potassium. It was accomplished through calculation of the radioactivity of a measuring known sample and counting efficiency during measurement. The students in the training course had great variety and most students did not have preliminary knowledge. But they said in the questionnaire having almost understood the experiment; and some students enjoyed it. (author)

  3. Radioactive contamination of natural and artificial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, E.L.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Temmoev, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma radiation of different materials was measured in an underground low-background chamber with extraordinary background characteristics. The excellent background conditions of the measurements enabled investigators to see the alpha-particle peaks of the internal radioactive contamination of NaI(Tl) detectors, which were especially made for these measurements. The sensitivity limit of the installation was determined by the internal contamination of the NaI(Tl) detectors alone. Any radiation background, except for three substances, tungsten, copper, and brass, could be registered

  4. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  5. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  6. A survey on multiproperty measurement techniques of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The term 'multiproperty measurement' has not as yet been widely used. It is defined as the simultaneous (or continuous) measurement of several properties of material using one sample and one set of equipment. It is highly advantageous to measure several properties of a sample simultaneously. Various aspects of the nature of a substance can be clarified by evaluating its nature in terms of many properties. In particular, advanced techniques for measuring thermal properties of material are needed in the fields of atomic energy industry, aerospace industry, energy industry, electronics industry and academic community. Conventional thermal property measurement techniques which can be applied to multiproperty measurement or minute test sample measurement are outlined focusing on measurement of the thermal conductivity (axial flow method, radial flow method, plate method, unsteady state heating coil method, direct current heating method), specific heat (adiabatic method, drop calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, AC calorimetric method, pulse heating method, and laser heating method), thermal diffusivity (laser-flash method), and emissivity (separated black body method, incorporated black body method). (N,K.)

  7. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  8. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  9. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    on these substrata. Oceollo!ogica Acta. 1990, 13,4,471-474. -~----~-------- I.• ABSTRACT --,- RESUME Composition de la matiere organique particulaire adsorbee sur un substrat solide La matiere organique particulaire adsorb&: sur des panneaux d'aluminium et de verre... immerges dans un estuaire a ete analysce: bacteries, chlorophylle a, poids sec, matiere organique, carbone organique, azote, proteines, glueides et lipides. Aucune difference n'a etc dccelee dans lacomposition de la matiere organique et dans les...

  10. Development of natural matrix reference materials for monitoring environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.S.; Houlgate, P.R.; Pang, S.; Brookman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of the Environment commissioned the Laboratory of the Government Chemist to carry out a contract on natural matrix reference materials. A survey of current availability of such materials in the western world, along with the UK's need, was conducted. Four suitable matrices were identified for production and validation. Due to a number of unforeseen problems with the collection, processing and validation of the materials, the production of the four identified reference materials was not completed in the allocated period of time. In the future production of natural matrix reference materials the time required, the cost and the problems encountered should not be underestimated. Certified natural matrix reference materials are a vital part of traceability in analytical science and without them there is no absolute method of checking the validity of measurement in the field of radiochemical analysis. (author)

  11. Bio-mimetic mechanisms of natural hierarchical materials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Pugno, Nicola M

    2013-03-01

    Natural selection and evolution develop a huge amount of biological materials in different environments (e.g. lotus in water and opuntia in desert). These biological materials possess many inspiring properties, which hint scientists and engineers to find some useful clues to create new materials or update the existing ones. In this review, we highlight some well-studied (e.g. nacre shell) and newly-studied (e.g. turtle shell) natural materials, and summarize their hierarchical structures and mechanisms behind their mechanical properties, from animals to plants. These fascinating mechanisms suggest to researchers to investigate natural materials deeply and broadly, and to design or fabricate new bio-inspired materials to serve our life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson

    2006-09-30

    the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity

  13. New infrared solid state laser materials for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Tunable infrared laser light may serve as a useful means by which to detect the presence of the targeted effluents. Since optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have proven to be a versatile method of generating coherent light from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, this technology is a promising choice by which to service the CALIOPE applications. In addition, since some uncertainty remains regarding the precise wavelengths and molecules that will be targeted, the deployment of OPOs retains the greatest amount of wavelength flexibility. Another approach that the authors are considering is that of generating tunable infrared radiation directly with a diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). One important advantage of a DPSSL is that it offers flexible pulse format modes that can be tailored to meet the needs of a particular application and target molecule. On the other hand, direct generation by a tunable DPSSL will generally be able to cover a more limited wavelength range than is possible with OPO technology. In support of the CALIOPE objectives the authors are exploring the potential for laser action among a class of materials comprised of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals (i.e., ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe). The Cr 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ dopants were selected as the most favorable candidates, on the basis of their documented spectral properties in the scientific literature. Thus far, the authors have characterized the absorption and emission properties of these ions in the ZnS and ZnSe crystals. The absorption spectra are used to determine the preferred wavelength at which the crystal should be pumped, while the emission spectra reveal the extent of the tuning range potentially offered by the material. In addition, measurements of the emission lifetime as a function of temperature turn out to be quite useful, since this data is suggestive of the room temperature emission yield

  14. Nature-Inspired Structural Materials for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; He, Ke; Chen, Geng; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-10-25

    Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques. This review covers the smart designs of structural materials inspired by natural materials and their utility in the construction of flexible devices. First, we summarize structural materials that accommodate mechanical deformations, which is the fundamental requirement for flexible devices to work properly in complex environments. Second, we discuss the functionalities of flexible devices induced by nature-inspired structural materials, including mechanical sensing, energy harvesting, physically interacting, and so on. Finally, we provide a perspective on newly developed structural materials and their potential applications in future flexible devices, as well as frontier strategies for biomimetic functions. These analyses and summaries are valuable for a systematic understanding of structural materials in electronic devices and will serve as inspirations for smart designs in flexible electronics.

  15. Effect of radioactive radiation on catalytic properties of solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol' skii, D V; Kuzembaev, K K; Kel' man, I V [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Organicheskogo Kataliza i Ehlektrokhimii

    1977-05-01

    General survey is made of the problem of radiation modification of the action of solid catalysts with respect to the various types of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Consideration is given to the key mechanisms responsible for radiation damage in the interaction of high-energy radiation with a solid body. The effect of ionizing radiation on the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of solid bodies is discussed.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of some solid materials by inverse gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamieh, T.; Abdessater, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.New equations and models on two-dimensional state of solid surfaces were previously elaborated in many other studies. results obtained were used in this paper to the determination and the quantification of some physicochemical properties of some solid surfaces, and especially, to study the acid-base superficial characteristics of some solid substrates like oxides and/or polymer adsorbed on oxides, carbon fibers, cements, etc. The technique used was the inverse gas chromatography (CGI) at infinite dilution. The acid-base constants were calculated for many solid surfaces: Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , MgO, ZnO, some cements, textiles and carbon fibers

  17. Natural polymers: Best carriers for improving bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Sapkal; Mahesh Narkhede; Mukesh Babhulkar; Gautam Mehetre; Ashish Rathi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTNatural polymers and its modified forms can be used as best alternative for improving bioavailabilityof poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersion. Most of the natural polymersare hydrophilic and having high swelling capacity. Recent trend towards the use of naturalpolymer demands the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Many plant derivednatural polymers are studied for use in solid dispersion systems, out of which naturalgums, cyclodextrin and carbohydrate are m...

  18. Characterization of a Material Based on Short Natural Fique Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Navacerrada Saturio, Maria Angeles; Diaz Sanchidrian, Cesar; Fernández, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Fique is a biodegradable natural fiber derived from the Colombian Agavaceae family, originating in tropical America and traditionally used for the manufacture of packaging and cordages. Today, however, new uses are being developed. To meet the need for new good-quality, sustainable, low-cost construction materials for social housing, construction materials have been produced that combine different kinds of natural fibers, including fique, to improve their strength and physical properties. To ...

  19. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaoja, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1997-12-31

    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable `equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material` denoted by {sigma}{sup M}. Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for {sigma}{sup M}. This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor {sigma} and {sigma}M. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression

  20. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaoja, K.

    1997-01-01

    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable 'equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material' denoted by σ M . Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for σ M . This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor σ and σM. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression, states occur which are not

  1. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  2. Cell viability of mycorrhiza helper bacteria solid inoculant in different carrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyiah, Iis Nur; Hindersah, Reginawanti; Harni, Rita

    2018-02-01

    Roots of food crops are colonized by nonpathogenic mycorrhizal fungi which show natural ability to control plant pathogen. Mycorrhizal establishment in plant roots is affected by rhizobacteria, known as mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB), which has synergetic effects on mycorrhizal associations. Laboratory experiment has been conducted to assess the best carrier material to develop well-qualified MHB of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis solid inoculant. Carrier materials were 100 mesh organic matter of agricultural waste. Different spore concentration of both bacterial liquid inoculants were grown on three kinds of 100-mesh organic matter and stored at room temperature up to 90 days. Cell viability of both MHB were counted by serial dilution plate method by using specific medium. The results showed that sugar cane baggase ash was the best carrier material to maintain cell viability for both MHB. However, the population of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in sugar cane baggase ash were slightly decreased after 90 days. The use of sugarcane baggase ash for solid MHB inoculant development could be suggested.

  3. Gamma spectrometric method for measuring natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-11-01

    The natural 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrations of building materials were determined by gamma spectrometry. Altogether 121 samples from all over Hungary, one from each factory producing building materials, were examined. The presented data had preliminary character. The results were compared to the relating ones from abroad. (Sz.N.Z.)

  4. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the optimal conditions for anthocyanin extraction from natural plant materials in order to develop a pH test kit. The plant materials used were butterfly pea flower (BPF), roselle red flower (RRF) and dragon fruit peel (DFP). The solvents used in this study were distilled water, 1% HCl/95% ...

  5. Natural radioactivity in construction materials; Natuerliche Radioaktivitaet in Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bernd [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Rocks and soils contain traces of uranium and thorium and their daughter products, also the primordial nuclide K-40. Most construction materials are produced from mineral raw materials and residuals from industrial processes, thus natural radionuclides can be detected. The radionuclide concentrations are relevant with respect to radiation protection. Radionuclides in construction materials can cause indoor radiation exposure due to their gamma radiation and due to inhalation of radon a gaseous nuclide that can diffuse out of the materials. Based on new legal developments in the European Union the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz is now again concerned with radiation protection issues of building materials.

  6. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisle, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  7. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krido Wahono, Satriyo; Anggo Rizal, Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  8. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  9. On the Materials Science of Nature's Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengqian; Zhang, Zhefeng; Ritchie, Robert O

    2018-06-05

    Biological material systems have evolved unique combinations of mechanical properties to fulfill their specific function through a series of ingenious designs. Seeking lessons from Nature by replicating the underlying principles of such biological materials offers new promise for creating unique combinations of properties in man-made systems. One case in point is Nature's means of attack and defense. During the long-term evolutionary "arms race," naturally evolved weapons have achieved exceptional mechanical efficiency with a synergy of effective offense and persistence-two characteristics that often tend to be mutually exclusive in many synthetic systems-which may present a notable source of new materials science knowledge and inspiration. This review categorizes Nature's weapons into ten distinct groups, and discusses the unique structural and mechanical designs of each group by taking representative systems as examples. The approach described is to extract the common principles underlying such designs that could be translated into man-made materials. Further, recent advances in replicating the design principles of natural weapons at differing lengthscales in artificial materials, devices and tools to tackle practical problems are revisited, and the challenges associated with biological and bioinspired materials research in terms of both processing and properties are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Potential electrode materials for symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Morales, J. C.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromites, titanates and Pt-YSZ-CeO2 cermets have been investigated as potential electrode materials for an alternative concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, the symmetrical SOFCs (SFC. In this configuration, the same electrode material is used simultaneously as anode and cathode. Interconnector materials, such as chromites, could be considered as potential SFC electrodes, at least under pure hydrogen-fed at relatively high temperatures, as they do not exhibit significant catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon oxidation. This may be overcome by partially substituting Cr in the perovskite B-sites by other transition metal cations such as Mn. La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM is a good candidate for such SFCs, rendering fuel cell performances in excess of 500 and 300mW/cm2 using pure H2 and CH4 as fuel, at 950 oC. Similarly, typical n-type electronic conductors traditionally regarded as anode materials, such as strontium titanates, may also operate under oxidising conditions as cathodes by substituting some Ti content for Fe to introduce p-type conductivity. Preliminary electrochemical experiments on La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ-based SFCs show that they perform reasonably well under humidified H2, at high temperatures. A third group of materials is the support material of any typical cermet anode, i.e. YSZ, CeO2 plus a current collector. It has been found that this combination could be optimised to operate as SFC electrodes, rendering performances of 400mW/cm2 under humidified pure H2 at 950oC.

    Cromitas, titanatos y cermets de Pt-YSZ-CeO2 han sido investigados como potenciales materiales de electrodo para un concepto alternativo de Pilas de Combustible de Óxidos Sólidos (SOFC, las pilas SOFC simétricas (SFC. En

  11. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  12. Evaluation of Solid Geologic Reference Materials for Uranium-Series Measurements via LA-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, K. A.; Goldstein, S. J.; Norman, D. E.; Nunn, A. J.; Murrell, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium-series geochemistry and geochronology have a wide range of applications in paleoclimatology, volcanology and other disciplines. To further explore these fields, the geoanalytical community has now begun to exploit recent advances in in situ, micron-scale sampling via laser ablation-ICPMS. Unfortunately, improvements in instrumentation have generally outpaced development of the appropriate geologic reference materials required for in situ U-series work. We will report results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of solid standards from the USGS (e.g., BCR-2G, BHVO-2G, GSD-1G, MACS-1, NKT-2G), as well as those from the MPI-DING series (e.g., ATHO-G, T1-G, StHs6/80-G). Specifically created for microanalysis, two of these standards are synthetic (GSD-1G, MACS-1) and the remainder are naturally-sourced glasses. They cover a range of compositions, ages (± secular equilibrium), elemental concentrations and expected isotopic ratios. The U-series isotopics of some powdered source materials have been characterized (e.g., BCR-2, BHVO-2), although there is no confirmation of the same ratios in the glass. Bulk measurement of these solid standards via TIMS and solution multicollector-ICPMS can then be used to assess the performance of LA-ICPMS techniques which require matrix-matched solid standards for correction of U-series elemental and isotopic ratios. These results from existing, widely-available reference materials will also facilitate quantification and comparison of U-series data among laboratories in the broader geoscience community.

  13. Optimized adhesives for strong, lightweight, damage-resistant, nanocomposite materials: new insights from natural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansma, P K; Turner, P J; Ruoff, R S

    2007-01-01

    From our investigations of natural composite materials such as abalone shell and bone we have learned the following. (1) Nature is frugal with resources: it uses just a few per cent glue, by weight, to glue together composite materials. (2) Nature does not avoid voids. (3) Nature makes optimized glues with sacrificial bonds and hidden length. We discuss how optimized adhesives combined with high specific stiffness/strength structures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets could yield remarkably strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant materials

  14. Optimized adhesives for strong, lightweight, damage-resistant, nanocomposite materials: new insights from natural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansma, P K [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Turner, P J [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2007-01-31

    From our investigations of natural composite materials such as abalone shell and bone we have learned the following. (1) Nature is frugal with resources: it uses just a few per cent glue, by weight, to glue together composite materials. (2) Nature does not avoid voids. (3) Nature makes optimized glues with sacrificial bonds and hidden length. We discuss how optimized adhesives combined with high specific stiffness/strength structures such as carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets could yield remarkably strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant materials.

  15. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E. A.; El-Khayat, A.; Ashmawy, L.; Hassan, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  17. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  18. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  19. On levels unconditional declassification of solid materials with very low radioactive content and downloads liquids and gases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide aims to establish radiological criteria for declassification (waiver) of the radioactive material of radiological regulatory control and levels unconditional clearance for solid materials and the authorized discharge limits for liquids and gases to the environment that meet these criteria for exposure scenarios acceptably conservative. This Guide to radioactive waste from the apply industrial, medical and research, which they will be managed as waste conventional. This guidance excludes from its scope the option of recycling and reuse of materials that have been declassified and wastes arising from activities and practices which naturally occurring radionuclides present are.

  20. Materials modeling by design: applications to amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Parthapratim; Tafen, D N; Inam, F; Cai Bin; Drabold, D A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review a host of methods used to model amorphous materials. We particularly describe methods which impose constraints on the models to ensure that the final model meets a priori requirements (on structure, topology, chemical order, etc). In particular, we review work based on quench from the melt simulations, the 'decorate and relax' method, which is shown to be a reliable scheme for forming models of certain binary glasses. A 'building block' approach is also suggested and yields a pleading model for GeSe 1.5 . We also report on the nature of vulcanization in an Se network cross-linked by As, and indicate how introducing H into an a-Si network develops into a-Si:H. We also discuss explicitly constrained methods including reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) and a novel method called 'Experimentally Constrained Molecular Relaxation'. The latter merges the power of ab initio simulation with the ability to impose external information associated with RMC.

  1. Bioinspired self-healing materials: lessons from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaldi, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Healing is an intrinsic ability in the incredibly biodiverse populations of the plant and animal kingdoms created through evolution. Plants and animals approach healing in similar ways but with unique pathways, such as damage containment in plants or clotting in animals. After analyzing the examples of healing and defense mechanisms found in living nature, eight prevalent mechanisms were identified: reversible muscle control, clotting, cellular response, layering, protective surfaces, vascular networks or capsules, exposure, and replenishable functional coatings. Then the relationship between these mechanisms, nature’s best (evolutionary) methods of mitigating and healing damage, and existing technology in self-healing materials are described. The goals of this top-level overview are to provide a framework for relating the behavior seen in living nature to bioinspired materials, act as a resource to addressing the limitations/problems with existing materials, and open up new avenues of insight and research into self-healing materials. PMID:29600152

  2. Numerical investigation of porous materials composites reinforced with natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, M.; Metidji, N.; Mokhtari, F.; Merzouk, N. k.

    2018-05-01

    The present article tends to predict the effective thermal properties of porous biocomposites materials. The composites matrix consists on porous materials namely gypsum and the reinforcement is a natural fiber as date palm fibers. The numerical study is done using Comsol software resolving the heat transfer equation. The results are fitted with theoretical model and experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the porosity has an effect on the Effective thermal conductivity biocompoites.

  3. Development of сertified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Sobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with data of research for development of certified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators (OPTB SO UNIIM Set Certified Reference Materials GSO 10583-2015. The certified values of opened porosity of metal cylinders were established by the method of hydrostatic weighing before and after boring of holes in. The certified reference materials are intended for calibration and verification of measuring instruments of opened porosity, based on the Boyle - Mariotte's law.

  4. Determination of dose rates from natural radionuclides in dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Guzzi, G.; Giussani, A.; Cantone, M.C.; Ripamonti, D.

    2006-01-01

    Different types of materials used for dental prosthetics restoration, including feldspathic ceramics, glass ceramics, zirconia-based ceramics, alumina-based ceramics, and resin-based materials, were investigated with regard to content of natural radionuclides by means of thermoluminescence beta dosimetry and gamma spectrometry. The gross beta dose rate from feldspathic and glass ceramics was about ten times higher than the background measurement, whereas resin-based materials generated negligible beta dose rate, similarly to natural tooth samples. The specific activity of uranium and thorium was significantly below the levels found in the period when addition of uranium to dental porcelain materials was still permitted. The high-beta dose levels observed in feldspathic porcelains and glass ceramics are thus mainly ascribable to 4 K, naturally present in these specimens. Although the measured values are below the recommended limits, results indicate that patients with prostheses are subject to higher dose levels than other members of the population. Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramics might be a promising alternative, as they have generally lower beta dose rates than the conventional porcelain materials. However, the dosimetry results, which imply the presence of inhomogeneously distributed clusters of radionuclides in the sample matrix, and the still unsuitable structural properties call for further optimization of these materials

  5. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  6. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  7. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Krido Wahono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as increasing methane contents, increasing heating value, reduction of odors, reduction of corrosion potential, increasing the efficiency and stability of the generator.

  8. Abstracts of 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals Materials Science and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The solid state crystals are the modern materials being very interesting from the view point of actual and possible applications in microelectronics, optics, laser materials, detectors etc. 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals, Materials Science and Applications, Zakopane'99 created the review forum for broad range of investigations on topics related to; crystal growth and doping, new materials preparation, thin layer structure, physical properties and special methods for electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties measurements of obtained materials. The insulating, semiconducting and superconducting monocrystals, polycrystals and also amorphous glasses have been investigated and their possible applications discussed. 52 oral lectures and 128 posters have been presented in the course of the conference

  9. Natural radioactivity level of main building materials in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Caifeng; Lu Xinwei; Li Nan; Yang Guang

    2012-01-01

    A survey was done on natural radioactivity level and annual effective dose rate of main building materials in Baotou, China. The natural radionuclides of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in main building materials collected from Baotou were measured using NaI γ-ray spectrometry and the measured data were analyzed according to the national standards and radiological protection principles of the European Commission. The specific activities of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the building materials samples were 218.82-1145.92, 19.75-1.32.50 and 11.46-82.66 Bq/kg, respectively. The internal and external exposure indexes of building materials were 0.06-0.41 and 0.28-0.70, respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent was 0.41-0.97 mSv/y. This justifies the production and sale of the main building materials, as both the internal and external exposure indexes of building materials are less than 1. The effective dose rate of ash brick is 0.97 mSv/y, while the maximum acceptable value is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount of industrial waste residue in building materials to avoid unnecessary radioactive exposure to residents. (authors)

  10. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  11. Radiation exposure by man-modified materials containing natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.E. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany); Eder, E. [Government of Bavaria, Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs Development, Munich (Germany); Reichelt, A. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany)

    1992-07-01

    More than one hundred materials, containing natural radioactive nuclides, are being investigated due to radiation exposure to people. This paper deals with thoriated gas mantles and shows that the radiation exposure by inhalation of radionuclides released while burning and exchange is not negligible. (author)

  12. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to ...

  13. Updated database on natural radioactivity in building materials in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Risica, S; Nuccetelli, C

    2018-07-01

    The paper presents the latest collection of activity concentration data of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4  K) in building materials. This database contains about 24200 samples of both bulk materials and their constituents (bricks, concrete, cement, aggregates) and superficial materials used in most European Union Member States and some European countries. This collection also includes radiological information about some NORM residues and by-products (by-product gypsum, metallurgical slags, fly and bottom ashes and red mud) which can be of radiological concern if recycled in building materials as secondary raw materials. Moreover, radon emanation and radon exhalation rate data are reported for bricks and concrete. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  15. Biomimetic water-collecting materials inspired by nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-03-11

    Nowadays, water shortage is a severe issue all over the world, especially in some arid and undeveloped areas. Interestingly, a variety of natural creatures can collect water from fog, which can provide a source of inspiration to develop novel and functional water-collecting materials. Recently, as an increasingly hot research topic, bioinspired materials with the water collection ability have captured vast scientific attention in both practical applications and fundamental research studies. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of water collection in various natural creatures and present the fabrications, functions, applications, and new developments of bioinspired materials in recent years. The theoretical basis related to the phenomenon of water collection containing wetting behaviors and water droplet transportations is described in the beginning, i.e., the Young's equation, Wenzel model, Cassie model, surface energy gradient model and Laplace pressure equation. Then, the water collection mechanisms of three typical and widely researched natural animals and plants are discussed and their corresponding bioinspired materials are simultaneously detailed, which are cactus, spider, and desert beetles, respectively. This is followed by introducing another eight animals and plants (butterfly, shore birds, wheat awns, green bristlegrass, the Cotula fallax plant, Namib grass, green tree frogs and Australian desert lizards) that are rarely reported, exhibiting water collection properties or similar water droplet transportation. Finally, conclusions and outlook concerning the future development of bioinspired fog-collecting materials are presented.

  16. Solid ionic: these unusual materials applications in high-energy-density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, D.F.; Farrington, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The idea that ions can diffuse as rapidly in a solid as in an aqueous salt solution may seem strange to many chemists. But a variety of solids with high ionic conductivities are known. Compounds have been discovered that conduct anions (including F - and O 2- ) and cations (including monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations). These substances range from hard, refractory materials, such as sodium β-alumina, through softer compounds, such as silver iodide (AgI) to the very soft polymer electrolytes. They include compounds that are stoichiometric (AgI), nonstoichiometric (sodium β-alumina), or doped (calcia-stabilized zirconia). A variety of names have been applied to these materials: among them, solid electrolytes, superionic conductors, and fast-ion conductors. Fast-ion transport in solids is a lively area of study in solid-state chemistry and physics. High-conductivity solid electrolytes have revolutionized conventional concepts of ionic compounds, and their potential uses range from high-energy-density battery and fuel-cell electrolytes to chemical sensors and from lasers to phosphors. Devices using solid electrolytes are already available commercially-oxygen detectors for automotive pollution-control systems employ solid O 2- electrolytes, and solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are employed in heart pacemakers

  17. Microstructural evolution of nanograin nickel-zirconia cermet anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the structure, microstructure, porosity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of the anode material thus synthesized in order to find its suitability for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode application

  18. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Methodperformance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  19. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Compressed Natural Gas and Ethanol from Municipal Solid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-10-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the United States was estimated at 254 million wet tons in 2013, and around half of that generated waste was landfilled. There is a huge potential in recovering energy from that waste, since around 60% of landfilled material is biomass-derived waste that has high energy content. In addition, diverting waste for fuel production avoids huge fugitive emissions from landfills, especially uncontrolled CH4 emissions, which are the third largest anthropogenic CH4 source in the United States. Lifecycle analysis (LCA) is typically used to evaluate the environmental impact of alternative fuel production pathways. LCA of transportation fuels is called well-to-wheels (WTW) and covers all stages of the fuel production pathways, from feedstock recovery (well) to vehicle operation (wheels). In this study, the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory is used to evaluate WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption of waste-derived fuels. Two waste-to-energy (WTE) pathways have been evaluated – one for compressed natural gas (CNG) production using food waste via anaerobic digestion, and the other for ethanol production from yard trimmings via fermentation processes. Because the fuel production pathways displace current waste management practices (i.e., landfilling waste), we use a marginal approach that considers only the differences in emissions between the counterfactual case and the alternative fuel production case.

  20. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  1. Natural radioactivity of building materials used in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, M. [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactive content of building materials used in Malaysia. The materials analysed include both old and new clay bricks, cement bricks, mortar, cement, sands, ceramic tiles and gypsum. Samples of the first three materials were collected from the 12 states of the Malay Peninsula. Radium-226 (from the U-238 series) and Ra-228 (from the Th-232 series), these both representing naturally occurring radionuclides, were analysed using high-resolution HpGe gamma spectrometers. The results of our investigations showed that some old clay bricks contain high levels (at more than 5 times the normal soil concentration) of natural radionuclides, with maximum concentrations of 590 Bq/kg and 480 Bq/kg for respectively Ra-226 and Ra-228. The reasons behind this finding were not clearly understood. As there are people living in old buildings, i.e. built using old clay bricks, there is a possibility that they are being exposed to significant radiation doses. However, there proved to be no significant overall difference between old and new clay bricks in terms of the natural radioactivity levels determined, at a 95% confidence level. The overall mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 observed in Malaysian clay bricks were respectively 118 {+-} 58 Bq/kg and 120 {+-} 42 Bq/kg. The radioactive content of other materials was found to be not much different from that to be determined in normal soil from Malaysia. The data obtained can be used as a basis for reaching decisions on the regulatory limits for radioactivity levels in building materials in Malaysia. (orig.)

  2. Natural radioactivity of building materials coming from a volcanic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, V.; Pugliese, M.; Sabbarese, C.; D'Onofrio, A.; Lubritto, C.; Terrasi, F.; Ermice, A.; Inglima, I.; Migliore, G.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactivity was found to be very high in tuff and other materials originating from volcanic lava. Emanation of radon from such materials is appreciably higher than from materials of other origin. This work allowed us to obtain a first complete database of natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials from this region. Measurements were carried out by means of a gamma spectrometry system. Gamma emitting daughter products of 222 Rn were measured to determine 226 Ra. The samples, after a routine treatment, were accommodated in sealed metallic containers for a time sufficient for the equilibrium to establish. The determination of the radon emanation power was carried out by using an electrostatic monitor. Alpha spectroscopy of radon daughters was used to evaluate the content of radon coming from the sample

  3. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Lu, X.; Zhao, C.; Li, N.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings. (authors)

  4. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  5. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  6. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  7. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study

  8. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  9. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  10. Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, D.Z.; Sharafudeen, K.N.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    solved, especially concerning the interaction of strong, ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with matter, and also because potential advanced technologies will emerge due to the impressive capability of the intense femtosecond laser to create new material structures and hence functionalities. When......The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials is a topic that has caused great interest of scientists over the past two decades. It will continue to be a fascinating field in the coming years. This is because many challenging fundamental problems have not been......–matter interaction, and fabricate various integrated micro-devices. In recent years we have witnessed exciting development in understanding and applying femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent materials. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials relies on non...

  11. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. W.; Bonin, J. H.; Daniel, A. D. Jr.

    1983-03-15

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues. 19 figs.

  12. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  14. Ionometric determination of boron in natural, waste waters and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimov, V.P.; Markova, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    Method have been developed for the determination of boron in natural, waste waters and biological materials using direct potentiometry with a BF 4 - selective electrode. In order to estimate the matrix effects in plotting the calibration graphs, it is recommended to and the test water or solution of biomaterial mineralizates, containing boron in electrode-inactive form, to the calibration solutions before e.m.f. measurements version of boron into tetrafluoroborate in solid phase on heating the mineralized samples with ammonium bifluoride at 150-180 deg C

  15. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  16. Pressure effect on hysteresis in spin-crossover solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Integrated Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Advanced Materials, Nanotechnologies, and Distributed Systems for fabrication and control, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    A generalized microscopic Ising-like model is proposed to describe behavior of compressible spin-crossover solids with two states: low-spin and high-spin. The model was solved in mean-field approximation and shows hysteretic behavior at low energy difference between the states. We study the thermal transition between states under external hydrostatic pressure taking into account the changes in the volume of spin-crossover molecules in different states. Depending on the applied pressure, a spin-crossover system can have three types of behavior of molecular fraction in the high-spin state: hysteretic, second-order phase transition and no-phase transition. For the hysteretic regime, it is shown that the transition temperature under pressure is increased while the width of the hysteresis reduced.

  17. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials; identification, characterization and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive materials (TENORM) is produced in a relatively large amount with relatively small radioactivity, however in many instances the radioactivity levels exceeds that permissible. In this presentation, the different industries where enhanced levels of natural radioactivity is identified and characterized will be given. The different approaches for treatment of this enhanced radioactivity will be addressed. Finally, our research and development activities in characterization and treatment of TENORM produced from the oil fields in Egypt will be presented. (authors)

  18. Effects of irradiation on four solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The tritium breeding material with the highest lithium atom density, Li 2 O has been observed to incur significant swelling (>4%) under fast reactor irradiation. Such swelling, if unrestrained leads to either unacceptable, induced-strains in adjacent structural material or undesirable design compromises. Fortunately, however, Li 2 O deforms at low temperatures so that swelling strains may be internally accommodated. Laboratory dilational creep experiments were conducted on unirraciated Li 2 O between 500 and 700 0 C in order to provide data for structural analysis of in-reactor experiments and blanket design studies. A densification model agreed with most of the available data. 15 refs

  19. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  20. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH 2 ). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O. The Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO 2 .nH 2 O / Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  1. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  2. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  3. Organic free radicals and micropores in solid graphitic carbonaceous matter at the Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigali, M.J.; Nagy, B.

    1997-01-01

    The presence, concentration, and distribution of organic free radicals as well as their association with specific surface areas and microporosities help characterize the evolution and behavior of the Oklo carbonaceous matter. Such information is necessary in order to evaluate uranium mineralization, liquid bitumen solidification, and radio nuclide containment at Oklo. In the Oklo ore deposits and natural fission reactors carbonaceous matter is often referred to as solid graphitic bitumen. The carbonaceous parts of the natural reactors may contain as much as 65.9% organic C by weight in heterogeneous distribution within the clay-rich matrix. The solid carbonaceous matter immobilized small uraninite crystals and some fission products enclosed in this uraninite and thereby facilitated radio nuclide containment in the reactors. Hence, the Oklo natural fission reactors are currently the subjects of detailed studies because they may be useful analogues to support performance assessment of radio nuclide containment at anthropogenic radioactive waste repository sites. Seven carbonaceous matter rich samples from the 1968 ± 50 Ma old natural fission reactors and the associated Oklo uranium ore deposit were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and by measurements of specific surface areas (BET method). Humic acid, fulvic acid, and fully crystalline graphite standards were also examined by ESR spectroscopy for comparison with the Oklo solid graphitic bitumens. With one exception, the ancient Oklo bitumens have higher organic free radical concentrations than the modem humic and fulvic acid samples. The presence of carbon free radicals in the graphite standard could not be determined due to the conductivity of this material. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Compression Characteristics of Solid Wastes as Backfill Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Li; Jixiong Zhang; Rui Gao

    2016-01-01

    A self-made large-diameter compression steel chamber and a SANS material testing machine were chosen to perform a series of compression tests in order to fully understand the compression characteristics of differently graded filling gangue samples. The relationship between the stress-deformation modulus and stress-compression degree was analyzed comparatively. The results showed that, during compression, the deformation modulus of gangue grew linearly with stress, the overall relationship bet...

  5. Cluster model calculations of the solid state materials electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelikan, P.; Biskupic, S.; Banacky, P.; Zajac, A.; Svrcek, A.; Noga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Materials of the general composition ACuO 2 are the parent compounds of so called infinite layer superconductors. In the paper presented the electron structure of the compounds CaCuO 2 , SrCuO2, Ca 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 and Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 were calculated. The cluster models consisting of 192 atoms were computed using quasi relativistic version of semiempirical INDO method. The obtained results indicate the strong ionicity of Ca/Sr-O bonds and high covalency of Cu-bonds. The width of energy gap at the Fermi level increases as follows: Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 2 . This order correlates with the fact that materials of the composition Ca x Sr 1-x CuO 2 have have the high temperatures of the superconductive transition (up to 110 K). Materials partially substituted by Sr 2+ have also the higher density of states in the close vicinity at the Fermi level that ai the additional condition for the possibility of superconductive transition. It was calculated the strong influence of the vibration motions to the energy gap at the Fermi level. (authors). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  6. The Natural Hospital Environment: a Socio-Technical-Material perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Dawson, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces two concepts into analyses of information security and hospital-based information systems-- a Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and the Natural Hospital Environment. The research is grounded in a review of pertinent literature with previously published Australian (Victoria) case study data to analyse the way clinicians work with privacy and security in their work. The analysis was sorted into thematic categories, providing the basis for the Natural Hospital Environment and Socio-Technical-Material framework theories discussed here. Natural Hospital Environments feature inadequate yet pervasive computer use, aural privacy shortcomings, shared workspace, meagre budgets, complex regulation that hinders training outcomes and out-dated infrastructure and are highly interruptive. Working collaboratively in many cases, participants found ways to avoid or misuse security tools, such as passwords or screensavers for patient care. Workgroup infrastructure was old, architecturally limited, haphazard in some instances, and was less useful than paper handover sheets to ensure the quality of patient care outcomes. Despite valiant efforts by some participants, they were unable to control factors influencing the privacy of patient health information in public hospital settings. Future improvements to hospital-based organisational frameworks for e-health can only be made when there is an improved understanding of the Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and Natural Hospital Environment contexts. Aspects within control of clinicians and administrators can be addressed directly although some others are beyond their control. An understanding and acknowledgement of these issues will benefit the management and planning of improved and secure hospital settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  8. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  9. Thermodynamics of water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Pharmaceutical materials, crystalline and amorphous, sorb water from the atmosphere, which affects critical factors in the development of drugs, such as the selection of drug substance crystal form, compatibility with excipients, dosage form selection, packaging, and product shelf-life. It is common practice to quantify the amount of water that a material sorbs at a given relative humidity (RH), but the results alone provide minimal to no physicochemical insight into water-solid interactions, without which pharmaceutical scientists cannot develop an understanding of their materials, so as to anticipate and circumvent potential problems. This research was conducted to advance the science of pharmaceutical materials by examining the thermodynamics of solids with sorbed water. The compounds studied include nonhygroscopic drugs, a channel hydrate drug, a stoichiometric hydrate excipient, and an amorphous excipient. The water sorption isotherms were measured over a range of temperature to extract the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of sorbed water as well as the same quantities for some of the solids. It was found that water-solid interactions spanned a range of energy and entropy as a function of RH, which was unique to the solid, and which could be valuable in identifying batch-to-batch differences and effects of processing in material performance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Experimental studies and modelling of cation interactions with solid materials: application to the MIMICC project. (Multidimensional Instrumented Module for Investigations on chemistry-transport Coupled Codes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, Emmanuelle

    1999-01-01

    The study of cation interactions with solid materials is useful in order to define the chemistry interaction component of the MIMICC project (Multidimensional Instrumented Module for Investigations on chemistry-transport Coupled Codes). This project will validate the chemistry-transport coupled codes. Database have to be supplied on the cesium or ytterbium interactions with solid materials in suspension. The solid materials are: a strong cation exchange resin, a natural sand which presents small impurities, and a zirconium phosphate. The cation exchange resin is useful to check that the surface complexation theory can be applied on a pure cation exchanger. The sand is a natural material, and its isotherms will be interpreted using pure oxide-cation system data, such as pure silica-cation data. Then the study on the zirconium phosphate salt is interesting because of the increasing complexity in the processes (dissolution, sorption and co-precipitation). These data will enable to approach natural systems, constituted by several complex solids which can interfere on each other. These data can also be used for chemistry-transport coupled codes. Potentiometric titration, sorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, cation surface saturation curves are made, in order to obtain the different parameters relevant to the cation sorption at the solid surface, for each solid-electrolyte-cation system. The influence of different parameters such as ionic strength, pH, and electrolyte is estimated. All the experimental curves are fitted with FITEQL code based on the surface complexation theory using the constant capacitance model, in order to give a mechanistic interpretation of the ion retention phenomenon at the solid surface. The speciation curves of all systems are plotted, using the FITEQL code too. Systems with an increasing complexity are studied: dissolution, sorption and coprecipitation coexist in the cation-salt systems. Then the data obtained on each single solid, considered

  11. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFC's. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFC's, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions

  12. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  13. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.)

  14. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  15. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuda, Atsushi, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Takeuchi, Tomonari, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori [Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute for Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda (Japan)

    2016-05-10

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg{sup −1}) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li{sub 3}NbS{sub 4}, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g{sup −1} suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without

  16. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg −1 ) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li 3 NbS 4 , have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g −1 suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  17. Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Fuenmayor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms.

  18. Preparation of cathode materials for solid oxide solid fuel (SOFC) using gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.; Aquino, F. de M.; Macedo, D.A. de; Sa, A.M.; Galvao, G.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These devices are basically divided into interconnectors, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Recently, studies of improvements in microstructural and morphological properties of calcium cobaltate (Ca_3Co_4O_9, C349) has been made regarding its potential use as SOFC cathode for intermediate temperature. Gelatin has proven to be effective as a polymerizing agent in the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of the C349 cathode using commercial gelatin. The structural properties of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of the crystalline phase at 900 °C, indicating the effectiveness of the gelatin in the preparation of cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive materials at New South Wales mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Until recently mines in New South Wales have been largely exempt from the provisions of the Radiation Control Act with respect to radioactive ore being mined and processed. Legislative changes and the national harmonisation efforts for mine safety regulation have drawn attention to the emerging issue of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). While mine operators are already obliged under their duty of care to manage this hazard, specific control measures are increasingly expected by the community and regulators. This applies throughout the whole mine life cycle from exploration right through to rehabilitation.

  20. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  1. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  2. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... reduced iron (DRI) as briquettes molded at a temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher that have a density of 5... temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher or had a density of 5.0 g/cm[sup3] or greater. In this proposed rule, we... bulk materials of Hazard Classes 4 through 9. c. One comment recommended that a DCM be required for...

  3. Blends of natural rubber and polyurethane lattices studied by solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Franca, Francisco C.F. de; Price, Colin; Heatley, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Molecular mixing in films formed from a mixture of a polyurethane and natural rubber lattices has been studied using 1 H and 13 C solid-state NMR. The techniques employed include 1 H relaxation measurements, and 13 C cross-polarisation and direct excitation methods. The spectra of the blends were essentially a weighted superposition of the spectra of the individual components, indicating that the polyurethane and rubber remained phase-separated in large domains. (author)

  4. Nature of the activates places of the acid solid catalysts of the sulphated metallic oxides type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Miguel A; Fontalvo Javier

    1998-01-01

    In this revision the state of the knowledge is presented with respect to the understanding of the nature of the active places for the strongly acid solid catalysts of the type sulphated metallic oxides. The results presented by means of models are based on the characterization of the properties physicochemical carried out by means of technical as XPS, to GO, NMR etc., and the evaluation of the catalytic activity in different applications

  5. Finite element modeling for integrated solid-solid PCM-building material with varying phase change temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Fung, A.S.; Siddiqui, O. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Solid-solid phase change materials (SSPCMs) are used to enhance thermal storage performance and reduce indoor temperature fluctuations in buildings. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was used to investigate the thermal properties of different types of SSPCMs. An effective heat capacity method was used to develop the model. An integrated PCM-building material was analyzed in relation to temperature and heat flux profiles. Governing equations for the heat transfer process were composed of Navier-Stokes momentum equations; a mass conservation equation; and an energy conservation equation. Effective heat capacity was described as a linear function of the latent heat of fusion on both the heating and cooling processes. Data from the simulation were then compared with an experiment suing drywall, concrete and gypcrete samples. Heat flux across the surfaces and temperatures on the surfaces of the materials were measured. Data were used to validate the finite element model (FEM). Results of the study suggested that heat flux profiles are an effective means of understanding phase change processes. It was concluded that PCMs with lower phase change temperatures lengthened energy releases and improved thermal comfort in the building. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. McPhy-Energy’s proposal for solid state hydrogen storage materials and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehan, Michel, E-mail: michel.jehan@mcphy.com [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Fruchart, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.fruchart@grenoble.cnrs.fr [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Institut Néel and CRETA, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Mechanical alloying with nano-structurizing highly reactive magnesium metal hydrides particles. •Solid reversible hydrogen storage at scale of kg to tons of hydrogen using MgH{sub 2} composite discs. •Natural Expanded Graphite draining heat of reaction during sorption. •Change Phase Material storing reversibly heat of reaction within tank storage as adiabatic system. •Technology fully adapted for renewable energy storage and network energy peak shavings through H{sub 2}. -- Abstract: The renewable resources related, for instance, to solar energies exhibit two main characteristics. They have no practical limits in regards to the efficiency and their various capture methods. However, their intermittence prevents any direct and immediate use of the resulting power. McPhy-Energy proposes solutions based on water electrolysis for hydrogen generation and storage on reversible metal hydrides to efficiently cover various energy generation ranges from MW h to GW h. Large stationary storage units, based on MgH{sub 2}, are presently developed, including both the advanced materials and systems for a total energy storage from ∼70 to more than 90% efficient. Various designs of MgH{sub 2}-based tanks are proposed, allowing the optional storage of the heat of the Mg–MgH{sub 2} reaction in an adjacent phase changing material. The combination of these operations leads to the storage of huge amounts of hydrogen and heat in our so-called adiabatic-tanks. Adapted to intermittent energy production and consumption from renewable sources (wind, sun, tide, etc.), nuclear over-production at night, or others, tanks distribute energy on demand for local applications (on-site domestic needs, refueling stations, etc.) via turbine or fuel cell electricity production.

  7. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  8. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Sulungbudi, Grace Tj.; Mujamilah

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe 2 O 3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 . The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO 3 product of Merck, and BaCO 4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH) max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO 3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO 3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH) max are relatively lower than commercial product

  9. Scaling similarities of multiple fracturing of solid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kapiris

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently reported that electromagnetic flashes of low-energy -rays emitted during multi-fracturing on a neutron star, and electromagnetic pulses emitted in the laboratory by a disordered material subjected to an increasing external load, share distinctive statistical properties with earthquakes, such as power-law energy distributions (Cheng et al., 1996; Kossobokov et al., 2000; Rabinovitch et al., 2001; Sornette and Helmstetter, 2002. The neutron starquakes may release strain energies up to erg, while, the fractures in laboratory samples release strain energies approximately a fraction of an erg. An earthquake fault region can build up strain energy up to approximately erg for the strongest earthquakes. Clear sequences of kilohertz-megahertz electromagnetic avalanches have been detected from a few days up to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. A question that arises effortlessly is if the pre-seismic electromagnetic fluctuations also share the same statistical properties. Our study justifies a positive answer. Our analysis also reveals 'symptoms' of a transition to the main rupture common with earthquake sequences and acoustic emission pulses observed during laboratory experiments (Maes et al., 1998.

  10. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  11. Interaction of actinides with natural microporous materials: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaelides, P.; Godelitsas, A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural microporous materials include several types of minerals such as zeolites, clay minerals, micas, iron- and manganese-oxides/hydroxides/oxyhydroxides present in various geological environments and soil formations. The transport of the actinide elements in the environment is mainly performed through aquatic pathways (streams, rivers, underground waters) and their mobility is strongly related to the interaction of their dissolved species with geological materials and especially with the highly sorptive microporous minerals. The existing studies mainly concern the sorption of Th, U, Np, Pu and Am from aqueous media by clay minerals and zeolites as well as the determination of the corresponding chemical processes taking place at the mineral-water interface. The investigation techniques also include advanced spectroscopic methods such as Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS), Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques significantly contribute to the characterization of the reacted mineral surfaces and to the explanation of the structural and compositional characteristics of the sorbed actinide species. Theoretical models regarding the aqueous chemistry and speciation of the actinides have also been developed aiming the elucidation of the complex actinide sorption mechanisms. Finally, this contribution also includes some recently obtained data concerning the interaction of actinides with todorokite (a naturally occurring microporous manganese-oxide of technological importance) and granitic micas (biotite) correlated with the nuclear waste disposal in geological formations

  12. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  13. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  14. 'The NORM Report' : the journal addressing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.T.; Tsurikov, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The need for the specific international publication dedicated to the radiation protection and regulatory issues associated with exposures of workers, general public and the environment in situations involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (Norm) has been identified almost ten years ago. In the 1990-s the journal entitled 'the NORM report' was published in the U.S.A. mainly dealt with legislative updates in regard to NORM in different states and at a later stage Canada. The printed journal has a wide following among industries and regulatory authorities concerned with NORM. Unfortunately, the publishing ceased in early 2000-s with the passing of the editor, Dr. Peter Gray. The publication of 'the NORM Report' will re-commence in early 2008 as an internet based publication that is intended to be a resource for: Regulatory authorities exchange information in regards to the 'NORM-specific' regulations and guidelines applicable in their jurisdictions. They are also able to collect details from authorities in other countries/states - to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate regulatory standards to similar levels of radiation exposure and the same industries world-wide (not only within the USA), a) Researches, who will be able to publish the results of their studies in a journal specifically dedicated to naturally occurring radioactive materials and b) Industries that use, process, and generate - to facilitate the information exchange in regards to best practices in controlling radiation exposure and in the disposal or re-use of NORM-containing materials. The intent of the presentation is to obtain the opinion of a wider radiation protection community of the usefulness and the contents of the publication of 'the NORM Report' to ensure the journal meets its state objectives. (author)

  15. A Noncontact Measurement Technique for the Density and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid and Liquid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang K.; Thiessen, David B.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    A noncontact measurement technique for the density and the thermal expansion refractory materials in their molten as well as solid phases is presented. This technique is based on the video image processing of a levitated sample. Experiments were performed using the high-temperature electrostatic levitator (HTESL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which 2-3 mm diameter samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in a vacuum. Due to the axisymmetric nature of the molten samples when levitated in the HTESL, a rather simple digital image analysis can be employed to accurately measure the volumetric change as a function of temperature. Density and the thermal expansion coefficient measurements were made on a pure nickel sample to test the accuracy of the technique in the temperature range of 1045-1565 C. The result for the liquid phase density can be expressed by p = 8.848 + (6.730 x 10(exp -4)) x T (degC) g/cu cm within 0.8% accuracy, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficient can be expressed by Beta=(9.419 x 10(exp -5)) - (7.165 x 10(exp -9) x T (degC)/K within 0.2% accuracy.

  16. Quantum chemistry of solids and materials technology: solid-phase compounds of d- and f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studies aimed at the development of methods of theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of solid phase compounds of α- and f-elements and the modelling of physicochemical properties of materials developed on their basis, are presented. The possibilities of cluster and zone calculations of the electronic structure of refractory compounds of d-metals with light elements are considered. The regularities of changes in the chemical bond and properties during crystal lattice alloying with metals, metalloids are found. The methods of quantum chemical modeling of optically active and luminescent materials on the base of oxides, fluorides, chalcogenides of d- and f-metals are developed. The compositions of new optically active compositions and protective coatings are suggested. New approaches to the study of magnetic properties of metals, alloys and compounds are developed. The results of calculations of the energy spectra of high-temperature oxide superconductors are given

  17. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  18. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Chun-Han; Lin, Zih-Chan; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-04-01

    Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs.

  20. Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mariño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  1. Enhanced materials from nature: nanocellulose from citrus waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Mayra; Lopes da Silva, Lucimara; Durán, Nelson; Tasic, Ljubica

    2015-04-03

    Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI) from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  2. The resistance of Bacillus atrophaeus spores to the bactericidal activity of peracetic acid is influenced by both the nature of the solid substrates and the mode of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I; Bellon-Fontaine, M-N; Herry, J-M; Hilaire, D; Moriconi, F-X; Naïtali, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of the mode of contamination in relation with the nature of solid substrates on the resistance of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus -selected as surrogates of Bacillus anthracis- to a disinfectant, peracetic acid. Six materials confronted in urban and military environments were selected for their different structural and physicochemical properties. In parallel, two modes of contamination were examined, i.e. deposition and immersion. Deposition was used to simulate contamination by an aerosol and immersion by an extended contact with liquids. A pronounced difference in the biocontamination levels and spatial organization of spores was observed depending on the mode of contamination and the nature of the solid substrate considered, with consequences on decontamination. Contamination by immersion led to lower efficiency of peracetic acid decontamination than contamination by deposition. Infiltration of spores into porous materials after immersion is one reason. In contrast, the deposition mode aggregates cells at the surface of materials, explaining the similar disinfecting behaviour of porous and nonporous substrates when considering this inoculation route. The inoculation route was shown to be as influential a parameter as material characteristics (porosity and wettability) for decontamination efficacy. These results provide comparative information for the decontamination of B. atrophaeus spores in function of the mode of contamination and the nature of solid substrates. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to French government works.

  3. Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.

  4. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in non-nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The volume and concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material is large across a variety of industries commonly thought not to involve radioactive material. The regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material in the United States is in a state of flux. Inventory of naturally occurring radioactive materials is given, along with a range of concentrations. Current and proposed regulatory limits are presented. (author)

  5. Residual thermal stresses in a solid sphere cast from a thermosetting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, M.; Shaffer, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the residual thermal stresses in a solid sphere cast from a chemically hardening thermosetting material in a rigid spherical mold. The description of the heat generation rate and temperature variation is derived from a first-order chemical reaction. Solidification is described by the continuous transformation of the material from an inviscid liquidlike state into an elastic solid, with intermediate properties determined by the degree of chemical reaction. Residual stress components are obtained as functions of the parameters of the hardening process and the properties of the hardening material. Variation of the residual stresses with a nondimensionalized reaction rate parameter and the relative compressibility of the hardened material is discussed in detail.

  6. Solid triphenylmethanol: A molecular material that undergoes multiple internal reorientational processes on different timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchin, Simon J.; Xu Mingcan; Serrano-Gonzalez, Heliodoro; Coates, Laura J.; Zaka Ahmed, S.; Glidewell, Christopher; Harris, Kenneth D.M.

    2006-01-01

    In solid triphenylmethanol, the molecules are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tetramers, and it is already well established that the hydrogen bonding in this material undergoes a dynamic switching process between different hydrogen bonding arrangements. In addition to this motion, we show here, from solid-state 2 H NMR studies of the deuterated material (C 6 D 5 ) 3 COH, that each phenyl ring in this material undergoes a 180 deg.-jump reorientation about the C 6 D 5 -C(OH) bond, with an activation energy of ca. 50 kJ mol -1 . The timescale for the phenyl ring dynamics is several orders of magnitude longer than the timescale for the hydrogen bond dynamics in this material, and is uncorrelated with the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding arrangement

  7. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  8. Past, present and future of materials, methodology and instrumentation in particle tracks in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation I would like to give a brief review of the development of materials, methods and instrumentation in Solid State Nuclear Track Detection, nowadays referred to by the more general term of Particle Tracks in Solids (PTS). We all are convinced of the advantages, good characteristics and qualities of this method which has served to establish a number of procedures in several areas such as Environmental and Personal Dosimetry, Radon Research, Geology, Nuclear Physics, etc. Nevertheless, we have to be conscious of its disadvantages and limitations and above all, the future developments, taking into account all aspects, ranging from track formation models to etching and reading procedures. Above all, I want to emphasize the importance of doing research in new materials with improved properties. The other important challenge refers to instrumentation development, mainly that concerned with reading systems, which is necessary if standard procedures for the measurement and evaluation of particle tracks in solids are to be established. (author)

  9. Fluid-mechanic/thermal interaction of a molten material and a decomposing solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Lee, D.O.

    1976-12-01

    Bench-scale experiments of a molten material in contact with a decomposing solid were conducted to gain insight into the expected interaction of a hot, molten reactor core with a concrete base. The results indicate that either of two regimes can occur: violent agitation and splattering of the melt or a very quiescent settling of the melt when placed in contact with the solid. The two regimes appear to be governed by the interface temperature condition. A conduction heat transfer model predicts the critical interface temperature with reasonable accuracy. In addition, a film thermal resistance model correlates well with the data in predicting the time for a solid skin to form on the molten material

  10. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  11. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  12. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog; Kim, Hong Suk

    2015-01-01

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%

  13. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  14. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  15. Piezoelectric Composites by Solid Freeform Fabrication: A Nature-Inspired Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Akdoğan, E. K.

    Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors are indispensable materials for use in transducer technology, as they inherently possess both direct (sensing) and converse (actuation) effects. A piezoelectric/electrostrictive sensor converts a mechanical input (displacement or force) into a measurable electrical output through piezoelectric/electrostrictive energy conversion. In the case of a piezoelectric, an applied mechanical force (stress) induces a voltage across the terminals of the transducer. On the other hand, an applied mechanical force induces a change in the capacitance of an electrostrictive transducer that could be electrically detected. Hence, the mechanical to electrical energy conversion is accomplished directly when a piezoelectric is used, while the same is obtained indirectly if the electroactive material of choice is an electrostrictor. Conversely, both piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials develop an elastic strain under an applied electric field. The said elastic strain is linearly proportional to the applied field in a piezoelectric, whereas electrostrictive coupling involves the second-order (quadratic) coupling of electric field with elastic strain. While piezoelectricity is possible only in noncentrosymetric point groups, electrostriction is observed in all solids, which make it a much more general solid-state phenomenon. Sensing and actuation functions can coexist in a given transducer by the intelligent use of such materials. Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors, therefore, constitute the backbone of modern transducer technology, as mechanical to electric energy (and vice versa) conversion can be accomplished with great efficiency in a way that is second to none among all phenomena known to date [1,2].

  16. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  17. On non-binary nature of the collisions of heavy hyperthermal particles with solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferleger, V.Kh. E-mail: root@ariel.tashkent.su; Wojciechowski, I.A

    2000-04-01

    The limits of applicability of the binary collision approximation for a description of scattering of atomic particles by a solid surface are discussed. The experimental data of energy losses of atoms of hyperthermal energies (HT) scattered by a solid surface were found to bring in evidence for the non-binary nature of collisions in the hyperthermal energy region (1-30 eV). The dependence of the energy losses on the initial energy of the particles and their angles of incidence was shown to be well described by the following model: the particle is being single-scattered by certain complex of surface atoms forming an effective mass. A contribution of the non-binary collisions to the processes of atomic and cluster sputtering is also discussed.

  18. Natural material adsorbed onto a polymer to enhance immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaque AP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula Barcelos Reinaque,1 Eduardo Luzía França,2 Edson Fredulin Scherer,3 Mayra Aparecida Côrtes,1 Francisco José Dutra Souto,4 Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França51Post Graduate Program in Material Science, 2Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, 3Post Graduate Program in Material Science, Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, 4Faculty of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, 5Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, BrazilBackground: In this study, we produced poly(ethylene glycol (PEG microspheres of different sizes and adsorbing a medicinal plant mixture, and verified their effect in vitro on the viability, superoxide production, and bactericidal activity of phagocytes in the blood.Methods: The medicinal plant mixture was adsorbed onto PEG microspheres and its effects were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.Results: Adsorption of the herbal mixture onto the PEG microspheres was achieved and the particles were internalized by phagocytes. PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture stimulated superoxide release, and activated scavenging and microbicidal activity in phagocytes. No differences in functional activity were observed when the phagocytes were not incubated with PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture.Conclusion: This system may be useful for the delivery of a variety of medicinal plants and can confer additional protection against infection. The data reported here suggest that a polymer adsorbed with a natural product is a treatment alternative for enhancing immune function.Keywords: natural product, polymer, adsorption, immune function, phagocytes

  19. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran AB Majid; Aznan Fazli Ismail; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg -1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year -1 ) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  20. Separation of some hazardous elements by natural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Shehata, M.K.K.; Sharaf El Deen, S.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study has been conducted to study the uptake of radio europium and radiocesium as representatives of fission products in addition to the element chromium as a heavy metal ion, straw and sugarcane residue as representatives of natural cheap materials. Radiometric measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of concerned elements were the techniques adopted in this work. Factors affecting the uptake behavior of the studied elements on different types of straw (Rice, wheat and maize) in addition to sugarcane residue were studied. Such factors are the Ph, contact time, ion concentration and type of media. The uptake % of Cr(III) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to reach 100% at Ph=1, while that of Cr(Vi) does not exceed 15% on the same samples at higher Ph values. While uptake % of Eu(III) reaches 75% with all studied materials. The uptake % of Cs(I) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to be 80% in a short time then decreases sharply

  1. Spiked natural matrix materials as quality assessment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiner, M.S.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has conducted the Quality Assessment Program since 1976 to evaluate the quality of the environmental radioactivity data, which is reported to the Department of Energy by as many as 42 commercial contractors involved in nuclear work. In this program, matrix materials of known radionuclide concentrations are distributed routinely to the contractors and the reported results are compared. The five matrices used are: soil, vegetation, animal tissue, water and filter paper. Environmental soil, vegetation and animal tissue are used, but the water and filter paper samples are prepared by spiking with known amounts of standard solutions traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. A summary of results is given to illustrate the successful operation of the program. Because of the difficulty and high cost of collecting large samples of natural matrix material and to increase the versatility of the program, an attempt was recently made to prepare the soil, vegetation and animal tissue samples with spiked solutions. A description of the preparation of these reference samples and the results of analyses are presented along with a discussion of the pitfalls and advantages of this approach. 19 refs.; 6 tabs

  2. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  3. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  4. Radiation protection and the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; MacDowell, P.

    1996-01-01

    There are many industries dealing with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), some of them without knowing that their industrial processes and/or their regular wastes involve radioactivity. However, an increasing number of industries that produce NORM wastes are being sued, wherever there is a legal framework to do so. In particular, NORM wastes produced for a long time by the oil industry became foci of legal battles in the United States and elsewhere. The ripple effect of these judicial battles will influence the decision making processes of NORM wastes producing industries, mostly because of the costs incurred by remedial and preventive actions concerning NORM contamination. The regulation of NORM will occur sooner or later, and such actions may become mandatory. A foreseeable consequence of such regulation is a change in attitude concerning the sources and materials associated with NORM. Among those industries likely to be affected one can mention: niobium; rare earth processing; oil production; phosphate; uranium mining and milling; zircon; water treatment; and waste water treatment. The paper will briefly review data on exempt concentration activities, as suggested by the basic safety standards based on realistic environmental and dosimetric models. These activity concentrations are compared with those found in a number of extractive industries, and may be used to establish derived limits from a pre-established dose limit. (author)

  5. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  6. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, P; Schwenn, P E; Bettinger, C J; Irimia-Vladu, M; Mostert, A B

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist. (review article)

  7. An investigation of the sorption/desorption of organics from natural waters by solid adsorbents and anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, B.M.; Sedlov, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The results of laboratory and operational tests at thermal and nuclear power stations on anion exchangers and solid adsorbents of makeup water treatment plants with regard to the sorption/desorption of organic substances in natural water and condensate are presented. The resins Amberlite trademark IRA-67, IRA-900, IRA-958Cl, Purolite registered 2 A-500P, Dowex TM3 Marathon, and others were tested. Retention of up to 60-80% of the ''organic'' material on the anion exchangers and organic absorbers installed at different places in the technological scheme of the water processing unit was attained. The possibility of a partial ''poisoning'' of the resins and the degradation of the working characteristics over the first year of operation are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Humidity effect on nanoscale electrochemistry in solid silver ion conductors and the dual nature of its locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, M Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-02-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically nonlocal cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and nonlocal) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  9. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules with solid portions of 5 mm or smaller: Their natural course and predictors of interval growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, Sang Min [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Air Force Education and Training Command, Aerospace Medical Group, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); McAdams, H.P. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the natural course of persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules (SSNs) with solid portions ≤5 mm and the clinico-radiological features that influence interval growth over follow-ups. From 2005 to 2013, the natural courses of 213 persistent SSNs in 213 patients were evaluated. To identify significant predictors of interval growth, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed. Among the 213 nodules, 136 were pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs; growth, 18; stable, 118) and 77 were part-solid GGNs with solid portions ≤5 mm (growth, 24; stable, 53). For all SSNs, lung cancer history (p = 0.001), part-solid GGNs (p < 0.001), and nodule diameter (p < 0.001) were significant predictors for interval growth. On subgroup analysis, nodule diameter was an independent predictor for the interval growth of both pure GGNs (p < 0.001), and part-solid GGNs (p = 0.037). For part-solid GGNs, lung cancer history (p = 0.002) was another significant predictor of the interval growth. Interval growth of pure GGNs ≥10 mm and part-solid GGNs ≥8 mm were significantly more frequent than in pure GGNs <10 mm (p < 0.001) and part-solid GGNs <8 mm (p = 0.003), respectively. The natural course of SSNs with solid portions ≤5 mm differed significantly according to their nodule type and nodule diameters, with which their management can be subdivided. (orig.)

  10. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  11. Review of Solid State Hydrogen Storage Methods Adopting Different Kinds of Novel Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renju Zacharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of advances in the technology of solid state hydrogen storage methods applying different kinds of novel materials is provided. Metallic and intermetallic hydrides, complex chemical hydride, nanostructured carbon materials, metal-doped carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, metal-doped metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks (COFs, and clathrates solid state hydrogen storage techniques are discussed. The studies on their hydrogen storage properties are in progress towards positive direction. Nevertheless, it is believed that these novel materials will offer far-reaching solutions to the onboard hydrogen storage problems in near future. The review begins with the deficiencies of current energy economy and discusses the various aspects of implementation of hydrogen energy based economy.

  12. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  13. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  14. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O Pinto, Tatiana; García, Andrés C; Guedes, Jair do N; do A Sobrinho, Nelson M B; Tavares, Orlando C H; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  15. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de O Pinto

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+ within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC, vermicompost solid residue (VCR and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  16. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  17. Geologic considerations for the subsurface injection of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladle, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    NORM waste consists of naturally occurring radioactive material associated with oil and gas operations as scale deposited in tubulars, surface piping, pumps, and other producing and processing equipment. NORM also occurs as sludge and produced sands at wellheads, transport vessels and tank bottoms. For disposal, NORM scale and sludge are separated from the tubulars and tank bottoms and ground to less than 100 microns and mixed into a slurry at the surface facility for disposal into a deep well injection interval below the Underground Sources of Drinking Water zone. This paper addresses two primary considerations: (1) subsurface geologic investigations which identify specific geologic horizons that have sufficient porosity and permeability to accept NORM slurries containing high total suspended solids concentrations, and (2) surface facility requirements. Generic and specific information, criteria, and examples are included in the paper to allow the application of the geologic principles to other areas or regions

  18. The Effect of Fluid and Solid Properties on the Auxetic Behavior of Porous Materials Having Rock-like Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, U.; Vanorio, T.; Kiss, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Materials with a negative Poisson's Ratio (PR), known as auxetics, exhibit the counterintuitive behavior of becoming wider when uniaxially stretched and thinner when compressed. Though negative PR is characteristic of polymer foams or cellular solids, tight as well as highly porous rocks have also been reported to exhibit a negative Poisson's ratio, both from dynamic (PRd) and static measurements. We propose a novel auxetic structure based on pore-space configuration observed in rocks. First, we performed 2D and 3D imaging of a pumice and tight basalt to analyze their rock microstructure as well as similarities to natural structures of auxetic materials - e.g., cork. Based on these analyses, we developed a theoretical auxetic 3D model consisting of rotating rigid bodies having pore configurations similar to those observed in rocks. To alleviate the mechanical assumption of rotating bodies, the theoretical model was modified to include crack-like features being represented by intersecting, elliptic cylinders. We then used a 3D printer to create a physical version of the modified model, whose PRd was tested. We also numerically explored how the compressibility of fluids located in the pore-space of the modified model as well as how the elastic properties of the material from which the model is made of affect its auxetic behavior. We conclude that for a porous medium composed of a single material saturated with a single fluid (a) the more compliant the fluid is and (b) the lower the PR of the solid material, the lower the PR value of the composite material.

  19. Evaluation of natural toxicity on MICROTOX solid-phase test. The pelitic normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorati, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Ausili, A.

    1999-01-01

    In sediment toxicity testing Microtox solid-phase test (SPT) is one of the most used and standardised bioassay. Nevertheless, its real sensitivity and discriminatory power is still unclear, because of several interferences principally related to the matrix composition. Using reference sediments, characterised with chemical and physical analysis, it was possible to find a significant relationship between their natural toxicity and the pelitic fraction that allows to estimate the natural component of the acute toxicity in contaminated samples. This relationship arrows a more sensitive and valid interpretation than raw data and it is used to develop a sediment toxicity index (STI) based on radio to reference (RTR) concept, applicable to harbour contaminated samples [it

  20. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  1. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in Ecuadorian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.; Enriquez, F.; Reinoso, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Many natural elements contain radioactive isotopes, and most of them are present in the soil. In the gas and oil industries the most important radio nuclides are Ra-226 from the decay series of U-238, and in lower grade Ra-228 from the decay series of Th-232. Water exit from the perforation and perforation mud in the Oil towers drowns the NORM materials. Changes in temperature and pressure, allows the presence of sulphates and carbonates in pipes and internal areas of equipment. A Ra and Ba similarity leads to the selective co-precipitation in mud and incrustations of radioisotopes. A measure made in the pipe lines show that these industries generate important doses overcoming the levels of exemption and even the limits of established doses. The research was done by finding a pipe at Shushufindi 52 B well of production near by Coca city in the Ecuadorian jungle. The 'Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica' (CEEA), supervises the pipe line and accessories that are used in PETROPRODUCION fields accomplishing the radiological characterization, identifying the useless pipes and separate them in order of take care the good ones. Meanwhile the identification of the radioactive isotopes the CEEA proceed with the isolation of the radioactive disposals. From 57.830 pipes and accessories there were 1.607 useless ones, 56.223 didn't show radioactivity. Those pipes were monitored from the PETRODUCCION'S warehouses in Coca, Lago Agrio and Guarumo from September 12 th 2005 to September 12 th 2006. The CEEA is interested in NORMS because inadvertent workers may get high levels of radioactivity exposition. The Oil industries should have a manual about the complete handling of these materials. (author)

  2. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials in a generic way allowing in-situ measurement and verification. Depending on a material''s classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. With these large costs at risk, the issues involved in making defensible decisions are ripe for closer scrutiny. In many cases, key issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding. The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Ultimate responsibility for this, of course, rests with radiological control or health physics organization of the individual site, but there are many measurements which can be performed by operations and generation organizations to simplify the process and virtually guarantee acceptance. Although this is not possible for all potential solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures, particularly some of large volumes and realizable cost savings. Mostly what is needed for this to happen are a few guiding rules, measurement procedures, and cross checks for potential pitfalls. Several examples are presented here and discussed that demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, Nityanand; Chattopadhyaya, M.C.; Wani, B.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The high operating temperature of SOFCs using zirconia based electrolyte have several restrictions on materials used as interconnect and sealing and also requires use of expensive ceramics. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 600-800 deg C will enable to use cheaper materials and reduce the cost of fabrication while keeping the high power density. Lanthanide gallates are considered to be very promising solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature (600-800 deg C) solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) due to their high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. These materials are prepared at very high temperature (∼1400 deg C), since it is known that at around 1100 deg C, solubilities of Sr and Mg in LaGaO 3 were close to zero. Hence in the present work perovskite oxides of Ln 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (Ln= Sm, Gd and x = 0.10, y=0.20) have been prepared by different methods i.e. solid state reaction, gel combustion and co-precipitation methods

  4. Chemical Affinity as Material Agency for Naturalizing Contextual Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Matsuno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical affinity involves the integration of two different types of interaction. One is the interaction operating between a pair of reactants while forming a chemical bond, and the other is the prior interaction between those reactants when they identify a reaction partner. The context of the environments under which chemical reactions proceed is identified by the interaction of the participating chemical reactants themselves unless the material process of internal measurement is substituted by theoretical artifacts in the form of imposed boundary conditions, as in the case, for example, of thermal equilibrium. The identification-interaction specific to each local participant serves as a preparation for the making of chemical bonds. The identification-interaction is intrinsically selective in precipitating those chemical bonds that are synthesized most rapidly among possible reactions. Once meta-stable products appear that mediate chemical syntheses and their partial decompositions without totally decomposing, those products would become selective because of their ongoing participation in the identification-interaction. One important natural example must have been the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  5. Radiation damage in natural materials: implications for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term effect of radiation damage on waste forms, either crystalline or glass, is a factor in the evaluation of the integrity of waste disposal mediums. Natural analogs, such as metamict minerals, provide one approach for the evaluaton of radiation damage effects that might be observed in crystalline waste forms, such as supercalcine or synroc. Metamict minerals are a special class of amorphous materials which were initially crystalline. Although the mechanism for the loss of crystallinity in these minerals (mostly actinide-containing oxides and silicates) is not clearly understood, damage caused by alpha particles and recoil nuclei is critical to the metamictization process. The study of metamict minerals allows the evaluation of long-term radiation damage effects, particularly changes in physical and chemical properties such as microfracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and solubility. In addition, structures susceptible to metamictization share some common properties: (1) complex compositions; (2) some degree of covalent bonding, instead of being ionic close-packed MO/sub x/ structures; and (3) channels or interstitial voids which may accommodate displaced atoms or absorbed water. On the basis of these empirical criteria, minerals such as pollucite, sodalite, nepheline and leucite warrant careful scrutiny as potential waste form phases. Phases with the monazite or fluorite structures are excellent candidates

  6. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) -- an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) was first recognized as a potential problem as long ago as 1904 in the oil fields of Canada. NORM later became an issue in the North Sea oil and gas production facilities in the early 1980's and became more widely recognized in the United States in 1986 during a routine well workover in the state of Mississippi. NORM contamination of oil and gas industry production equipment has since been identified world wide. The United States, including Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico region, the North Sea region, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and several Middle Eastern countries have all reported NORM contamination. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the international regulations or guidelines that have been promulgated concerning NORM in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the impact of these regulations or guidelines on non-oil and gas industries will also be discussed. A comparison of these regulations or guidelines to those generally found in the United States shall be drawn

  7. Dialectics of nature: Temporal and spatial regulation in material sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlong Xia; Lei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The cooperative interaction distance measure has been proposed as a novel law pertaining to dialectics of nature,and has been extensively carried out in the design of functional nanomaterials.However,the temporal and spatial dimensions are akin to yin and yang,and thus temporal regulation needs to be accounted for when implementing the above-mentioned principle.Here,we summarize recent advances in temporally and spatially regulated materials and devices.We showcase the temporal regulation of organic semiconductors for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) using the example of exciton lifetime manipulation.As an example of spatial regulation,we consider the distribution of charge carriers in core-shell quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals for modulating their optical properties.Long exciton lifetime can in principle increase the exciton diffussion length,which is desiable for high-efficiency large-area OPV devices.Spatially regulated QDs are highly valuable emitters for light-emitting applications.We aim to show that cooperative spatio-temporal regulation of nanomaterils is of vital importance to the development of functional devices.

  8. Ionic liquid-modified materials for solid-phase extraction and separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Canals, Antonio

    2012-02-17

    In recent years, materials science has propelled to the research forefront. Ionic liquids with unique and fascinating properties have also left their footprints to the developments of materials science during the last years. In this review we highlight some of their recent advances and provide an overview at the current status of ionic liquid-modified materials applied in solid-phase extraction, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrochromatography with reference to recent applications. In addition, the potential of ionic liquids in the modification of capillary inner wall in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The main target material modified with ionic liquids is silica, but polymers and monoliths have recently joined the studies. Although imidazolium is still clearly the most commonly used ionic liquid for the covalently modification of materials, the exploitation of pyridinium and phosphonium will most probably increase in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A mucosa-mimetic material for the mucoadhesion testing of thermogelling semi-solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jéssica Bassi; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Bruschi, Marcos L; Cook, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-d-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mucosae in the mucoadhesion testing of tablets and solution formulations. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this mucosa-mimetic material in the testing of thermogelling semi-solid formulations, which transition from solution to gel upon warming. Two methods for assessing mucoadhesion have been used; tensile testing and a flow-through system, which allow for investigation under dramatically different conditions. It was found that the mucosa-mimetic material was a good surrogate for buccal mucosa using both testing methods. This material may be used to replace animal tissue in these experiments, potentially reducing the number of laboratory animals used in studies of this type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron spin resonance and its implication on the maximum nuclear polarization of deuterated solid target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.

    2006-01-01

    ESR spectroscopy is an important tool in polarized solid target material research, since it allows us to study the paramagnetic centers, which are used for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The polarization behavior of the different target materials is strongly affected by the properties of these centers, which are added to the diamagnetic materials by chemical doping or irradiation. In particular, the ESR linewidth of the paramagnetic centers is a very important parameter, especially concerning the deuterated target materials. In this paper, the results of the first precise ESR measurements of the deuterated target materials at a DNP-relevant magnetic field of 2.5 T are presented. Moreover, these results allowed us to experimentally study the correlation between ESR linewidth and maximum deuteron polarization, as given by the spin-temperature theory

  11. Production and Evaluation of 236gNp and Reference Materials for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Cyrus Kouroush

    This thesis is based on the development of a radiochemical separation scheme capable of separating both 236gNp and 236Pu from a uranium target of natural isotopic composition ( 1 g uranium) and 200 MBq of fission decay products. The isobaric distribution of fission residues produced following the bombardment of a natural uranium target with a beam of 25 MeV protons has been evaluated. Decay analysis of thirteen isobarically distinct fission residues were carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at the UK National Physical Laboratory. Stoichiometric abundances were calculated via the determination of absolute activity concentrations associated with the longest-lived members of each isobaric chain. This technique was validated by computational modelling of likely sequential decay processes through an isobaric decay chain. The results were largely in agreement with previously published values for neutron bombardments on natural uranium at energies of 14 MeV. Higher relative yields of products with mass numbers A 110-130 were found, consistent with the increasing yield of these radionuclides as the bombarding energy is increased. Using literature values for the production cross-section for fusion of protons with uranium targets, it is estimated that an upper limit of approximately 250 Bq of activity from the 236Np ground state was produced in this experiment. Using a radiochemical separation scheme, Np and Pu fractions were separated from the produced fission decay products, with analyses of the target-based final reaction products made using Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-resolution alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry. In a separate research theme, reliable measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is of significance in order to comply with environmental regulations and for radiological protection purposes. The thesis describes the standardisation of three reference materials, namely Sand, Tuff and TiO2 which

  12. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  13. Natural gas as raw material for clean fuels and chemicals in the next decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colitti, M.

    1998-01-01

    Modern industry originates in a change of feedstock, the result of a never-ending quest for a better, cheaper raw material. In the origin, there was coal, a source of both energy and industrial feedstock, the so-called synthesis gas. Then, coal was replaced by liquid hydrocarbons, coming from a refinery or from wells of crude oil and gas. The passage from solid to liquids was part and parcel of a structural change which has produced an extraordinary acceleration of economic growth. We might hope that the same will happen when natural gas will comes in to displace the liquids. New feedstocks do not come in without a fight. It is not only a matter of price, but also of technology, and of the natural tendency of industries to protect their own investments in plants which are all of a sudden made to look old. Rather than repeat for the 'nth' time the list of technologies which can turn natural gas into a basic feedstock for oil and petrochemical industries, the author discusses how will companies decide upon this matter

  14. Laser Spectroscopy Characterization of Materials for Frequency Agile Solid State Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    Received 30 November 1987; revised manuscript received 29 January 1988) Single crystals of lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet (LaLuGaG) were grown by...group may be realized it gar- dleternte itf other materials can be found with spectral nets formed with lanthanum occupying tile dodecaliedrial ,1nl...array-pumped Nd: YAG and Nd: Lu: YAG lasers," Opt. inates and gallates with the malilite structure," in Tunable Lett. 14, 116-118 (1989). Solid State

  15. Decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Wells, C M; Young, A A; Minter, Z A; Johnson, C A; Payne, A N; McPherson, D C

    2013-08-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis Ames, B. anthracis ∆Sterne and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure to PES-Solid (a solid source of peracetic acid), including PES-Solid formulations with bacteriostatic surfactants. Spores (≥ 7 logs) were dried on seven different test materials and treated with three different PES-Solid formulations (or preneutralized controls) at room temperature for 15 min. There was either no spore survival or less than 1 log (<10 spores) of spore survival in 56 of 63 test combinations (strain, formulation and substrate). Less than 2.7 logs (<180 spores) survived in the remaining seven test combinations. The highest spore survival rates were seen on water-dispersible chemical agent resistant coating (CARC-W) and Naval ship topcoat (NTC). Electron microscopy and Coulter analysis showed that all spore structures were intact after spore inactivation with PES-Solid. Three PES-Solid formulations inactivated Bacillus spores that were dried on seven different materials. A test method was developed to show that PES-Solid formulations effectively inactivate Bacillus spores on different materials. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-06-14

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied.

  17. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied

  18. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  19. Natural radioactivity in granite stones and their radiological aspects as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Sunil, C.N.; Narashimha Nath, V.; Raghunath, T.; Prashanth Kumar, M.; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Tripati, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity in building and building decorating materials comes mainly from natural radioactive series like 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. India is one of the leading users of granite stones as it is preferred by decorators and architects. The knowledge of presence of natural radioactivity in these materials is required for the assessment of radiation exposure due to them. The objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity and radiological aspects of granite stones as building material

  20. A new method to study complex materials in solid state chemistry: application to chalcogenide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippens, P.E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    We show that a combined application of Moessbauer spectroscopy and other experimental tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance provides a coherent picture of the local electronic structure in chalcogenide materials. In order to develop this idea we propose an analysis of the Sn, Sb and Te local electronic structures for three different systems of materials. The first example concerns the In-Sn-S system. We show that Li insertion in In 16 Sn 4 S 32 leads to changes of the Sn oxidation states from Sn(IV) to Sn(II). The second example concerns materials of the Tl-Sb-S system. We show that variations of the 121 Sb Moessbauer isomer shift and surface of the first peak of the X-ray absorption spectra at the Sb L III edge can be linearly correlated because of the main influence of the Sb 5s electrons. This is explained by changes in the local environment of the Sb atoms. The last example concerns the crystalline phases of the Tl-Sn-Te system. The formal oxidation numbers of the Te atoms are determined from 125 Te Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are related to the different types of bonds involving the Te atoms in the Tl-Sn-Te compounds

  1. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochar as enhancement material in natural attenuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizakis, P.; Doherty, R.; Mendonça, C. A.; Costeira, R.; Allen, C.; Kulakov, L.

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have gained increasingly popularity over the last years especially in monitoring and clean-up of contaminants. BES are systems that combine wastewater treatment with energy production and resource recovery by harness the electro-activity of microorganisms. BESs consist of two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, separated with a proton-exchange membrane and an external electrical circuit which permits the passage of electrons generated at the anode to the cathode. Here we present a speed up of this natural breakdown process by providing a place to capture the anaerobic contaminants onto Biochar which captures the contaminants and also acts like a high surface area electrode passing electrons to the aerobic environments. For the purpose of this project, identical graphite and Teflon cells were constructed to compare and determine whether a Biochar BES was more efficient than a standard BES and more efficient than Biochar as sorption agent. Current production monitoring used as a real-time view of the process. The Biochar BES out performed both the BES and the Biochar BES in reduction of contaminants across the board. Our results suggest that the maximum growth and electro-activity of the microbial community occurred in the Biochar BES. This is in agreement with microbial findings which suggests that Biochar BES has a less diverse population which is more focused towards degradation and electroactive activity. For further understanding of the results, further geochemical analysis performed to provide additional insight on the process. This works shows clearly the applicability and efficiency of biochar among other electrode and sorption materials and electrical monitoring is versatile experimental tool to the remediation process and can be used as a non-destructive way to indirectly reveal process leading in understanding basic fundamental physical behaviours under specific experimental conditions.

  3. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  4. Materials science, nature and position of the subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongenburger, P.

    1984-01-01

    Materials science origin, history, future developments, and its present significance in particular with regard to energy and environment are discussed. By means of the examples of cadmium and tungsten, attention is paid to exhaustion and recovery of materials.

  5. Nanofluidics in two-dimensional layered materials : inspirations from nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jun; Feng, Yaping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and

  6. Review: the Contribution of both Nature and Nurture to Carcinogenesis and Progression in Solid Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Iain Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Cancer arises due to a series of somatic mutations that accumulate within the nucleus of a cell which enable the cell to proliferate in an unregulated manner. These mutations arise as a result of both endogenous and exogenous factors. Genes that are commonly mutated in cancer cells are involved in cell cycle regulation, growth and proliferation. It is known that both nature and nurture play important roles in cancer development through complex gene-environment interactions; however, the exact mechanism of these interactions in carcinogenesis is presently unclear. Key environmental factors that play a role in carcinogenesis include smoking, UV light and oncoviruses. Angiogenesis, inflammation and altered cell metabolism are important factors in carcinogenesis and are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although the exact mechanism of nature-nurture interactions in solid tumour formation are not yet fully understood, it is evident that neither nature nor nurture can be considered in isolation. By understanding more about gene-environment interactions, it is possible that cancer mortality could be reduced.

  7. Natural abundant solid state NMR studies in designed tripeptides for differentiation of multiple conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, S; Chatterjee, Bhaswati; Raghothama, S

    2009-10-01

    Solid state NMR (SSNMR) experiments on heteronuclei in natural abundance are described for three synthetically designed tripeptides Piv-(L)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-OMe (1), Piv-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-OMe (2), and Piv-(D)Pro-(L)Pro-(L)Phe-NHMe (3). These peptides exist in different conformation as shown by solution state NMR and single crystal X-ray analysis (Chatterjee et al., Chem Eur J 2008, 14, 6192). In this study, SSNMR has been used to probe the conformations of these peptides in their powder form. The (13)C spectrum of peptide (1) showed doubling of resonances corresponding to cis/cis form, unlike in solution where the similar doubling is attributed to cis/trans form. This has been confirmed by the chemical shift differences of C(beta) and C(gamma) carbon of Proline in peptide (1) both in solution and SSNMR. Peptide (2) and (3) provided single set of resonances which represented all trans form across the di-Proline segment. The results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis. Solid state (15)N resonances, especially from Proline residues provided additional information, which is normally not observable in solution state NMR. (1)H chemical shifts are also obtained from a two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation experiment between (1)H--(13)C. The results confirm the utility of NMR as a useful tool for identifying different conformers in peptides in the solid state. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 851-860, 2009.

  8. Natural radioactivity content and radon exhalation from materials used for construction and decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Scruzzi, E.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2007-02-01

    The present work deals with the measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from geological samples manufactured in Douala city and used as building materials. Nine types of building materials were surveyed for their natural radioactivity content using a hyper purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The absorbed dose rate in the samples investigated ranged from 28.5 to 66.6 nGy h -1 for brick samples, from 32.4 to 63.1 nGy h -1 for roofing tiles and was 30.3 nGy h -1 for concrete. External and internal hazard indexes were also estimated as defined by the European Commission. The study of radon exhalation rate from building materials is important for well understanding the individual contribution of each material to the total indoor radon exposure. Solid state nuclear track detectors, CR-39 were used for measuring the radon concentration from different materials. Samples were hermetically closed in glass vessels and the radon growth was followed as a function of time. Exploring the one-dimension radon transport equation, we derived the radon exhalation rate from the experimental measurement of α-track densities. The radon exhalation varied from (5.77±0.06) x 10 -5 to (7.61±0.07) x 10 -5 Bq cm -2 h -1 in bricks, from (5.79±0.05) x 10 -5 to (11.6±0.12) x 10 -5 in tiles and was (6.95±0.03) x 10 -5 Bq cm -2 h -1 in concrete. A positive correlation was found between uranium concentration measured with HPGe detector radon exhalation rate and radium content obtained using nuclear track detectors. (author)

  9. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  10. Production of candidate natural matrix reference materials for micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Fajgelj, A.; Zeiller, E.

    2002-01-01

    Homogeneity is considered to be the most vital prerequisite for a certified reference material (CRM); more stringent requirements exist for the analysis of small subsamples. Many of the natural matrix CRMs are prepared from bulk samples by grinding and milling them to a certain particle size, which is expected to provide a more homogenous material; however recommended sample sizes for biological and environmental reference materials are found to be more than 100 mg. Since the milling of materials is costly and has some drawbacks, natural materials that already occur as small particles such as air particulate matter, certain sediments, and cellular biological materials may form the basis of the required reference materials. The nature of these materials, i.e. naturally occurring particles, may provide ideal model reference material. We describe here the production of the materials and preliminary tests, the evaluation for the micro-analytical techniques

  11. Application progress of solid 29Si, 27Al NMR in the research of cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chunhua; Wang Xijian; Li Dongxu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is an effective method for the research of cement-based materials. Now it focuses on using solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR to research the hydration structure of the cement-based materials in cement chemistry. Purpose: A theoretical guidance is proposed for solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR technology used in cement chemistry research. Methods: We reviewed the application of solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR in the cement-based materials and analyzed the problem among the researches. Results: This paper introduced an fundamental, relevant-conditions and basic parameters of NMR, and studied the technical parameters of solid 29 Si and 27 Ai NMR together with the relationship among the hydration structure of cement based material. Moreover, this paper reviewed the related domestic and overseas achievements in the research of hydration structure of the cement-based materials using solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR. Conclusion: There were some problems in the research on cement-based materials by technology of solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR. NMR will promote the Hydration theory of cement-based material greatly. (authors)

  12. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  13. Solid-state resistance upset welding: A process with unique advantages for advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Solid-state resistance upset welding is suitable for joining many alloys that are difficult to weld using fusion processes. Since no melting takes place, the weld metal retains many of the characteristics of the base metal. Resulting welds have a hot worked structure, and thereby have higher strength than fusion welds in the same mate. Since the material being joined is not melted, compositional gradients are not introduced, second phase materials are minimally disrupted, and minor alloying elements, do not affect weldability. Solid-state upset welding has been adapted for fabrication of structures considered very large compared to typical resistance welding applications. The process has been used for closure of capsules, small vessels, and large containers. Welding emphasis has been on 304L stainless steel, the material for current applications. Other materials have, however, received enough attention to have demonstrated capability for joining alloys that are not readily weldable using fusion welding methods. A variety of other stainless steels (including A-286), superalloys (including TD nickel), refractory metals (including tungsten), and aluminum alloys (including 2024) have been successfully upset welded

  14. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  15. Laser-solid interaction and dynamics of the laser-ablated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.R.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Geohegan, D.B.; Wood, R.F.; Donato, J.M.; Liu, C.L.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid transformations through the liquid and vapor phases induced by laser-solid interactions are described by the authors' thermal model with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine the vaporization temperature under different surface pressure condition. Hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor during and after ablation is described by gas dynamic equations. These two models are coupled. Modeling results show that lower background pressure results lower laser energy density threshold for vaporization. The ablation rate and the amount of materials removed are proportional to the laser energy density above its threshold. The authors also demonstrate a dynamic source effect that accelerates the unsteady expansion of laser-ablated material in the direction perpendicular to the solid. A dynamic partial ionization effect is studied as well. A self-similar theory shows that the maximum expansion velocity is proportional to c s α, where 1 - α is the slope of the velocity profile. Numerical hydrodynamic modeling is in good agreement with the theory. With these effects, α is reduced. Therefore, the expansion front velocity is significantly higher than that from conventional models. The results are consistent with experiments. They further study how the plume propagates in high background gas condition. Under appropriate conditions, the plume is slowed down, separates with the background, is backward moving, and hits the solid surface. Then, it splits into two parts when it rebounds from the surface. The results from the modeling will be compared with experimental observations where possible

  16. Development of an instrument for measuring moisture deep into solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, R.; Walletun, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is of value in some applications to be able to detect humidity rather deep into a solid material, for example when determining the moisture content in the frame of buildings, in insulation or in biofuels. Common to these measurement problems is that it is difficult to measure moisture in the bulk of a solid, in contrast to the surface layers. In this report is described the principle and the functioning of an instrument to measure moisture at larger depths than other instruments that are available today. It is intended for use primarily on solid materials, not on gases or liquids. Field experience is also reported here. The principle of the measuring technique is nuclear: we have utilized the ability of hydrogen atoms to moderate (or brake) high energy neutrons. If there is hydrogen in the sample, fast neutrons will interact with the hydrogen atoms and one may detect and count low energy, so called thermal neutrons. The intensity of the slow neutron flux is proportional to the water content, if one assumes that hydrogen atoms are water, i.e. moisture

  17. Preparation of reference material for the measurement of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Tekaya, Malik

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare reference material for the calibration of gamma spectrometry, alpha and XRF .Many procedures of chemical preparation and radiological analysis of a reference material from Triple Superphosphate were tested. Several techniques and methods of measurement were used. In addition to a description and validation of these procedures, a study of repeatability was conducted which resulted in a positive characterization of this material.

  18. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  19. Inverse problems in complex material design: Applications to non-crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Parthapratim; Drabold, David; Elliott, Stephen

    The design of complex amorphous materials is one of the fundamental problems in disordered condensed-matter science. While impressive developments of ab-initio simulation methods during the past several decades have brought tremendous success in understanding materials property from micro- to mesoscopic length scales, a major drawback is that they fail to incorporate existing knowledge of the materials in simulation methodologies. Since an essential feature of materials design is the synergy between experiment and theory, a properly developed approach to design materials should be able to exploit all available knowledge of the materials from measured experimental data. In this talk, we will address the design of complex disordered materials as an inverse problem involving experimental data and available empirical information. We show that the problem can be posed as a multi-objective non-convex optimization program, which can be addressed using a number of recently-developed bio-inspired global optimization techniques. In particular, we will discuss how a population-based stochastic search procedure can be used to determine the structure of non-crystalline solids (e.g. a-SiH, a-SiO2, amorphous graphene, and Fe and Ni clusters). The work is partially supported by NSF under Grant Nos. DMR 1507166 and 1507670.

  20. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  1. Interaction between cobalt-containing materials and solid electrolyte on the basis of lanthanum gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronin, D.I.; Kuzin, B.L.; Sokolova, Yu.V.; Polyakova, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature interaction of solid electrolyte La 0.88 Sr 0.12 Mg 0.18 Ga 0.82 O 3-α with material of oxygen electrode La 0.7 Sr 0.3 CoO 3-δ (LSC) and with Co 3 O 4 and its influence on electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSO and Pt were studied using the methods of X-ray microanalysis, conductometry and impedance-spectroscopy. It was ascertained that the surface of the solid electrolyte contacting LSC or Co 3 O 4 at a temperature of 1100 Deg C and higher is enriched by cobalt. Electric conductivity of the electrolyte layer modified by cobalt is noticeably higher than that of the initial one. Electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSC is 1-2 ordered higher than the one characteristic of platinum electrode [ru

  2. Technical meeting on 'Review of solid and mobile fuels for partitioning and transmutation systems'. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The topics covered during the Meeting were divided into two Sessions. Session 1 - Qualification of Solid and Mobile Fuels delt with: Neutronic, fuel and material properties of a molten salt transmuter; and Preliminary analysis of transmutation fuels for KALIMER. Session 2 - Reactor Physics and Safety Characteristics of Transmutation Systems based on Solid and Mobile Fuel Types included the following: Activity in NEA for P and T area; IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation; The R and D activity in Brazil: A conceptual fast energy amplifier ADS cooled by helium double stata Th/U fuel cycle; Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development; Current Russian activities in P and T area; Pyrochemical reprocessing and nuclear spent fuel disposal project; Fuel selection criteria specific for double stratum minor actinide burners.

  3. 15 years investigation of solids and materials by positrons at the Martin-Luther-University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlubek, G.; Bruemmer, O.

    1985-01-01

    In reviewing 15 years of application at the Halle university, the positron annihilation is presented as important method for the investigation of electronic structure and crystal defects in solids and materials. The fundamentals of the measuring method positron annihilation and of the three measuring techniques positron lifetime spectra, angular correlation curves and Doppler broadening lines are discussed. For electronic structure studies the Fermi surface and pulse density are investigated in metals, alloys and semiconductor materials. The main part of research lies in the field of crystal defect investigations (formation and annealing mechanisms) in pure metals and nickel materials as well as of segregation processes in aluminium alloys. The method is important because of the possibility to get direct information about vacancy-like defects

  4. Molybdate Based Ceramic Negative-Electrode Materials for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Novel molybdate materials with varying Mo valence were synthesized as possible negative-electrode materials for solid oxide cells. The phase, stability, microstructure and electrical conductivity were characterized. The electrochemical activity for H2O and CO2 reduction and H2 and CO oxidation...... enhanced the electrocatalytic activity and electronic conductivity. The polarization resistances of the best molybdates were two orders of magnitude lower than that of donor-doped strontium titanates. Many of the molybdate materials were significantly activated by cathodic polarization, and they exhibited...... higher performance for cathodic (electrolysis) polarization than for anodic (fuel cell) polarization, which makes them especially interesting for use in electrolysis electrodes. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  5. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-01-01

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology

  6. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural
    decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh
    organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and
    transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found

  7. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  8. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin

    2014-01-18

    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation hazards for some natural and artificial building materials available in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, L.E.; Moldovan, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    As building materials are known to be the second source regarding high radon concentrations, it is very important to determine the amounts of natural radionuclides from every building material in use. In the present study the most frequently used Romanian natural (sand, gypsum, limestone) and artificial (portland cement, lime, clinker, electrofilter powder, fly ash, cement-lime plaster mortar, cement plaster mortar) building materials were analyzed. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent rate for people living in dwelling buildings made of these building materials under investigation were also calculated. The analysis was performed with gamma-ray spectrometry, with two hyper-pure germanium detectors. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were in the ranges: 5.2-511.8 Bq kg - 21 for 226 Ra; 0.6-92.6 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and -1 for 40 K, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in the fifty-one (51) samples varied from 9 to 603 Bq kg -1 . By calculating all the radioactivity indices (R aeq , H ext , I α , I yr ) it was found that all the building materials under investigation can be used to erect dwelling buildings. Except for sample SA6, SA7 and SA11 among the natural building materials and sample SG1, SG2, FAH1, CLM1, CM1 among the artificial building materials that are considered hazardous materials when are used in large quantities. (author)

  10. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  11. Materials flow through the household and reduction in domestic solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    Energy conservation programs are usually designed to reduce the waste associated with direct energy use for example, heating and lighting levels, and use of appliances. But householders can also influence energy consumption in other sectors. Their buying and consuming habits will affect the energy involved in extraction, production, transportation, use and disposal of commodities. Their attitudes and behavior will affect their neighbours' efforts at reducing materials throughput. Therefore, the household must be an important target in any effort to alter energy use patterns throughout society. The purpose of this study was to determine whether practical programs could be developed to reduce materials flows through the hosuehold. Since solid waste output is a very reliable measure of these flows, the question was posed from the perspective of reducing the generation of residential solid waste. In this context particular attention was given to the range of possible actions open to the householder himself. It would have been unrealistic, however, to ignore environmental design and other legislative options. The study is divided into three parts. The first attempts to identify those actions by the householder which will have the greatest effect in reducing the total environmental impact (including energy use) of the materials moving through the household. The second deals with the problem of persuading people to engage in these actions. The final part combines promising strategies with significant actions. The result is a series of program options which are assessed with respect to four criteria: potential significance for residential solid waste reduction, chances of success, ease of implementation, and costs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, Mark Alan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.

  13. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-11-19

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials in a generic way allowing in-situ measurement and verification. Depending on a material''s classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. With these large costs at risk, the issues involved in making defensible decisions are ripe for closer scrutiny. In many cases, key issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding. The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Ultimate responsibility for this, of course, rests with radiological control or health physics organization of the individual site, but there are many measurements which can be performed by operations and generation organizations to simplify the process and virtually guarantee acceptance. Although this is not possible for all potential solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures, particularly some of large volumes and realizable cost savings. Mostly what is needed for this to happen are a few guiding rules, measurement procedures, and cross checks for potential pitfalls. Several examples are presented here and discussed that demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.

  14. Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.A.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1993-11-01

    This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding

  15. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  16. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  17. Problems in the measurement of electron-dose distribution with film dosimeters inserted into solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Shuichi; Fukuda, Kyue; Tabata, Tatsuo; Okabe, Shigeru

    1981-01-01

    On the insertion of film dosimeters into solid materials, thin air gaps are formed. The influence of such gaps on measured profiles of depth-dose distributions was investigated for aluminum irradiated with collimated beams of 15-MeV electrons. Measurements were made by changing the gap width or the incidence angle of the electrons. The present results showed that streaming of incident electrons through the gaps resulted in the appearance of a peak and a minimum in a depth-dose curve measured. This effect was suppressed by the increase of the angle between the film and the electron-beam axis. (author)

  18. Developments of solid materials for UF6 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hebden, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Savina, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-11-15

    This project demonstrated that a device using majority Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) components could be used to collect uranium hexafluoride samples safely from gaseous or solid sources. The device was based on the successful Cristallini method developed by ABACC over the past 10 years. The system was designed to capture and store the UF6 as an inert fluoride salt to ease transportation regulations. In addition, the method was considerably faster than traditional cryogenic methods, collected enough material to perform analyses without undue waste, and could be used either inside a facility or in the storage yard.

  19. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission bases for control of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.; Cardille, F.P.; Feldman, C.; Gnugnoli, G.N.; Huffert, A.M.; Klementowicz, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering whether to proceed with rulemaking on the control of solid materials with very low levels of associated radioactivity. The current implementation of clearance by NRC licensees is the context for the decision. Inputs to the decision include information gathering efforts of the Commission in the areas of public workshops, dose assessments and inventories, the recommendations of the National Academies' National Research Council (NAs) on regulatory alternatives, and participation in international efforts by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  20. Nature of the "Orange" Material on Vesta From Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Schmedemann, N.; Becker, K. J.; OBrien, D. P.; Yamashita, N.; Peplowski, P. N.; Prettyman, T. H.; Li, J.-Y.; Coultis, E. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    From ground-based observations of Vesta, it is well-known that the vestan surface has a large variation in albedo. Analysis of images acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope allowed production of the first color maps of Vesta and showed a diverse surface in terms of reflectance. Thanks to images collected by the Dawn spacecraft at Vesta, it became obvious that these specific units observed previously can be linked to geological features. The presence of the darkest material mostly around impact craters and scattered in the Western hemisphere has been associated with carbonaceous chondrite contamination [4]; whereas the brightest materials are believed to result from exposure of unaltered material from the subsurface of Vesta (in fresh looking impact crater rims and in Rheasilvia's ejecta and rim remants). Here we focus on a distinct material characterized by a steep slope in the near-IR relative to all other kinds of materials found on Vesta. It was first detected when combining Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color images in Clementine false-color composites [5] during the Approach phase of the mission (100000 to 5200 km from Vesta). We investigate the mineralogical and elemental composition of this material and its relationship with the HEDs (Howardite-Eucrite- Diogenite group of meteorites).

  1. Evaluation of water-mimicking solid phantom materials for use in HDR and LDR brachytherapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Thieben, Maike; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2017-12-01

    In modern HDR or LDR brachytherapy with photon emitters, fast checks of the dose profiles generated in water or a water-equivalent phantom have to be available in the interest of patient safety. However, the commercially available brachytherapy photon sources cover a wide range of photon emission spectra, and the range of the in-phantom photon spectrum is further widened by Compton scattering, so that the achievement of water-mimicking properties of such phantoms involves high requirements on their atomic composition. In order to classify the degree of water equivalence of the numerous commercially available solid water-mimicking phantom materials and the energy ranges of their applicability, the radial profiles of the absorbed dose to water, D w, have been calculated using Monte Carlo simulations in these materials and in water phantoms of the same dimensions. This study includes the HDR therapy sources Nucletron Flexisource Co-60 HDR (60Co), Eckert und Ziegler BEBIG GmbH CSM-11 (137Cs), Implant Sciences Corporation HDR Yb-169 Source 4140 (169Yb) as well as the LDR therapy sources IsoRay Inc. Proxcelan CS-1 (131Cs), IsoAid Advantage I-125 IAI-125A (125I), and IsoAid Advantage Pd-103 IAPd-103A (103Pd). Thereby our previous comparison between phantom materials and water surrounding a Varian GammaMed Plus HDR therapy 192Ir source (Schoenfeld et al 2015) has been complemented. Simulations were performed in cylindrical phantoms consisting of either water or the materials RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, Plastic Water LR, Original Plastic Water (2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, polystyrene and PMMA. While for 192Ir, 137Cs and 60Co most phantom materials can be regarded as water equivalent, for 169Yb the materials Plastic Water LR, Plastic Water DT and RW1 appear as water equivalent. For the low-energy sources 106Pd, 131Cs and 125I, only Plastic Water LR can be classified as water equivalent.

  2. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Felix F; Foertsch, Tobias C; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A R; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm(2).

  3. Nanofluidics in two-dimensional layered materials: inspirations from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Feng, Yaping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-29

    With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials. Recently, inspired partially by the layered microstructure of nacre, the material design and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices have stepped into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics. Unique advantages of the 2D layered materials have been found, such as facile and scalable fabrication, high flux, efficient chemical modification, tunable channel size, etc. These features enable wide applications in, for example, biomimetic ion transport manipulation, molecular sieving, water treatment, and nanofluidic energy conversion and storage. This review highlights the recent progress, current challenges, and future perspectives in this emerging research field of "2D nanofluidics", with emphasis on the thought of bio-inspiration.

  4. Assessment of terrestrial naturally occurring radioactive Material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of natural radioactivity of 40K, 238U and 232Th in soils and mine tailings of Awo and Ede areas of Osunstate, Nigeria have been measured using a portable, advanced survey meter 992 Fluke Victoreen Gamma Scout Model for in-situ investigation and a 1 inch by 1 inch Cesium Iodide detector system.

  5. The water equivalence of solid materials used for dosimetry with small proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Pemler, Peter; Besserer, Juergen; Dellert, Matthias; Moosburger, Martin; Boer, Jorrit de; Pedroni, Eros; Boehringer, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Various solid materials are used instead of water for absolute dosimetry with small proton beams. This may result in a dose measurement different to that in water, even when the range of protons in the phantom material is considered correctly. This dose difference is caused by the diverse cross sections for inelastic nuclear scattering in water and in the phantom materials respectively. To estimate the magnitude of this effect, flux and dose measurements with a 177 MeV proton pencil beam having a width of 0.6 cm (FWHM) were performed. The proton flux and the deposited dose in the beam path were determined behind water, lucite, polyethylene, teflon, and aluminum of diverse thicknesses. The number of out-scattered protons due to inelastic nuclear scattering was determined for water and the different materials. The ratios of the number of scattered protons in the materials relative to that in water were found to be 1.20 for lucite, 1.16 for polyethylene, 1.22 for teflon, and 1.03 for aluminum. The difference between the deposited dose in water and in the phantom materials taken in the center of the proton pencil beam, was estimated from the flux measurements, always taking the different ranges of protons in the materials into account. The estimated dose difference relative to water in 15 cm water equivalent thickness was -2.3% for lucite, -1.7% for polyethylene, -2.5% for teflon, and -0.4% for aluminum. The dose deviation was verified by a measurement using an ionization chamber. It should be noted that the dose error is larger when the effective point of measurement in the material is deeper or when the energy is higher

  6. Decontamination of materials contaminated with Francisella philomiragia or MS2 bacteriophage using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Johnson, C A; Minter, Z A; Wells, C M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to develop test methods and evaluate survival of Francisella philomiragia cells and MS2 bacteriophage after exposure to PES-Solid (a solid source of peracetic acid) formulations with or without surfactants. Francisella philomiragia cells (≥7·6 log10 CFU) or MS2 bacteriophage (≥6·8 log10 PFU) were deposited on seven different test materials and treated with three different PES-Solid formulations, three different preneutralized samples and filter controls at room temperature for 15 min. There were 0-1·3 log10 CFU (6 log10 CFU/PFU F. philomiragia cells and/or MS2 bacteriophage on different materials. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Method for measurement of radon diffusion and solubility in solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andreas; Weber, Uli; Dickmann, Jannis; Breckow, Joachim; van Beek, Patrick; Schardt, Dieter; Kraft, Gerhard; Fournier, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    In order to study the permeation i.e. the diffusion and solubility of radon gas in biological material, a new setup was constructed and a novel analysis was applied to obtain diffusion and solubility coefficients. Thin slabs of solid materials were installed between detector housing and the surrounding radon exposure chamber of 50 Ls volume. In this setup radon can diffuse through thin test samples into a cylindrical volume of 5 mm height and 20 mm diameter and reach an α-particle detector. There the 5.49 MeV α-decay of the penetrating radon atoms is measured by a silicon surface barrier detector. The time dependent activities inside the small detector volume are recorded after injection of a known radon activity concentration into the outer chamber. Analyzing the time behavior of the integral α-activity from radon in the small vessel, both, the diffusion coefficient and solubility of the test material can be determined, based on a new mathematical model of the diffusion process concerning the special boundary conditions given by the experimental setup. These first measurements were intended as proof of concept for the detection system and the data analysis. Thin polyethylene foils (LDPE) were selected as material for the diffusion measurements and the results were in agreement with data from literature. In further measurements, we will concentrate on biological material like bone, fat and other tissues.

  8. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  9. Mechanism of chromium poisoning the conventional cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Guangsen; Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Xiao, Shuhao; Li, Baihai; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Chromium poisoning the La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 (LSM) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells is a critical issue that can strongly affect the stability. In this study, we evaluate the temperature distribution in a SOFC based on a 3D model and then combine conductivity test and material computation to reveal the effects of chromium in SUS430 stainless steels on LSM conductivities. The starch concentration in LSM pellets and the applied pressure on the contact with interconnect materials show close relationships with the chromium poisoning behavior. The density functional theory (DFT) computing results indicate that chromium atoms preferably adsorb on the MnO2-terminated and La (Sr)-O-terminated (001) surfaces. The resulting conclusions are expected to deeply understand mechanism of chromium deactivating conventional cathodes at some typical operational conditions, and offer crucial information to optimize the structure to avoid the poisoning effect.

  10. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature proton conductor (HTPC oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures (400–700 °C. The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  11. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    High temperature proton conductor (HTPC) oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400-700 0 C). The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs. (topical review)

  12. Numerical investigation of natural convection in two enclosures separated by anisotropic solid wall

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2014-10-28

    Purpose: The problem of natural convection in two cavities separated by an anisotropic central solid wall is considered numerically. When the thermal conductivity of the central wall is anisotropic, heat flux and temperature gradient vectors are no longer coincidence. This apparently has interesting influences on the heat and fluid flow patterns in this system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.Design/methodology/approach: In this work, several flow patterns have been investigated covering a wide range of Rayleigh number up to 108. Several thermal conductivity anisotropy scenarios of the central wall have been investigated including 0, 30, 60, 120 and 1501 principal anisotropy directions. The governing equations have been solved using control volume approach.Findings: Probably the most intriguing is that, for some anisotropy scenarios it is found that the temperature at the same elevation at the side of the central wall which is closer to the colder wall is higher than that at the side closer to the hot wall. Apparently this defies intuition which suggests the reverse to have happened. However, this behavior may be explained in light of the effect of anisotropy. Furthermore, the patterns of streamlines and temperature fields in the two enclosures also changes as a consequence of the change of the central wall temperatures for the different anisotropy scenarios.Originality/value: This work discusses a very interesting topic related to heat energy exchange among two compartments when the separating wall is anisotropic. In some anisotropy scenarios, this leads to more uniform distribution of Nusselt number than the case when the wall is isotropic. Interesting patterns of natural convection is investigated.

  13. Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Liu, Mingxian; Zhu, Dazhang; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Because of the rapid development of flexible electronics, it is important to develop high-performance flexible energy-storage devices, such as supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries. Compared with metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit higher power density, longer cycling life, and excellent safety, and they can be easily fabricated into all-solid-state devices by using polymer gel electrolytes. All-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have the advantages of being lightweight and flexible, thus showing great potential to be used as power sources for flexible portable electronics. Because of their high specific surface area and excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanocarbon materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, and so on) have been widely used as efficient electrode materials for flexible ASSSCs, and great achievements have been obtained. Here, the recent advances in flexible ASSSCs are summarized, from design strategies to fabrication techniques for nanocarbon electrodes and devices. Current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of a feeding device for solid material; Kiinteaen materiaalin syoettoelaitteen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). R and D Section

    1996-12-31

    Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. A pilot scale fuel feeder meeting the requirements of these processes has been designed and built by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The fuel feeder is capable of feeding both relatively dry and wet solid material into high pressure. The object of this project was to develop the pilot scale fuel feeder to commercial level. The project was financed by IVO and Bioenergia -research programme. The project included testing of the previously built pilot-feeder at real operating conditions using peat and wood biomass as feedstocks. The testing consisted of short term and long term runs, which provided information about the operation and durability of the feeder with different materials. The tests were carried out partly in IVO`s laboratory, and partly in Jyvaeskylae at the pressurized steam drying pilot plant owned by IVO and VTT. The pilot-feeder operated well and reliably during the feeding tests. The feeder was dissembled and the parts were inspected between and after the test periods. No sign of excessive wear of the parts was noticed. Based on the good experiences from the pilot scale testing a commercial feeder with the capacity of 50 m{sup 3}/h was designed

  15. Development of a feeding device for solid material; Kiinteaen materiaalin syoettoelaitteen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). R and D Section

    1995-12-31

    Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. A pilot scale fuel feeder meeting the requirements of these processes has been designed and built by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The fuel feeder is capable of feeding both relatively dry and wet solid material into high pressure. The object of this project was to develop the pilot scale fuel feeder to commercial level. The project was financed by IVO and Bioenergia -research programme. The project included testing of the previously built pilot-feeder at real operating conditions using peat and wood biomass as feedstocks. The testing consisted of short term and long term runs, which provided information about the operation and durability of the feeder with different materials. The tests were carried out partly in IVO`s laboratory, and partly in Jyvaeskylae at the pressurized steam drying pilot plant owned by IVO and VTT. The pilot-feeder operated well and reliably during the feeding tests. The feeder was dissembled and the parts were inspected between and after the test periods. No sign of excessive wear of the parts was noticed. Based on the good experiences from the pilot scale testing a commercial feeder with the capacity of 50 m{sup 3}/h was designed

  16. Evaluation of the measurement uncertainty when measuring the resistance of solid isolating materials to tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, E.; Beges, G.; Drnovsek, J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the measurement of the resistance of solid isolating materials to tracking. Two types of tracking were investigated: the proof tracking index (PTI) and the comparative tracking index (CTI). Evaluation of the measurement uncertainty in a case study was performed using a test method in accordance with the IEC 60112 standard. In the scope of the tests performed here, this particular test method was used to ensure the safety of electrical appliances. According to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard (EN ISO/IEC 17025), in the process of conformity assessment, the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty of the test method should be carried out. In the present article, possible influential parameters that are in accordance with the third and fourth editions of the standard IEC 60112 are discussed. The differences, ambiguities or lack of guidance referring to both editions of the standard are described in the article 'Ambiguities in technical standards—case study IEC 60112—measuring the resistance of solid isolating materials to tracking' (submitted for publication). Several hundred measurements were taken in the present experiments in order to form the basis for the results and conclusions presented. A specific problem of the test (according to the IEC 60112 standard) is the great variety of influential physical parameters (mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc) that can affect the results. At the end of the present article therefore, there is a histogram containing information on the contributions to the measurement uncertainty.

  17. Therapeutic potential and challenges of Natural killer cells in treatment of solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGras Navarro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing requiring one–to-one target engagement and site directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation and/ or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach.

  18. Divergent solid-phase synthesis of natural product-inspired bipartite cyclodepsipeptides : total synthesis of seragamide A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arndt, H.-D.; Rizzo, S.; Nöcker, Chr.; Wackchaure, V.N.; Milroy, L.G.; Bieker, V.; Calderon, A.; Tran, T.T.N.; Brand, S.; Dehmelt, L.; Waldmann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic natural products (NPs) and analogues thereof often show high affinity, selectivity, and metabolic stability, and methods for the synthesis of NP-like macrocycle collections are of major current interest. We report an efficient solid-phase/cyclorelease method for the synthesis of a

  19. Dissolved CO2 Increases Breakthrough Porosity in Natural Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Bruns, S; Stipp, S L S; Sørensen, H O

    2017-07-18

    When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO 2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface. The demand is determined by the reactive fluid composition while the supply relies on the flow field and the rock's microstructure. We tested three model scenarios and found that aqueous CO 2 dissolves porous media homogeneously, leading to large breakthrough porosity. In contrast, solutions without CO 2 develop elongated convective channels known as wormholes, with low breakthrough porosity. These different patterns are explained by the different apparent solubility of calcite in free drift systems. Our results indicate that CO 2 increases the reactive subvolume of porous media and reduces the amount of solid residual before reactive fluid can be fully channelized. Consequently, dissolved CO 2 may enhance contaminant mobilization near injection wellbores, undermine the mechanical sustainability of formation rocks and increase the likelihood of buoyance driven leakage through carbonate rich caprocks.

  20. Origin and nature of carbonaceous material in the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F; Wickramasinghe, N C [University Coll. of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff (UK)

    1977-12-22

    It is stated that astronomers generally believe that the carbonaceous material emerging from stars must be in the form of graphite, the most stable condensed form of carbon, and that such emergence must be confined to situations where the C/O ratio exceeds unity, such as in the atmospheres of carbon stars. It is argued here, however, that whilst this state of affairs remains valid for mass flows from stars of sufficiently low surface temperatures, it is not correct for low density flows from stars with colour temperatures approximately > 4,000 K (or for oscillatory stars with colour temperatures that go above 4,000 K for a portion of their cycle). In the latter case it is shown that carbonaceous material comprised mainly of polysaccharides will be able to condense. Implications for the origin of life on the Earth are discussed.

  1. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  2. The nature of quasistatic deformation in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    ROUX, JN

    2005-01-01

    Strain in granular materials in quasistatic conditions under varying stress originate in (I) contact deformation and (II) rearrangements of the contact network. Depending on sample history and applied load, eiter mechanism might dominate. One may thus define rheological regimes I and II accordingly. Their porperties are presented and illustrated here with discrete numerical simulatiion results in 2 and 3 dimensions. This discussion of the microscopic physical origin of strain is shown to clar...

  3. Recent progress in the development of anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowin, Peter I.; Petit, Christophe T.G.; Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Irvine, John T.S. [School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The field of research into solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode materials has been rapidly moving forward. In the four years since the last in-depth review significant advancements have been made in the reduction of the operating temperature and improvement of the performance of SOFCs. This progress report examines the developments in the field and looks to draw conclusions and inspiration from this research. A brief introduction is given to the field, followed by an overview of the principal previous materials. A detailed analysis of the developments of the last 4 years is given using a selection of the available literature, concentrating on metal-fluorite cermets and perovskite-based materials. This is followed by a consideration of alternate fuels for use in SOFCs and their associated problems and a short discussion on the effect of synthesis method on anode performance. The concluding remarks compile the significant developments in the field along with a consideration of the promise of future research. The recent progress in the development of anode materials for SOFCs based on oxygen ion conducting electrolytes is reviewed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  5. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  6. Development of advanced blanket materials for solid breeder blanket of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, E.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced solid breeding blanket design in the DEMO reactor requires the tritium breeder and neutron multiplier that can withstand the high temperature and high dose of neutron irradiation. Therefore, the development of such advanced blanket materials is indispensable. In this paper, the cooperation activities among JAERI, universities and industries in Japan on the development of these advanced materials are reported. Advanced tritium breeding material to prevent the grain growth in high temperature had to be developed because the tritium release behavior degraded by the grain growth. As one of such materials, TiO 2 -doped Li 2 TiO 3 has been studied, and TiO 2 -doped Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles was successfully fabricated. For the advanced neutron multiplier, the beryllium intermetallic compounds that have high melting point and good chemical stability have been studied. Some characterization of Be 12 Ti was studied. The pebble fabrication study for Be 12 Ti was also performed and Be 12 Ti pebbles were successfully fabricated. From these activities, the bright prospect to realize the DEMO blanket by the application of TiO 2 -doped Li 2 TiO 3 and beryllium intermetallic compounds was obtained. (author)

  7. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Rechberger, F; Seidel, C; Stietka, M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact test on natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, natural fibers like Sisal (Agave sisalana, Banana (Musa sepientum & Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa , Sisal and banana (hybrid , Roselle and banana (hybrid and Roselle and sisal (hybrid are fabricated with bio epoxy resin using molding method. In this work, impact strength of Sisal and banana (hybrid, Roselle and banana (hybridand Roselle and sisal (hybrid composite at dry and wet conditions were studied. Impact test were conducted izod impact testing machine. In this work micro structure of the specimens are scanned by the Scanning Electron Microscope.

  9. Naturally radioactivity in common building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Vanasundari, K.; Suganya, M.; Sivakumar, S.; Senthilkumar, G.; Chandramohan, J.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivity of some building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) internal radiation hazard index (H in ) and the activity utilization index (I) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Thiruvannamalai city is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  10. Un método de bajo costo para la determinación de cobre a nivel de vestigios en matrices de interés ambiental por espectrofotometría en fase sólida (EFS) A low-cost procedure for copper determination in natural waters and plant materials exploiting solid phase spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Gerardo Pellerano; Cesar Hamilton Romero; Hugo Arnoldo Acevedo; Francisco Antonio Vazquez

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining copper by solid phase spectrophotometry (SPS) was optimized using the Doehlert design. Copper(II) was sorbed on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin as a Cu(II)-1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex, at pH 7.0. Resin phase absorbances at 560 and 800 nm were measured directly. The detection limit was found to be 2.5 µg L-1. The relative standard deviation on ten replicate determinations of 10 µg Cu(II) in 1000 mL samples was 1.1%. The linear range of the d...

  11. Natural radioactivity and dose from marble used as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K radionuclides have been measured in marble chips collected from the factories in Islamabad, Pakistan using NaI(TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The spectrometry system was calibrated with a reference material RGI obtained from IAEA. The activity measurements were based upon 1460.8 keV, 1764.5 keV and 2614.6 keV energies of /sup 40/K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th, respectively. The spectrum stripping was done by matrix inversion method. The calculated specific activities of the marble samples varied from 4 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 63 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for /sup 40/K. The Radium equivalent activities, have been calculated and were found to vary from 26 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. These values are within the limit by OECD (Ra /sub eq/ < 370 Bq.kg/sup -1/) and ICRP-60 (Ra/sub eq/ < 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for the safe use of the construction materials for dwelling. H/sub ex/ and h/sub in/ indices ranges from 0.0716 to 0.2692 and from 0.0831 to 0.4277, respectively which are also less than 1 according to OECD limit. The calculated values of overall absorbed dose rate for marble samples varies from 13 nGy.h/sup -1/ to 46 nGy.h/sup -1/. Dose rate (nGy/hr per Bq/kg) using Ingree code at a distance of 1 meter from floor varies from 10 to 65 for /sup 226/Ra, 11 to 53 for /sup 232/Th and 1 to 9 for /sup 40/K for all marble samples. All these results indicate that marble samples under study are safe for use as a construction material. (author)

  12. Mimicking heme enzymes in the solid state: metal-organic materials with selectively encapsulated heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perman, Jason; Musselman, Ronald L; Zaworotko, Michael J; Vetromile, Carissa M

    2011-07-13

    To carry out essential life processes, nature has had to evolve heme enzymes capable of synthesizing and manipulating complex molecules. These proteins perform a plethora of chemical reactions utilizing a single iron porphyrin active site embedded within an evolutionarily designed protein pocket. We herein report the first class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) that mimic heme enzymes in terms of both structure and reactivity. The MOMzyme-1 class is based upon a prototypal MOM, HKUST-1, into which catalytically active metalloporphyrins are selectively encapsulated in a "ship-in-a-bottle" fashion within one of the three nanoscale cages that exist in HKUST-1. MOMs offer unparalleled levels of permanent porosity and their modular nature affords enormous diversity of structures and properties. The MOMzyme-1 class could therefore represent a new paradigm for heme biomimetic catalysis since it combines the activity of a homogeneous catalyst with the stability and recyclability of heterogeneous catalytic systems within a single material.

  13. Reuse of Solid Waste as Alternative Training Environment Conservation for Brewing in New Materials of Initial Education Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francys Yuviana Garrido Rojas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses its objective to establish the reuse of solid waste as an alternative training in environmental conservation by developing new materials for teachers C.E.I.N. "Sebastian Araujo Briceño" Ciudad Bolivia, Barinas Pedraza municipality. The nature of the research is qualitative, the method is Action Research. Key informants shall consist of the director of the institution, the educational coordinator and classroom teacher. The technique used is the semi-structured interview, and the interview guide instrument. The analysis of information will be done through coding, categorization, triangulation and structuring theories. In conclusion, through the experience that has been the research in this institution, it has been shown that there is a pressing need in terms of training of staff of the institution in relation to the importance and benefits of environmental conservation and Similarly, the need for teaching and learning materials accompanying the different spaces where children are served, all this reality, gives an important sense this study.

  14. Investigation on Suitability of Natural Fibre as Replacement Material for Table Tennis Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, A. M. T.; Fahrul Hassan, M.; Ismail, A. E.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Haq, R. H. Abdul; Rahman, M. N. A.; Yunos, M. Z.; Amin, M. H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of suitability natural fibre as replacement material for table tennis blade, due to low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally. Nowadays, natural fibre are one of the materials often used in replaced the main material on manufacturing sector, such as automotive, and construction. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the suitability natural fiber materials to replace wood as a structure on table tennis blade. The mechanical properties of the different natural fibre material were examined, and correlated with characteristic of table tennis blade. The natural fibre selected for the study are kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus), jute, hemp, sisal (Agave Sisalana) and ramie. A further comparison was made with the corresponding properties of each type of natural fiber using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). TRIZ has been used to determine the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade. The results showed the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade using natural fibre is kenaf natural fibre. The selected on suitability natural fibre used as main structure on table tennis blade are based on the characteristics need for good performance of table tennis blade, such as energy absorption, lightweight, strength and hardness. Therefore, it shows an opportunity for replacing existing materials with a higher strength, lower cost alternative that is environmentally friendly.

  15. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  16. Natural diatomite modified as novel hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Zheng, Chenghui; Yang, Huaming

    2014-03-01

    Natural diatomite, subjected to different modifications, is investigated for hydrogen adsorption capacities at room temperature. An effective metal-modified strategy is developed to disperse platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of diatomite. Hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine diatomite (diatomite) is 0.463 wt.% at 2.63 MPa and 298 K, among the highest of the known sorbents, while that of acid-thermally activated diatomite (A-diatomite) could reach up to 0.833 wt.% due to the appropriate pore properties by activation. By incorporation with a small amount of Pt and Pd ( 0.5 wt.%), hydrogen adsorption capacities are enhanced to 0.696 wt.% and 0.980 wt.%, respectively, indicating that activated diatomite shows interesting application in the field of hydrogen storage at room temperature.

  17. Solid diffusion control of the adsorption of basic dyes onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite in fixed bed columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARINKOVSKI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite was studied using a fixed bed column. The design procedures for fixed bed adsorption columns were investigated for two basic dyes Maxilon Goldgelb GL EC 400 % (MG-400 and Maxilon Schwarz FBL-01 300 % (MS-300. A computer program based on the solid diffusion control model has been developed. The model parameters: solid diffusion coefficient, DS, axial dispersion coefficient, DL and external mass transfer coefficient, kf for all the investigated systems were estimated by means of a best fit approach.

  18. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  19. Diatoms - nature materials with great potential for bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Đorđe P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are widespread unicellular photosynthetic algae that produce unique highly ordered siliceous cell wall, called frustule. Micro- to nanoporous structure with high surface area that can be easily modified, high mechanical resistance, unique optical features (light focusing and luminescence and biocompatibility make diatom frustule as a suitable raw material for the development of devices such as bio- and gas sensors, microfluidic particle sorting devices, supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, electroluminescent devices and drug delivery systems. Their wide availability in the form of fossil remains (diatomite or diatomaceous earth as well as easy cultivation in the artificial conditions further supports use of diatoms in many different fields of application. This review focused on the recent achievements in the diatom bioapplications such as drug delivery, biomolecules immobilization, bio- and gas sensing, since great progress was made in this field over the last several years.

  20. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  1. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  2. Testing the homogeneity of candidate reference materials by solid sampling - AAS and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Grobecker, K.-H.

    2002-01-01

    The necessity to quantify a natural material's homogeneity with respect to its elemental distribution prior to chemical analysis of a given aliquot is emphasised. Available instruments and methods to obtain the relevant information are described. Additionally the calculation of element specific, relative homogeneity factors, H E , and of a minimum sample mass M 5% to achieve 5% precision on a 95% confidence level is given. Especially, in the production and certification of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) this characteristic information should be determined in order to provide the user with additional inherent properties of the CRM to enable more economical use of the expensive material and to evaluate further systematic bias of the applied analytical technique. (author)

  3. MINIMUM SOLID AREA MODELS FOR THE EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF POROUS MATERIALS - A REFUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pabst

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimum solid area (MSA models are popular models for the calculation of the effective properties of porous materials and are frequently used to justify the use of a simple exponential relation for fitting purposes. In this contribution it is shown that MSA models, and the simple exponentials they support, are misleading and should be avoided. In particular, taking Young modulus and conductivity (thermal or electrical as examples, it is shown that MSA models are based on the unjustified (and unjustifiable hypothesis that the relative Young modulus and relative conductivity are identical, and moreover equal to the MSA fraction itself. This claim is generally false for isotropic materials, both random or periodic. Although indeed a very specific case exists in which this claim is true for the properties in one specific direction (viz., extremely anisotropic materials with translational invariance, in this specific case MSA models are redundant, because the relative properties are given exactly by the volume- or area-weighted arithmetic mean. It is shown that the mere existence of non-trivial cross-property relations is incompatible with the existence of MSA models. Finally, it is shown by numerical (finite-element modeling that MSA models provide incorrect results even in the simplest of the cases for which they were originally designed, i.e. for simple cubic packings of partially sintered isometric (initially spherical grains. Therefore, paraphrasing Box, MSA models are not only wrong, but also useless, and should be abandoned.

  4. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation.

  5. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation

  6. Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Low-Temperature Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.; Kesler, O.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is attractive for manufacturing solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because it allows functional layers to be built rapidly with controlled microstructures. The technique allows SOFCs that operate at low temperatures (500-700 °C) to be fabricated by spraying directly onto robust and inexpensive metallic supports. However, standard cathode materials used in commercial SOFCs exhibit high polarization resistances at low operating temperatures. Therefore, alternative cathode materials with high performance at low temperatures are essential to facilitate the use of metallic supports. Coatings of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) were fabricated on steel substrates using axial-injection APS. The thickness and microstructure of the coating layers were evaluated, and x-ray diffraction analysis was performed on the coatings to detect material decomposition and the formation of undesired phases in the plasma. These results determined the envelope of plasma spray parameters in which coatings of LSCF can be manufactured, and the range of conditions in which composite cathode coatings could potentially be manufactured.

  7. Radiation durability of polymeric materials in solid polymer electrolyzer for fusion tritium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the radiation durability of various polymeric materials applicable to a solid-polymer-electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer to be used in the tritium facility of fusion reactor. The SPE water electrolyzers are applied to the water detritiation system (WDS) of the ITER. In the ITER, an electrolyzer should keep its performance during two years operation in the tritiated water of 9TBq/kg, the design tritium concentration of the ITER. The tritium exposure of 9TBq/kg for two years is corresponding to the irradiation of no less than 530 kGy. In this study, the polymeric materials were irradiated with γ-rays or with electron beams at various conditions up to 1600 kGy at room temperature or at 343 K. The change in mechanical and functional properties were investigated by stress-strain measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and so on. Our selection of polymeric materials for a SPE water electrolyzer used in a radiation environment was Pt + Ir applied Nafion N117 ion exchange membrane, VITON O-ring seal and polyimide insulator. (author)

  8. High-temperature Raman spectroscopy of solid oxide fuel cell materials and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Michael B; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C; Walker, Robert A

    2006-09-07

    Chemical and material processes occurring in high temperature environments are difficult to quantify due to a lack of experimental methods that can probe directly the species present. In this letter, Raman spectroscopy is shown to be capable of identifying in-situ and noninvasively changes in material properties as well as the formation and disappearance of molecular species on surfaces at temperatures of 715 degrees C. The material, yttria-stabilized zirconia or YSZ, and the molecular species, Ni/NiO and nanocrystalline graphite, factor prominently in the chemistry of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Experiments demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to follow reversible oxidation/reduction kinetics of Ni/NiO as well as the rate of carbon disappearance when graphite, formed in-situ, is exposed to a weakly oxidizing atmosphere. In addition, the Raman active phonon mode of YSZ shows a temperature dependent shift that correlates closely with the expansion of the lattice parameter, thus providing a convenient internal diagnostic for identifying thermal gradients in high temperature systems. These findings provide direct insight into processes likely to occur in operational SOFCs and motivate the use of in-situ Raman spectroscopy to follow chemical processes in these high-temperature, electrochemically active environments.

  9. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-material classification of dry recyclables from municipal solid waste based on thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundupalli, Sathish Paulraj; Hait, Subrata; Thakur, Atul

    2017-12-01

    There has been a significant rise in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the last few decades due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Due to the lack of source segregation practice, a need for automated segregation of recyclables from MSW exists in the developing countries. This paper reports a thermal imaging based system for classifying useful recyclables from simulated MSW sample. Experimental results have demonstrated the possibility to use thermal imaging technique for classification and a robotic system for sorting of recyclables in a single process step. The reported classification system yields an accuracy in the range of 85-96% and is comparable with the existing single-material recyclable classification techniques. We believe that the reported thermal imaging based system can emerge as a viable and inexpensive large-scale classification-cum-sorting technology in recycling plants for processing MSW in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of lanthanides and actinides from solid materials with a fluorinated β-diketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Brauer, R.D.; Laintz, K.E.; Wai, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Direct extraction of metal ions by supercritical carbon dioxide is highly inefficient because of the charge neutralization requirement and the weak solute-solvent interactions. One suggested approach of extracting metal ions by supercritical carbon dioxide is to convert the charged species into metal chelates using a chelating agent in the fluid phase. This paper describes a method of extracting lanthanide and uranyl ions from a solid material by supercritical carbon dioxide containing a fluorinated beta-diketone, 2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-octanedione(FOD). Potential applications of this SFE method for separating the f-block elements from environmental samples are discussed. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Atomistic modeling of the solid-state chemistry of actinide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuller, Lindsay C.

    Materials that incorporate actinides are critical to the nuclear fuel cycle, either as nuclear fuels or nuclear waste forms. In this thesis, I examine four materials: i) ThO2-UO2 solid solutions, ii) binary ThO2-CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions, iii) Np-doped studtite, iv) Np-doped boltwoodite. Computational methods, particularly density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations, are used to determine the energetics and structures of these actinide-bearing materials. The solid-solution behavior of nuclear fuels and nuclear waste forms indicate the thermodynamic stability of the material, which is important for understanding the in-reactor fuel properties and long-term stability of used fuel. The ThxU1-xO2 and ThxCe 1-xO2 binaries are almost completely miscible; however, DeltaGmix reveals a small tendency for the systems to exsolve (e.g., DeltaEexsoln(Th xU1-xO2) = 0.13 kJ/(mol cations) at 750 K). Kinetic hindrances (e.g., interfacial energy) may inhibit exsolution, especially at the low temperatures necessary to stabilize the nanoscale exsolution lamellae observed in the ThxU1-xO2 and Ce xZr1-xO2 binaries. Miscibility in the Zr-bearing binaries is limited. At 1400 °C, only 3.6 and 0.09 mol% ZrO2 is miscible in CeO2 and ThO2, respectively. The incorporation of minor amounts of Np5+,6+ into uranium alteration phases, e.g., studtite [UO2O2 (H2O)4] or boltwoodite [K(UO2)(SiO 3OH)(H2O)1.5] , may limit the mobility of aqueous neptunyl complexes released from oxidized nuclear fuels. Np6+-incorporation into studtite requires less energy than Np5+-incorporation (e.g., with source/sink = Np2O5/UO 3 DeltaEincorp(Np6+) = 0.42 eV and DeltaEincorp(Np5+) = 1.12 eV). In addition, Np6+ is completely miscible in studtite at room temperature with respect to a hypothetical Np6+-studtite. Electronic structure calculations provide insight into Np-bonding in studtite. The Np 5f orbitals are within the band gap of studtite, resulting in the narrowing of the band gap

  13. Headspace solid-phase microextraction procedures for gas chromatographic analysis of biological fluids and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G A; Walker, V

    2000-12-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a new solventless sample preparation technique that is finding wide usage. This review provides updated information on headspace SPME with gas chromatographic separation for the extraction and measurement of volatile and semivolatile analytes in biological fluids and materials. Firstly the background to the technique is given in terms of apparatus, fibres used, extraction conditions and derivatisation procedures. Then the different matrices, urine, blood, faeces, breast milk, hair, breath and saliva are considered separately. For each, methods appropriate for the analysis of drugs and metabolites, solvents and chemicals, anaesthetics, pesticides, organometallics and endogenous compounds are reviewed and the main experimental conditions outlined with specific examples. Then finally, the future potential of SPME for the analysis of biological samples in terms of the development of new devices and fibre chemistries and its coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography is discussed.

  14. Two and three dimensional electron backscattered diffraction analysis of solid oxide cells materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath

    in solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell. Conductivity of STN is one of the important properties that researchers desire to improve. Grin boundary conductivity contributes to the overall conductivity of the STN. Grain boundary density controlled by mainly grain growth in material processing. Grain......There are two main technique were developed in this work: a technique to calculate grain boundary energy and pressure and a technique to measure lattice constant from EBSD. The techniques were applied to Nb-doped Strontium titanate (STN) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which are commonly used...... boundary migration in grain growth involves grain boundary mobility and net pressure on it. Thus grain boundary energy and pressure of STN were calculated in this work. Secondary phase is undesired in STN and YSZ synthesis. The secondary phase in ceramics with the same compounds can have different lattice...

  15. Silica nanoparticles produced by DC arc plasma from a solid raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles in experimental atmospheric pressure plasma reactor on the basis of DC arc plasma generator was presented in this paper. Solid high-silica raw materials such as diatomite from Kamyshlovskoye deposit in Russia, quartzite from Chupinskoye deposit in Russia and milled window glass were used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized based on their morphology, chemical composition and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, nitrogen absorption (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized products. The obtained silica nanoparticles are agglomerated, have spherical shape and primary diameters between 10-300 nm. All samples of synthesized nanopowders were compared with commercial nanopowders.

  16. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32......Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...

  17. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  18. Compatibility analysis of material and energy recovery in a regional solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2003-01-01

    The rising prices of raw materials and concerns about energy conservation have resulted in an increasing interest in the simultaneous recovery of materials and energy from waste streams. Compatibility exists for several economic, environmental, and managerial reasons. Installing an on-site or off-site presorting facility before an incinerator could be a feasible alternative to achieve both goals if household recycling programs cannot succeed in local communities. However, the regional impacts of presorting solid waste on a waste-to-energy facility remain unclear because of the inherent complexity of solid waste compositions and properties over different areas. This paper applies a system-based approach to assess the impact of installing a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) process before an incinerator. Such an RDF process, consisting of standard unit operations of shredding, magnetic separation, trommel screening, and air classification, might be useful for integrating the recycling and presorting efforts for a large-scale municipal incinerator from a regional sense. An optimization modeling analysis is performed to characterize such integration potential so that the optimal size of the RDF process and associated shipping patterns for flow control can be foreseen. It aims at exploring how the waste inflows with different rates of generation, physical and chemical compositions, and heating values collected from differing administrative districts can be processed by either a centralized presorting facility or an incinerator to meet both the energy recovery and throughput requirements. A case study conducted in Taipei County, which is one of the most densely populated metropolitan areas in Taiwan, further confirms the application potential of such a cost-benefit analysis.

  19. New problems in solid-state chemistry solved by high pressure conditions: an exciting perspective for preparing new materials

    OpenAIRE

    Demazeau , Gérard

    1988-01-01

    International audience; The high-pressure technique is an efficient tool in solid-state chemistry for preparing new materials of low stability or metastable character. During the last 20 years, this technique has been used and developed especially in three principal areas : synthesis of new materials, either for a better basic approach of scientific problems or for industrial applications studies of structural transformations in situ evolution of some physical properties of materials under pr...

  20. Trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials in 'Non-traditional fertilizers' used in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assibey, E. O.

    2013-07-01

    by international standards (Canada and Hungary and Washington State) except for Cu and Cd. However, all toxic trace elements were within allowable limits projected by the SUIT 25 model. Minimum guaranteed nutrients other than Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium determined were largely found to be below levels set by the part III of Act 803- Fertilizer Control and its regulations even for the companies who declared the results on their labels. Generally, the activity concentrations in both the liquid and solid fertilizers were found to be in the order K-40 > Th-232> U-238. The activity concentrations and hazard indices (Radium equivalent, Dose rate and Representative level) for the natural radionuclides U-238 and Th-232 were found to be within safety limits and world average figures. However, the activity concentrations and computed hazard indices for K-40 in some products such as SKMKi were higher than the world average and standards set by United Nations scientific Committee for Effect of Atomic Radiations (UNSCEAR). It was found from the Multivariate analysis that the toxic element Cd clustered with nutrients Zn and Fe, indicating that Cd might have been introduced during the process of nutrient addition to the fertilizers in the form of chelates. The natural radionuclides, 232 Th and 238 U also largely grouped together indicating that they are from a common source rock. The naturally occurring radioactive material K-40 also groups with Na, Br and partially with K indicating their common origin. The results from the cluster analysis, principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation show good agreement and Pearson's correlation show good agreement and suggest that all the liquid fertilizers can be grouped into five major groups with respect to their elemental contents. The CA, PCA and Pearson's correlation analysis for the solid samples also indicate similarities of 3 major clusters with sub-groupings and 5 components respectively. In conclusion, the dangers

  1. Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin-the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannow, J; Benjamins, J-W; Wohlert, J

    2017-01-01

    to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled...... into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading....

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  3. Lanthanum chromite materials as potential symmetrical electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Morales, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A commonly used interconnector material has been tested as electrode for a new concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, where the same material could be used, simultaneously, as interconnector, anode and cathode. We have found that a typical substituted chromite, such as La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC can be considered a good candidate for such configuration, due to its high electronic conductivity in both reducing and oxidising conditions, and moderate catalytic properties for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. The symmetrical design renders performances of 100 mWcm-2 at 950ºC, using O2 and H2 as oxidant and fuel respectively. Performances exceeding 300 mWcm-2 can be predicted for a 100μm-thick YSZ electrolyte.

    Un material comúnmente utilizado como interconector ha sido probado como electrodo para un nuevo concepto de Pila de Combustible de Óxidos Sólido, en el cual el mismo material se utiliza, simultáneamente, como interconector, ánodo y cátodo. Hemos encontrado que una cromita típica como La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC puede ser considerada una buena candidata para dicha configuración, debido a sus altas conductividades eléctricas tanto en condiciones reductoras como oxidantes y una aceptable actividad catalítica para la reducción del oxígeno y la oxidación del hidrógeno. El diseño simétrico permite obtener rendimientos del orden de 100mWcm-2 a 950ºC, utilizando O2 e H2 como oxidante y combustible, respectivamente. Rendimientos que superan los 300mWcm-2 pueden predecirse para pilas con electrolitos de YSZ de 100 μm de grosor.

  4. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  5. Uranium analysis in water flowing by the nuclear track detection method on solid dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arambula, H.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was threefold: to study the content of uranium in tap and spring water, to establish a technique for the quantitative analysis for the presence of uranium in liquids, and to test the qualities as detector fission fragments of three solid insulator materials using the nuclear tracks register method. The latter allows for the measurement of concentrations of fissile elements up to 10 -12 gr/gm employing (n, f.f.) reactions. The test samples were of tap water and of water from six fresh water springs located in San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato. Glass, lexan polycarbonate and muscovite mica were the detector materials used. The technique consisted in evaporating the water from the test samples, which had been previously placed upon the detector materials, and in doing the same for the standard control sample solutions having known concentrations of uranium. All the samples were then irradiated with thermal neutrons, and the 235 U, present in the samples, fissioned. The fission fragments produced permanent damage on the detectors, known as latent tracks. A specific corroding chemical was then applied to each detector which caused the latent tracks to dissolve into grooves. Known as etching tracks, these grooves were microscopically visible and could be measured for track density (tracks/mm 2 ). The concentrations of uranium present in the test samples were measured by comparing the track densities of the test samples with those of the standard control samples. The concentration of uranium found in the spring water samples ranged from 0.09 to 0.89 μqr.U/1, and those of tap water, from 0.18 to 0.19 μqr U/1. Lexan polycarbonate and muscovite mica proved to be better, as detectors, than glass. Glass for quantitative analysis, we found not recommendable as a detector material because of its alterable composition in the presence of uranium. (author)

  6. Reconstruction of structure and function in tissue engineering of solid organs: Toward simulation of natural development based on decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chen-Xi; Sui, Bing-Dong; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Qiu, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Pan; Jin, Yan

    2018-04-27

    Failure of solid organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidney, remains a major cause of the world's mortality due to critical shortage of donor organs. Tissue engineering, which uses elements including cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to fabricate functional organs in vitro, is a promising strategy to mitigate the scarcity of transplantable organs. Within recent years, different construction strategies that guide the combination of tissue engineering elements have been applied in solid organ tissue engineering and have achieved much progress. Most attractively, construction strategy based on whole-organ decellularization has become a popular and promising approach, because the overall structure of extracellular matrix can be well preserved. However, despite the preservation of whole structure, the current constructs derived from decellularization-based strategy still perform partial functions of solid organs, due to several challenges, including preservation of functional extracellular matrix structure, implementation of functional recellularization, formation of functional vascular network, and realization of long-term functional integration. This review overviews the status quo of solid organ tissue engineering, including both advances and challenges. We have also put forward a few techniques with potential to solve the challenges, mainly focusing on decellularization-based construction strategy. We propose that the primary concept for constructing tissue-engineered solid organs is fabricating functional organs based on intact structure via simulating the natural development and regeneration processes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  8. Risk analysis and protective measures for occupationally workers with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Elevated concentrations of these radionuclides are often found in certain geological materials, namely igneous rocks and ores. Human activities that exploit these resources may lead to enhanced concentrations of radionuclides (often referred to as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TE-NORM). Enhanced levels of natural background radiation are encountered in many occupational industrial activities involving a large number of workers. Uncontrolled activities associated with TE-NORM can contaminate the environment and pose a risk to human health. This risk can be alleviated by the adoption of controls to identify where NORM is present; and cleaning the NORM-contaminated equipment and waste management while protecting workers. The main objective of this study is to investigate the natural radioactivity and the hazard parameters in the TE-NORM samples from different industrial activities. Also to describe the models and develop the computer codes that allow one to estimate the risk of cancer resulting from any specified dose of ionizing radiation for occupationally workers in different industrial activities. The present study deals with 50 different samples. This waste generated from petroleum fields, phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples. The radon exhalation rates calculated using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39). The value of radon exhalation rate 58.82±5.3 x10 3 , 4.28±0.49 x10 3 and 0.306±0.025 x10 3 Bq/m 2 h for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The value of radon exhalation rate 82.67±7.98, 62.58 ±5.7, 46.16 ±3.91 and 198.51±18.68 Bq/m 2 h for phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples, respectively. The 226 Ra activity concentrations were 301.4±771.5, 52.1±438 and 2.56±55.37 kBq/kg for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The

  9. Anthropogenic materials and products containing natural radionuclides. Pt. 1a. Radiation properties of raw materials and waste materials. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Roehrer, J.; Lehmann, K.H.

    1995-12-01

    Cased on the literature study, the publication presents relevant data on raw materials and wastes containing natural radionuclides. The study is part 1a of the project on ''Anthropogenic materials and waste materials containing natural radionuclides''. Part 1 of the project gives data and information on about 100 different materials and wastes or products for household or industrial applications which contain significant amounts of natural radioactivity. In addition, part 1 presents for some of these materials information on their applications, consumption, radioactivity and resulting radiation doses. The raw materials and waste materials on the list in part 1 are characterised in this 1a report. Wherever appropriate, two or more materials are dealt with in one chapter, as e.g. felspar and felspar sands (pegmatite), talcum, and soapstone. The wastes are dealt with in the chapters discussing the relevant raw materials. The information given is as derived from the literature and does not include comments or evaluation by the authors of this report. Whenever the literature study did not yield information on radiological aspects of a material on the list, an appropriate notice is given. (Orig./DG) [de

  10. The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, A N

    2010-11-10

    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  11. Crack nucleation in solid materials under external load - simulations with the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klejment Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of cracking processes require an appropriate numerical technique. Classical engineering approach to the problem has its roots in the continuum mechanics and is based mainly on the Finite Element Method. This technique allows simulations of both elastic and large deformation processes, so it is very popular in the engineering applications. However, a final effect of cracking - fragmentation of an object at hand can hardly be described by this approach in a numerically efficient way since it requires a solution of a problem of nontrivial evolving in time boundary conditions. We focused our attention on the Discrete Element Method (DEM, which by definition implies “molecular” construction of the matter. The basic idea behind DEM is to represent an investigated body as an assemblage of discrete particles interacting with each other. Breaking interaction bonds between particles induced by external forces imeditelly implies creation/evolution of boundary conditions. In this study we used the DEM approach to simulate cracking process in the three dimensional solid material under external tension. The used numerical model, although higly simplified, can be used to describe behaviour of such materials like thin films, biological tissues, metal coatings, to name a few.

  12. Amyloid Fibrils as Building Blocks for Natural and Artificial Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Tuomas P J; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Proteinaceous materials based on the amyloid core structure have recently been discovered at the origin of biological functionality in a remarkably diverse set of roles, and attention is increasingly turning towards such structures as the basis of artificial self-assembling materials. These roles contrast markedly with the original picture of amyloid fibrils as inherently pathological structures. Here we outline the salient features of this class of functional materials, both in the context of the functional roles that have been revealed for amyloid fibrils in nature, as well as in relation to their potential as artificial materials. We discuss how amyloid materials exemplify the emergence of function from protein self-assembly at multiple length scales. We focus on the connections between mesoscale structure and material function, and demonstrate how the natural examples of functional amyloids illuminate the potential applications for future artificial protein based materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells based on doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify a materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Towards this goal, alternating current complex impedance spectroscopy was employed as a tool to study electrode polarization effects in symmetrical cells employing strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte. Several cathode materials were investigated including strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), Strontium and iron doped lanthanum cobaltate (LSCF), LSM-LSGM, and LSCF-LSGM composites. Investigated Anode materials included nickel-gadolinium or lanthanum doped cerium oxide (Ni-GDC, or Ni-LDC) composites. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the symmetrical cells were obtained as a function of temperature, time, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. Based on these studies, the single phase LSM electrode had the highest polarization resistance among the cathode materials. The mixed-conducting LSCF electrode had polarization resistance orders of magnitude lower than that of the LSM-LSGM composite electrodes. Although incorporating LSGM in the LSCF electrode did not reduce the cell polarization resistance significantly, it could reduce the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the LSCF electrodes and LSGM electrolyte. Moreover, the polarization resistance of the LSCF electrode decreased asymptotically as the electrode thickness was increased thus suggesting that the electrode thickness needed not be thicker than this asymptotic limit. On the anode side of the IT-SOFC, Ni reacted with LSGM electrolyte, and lanthanum diffusion occurred from the LSGM electrolyte to the GDC barrier layer, which was between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode. However, LDC served as an effective barrier layer. Ni-LDC (70 v% Ni) anode had the largest polarization resistance, while all other anode materials, i.e. Ni-LDC (50 v% Ni), Ni-GDC (70 v% NO, and Ni-GDC (50 v% Ni), had similar polarization

  14. Process and apparatus for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A

    1933-09-18

    A process is described for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid and semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils, whereby the mixture is first heated to a high temperature; the heated products are introduced into a coking zone, where vapors are separated from nonvaporous residue afterwards to be cracked and condensed, characterized in that the mixture is heated to a high temperature under substantially noncoking conditions and that nonvaporous residue obtained in the coking zone is coked as a relatively thin layer on an externally intensely heated surface, preferably of heat-conducting, fireproof material, such as carborundum, fused-aluminum oxide, or clay.

  15. Preconcentrate of thorium in solid phase and its direct determination by X-ray fluorescence in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Marcelo S. de; Domingues, Maria de Lourdes F.; Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Cunha, Jose Waldemar S.D. da

    2000-01-01

    This paper describe a methodology to pre concentrate thorium from natural water samples by using solid phase extraction (SPE) before its direct determination by X-ray fluorescence. Polyurethane foam supporting 2- ethyl hexyl phosfonic acid was used as SPE. The extraction was maximum at 0.25 mol/L in hydrochloric acid, for 30 minutes of shaking time. At least 8 mg/L thorium could be determined what allowed us to apply this methodology successfully for determination of thorium in natural water reference samples. (author)

  16. Sorption-desorption processes of radioisotopes with solid materials from liquid releases and atmosphere deposits. The distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)), its uses, limitations, and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene

    1979-03-01

    The various sorption-desorption processes of radionuclides with environmental materials are presented. The parameters governing the distribution coefficient are reviewed in the light of various examples. The factors affecting equilibria between the different phases are: reaction time, concentration of the solid phase, water quality, salinity, competition between ions, concentration of radioisotopes or stable isotopes, pH of the mobile phase, particle diameter, chemical form of the radioisotopes, nature of the solid phase, temperature. The effects of the biological parameters on the distribution coefficient are discussed. Biological processes affect the main chemical transformations: mineralization, insolubilization, oxidation-reduction, complexation, ... The importance of these processes is demonstrated by a number of examples in various media. Finally, the practical use of Ksub(d) in the assessment of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is developed, with special emphasis on the limits of its use in siting studies and its essential interest in specifying pathways and capacity of a river system [fr

  17. Reassembling Solid Materials by Femtosecond Laser Ablation: Case of Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuo, Yukari

    2013-06-01

    Through atomization and ionization, we could completely alter the composition of a nonconductive material, aluminum nitride, by femtosecond laser ablation. Preferential production of pure aluminum cluster cations Aln+ (n≤32) reflects not only their higher energetic stability compared with mixed clusters AlnNm+ but also completion of thermal relaxation in ablation plasma. Observation of metastable dissociation of Aln+ indicates that cluster cations have still enough internal energy for dissociation to occur, although the process is much slower than the cluster formation. Almost no cluster formation has been observed after nanosecond laser ablation of aluminum nitride, which highlights the distinct nature of ablation plasma produced by femtosecond laser ablation.

  18. Effects of porosity on seismic velocities, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of solid materials and rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generalized mixture rule (GMR is used to provide a unified framework for describing Young's (E, shear (G and bulk (K moduli, Lame parameter (λ, and P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs as a function of porosity in various isotropic materials such as metals, ceramics and rocks. The characteristic J values of the GMR for E, G, K and λ of each material are systematically different and display consistent correlations with the Poisson's ratio of the nonporous material (ν0. For the materials dominated by corner-shaped pores, the fixed point at which the effective Poisson's ratio (ν remains constant is at ν0 = 0.2, and J(G > J(E > J(K > J(λ and J(G  0.2 and ν0  J(Vp and J(Vs  0.2 and ν0  0.2 and ν0 = 0.2, respectively. For natural rocks containing thin-disk-shaped pores parallel to mineral cleavages, grain boundaries and foliation, however, the ν fixed point decreases nonlinearly with decreasing pore aspect ratio (α: width/length. With increasing depth or pressure, cracks with smaller α values are progressively closed, making the ν fixed point rise and finally reach to the point at ν0 = 0.2.

  19. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology

  20. Co-free, iron perovskites as cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shu-en [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Alonso, Jose Antonio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Goodenough, John B. [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a Co-free solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based upon Fe mixed oxides that gives an extraordinary performance in test-cells with H{sub 2} as fuel. As cathode material, the perovskite Sr{sub 0.9}K{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (SKFO) has been selected since it has an excellent ionic and electronic conductivity and long-term stability under oxidizing conditions; the characterization of this material included X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, scanning microscopy and conductivity measurements. The electrodes were supported on a 300-{mu}m thick pellet of the electrolyte La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.83}Mg{sub 0.17}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGM) with Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as the anode and SKFO as the cathode. The test cells gave a maximum power density of 680 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C and 850 mW cm{sup -2} at 850 C, with pure H{sub 2} as fuel. The electronic conductivity shows a change of regime at T {approx} 350 C that could correspond to the phase transition from tetragonal to cubic symmetry. The high-temperature regime is characterized by a metallic-like behavior. At 800 C the crystal structure contains 0.20(1) oxygen vacancies per formula unit randomly distributed over the oxygen sites (if a cubic symmetry is assumed). The presence of disordered vacancies could account, by itself, for the oxide-ion conductivity that is required for the mass transport across the cathode. The result is a competitive cathode material containing no cobalt that meets the target for the intermediate-temperature SOFC. (author)

  1. Performance of LiCl Impregnated Mesoporous Material Coating over Corrugated Heat Exchangers in a Solid Sorption Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The composite material made by impregnating 40 wt. % lithium chloride (LiCl into the mesopores of a kind of natural porous rock (Wakkanai Siliceous Shale: WSS micropowders (short for “WSS + 40 wt. % LiCl” had been developed previously, and can be regenerated below 100 °C with a cooling coefficient of performance (COP of approximately 0.3 when adopted as a sorbent in a sorption cooler. In this study, experiments have been carried out on an intermittent solid sorption chiller with the WSS + 40 wt. % LiCl coating over two aluminum corrugated heat exchangers. Based on the experimental condition (regeneration temperature of 80 °C, condensation temperature of 30 °C in the desorption process; sorption temperature of 30 °C and evaporation temperature of 12 °C in the sorption process, the water sorption amount changes from 20 wt. % to 70 wt. % in one sorption cooling cycle. Moreover, a specific cooling power (SCP of 86 W/kg, a volumetric specific cooling power (VSCP of 42 W/dm3, and a specific sorption power of 170 W/kg can be achieved with a total sorption and desorption time of 20 min. The obtained cooling COP is approximately 0.16.

  2. Catalytic properties of new anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells operated under methane at intermediary temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, A.-L.; Fouletier, J.

    The recent trend in solid oxide fuel cell concerns the use of natural gas as fuel. Steam reforming of methane is a well-established process for producing hydrogen directly at the anode side. In order to develop new anode materials, the catalytic activities of several oxides for the steam reforming of methane were characterized by gas chromatography. We studied the catalytic activity as a function of steam/carbon ratios r. The methane and the steam content were varied between 5 and 30% and between 1.5 and 3.5%, respectively, corresponding to r-values between 0.07 and 0.7. Catalyst (ruthenium and vanadium)-doped lanthanum chromites substituted with strontium, gadolinium-doped ceria (Ce 0.9Gd 0.1O 2) referred as to CeGdO 2, praseodymium oxide, molybdenum oxide and copper oxide were tested. The working temperature was fixed at 850°C, except for 5% ruthenium-doped La 1- xSr xCrO 3 where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850°C. Two types of behavior were observed as a function of the activity of the catalyst. The higher steam reforming efficiency was observed with 5% of ruthenium above 750°C.

  3. Natural leathers from natural materials: progressing toward a new arena in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2004-02-01

    Globally, the leather industry is currently undergoing radical transformation due to pollution and discharge legislations. Thus, the leather industry is pressurized to look for cleaner options for processing the raw hides and skins. Conventional methods of pre-tanning, tanning and post-tanning processes are known to contribute more than 98% of the total pollution load from the leather processing. The conventional method of the tanning process involves the "do-undo" principle. Furthermore, the conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/ hide to a wide variation in pH (2.8-13.0). This results in the emission of huge amounts of pollution loads such as BOD, COD, TDS, TS, sulfates, chlorides and chromium. In the approach illustrated here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0, pickle-free natural tanning employing vegetable tannins, and post-tanning using environmentally friendly chemicals. Hence, this process involves dehairing, fiber opening, and pickle-free natural tanning followed by ecofriendly post-tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal and opening up of fiber bundles is comparable to that of conventionally processed leathers. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic analysis and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally chrome-tanned leathers through physical and hand evaluation. The process also exhibits zero metal (chromium) discharge and significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, and TS loads by 83, 69, 96, and 96%, respectively. Furthermore, the developed process seems to be economically viable.

  4. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  5. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Song; Chaoji Chen; Shuze Zhu; Mingwei Zhu; Jiaqi Dai; Upamanyu Ray; Yiju Li; Yudi Kuang; Yongfeng Li; Nelson Quispe; Yonggang Yao; Amy Gong; Ulrich H. Leiste; Hugh A. Bruck; J. Y. Zhu; Azhar Vellore; Heng Li; Marilyn L. Minus; Zheng Jia; Ashlie Martini; Teng Li; Liangbing Hu

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites)1–8. Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used...

  6. Natural radioactivity of raw materials and products of cement manufacturing and of power plant fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallyas, Miklos

    1984-01-01

    The natural radioactivity was investigated for several building materials used in Hungary, including cement, concrete, glasses, fine ceramic products, insulation materials, and also for some industrial wastes utilized as building material aggregates like slags, fly ashes etc., from their radiation health aspect. The dose commitments of the population from building materials standardized in several countries are presented. The 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K contents of building materials were measured by gamma spectrometry, using NaI/Tl/scintillation detectors. The results were used to qualify cement materials and fly ash aggregates according to their origin in Hungary, from the point of view of their natural radioactivity. It was concluded that the radioactivity level of the majority of Hungarian cements are below the adopted international standards. (R.P.)

  7. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product: hollow polymeric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, L.B.; Nolen, R.L.; Solomon, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hollow spherical particles are made by spraying a mixture of powdered solid material with a solution of a film-forming polymer in a solvent therefor into a heated chamber where the solvent evaporates. The powder is thereby captured in the wall of the hollow polymer particles formed. Such particles are used to form a suspension in a fluid material. The hollow particles are of such size and wall thickness, in relation to the bulk density of the powdered solid material, that the bulk density of each hollow spherical particle is commensurate with the density of the fluid material. The particles thereby remain in suspension over a substantial period of time with little or no agitation of the fluid. (author)

  8. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Chiral Cylindrical Molecular Complexes: Functional Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Materials Formed by Helicene Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral cylindrical molecular complexes of homo- and hetero-double-helices derived from helicene oligomers self-assemble in solution, providing functional heterogeneous liquid-solid materials. Gels and liotropic liquid crystals are formed by fibril self-assembly in solution; molecular monolayers and fibril films are formed by self-assembly on solid surfaces; gels containing gold nanoparticles emit light; silica nanoparticles aggregate and adsorb double-helices. Notable dynamics appears during self-assembly, including multistep self-assembly, solid surface catalyzed double-helix formation, sigmoidal and stairwise kinetics, molecular recognition of nanoparticles, discontinuous self-assembly, materials clocking, chiral symmetry breaking and homogeneous-heterogeneous transitions. These phenomena are derived from strong intercomplex interactions of chiral cylindrical molecular complexes.

  9. Solid tritium breeder materials-Li2O and LiAlO2: a data base review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Clemmer, R.G.; Fischer, A.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Tam, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The fabrication, properties, and irradiation behavior of Li 2 O and γ-LiAlO 2 are reviewed and assessed to determine the potential of these materials to satisfy the basic solid breeder blanket performance requirements. Based on the data analysis and theoretical modeling, a set of major technical uncertainties is identified. These uncertainties include: fabricability of sphere-pac solid breeders; high fluence and burnup effects on thermal conductivity and microstructural stability; high fluence and burnup effects on tritium diffusion coefficients at low temperature; relationship among purge flow chemistry, surface adsorption, and species of released tritium; and mechanical properties and the loads imposed on the structural materials by the breeder during blanket operation. Resolution of these issues is important in assuring that solid breeder blankets can be designed with confidence

  10. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.; Vladar, M.

    1998-01-01

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg -1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg -1 of 226 Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm 3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232 Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214 Bi (609 keV), 214 Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228 Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212 Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40 K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  11. Vapor-liquid-solid mechanisms: Challenges for nanosized quantum cluster/dot/wire materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyssac, P.; Sacilotti, M.; Patriarche, G.

    2006-08-01

    The growth mechanism model of a nanoscaled material is a critical step that has to be refined for a better understanding of a nanostructure's dot/wire fabrication. To do so, the growth mechanism will be discussed in this paper and the influence of the size of the metallic nanocluster starting point, referred to later as "size effect," will be studied. Among many of the so-called size effects, a tremendous decrease of the melting point of the metallic nanocluster changes the physical properties as well as the physical/mechanical interactions inside the growing structure composed of a metallic dot on top of a column. The thermodynamic size effect is related to the bending or curvature of chains of atoms, giving rise to the weakening of bonds between them; this size or curvature effect is described and approached to crystal nanodot/wire growth. We will describe this effect as that of a "cooking machine" when the number of atoms decreases from ˜1023at./cm3 for a bulk material to a few tens of them in a 1-2nm diameter sphere. The decrease of the number of atoms in a metallic cluster from such an enormous quantity is accompanied by a lowering of the melting temperature that extends from 200 up to 1000K, depending on the metallic material and its size under study. In this respect, the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model, which is the most utilized growth mechanism for quantum nanowires and nanodots, is critically exposed to size or curvature effects (CEs). More precisely, interactions in the vicinity of the growth regions should be reexamined. Some results illustrating the growth of micrometer-/nanometer-sized materials are presented in order to corroborate the CE/VLS models utilized by many research groups in today's nanosciences world. Examples of metallic clusters and semiconducting wires will be presented. The results and comments presented in this paper can be seen as a challenge to be overcome. From them, we expect that in a near future an improved model can be exposed

  12. Some solid state properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL-materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokert, K [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Georgia). Inst. of Radiation Protection

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes some investigations of solid state characteristics of a LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminofor. The investigations were carried out with LiF:Mg,Cu,P-thermoluminescence (TL)-material prepared by the chemical institute of the Moscow State University in form of powder and sintered pellets. Following methods were used: (1) Studies of the chemical composition was carried out by x-ray fluorescence analysis with `SPECTRO-X-LAB`-equipment with Rh-anode, B{sub 4}C-polarizator, LN{sub 2}-cooled 30 mm{sup 2} Si(Li)-detector with Be-window (energy resolution 155 keV for Mn-k{sub {alpha}}-radiation). The software of the equipment permits a qualitative and quantitative determination of elements with atomic numbers >10; (2) investigations of the crystal structure were taken by x-ray-diffractometry with a SIEMENS-diffractometer D 500 using Cu-k{sub {alpha}}-radiation. The integrated software permits to analyze the crystalline phases using the data of the measured material by comparison with standards spectra of various pure substances. The results of determination of the chemical composition and the crystal structure show that in the thermoluminofor LiF:Mg,Cu,P, besides the basic material LiF also Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}- and Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}-crystal regions exists. The occurrence of the two lithium phosphate phases follow from the high ammonium phosphate content in the mixture for the thermoluminofor production. The formation of the various lithium phosphates depends from state of dehydration of phosphoric acids, created by thermal decomposition of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} before their reactions with LiF start. Therefore the content of these compounds can differ if thermoluminofors are prepared under various conditions. The maintenance of the needed equilibrium of special structures in the material depends on the preparation procedure, on the reading and annealing methods. Typically for such an equilibrium is its poor thermal stability. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Numerical modeling of thermal performance: Natural convection and radiation of solid state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zeijl, H.W. van; Werkhoven, R.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The increased electrical currents used to drive light emitting diode (LED) cause significant heat generation in the solid state lighting (SSL) system. As the temperature will directly affect the maximum light output, quality, reliability and the life time of the SSL system, thermal management is a

  14. Materials and systems developments on solid absorption refrigeration with CaCl2·xNH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloeji, O.C.

    1995-10-01

    The paper presents some developments on the stabilization of CaCl 2 for use as a solid absorption material in refrigerators, the development of a refrigerator using the stabilized salt, and computer modelling of the refrigerator system. (author). 8 refs, 19 figs

  15. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  16. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Melas-Kyriazi, John; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Chittibabu, Kethinni G.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  17. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ares, Jos Ramon; Bals, Sara; Biliskov, Nikola; Chakraborty, Sudip; Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Chaudhary, Anna Lisa; Cuevas, Fermin; Dam, Bernard; de Jongh, Petra; Dornheim, Martin; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Novakovic, Jasmina G.; Hirscher, Michael; Hirscher, M.; Jensen, Torben R.; Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Novakovic, Nikola; Lai, Qiwen; Leardini, Fabrice; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Pasquini, Luca; Steriotis, Theodore; Turner, Stuart; Vegge, Tejs; Zuttel, Andreas; Montone, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated

  18. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated...

  20. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile; Preparacao e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos a partir da crisotila natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P., E-mail: marciogiraldelli@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH{sub 2}). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O. The Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O / Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  1. A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Wong Chuan Chin; Hussin Mohd Nor

    2006-01-01

    Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

  2. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  3. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  4. Environmental and economic benefits of the recovery of materials in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Ferrara, Carmen; Finelli, Alessio; Grosso, Alberto

    2017-12-07

    The main aim of this study was to perform a Life cycle assessment study as well as an economic evaluation of the recovery of recyclable materials in a municipal solid waste management system. If citizens separate erroneously waste fractions, they produce both environmental and economic damages. The environmental and economic evaluation was performed for the case study of Nola (34.349 inhabitants) in Southern Italy, with a kerbside system that assured a source separation of 62% in 2014. The economic analysis provided a quantification of the economic benefits obtainable for the population in function of the achievable percentage of source separation. The comparison among the environmental performance of four considered scenarios showed that the higher the level of source separation was, the lower the overall impacts were. This occurred because, even if the impacts of the waste collection and transport increased, they were overcome by the avoided impacts of the recycling processes. Increasing the source separation by 1% could avoid the emission of 5 kg CO 2 eq. and 5 g PM10 for each single citizen. The economic and environmental indicators defined in this study provide simple and effective information useful for a wide-ranging audience in a behavioural change programme perspective.

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory materials in inventory natural and enriched uranium management and storage costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebeker, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    On July 13, 1994, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) was requested to develop a planning process that would result in management policies for dealing with nuclear materials in inventory. In response to this request, EM launched the Materials In Inventory (MIN) Initiative. A Headquarters Working Group was established to develop the broad policy framework for developing MIN management policies. MIN activities cover essentially all nuclear materials within the DOE complex, including such items as spent nuclear fuel, depleted uranium, plutonium, natural and enriched uranium, and other materials. In August 1995, a report discussing the natural and enriched uranium portion of the Initiative for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was published. That report, 'Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Materials-in-Inventory, Natural and Enriched Uranium'.' identified MIN under the control of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company at the INEL. Later, additional information related to the costs associated with the storage of MIN materials was requested to supplement this report. This report provides the cost information for storing, disposing, or consolidating the natural and enriched uranium portion of the MIN materials at the INEL. The information consists of eight specific tables which detail present management costs and estimated costs of future activities

  6. Mechanism and materialism British natural philosophy in the age of reason

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, Robert E

    1970-01-01

    Robert Schofield explores the rational elements of British experimental natural philosophy in the 18th century by tracing the influence of two opposing concepts of the nature of matter and its action-mechanism and materialism. Both concepts rested on the Newtonian interpretation of their proponents, although each developed more or less independently. By integrating the developments in all the areas of experimental natural philosophy, describing their connections and the influences of Continental science, natural theology, and to a lesser degree social and institutional changes, the author dem

  7. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, H.; Gouseti, O.

    2008-01-01

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using γ-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of 226 Ra (1041Bqkg -1 ). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external γ-radiation

  8. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: epap@chemistry.upatras.gr; Gouseti, O. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of {sup 226}Ra (1041Bqkg{sup -1}). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external {gamma}-radiation.

  9. Scenarios identified internationally for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    Natural radiation for decades was considered a normal phenomenon that existed in nature, so that man was conditioned to ignore; unlike artificial ionizing radiation. This mindset has changed, in the late seventies of the last century, because it has became aware of the danger that exposure to natural radiation could pose health. Studies on it have been initiated to conduct and publish. All humans are exposed to natural radiation; but, this exposure is not uniform, has depended on where they live and work, whether they have been in areas with rocks or soils particularly radioactive, their way of life, of the use of certain building materials in their homes, the use of natural gas, the use of home heating with coal. Air travel also have increased exposure to natural radiation. Ionizing radiation, whether natural or artificial, have interacted with the human body in the same way, there fore have failed to say that the natural are less or more harmful than artificial. Natural sources are grouped into two major categories. The first are the external sources: from abroad as cosmic radiation (the sun and interstellar spaces of the universe), terrestrial radiation (emitted by rocks and soil), the radiation of some buildings (e.g. granite, which can emit radon gas) and radiation contained in some foods. The second category are the internal resources: due to the presence in the human body from the environment radionuclides that are able to ionize (potassium-40, carbon-14). The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM for its acronym in English) have been referred to those naturally occurring radioactive materials on which any human technological activity has increased its exposure potential compared with the situation unchanged. (author) [es

  10. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor

    2010-10-21

    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported

  11. Understanding mechanisms of solid-state phase transformations by probing nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srikumar; Donthula, Harish

    2018-04-01

    In this review a few examples will be cited to illustrate that a study on a specific nuclear material sometimes lead to a better understanding of scientific phenomena of broader interests. Zirconium alloys offer some unique opportunities in addressing fundamental issues such as (i) distinctive features between displacive and diffusional transformations, (ii) characteristics of shuffle and shear dominated displacive transformations and (iii) nature of mixed-mode transformations. Whether a transformation is of first or higher order?" is often raised while classifying it. There are rare examples, such as Ni-Mo alloys, in which during early stages of ordering the system experiences tendencies for both first order and second order transitions. Studies on the order-disorder transitions under a radiation environment have established the pathway for the evolution of ordering. These studies have also identified the temperature range over which the chemically ordered state remains stable in steady state under radiation.

  12. Natural and artificial aging response of semi-solid metal processed alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Möller, H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available oC between 1 and 5 hours without any prior natural aging. A natural aging period as short as 1 hour results in a hardness peak (rather than a plateau) to be reached during artificial aging after 4 hours at 180oC...

  13. Nature of science in instruction materials of science through the model of educational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.

  14. Extensively Reversible Thermal Transformations of a Bistable, Fluorescence-Switchable Molecular Solid: Entry into Functional Molecular Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, P; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-15

    Functional phase-change materials (PCMs) are conspicuously absent among molecular materials in which the various attributes of inorganic solids have been realized. While organic PCMs are primarily limited to thermal storage systems, the amorphous-crystalline transformation of materials like Ge-Sb-Te find use in advanced applications such as information storage. Reversible amorphous-crystalline transformations in molecular solids require a subtle balance between robust supramolecular assembly and flexible structural elements. We report novel diaminodicyanoquinodimethanes that achieve this transformation by interlinked helical assemblies coupled with conformationally flexible alkoxyalkyl chains. They exhibit highly reversible thermal transformations between bistable (crystalline/amorphous) forms, along with a prominent switching of the fluorescence emission energy and intensity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Solid Waste Management Available Information Materials. Total Listing 1966-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie L.

    This publication is a compiled and indexed bibliography of solid waste management documents produced in the last ten years. This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is compiled from the Office of Solid Waste Management Programs (OSWMP) publications and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) reports. Included are…

  16. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D) recycling, source reduction, life cycle...

  17. Hazard caused by radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants in comparison with both natural hazards and those caused by solid wastes from coal-fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1988-01-01

    The risks concerned with radioactive solid wastes deposited deeply underground as well as with low-, intermediate- and high-level radioactive wastes are compared with natural radioactivity and thermal plants solid wastes threats. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs. (A.S.)

  18. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  19. Microwave assisted solid phase extraction for separation preconcentration sulfamethoxazole in wastewater using tyre based activated carbon as solid phase material prior to spectrophotometric determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogolodi Dimpe, K.; Mpupa, Anele; Nomngongo, Philiswa N.

    2018-01-01

    This work was chiefly encouraged by the continuous consumption of antibiotics which eventually pose harmful effects on animals and human beings when present in water systems. In this study, the activated carbon (AC) was used as a solid phase material for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater samples. The microwave assisted solid phase extraction (MASPE) as a sample extraction method was employed to better extract SMX in water samples and finally the analysis of SMX was done by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The microwave assisted solid phase extraction method was optimized using a two-level fractional factorial design by evaluating parameters such as pH, mass of adsorbent (MA), extraction time (ET), eluent ratio (ER) and microwave power (MP). Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg L- 1 and 1.7 μg L- 1, respectively, and intraday and interday precision expressed in terms of relative standard deviation were > 6%.The maximum adsorption capacity was 138 mg g- 1 for SMX and the adsorbent could be reused eight times. Lastly, the MASPE method was applied for the removal of SMX in wastewater samples collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river water.

  20. Radioactivity distribution measurement of various natural material surfaces with imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Suzuki, T.; Koido, S.; Uritani, A.; Yanagida, K.; Wu, Y.; Nishizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution images of natural radioactivity in natural materials such as vegetables were obtained by using Imaging Platc. In ssuch cases, it is necessary to reduce background radiation intensity by one order or more. Graded shielding is very important. Espacially, the innermost surface of a shielding box sshould be covered with acrylic rein plate. We obtained natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetable, sea food, mea etc. Most β-rays emitted from 40 K print the radioactivity distribution image. Comparison between γ-ray intensity of KCL solution measured with HPGe detector and that of natural material specimen gave the radioactivity around 0.06- 0.04Bq/g depending on the kind and the part of specimens. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  2. New, Efficient, and Reliable Air Electrode Material for Proton-Conducting Reversible Solid Oxide Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Daoming; Shi, Nai; Zhang, Lu; Tan, Wenzhou; Xie, Yun; Wang, Wanhua; Xia, Changrong; Peng, Ranran; Lu, Yalin

    2018-01-17

    Driven by the demand to minimize fluctuation in common renewable energies, reversible solid oxide cells (RSOCs) have drawn increasing attention for they can operate either as fuel cells to produce electricity or as electrolysis cells to store electricity. Unfortunately, development of proton-conducting RSOCs (P-RSOCs) faces a major challenge of poor reliability because of the high content of steam involved in air electrode reactions, which could seriously decay the lifetime of air electrode materials. In this work, a very stable and efficient air electrode, SrEu 2 Fe 1.8 Co 0.2 O 7-δ (SEFC) with layer structure, is designed and deployed in P-RSOCs. X-ray diffraction analysis and High-angle annular dark-filed scanning transmission electron microscopy images of SEFC reveal that Sr atoms occupy the center of perovskite slabs, whereas Eu atoms arrange orderly in the rock-salt layer. Such a special structure of SEFC largely depresses its Lewis basicity and therefore its reactivity with steam. Applying the SEFC air electrode, our button switches smoothly between both fuel cell and electrolysis cell (EC) modes with no obvious degradation over a 135 h long-term test under wet H 2 (∼3% H 2 O) and 10% H 2 O-air atmospheres. A record of over 230 h is achieved in the long-term stability test in the EC mode, doubling the longest test that had been previously reported. Besides good stability, SEFC demonstrates great catalytic activity toward air electrode reactions when compared with traditional La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ air electrodes. This research highlights the potential of stable and efficient P-RSOCs as an important part in a sustainable new energy power system.

  3. A broadband variable-temperature test system for complex permittivity measurements of solid and powder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, En; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Chengyong; Zheng, Hu; Guo, Gaofeng

    2018-02-01

    A microwave test system to measure the complex permittivity of solid and powder materials as a function of temperature has been developed. The system is based on a TM0n0 multi-mode cylindrical cavity with a slotting structure, which provides purer test modes compared to a traditional cavity. To ensure the safety, effectiveness, and longevity, heating and testing are carried out separately and the sample can move between two functional areas through an Alundum tube. Induction heating and a pneumatic platform are employed to, respectively, shorten the heating and cooling time of the sample. The single trigger function of the vector network analyzer is added to test software to suppress the drift of the resonance peak during testing. Complex permittivity is calculated by the rigorous field theoretical solution considering multilayer media loading. The variation of the cavity equivalent radius caused by the sample insertion holes is discussed in detail, and its influence to the test result is analyzed. The calibration method for the complex permittivity of the Alundum tube and quartz vial (for loading powder sample), which vary with the temperature, is given. The feasibility of the system has been verified by measuring different samples in a wide range of relative permittivity and loss tangent, and variable-temperature test results of fused quartz and SiO2 powder up to 1500 °C are compared with published data. The results indicate that the presented system is reliable and accurate. The stability of the system is verified by repeated and long-term tests, and error analysis is presented to estimate the error incurred due to the uncertainties in different error sources.

  4. Early staphylococcal biofilm formation on solid orthopaedic implant materials: in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Koseki

    Full Text Available Biofilms forming on the surface of biomaterials can cause intractable implant-related infections. Bacterial adherence and early biofilm formation are influenced by the type of biomaterial used and the physical characteristics of implant surface. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, the main pathogen in implant-related infections, to form biofilms on the surface of the solid orthopaedic biomaterials, oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (Co-Cr-Mo, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti and stainless steel. A bacterial suspension of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain RP62A (ATCC35984 was added to the surface of specimens and incubated. The stained biofilms were imaged with a digital optical microscope and the biofilm coverage rate (BCR was calculated. The total amount of biofilm was determined with the crystal violet assay and the number of viable cells in the biofilm was counted using the plate count method. The BCR of all the biomaterials rose in proportion to culture duration. After culturing for 2-4 hours, the BCR was similar for all materials. However, after culturing for 6 hours, the BCR for Co-Cr-Mo alloy was significantly lower than for Ti-6Al-4V, cp-Ti and stainless steel (P0.05. These results suggest that surface properties, such as hydrophobicity or the low surface free energy of Co-Cr-Mo, may have some influence in inhibiting or delaying the two-dimensional expansion of biofilm on surfaces with a similar degree of smoothness.

  5. Natural radioactivity and human exposure by raw materials and end product from cement industry used as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Z.; Nedelkovski, D.; Ristova, M.

    2010-01-01

    During the manufacturing process in the cement industry, raw materials of different levels of natural radioactivity are utilized. In this study we present the radiological impact of cements as a building material and the different raw materials used in their manufacture. A total of 218 samples of raw materials and their end product cements were collected from the cement industry of Macedonia (The Former Yugoslav Republic) during the period 2005-2007. The specific activities, evaluated by gamma spectrometry analysis, showed the highest mean specific activity in fly ash ( 226 Ra, 107 ± 45 Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 109 ± 30 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, 685 ± 171 Bq kg -1 ), which is used as a raw material. However, the final cement product usually has relatively lower activity compared with the activity of the raw material and the mean specific activity of the final cement products were lower ( 226 Ra, 42 ± 10 Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 28 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, 264 ± 50 Bq kg -1 ). The radium equivalent activity and the hazard index were calculated for each sample to assess the radiation hazard. The mean annual effective dose originating from the cements was found to be 111 ± 22 μSv y -1 , which is below the recommended EC limit of 300 μSv y -1 .

  6. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  7. Leaching properties of natural aggregates. Rock materials and tills; Lakegenskaper foer naturballast. Bergmaterial och moraener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Annika; Bahr, Bo von; Andersson, Tove; Lax, Kaj; Aakesson, Urban [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this project is to produce leaching data for natural aggregates needed for assessment of the environmental impact of alternative materials aimed for use in for example road constructions. Both rock materials and tills are tested. The results shows that very little is leached from natural aggregate. A comparison with landfill criteria for inert waste and the Swedish regulations for drinking water shows that a few samples exceeds the criteria for fluoride ions. All other values are lower then these criteria, and a vast majority of the measurements are below the quantification limit.

  8. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in measurement of natural alpha- radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maged, A F; El-Behay, A Z; Borham, E [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess radon gas and its daughters in buildings. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkali solution and alpha tracks are evaluated by using the image analyzer system. The detailed procedure for this study and the etched films for conversion of alpha track density to radon concentration in Bq m{sup -}3 are given and discussed in the text.1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Effect of Slow External Flow on Flame Spreading over Solid Material: Opposed Spreading over Polyethylene Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.; Olson, S. L.; Kashigawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.

  10. Homogeneous synthesis of cellulose acrylate-g-poly (n-alkyl acrylate) solid-solid phase change materials via free radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Qiang; Han, Na; Bo, Yi-Wen; Tan, Lin-Li; Zhang, Long-Fei; Zhang, Xing-Xiang

    2018-08-01

    A novel solid-solid phase change materials, namely, cellulose acrylate-g-poly (n-alkyl acrylate) (CA-g-PAn) (n = 14, 16 and 18) were successfully synthesized by free radical polymerization in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The successful grafting was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The properties of the CA-g-PAn copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The phase change temperatures and the melting enthalpies of CA-g-PAn copolymers are in the range of 10.1-53.2 °C and 15-95 J/g, respectively. It can be adjusted by the contents of poly (n-alkyl acrylate) and the length of alkyl side-chain. The thermal resistant temperatures of CA-g-PA14, 16 and 18 copolymers are 308 °C, 292 °C and 273 °C, respectively. It show that all of grafting materials exhibit good thermal stability and shape stability. Therefore, it is expected to be applied in the cellulose-based thermos-regulating field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The natural radioactivity of building materials used in the Christchurch urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural gamma radioactivity of a variety of common building materials in Christchurch, has been measured by gamma spectroscopy. Using conversion factors from the literature, relative dose rate indices for the various building materials were calculated and compared. An increasing order of radioactivity concentration was found from timber to compressed limestone to brick products. These levels are however less than the acceptable limits of radioactivity based on some overseas criteria suggested as building standards

  12. Irradiated ignition over solid materials in reduce pressure environment: Fire safety issue in man-made enclosure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Aoki, A.

    Effects of ambient pressure and oxygen yield on irradiated ignition characteristics over solid combustibles have been studied experimentally Aim of the present study is to elucidate the flammability and chance of fire in depressurized enclosure system and give ideas for the fire safety and fire fighting strategies in such environment Thin cellulosic paper is considered as the solid combustible since cellulose is one of major organic compounds and flammables in the nature Applied atmosphere consists of inert gas either CO2 or N2 and oxygen and various mixture ratios are of concerned Total ambient pressure level is varied from 0 1MPa standard atmospheric pressure to 0 02MPa Ignition is initiated by external thermal flux exposed into the solid surface as a model of unexpected thermal input to initiate the localized fire Thermal degradation of the solid induces combustible gaseous products e g CO H2 or other low class of HCs and the gas mixes with ambient oxygen to form the combustible mixture over the solid Heat transfer from the hot irradiated surface into the mixture accelerates the local exothermic reaction in the gas phase and finally thermal runaway ignition is achieved Ignition event is recorded by high-speed digital video camera to analyze the ignition characteristics Flammable map in partial pressure of oxygen Pox and total ambient pressure Pt plane is made to reveal the fire hazard in depressurized environment Results show that wider flammable range is obtained depending on the imposed ambient

  13. Regulation of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials. A Task Force review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, W.S.; Cunningham, L.J.; Mapes, J.R.; Schwartz, S.A.; Smith, D.A.

    1977-06-01

    The use of accelerator-produced radioisotopes (NARM), particularly in medicine, is growing rapidly. One NARM radioisotope, 226 Ra, is one of the most hazardous of radioactive materials, and 226 Ra is used by about 1 / 5 of all radioactive material users. Also, there are about 85,000 medical treatments using 226 Ra each year. All of the 25 Agreement States and 5 non-Agreement States have licensing programs covering NARM users. The Agreement States' programs for regulating NARM are comparable to their programs for regulating byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials under agreements with NRC. But there are 7 states who exercise no regulatory control over NARM users, and the remaining States have control programs which are variable in scope. There are no national, uniformly applied programs to regulate the design, fabrication and quality of sources and devices containing NARM or consumer products containing NARM which are distributed in interstate commerce. Naturally occurring radioactive material (except source material) associated with the nuclear fuel cycle is only partially subject to NRC regulation, i.e., when it is associated with source or special nuclear material being used under an active NRC license. The Task Force recommends that the NRC seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials for the reason that these materials present significant radiation exposure potential and present controls are fragmentary and non-uniform at both the State and Federal level

  14. Experimental study and computerized simulation of the elements fixation in trace on mineral oxides. Contribution to the study of natural solids adsorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmier, N.

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this work is to identify some natural or synthetical materials allowing the nuclear wastes confinement in underground geological sites by adsorption of radioelements. The materials composition variety which can be used is very large it is then necessary to make use of models able to predict solid complexes behaviour towards the adsorption from known properties of parent constituents. This type of model still does not exist and its focusing requires the demonstration of mineral complexes parent constituents intrinsic properties additivity. The oxides as aluminium or silicon oxides being parent constituents, the author has demonstrated their properties additivity in an aluminium-silicon oxides physical mixture and in an aluminium silicate : the kaolinite. These surface properties have been determined for different quantities of aluminium and silicon oxides in a 0,1 M sodium nitrate. This study has been realized following the steps below : choice of a theoretical concept describing the adsorption adapted to the studied solid-solution system : the surface complexation model at constant capacitance; the focusing of a surface chemical and physical parameters determination method; the verification of these properties additivity on the aluminium-silicon oxides mixture and on the kaolinite. The studied cation for the adsorption on these materials is the ytterbium trivalent ion because the behaviour of the trivalent ions towards the adsorption is not very well known and because the lanthanides are considered as compounds similar to some fission products present in radioactive wastes. The method used for this work is applicable to all the other ions. (O.L.). 73 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  16. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A.R.; Breitling, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm"2. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm"2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  17. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Barbara [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Foertsch, Tobias C. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Welle, Alexander [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattes, Daniela S. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Meier, Michael A.R., E-mail: m.a.r.meier@kit.edu [Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Breitling, Frank, E-mail: frank.breitling@kit.edu [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm{sup 2}. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm{sup 2}, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  18. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazardous of main building materials in Yan'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Zhao Caifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the rapidly economic development and urbanization in Yan'an city, more building materials were consumed in building construction. While the natural radioactivity level of building materials from Yan'an is limited in the literatures. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity level and to analyze the associated radiation hazards of building materials in Yan'an. Methods: The specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials from Yan'an city were determined using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry, and their radiation hazards were evaluated according to the standard methods. Results: The results show that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building materials are 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9 and 258.9-1055.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The activities of 226 Ra and 232 Th, except for sand and gravel aggregate, in all other building materials are higher than the corresponding means of local soil, and the activities of 40 K in hollow brick, red-clay brick, sand and gravel aggregate exceed the means of 40 K in soil. However, the values of internal exposure index, external exposure index and gamma radiation index in all investigated building materials are less than 1. Conclusions: The radiation levels of all analyzed building materials are within the national safety standard, which indicates that all analyzed building materials can be used anywhere and they can't cause radiation hazard to the local residents. (authors)

  19. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  20. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan [Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin [Center of Foundation Studies, PuncakAlam Campus, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40430 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  1. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular......This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  2. Composite cathode materials development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ya

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are of particular interest as electrochemical power systems that can operate on various hydrocarbon fuels with high fuel-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. Within the SOFC stack, La0.8Sr 0.2Ga0.8Mg0.115Co0.085O3-delta (LSGMC) has been reported as an optimized composition of lanthanum gallate based electrolytes to achieve higher oxygen ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures, i.e., 500-700°C. The electrocatalytic properties of interfaces between LSGMC electrolytes and various candidate intermediate-temperature SOFC cathodes have been investigated. Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO 3-delta (SSC), and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe 0.8O3-delta (LSCF), in both pure and composite forms with LSGMC, were investigated with regards to both oxygen reduction and evolution, A range of composite cathode compositions, having ratios of SSC (in wt.%) with LSGMC (wt.%) spanning the compositions 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 and 5:5, were investigated to determine the optimal cathode-electrolyte interface performance at intermediate temperatures. All LSGMC electrolyte and cathode powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process (GNP). Symmetrical electrochemical cells were investigated with three-electrode linear dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy to characterize the kinetics of the interfacial reactions in detail. Composite cathodes were found to perform better than the single phase cathodes due to significantly reduced polarization resistances. Among those composite SSC-LSGMC cathodes, the 7:3 composition has demonstrated the highest current density at the equivalent overpotential values, indicating that 7:3 is an optimal mixing ratio of the composite cathode materials to achieve the best performance. For the composite SC-LSGMC cathode/LSGMC interface, the cathodic overpotential under 1 A/cm2 current density was as low as 0.085 V at 700°C, 0.062V at 750°C and 0.051V at 800°C in air. Composite LSCF-LSGMC cathode/LSGMC interfaces were found to have

  3. Safety protection suggestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojian; Zhou Qifu; Wang Xiaotao; Xu Zhongyang; Song Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    It's not enough concern about the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of oil and gas industry in China. NORM with radium and radon mainly exist in the scale, sludge and production water, and they tend to deposit on the pipe wall, wellhead equipment and so on. These materials are a threat to the health of workers, so it is very important to have the safe disposal of them. This paper introduces the radioactive hazards and puts for-ward the safe disposal measures so as to provide the reference for the safe disposal of radioactive materials. Some management and technical advices are presented too. (authors)

  4. Rheological analysis of fine-grained natural debris-flow material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on large samples of fine-grained material (???2mm) from a natural debris flow using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The rheological behavior of this material is compatible with a Bingham model at shear rates in excess of 5 sec. At lesser shear rates, rheological behavior of the material deviates from the Bingham model, and when sand concentration of the slurry exceeds 20 percent by volume, particle interaction between sand grains dominates the mechanical behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration.

  5. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-07-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  7. Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor nozzle natural frequency variations with burn time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C. Y.; Mason, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of erosion and thermal degradation on the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle's structural dynamic characteristics were analytically evaluated. Also considered was stiffening of the structure due to internal pressurization. A detailed NASTRAN finite element model of the nozzle was developed and used to evaluate the influence of these effects at several discrete times during motor burn. Methods were developed for treating erosion and thermal degradation, and a procedure was developed to account for internal pressure stiffening using differential stiffness matrix techniques. Results were verified using static firing test accelerometer data. Fast Fourier Transform and Maximum Entropy Method techniques were applied to the data to generate waterfall plots which track modal frequencies with burn time. Results indicate that the lower frequency nozzle 'vectoring' modes are only slightly affected by erosion, thermal effects and internal pressurization. The higher frequency shell modes of the nozzle are, however, significantly reduced.

  8. Pre-reforming of natural gas in solid oxide fuel-cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.; Riensche, E.; Cremer, P. [Institute for Materials and Processes Systems IWV 3: Energy Process Engineering, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Several measures concerning fuel processing in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system offer the possibility of significant cost reduction and higher system efficiencies. For SOFC systems, the ratio between internal and pre-reforming has to be optimized on the basis of experimental performance data. Furthermore, anode gas recycling by an injector in front of the pre-reformer can eliminate the steam generator and the corresponding heat of evaporation. A detailed study is carried out on pre-reforming in a reformer of considerable size (10 kW{sub el}). Simulating anode gas recycling with an injector, the influence of carbon dioxide on reactor performance was studied. Also, the dependence of the methanol conversion on mass flow and temperature will be discussed. In addition, some results concerning the dynamic behaviour of the pre-reformer are given. (orig.)

  9. Solid-Phase Iminium Cyclization Reactions for the Synthesis of Natural Product-Like Diketopiperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rico

    The development of methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of fused 2,5-diketopiperazines with an emphasis on structural and stereochemical control, has been accomplished through two different approaches. The first approach was based on a highly trans-stereoselective (82% d.e.) intramolecular N...... inhibitors based on the 2,5-diketopiperazino[6,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold was prepared and subsequently evaluated for biologically activity. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against a nuclear extract of HeLa cells, on average 200-fold lower than the activity of SAHA. When screened towards...... HDAC 1 the compounds showed a lower inhibitor activity, compared to the nuclear extract, except for one of the compounds which showed increased activity. The compound represents a clear case of stereodifferentiation. Finally, and most importantly, when screening the compounds towards HDAC 8 an activity...

  10. Colloid generation and solid-liquid distribution of transuranic elements in natural aquifier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommel, H.; Kim, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of transuranic elements in the presence of their pseudocolloids has been investigated in deep geological aquifer systems at Gorleben area. The generation of transuranic colloids and their influence on the determination of distribution coefficients in a laboratory experimental system are evaluated quantitatively. Discussion is made on the possible extrapolation of laboratory results to natural systems. (author)

  11. Colloid generation and solid-liquid distribution of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rommel, H.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of transuranic elements in the presence of their pseudocolloids has been investigated in deep geological aquifer systems at Gorleben area. The generation of transuranic colloids and their influence on the determination of distribution coefficients in a laboratory experimental system are evaluated quantitatively. Discussion is made on the possible extrapolation of laboratory results to natural systems. (orig.)

  12. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  13. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    OpenAIRE

    Gogina Elena; Pelipenko Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW), on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities,...

  14. Study of Mg-based materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir for vehicular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Amedeo; Petris, Milo; Palade, Petru; Sartori, Sabrina; Principi, Giovanni [Settore Materiali and CNISM, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Settimo, Eliseo [Celco-Profil, via dell' Artigianato 4, 30030 Vigonovo (Venezia) (Italy); Molinas, Bernardo [Venezia Tecnologie, via delle Industrie 39, 30175 Marghera (Venezia) (Italy); Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Powders mixtures of nanosized MgH{sub 2} and suitable additives, obtained by high energy milling, have been studied as materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir. A prototype of a two stages reservoir is under development (patent pending). The hydrogen release from the main stage, with high capacity Mg-based hydrides, is primed by a primer stage containing commercial hydrides able to operate at room temperature. (author)

  15. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  16. IAEA programme of natural matrix reference materials for the determination of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; LaRosa, J.; Dekner, R.; Zeisler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing analytical quality control services (AQCS) to its Member States since the 1960's. The AQCS programme distributes reference materials (RMs), organizes intercomparison runs, and provides training courses for quality assurance in chemical analysis and radioactivity measurements of food, biological, environmental and marine materials. This paper focusses on those aspects of the subject dealing with reference materials and intercomparison runs for the determination of radionuclides. Nineteen natural matrix reference materials are available for the determination of radionuclides. Twelve new intercomparison and reference materials are in preparation or under consideration. The radionuclides of interest include: K-40, Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, Tc-99, Ru-106, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-228, Th-232, Pu-238, Pu-239 + 240. (orig.)

  17. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo

    2017-01-01

    , have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...... also investigated in order to establish differences between metabolite production in vitro and on building materials as well as comparison to non-indoor reference strains. On building materials six different chaetoglobosins were detected in total concentrations of up to 950 mg/m2 from C. globosum along...... with three different chaetoviridins/chaetomugilins in concentrations up to 200 mg/m2. Indoor Chaetomium spp. preferred wood-based materials over gypsum, both in terms of growth rate and metabolite production. Cochliodones were detected for the first time on all building materials infected by both C. globosum...

  18. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM IV). Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    Radionuclides of natural origin are ubiquitous in both working and public environments, although their activity concentrations vary considerably. Exposures to natural sources are in most cases not a matter for regulatory concern. However, there are situations where exposures to natural sources may warrant consideration as to whether controls should be applied. One such situation is where the conditions are conducive to the buildup of elevated concentrations of radon in air. Another situation is the mining and/or processing of material where the activity concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the material itself, or in any material arising from the process, are significantly elevated - such material has come to be referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In the past, regulatory attention has been focused mostly on exposures arising from the mining and processing of uranium ores because such activities are part of the nuclear fuel cycle. More recently, attention has been broadened to include exposures from other industrial activities involving NORM, in recognition of the potential for such activities to also give rise to significant exposures of workers and members of the public if not adequately controlled. More and more countries are now including provisions in their national legislation and regulations for the control of exposures to natural sources, and the body of radiological data on such exposures is growing rapidly. This international conference, NORM IV, follows three previous conferences dealing with radon and NORM. The first was held in Amsterdam in 1997, the second in Krefeld, Germany in 1998 (NORM II), and the third in Brussels in 2001 (NORM III). In addition, an International Symposium on Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1999 - the IAEA was involved in the organization of that symposium, and published the proceedings as IAEA-TECDOC-1271. The main topic addressed at NORM IV was

  19. Influences of air pollutants on polymeric materials. Natural weathering of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, T.F.R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie, Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Polymeric materials are affected during their entire service life by a number of environmental influences. These originate from both man made and natural sources. Such environmental influences include solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air pollutant effects. They all act together, some independently and some synergistically, to influence material properties, as well as functionality, service life, quality and reliability of the poly materials and systems. The main degradation process is chain scission with loss of molecular weight and oxidation, followed by fading of colours and loss of gloss and mechanical strength. Due to the large number of different types of polymers there are many types of degradation processes and it is difficult to generalise about the effects of the environment on organic materials. Materials, as opposed to organisms, have no self-repair mechanism which allows them to tolerate a certain level of stress. In principle, therefore, it is not possible to define critical levels for the effects of pollutants on materials below which no deterioration occurs. Material deterioration by weathering is normally a very slow process lasting some or more years. Therefore attempts have been made to produce deterioration in short-term experiments by using high stress levels. The limits for the high stress levels are given by the comparability of the obtained damage from artificially accelerated weathering with these from real natural weathering. To investigate the damage caused by air pollutants on polymeric materials, samples were natural weathered with some light exposed and some dark stored samples in different climatic and polluted areas of Germany. The weathering stations are closed to the continuously measuring stations for air quality

  20. Influences of air pollutants on polymeric materials. Natural weathering of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, T F.R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie, Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Polymeric materials are affected during their entire service life by a number of environmental influences. These originate from both man made and natural sources. Such environmental influences include solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air pollutant effects. They all act together, some independently and some synergistically, to influence material properties, as well as functionality, service life, quality and reliability of the poly materials and systems. The main degradation process is chain scission with loss of molecular weight and oxidation, followed by fading of colours and loss of gloss and mechanical strength. Due to the large number of different types of polymers there are many types of degradation processes and it is difficult to generalise about the effects of the environment on organic materials. Materials, as opposed to organisms, have no self-repair mechanism which allows them to tolerate a certain level of stress. In principle, therefore, it is not possible to define critical levels for the effects of pollutants on materials below which no deterioration occurs. Material deterioration by weathering is normally a very slow process lasting some or more years. Therefore attempts have been made to produce deterioration in short-term experiments by using high stress levels. The limits for the high stress levels are given by the comparability of the obtained damage from artificially accelerated weathering with these from real natural weathering. To investigate the damage caused by air pollutants on polymeric materials, samples were natural weathered with some light exposed and some dark stored samples in different climatic and polluted areas of Germany. The weathering stations are closed to the continuously measuring stations for air quality