Sample records for solid mineral resources

  1. Mineral Features of Surface Sediments and Analysis of Solid-State Mineral Resources in Southeastern China Sea


    With the development of modern industry and the increase of human demand, it is increasingly important to prospect and exploit marine mineral resources. Based on the oceanic geological investigation references obtained from the regional geological surveying and mapping of China Sea (“Shantoufu, F-50” 1: 1 000 000) and on the data (“Marine Engineering Geological Investigation Project in the Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea” 1: 200 000), the authors elaborate the grain size composition, mineral composition, mineral features and distribution pattern of the surface sediments in the sea at 114°- 120°E and 20°-24°N. Moreover, the analysis of the regional solid-state mineral resources in the coast of iFujian, Guangdong and the west of Taiwan, shows that the main resources include littoral/neritic placers, littoral/neritic sandy gravel and ferromanganese nodule (crust). In addition, the future focus should be on the placers and sandy gravels in this littoral area.

  2. Mineral resources

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  4. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  5. Mineral resources of Australia

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)


    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  6. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.


    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  7. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources


    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  8. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Mihalasky, Mark J.


    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  9. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Resources



    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  11. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Kušnír Imrich


    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  12. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    Brent, AC


    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.


    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  14. Solid mineral fuels. Vocabulary. Kul. Terminologi


    Official Danish terminology, in conjunction with the English, for solid mineral fuels. A definition of each term is given, and the publication includes both a Danish and an English index to the terms mentioned. (AB).

  15. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    resources on the continental margins as in deep sea is currently uneconomical. With further depletion of onshore resources and advancement in technology, the mining of these resources may also become a reality in the near future....

  16. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  17. Mineral resources and engineering geology

    Sasaki, A.


    This volume of ''applied geology'' presents an overview of the fields of economic (ore) geology and engineering geology. The first half of the book offers a geologic and geochemical summary of ore forming processes, covering both metallic and fossil fuel resources with an emphasis on their ties to the evolution of the earth's crust. Case studies are given for both continental North America and the circum-Pacific arc-trench system. The second section provides coverage of the basic principles of contemporary engineering geology, specifically in a mobile belt such as the islands of Japan. Case histories are also included.

  18. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue


    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Kropschot, S.J.


    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  20. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas


    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.


    Ivan Jurković


    Full Text Available In the paper, on the basis of the author's knowledge, for the first time, chronostratigraphic and genetic classification of all known mineral resources located in the central part of Croatia (Sisak, Petrinja, Glina, Dvor na Uni, Hrvatska Kostajnica and Novska, is given in more detail. Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, coal, oil, gas as well as drinking water, water for balneology and industry related spatially and/or genetically with the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, are presented. Taking into consideration the present days level of research, the past extent of the exploitation as well as genetic potential of each own estimate of their long term prospects with regard to the economy of the Croatia (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Brooks, W.E.


    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: ferrous slag



    The article offers information on mineral resource ferrous slag. Ferrous slag is produced through the addition of materials such as limestone and dolomite to blast and steel furnaces to remove impurities from iron ore and to lower the heat requirements for processes in iron and steel making. It is stated that the method of cooling is important for the market uses and value of ferrous slag. Some types of slag can be used in construction, glass manufacturing and thermal insulation.

  4. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  5. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali


    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  6. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.


    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  7. Solid state NMR study of bone mineral

    Wu, Y.


    In high field (9.4 T) CP MASS (cross polarization magic angle sample spinning) studies, in contrast to the scheme in the literature that infers the presence of minor constituents in spectra, we developed a new scheme to suppress the main part of the spectra to show the minor constituents. In order to perform in vivo solid state NMR studies, a double tuned two port surface coil probe was constructed. This probe is a modified version of the traditional Cross probe, which utilizes two 1/4 wave length 50 ohm transmission line, one with open ended and the other with shorted end, to isolate the high and low frequency circuits. The two resonance frequencies in Cross probe were proton and carbon. Our probe is designed to resonate at the proton and phosphorus frequencies, which are much closer to each other and hence more difficult to be tuned and matched simultaneously. Our approach to solve this problem is that instead of using standard 50 ohm transmission lines, we constructed a low capacity open end coaxial transmission line and low inductance shorted end coaxial transmission line. The Q of the phosphorus channel is high. We developed a short contact time cross polarization technique for non-MASS spectroscopy which reduces the signal of the major component of bone mineral to emphasize the minor component. By applying this technique on intact pork bone samples with our home made surface coil, we observed the wide line component, acid phosphate, for the first time. Hydroxyapatite, brushite and octacalcium are considered in the literature to be the model compounds for bone mineral. Cross polarization dynamics has been studied on hydroxyapatite and brushite, which yielded an NMR value for the distance between proton and phosphorus. One and two dimensional CP MASS spectroscopy of octacalcium phosphate were also studied, which revealed the different cross polarization rates and anisotropic channel shifts of acid phosphate and phosphate ions in octacalcium phosphate.

  8. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures


    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  10. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  11. Solid State Reaction Synthesis of Si-HA as Potential Biomedical Material: An Endeavor to Enhance the Added Value of Indonesian Mineral Resources

    Hartatiek; Yudyanto; Ratnasari, S. D.; Windari, R. Y.; Hidayat, N.


    In recent years, one of the most prominently investigated materials is hydroxyapatite (HA). It is because of its excellent properties for medical applications, essentially related to orthopedic. Also, the introduction of other materials to HA becomes another research focus of many leading scientists. In this present study, silicon with various concentrations was introduced, by means of solid state reaction route, to HA forming Si-HA. The crystal structure properties of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy data collection and analysis were done to investigate the functional groups within the samples. The microstructural characteristics as well as elemental mapping of the samples were captured by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Vickers hardness test was also conducted to investigate the hardness properties of the samples. Furthermore, in vitro characterization-based bio resorbability of the samples in a simulated body fluid were also described. This study revealed that Indonesian limestone can be utilized as the raw material for synthesizing HA. The silicon has been successfully incorporated into phosphate site of the HA crystal. Conclusively, the Si-HA reported in this study shows good bioresorbability characteristic.

  12. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability



    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  13. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.


    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site ( in

  14. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  15. Land, water and mineral resources in science education

    Graves, N.J.


    This volume, the fourth in a nine-volume series concerned with different aspects of science education at all levels, examines the value of teaching about natural resources; the content areas which might be included; and the teaching strategies that may be appropriate. Contents (partial): Preface; Introduction; Education for the use of land, water and mineral resources; Land Use; Viewpoint; Land use: its human uses; Environmental deterioration; Using local resources; Soil and land: activity module for the primary level; Water Resources; Possible activities; Water and health for the primary level; Sewage; Mineral Resources; Types of minerals, their uses and identification; Traditional prospecting; Techniques of mineral exploration; Student activities; Mining and processing; The impact of mineral resource development.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Tanner, Arnold O.


    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  17. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.


    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  18. MRPM: three visual basic programs for mineral resource potential mapping

    Chen, Yongliang


    A traditional method for mineral resource potential mapping is to superimpose a number of indicator maps, and to combine geological information with or without the use of multivariate statistical models. More recently, GISs have become widely applied in mineral resource assessment and many statistical models for geological information synthesis have been proposed. GIS-based mineral resource potential mapping has facilitated modern mineral resource assessment. As a contribution to publicly available computer software for GIS-based mineral resource assessment, integrated three Visual Basic programs have been developed on MapInfo platform. The programs integrate map patterns using weights of evidence, applied general C-F, and evidence theory models, and generate posterior probability, combined certainty factor, and combined basic probability assignment maps, respectively. The software is demonstrated by a case study based on a real data set.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: Mica

    Willett, Jason C.


    The mica mineral group includes 34 phyllosilicate minerals, all with a layered, platy texture. The mineral has been known for millennia: Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines. The Mayans used it for decorative effect in stucco to make their temples sparkle in the sun. Today it is used in everything from electrical products to makeup.

  20. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云


    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  1. Principles of Probabilistic Regional Mineral Resource Estimation

    Frits Agterberg


    Five principal sources of uncertainty in quantitative mineral resource estimation are listed and illustrated by means of a simple example (mosaic model) and a case history study for large copper deposits in the Abitibi area of the Canadian Shield.Abitibi copper potential originally was estimated on the basis of 1968 estimates of production and reserves totalling 3. 12 Mt Cu.This prognostication now could be evaluated on the basis of 2008 copper production and reserves totalling 9. 50 Mt Cu. An earlier hindsight study performed on the basis of 1977 data (totalling 5. 23 Mt Cu) showed seven new discoveries occurring either in the immediate vicinities of known deposits or on broad regional copper anomalies predicted from the 1968 inputs. By 1977,the global geographic distribution pattern of large copper deposits in the Abitibi area had stabilized. During the next 30 years,new copper was essentially found close to existing deposits, much of it deeper down in the Earth's crust. In this paper, uncertainties associated with copper ore tonnage are analyzed by comparison of 2008 data with 1968 data using (a) log-log plots of size versus rank, and (b) lognormal QQ-plots. Straight lines fitted by least squares on these plots show that 1968 slopes provide good estimates of 2008 slopes but 1968 intercepts are much less than 2008 intercepts. In each linear log-weight versus logrank plot, the slope is related to fractal dimension of a Pareto frequency distribution, and in a lognormal QQ-plot it is determined by logarithmic variance The difference between 2008 and 1968 intercepts represents the increase in copper ore production and reserves from 1968 to 2008. The Pareto model fits actual copper and massive sulphides increase over the past 40 years better than the lognormal frequency distribution model for 10 km× 10 km cells on favorable environments in the Abitibi area.


    芮建伟; 冯志亮


    Based on the value theory of mineral resource, a dynamic evaluation model of mineral resource property is erected, which not only takes the factors of extractions into consideration but also those of explorations. The solution process of the model is described and the differential solution is presented. Then the paper comes to the conclusion that the differential solution is also the optimal depletion path of the resource.

  3. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    Fathi Habashi


    Full Text Available Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  4. Mineral Resource Team 2010 Activities Summary


    of the Himalayas where the Indian subcontinent collided with Eurasia, the country’s unique geological foundation created thousands of mineral...on or below the paleo -ocean floor. Some VMS deposits are distinctive in that Cu ores formed by hydrothermal circulation and exhalation of minerals

  5. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Virta, Robert L.


    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  6. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  7. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    Virta, Robert L.


    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II


    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  9. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)



    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  10. Mineral resources of the Indian Ocean and related scientific research

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Gujar, A.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Valsangkar, A.B.; Nath, B.N.

    substantially to some of the essential mineral raw materials for the world economy; i.e. oil, tin iron and manganese ores, mica and chromite. The present paper reviews the surficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean, excluding those in bedrock (oil, gas...

  11. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Brooks, William E.


    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: molybdenum

    Polyak, Désire E.


    The article offers information about the mineral molybdenum. Sources includes byproduct or coproduct copper-molybdenum deposits in the Western Cordillera of North and South America. Among the uses of molybdenum are stainless steel applications, as an alloy material for manufacturing vessels and as lubricants, pigments or chemicals. Also noted is the role played by molybdenum in renewable energy technology.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: thorium



    This article provides information on thorium. Thorium is a natural radioactive element that can be found with other minerals. It can be used to generate power, produce light and transmit energy. Thorium has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. This element was discovered by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jóns Jakob Berzelius in 1828.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. Mineral resource of the month: diatomite



    The article discusses the properties and applications of the mineral diatomite. According to the author, diatomite is a soft, friable and very fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rock made of the remains of fossilized diatoms. The author adds that its properties make diatomite very useful as a filtration medium and as a component in cement.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: Arsenic

    Bedinger, George M.


    Arsenic is a gray metal rarely encountered as a free element, but is widely distributed in minerals and ores that contain copper, iron and lead. Arsenic is often found in groundwater as a result of the natural weathering of rock and soil.

  17. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Ellefsen, Karl J.


    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: perlite



    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: rhenium

    Polyak, Désirée E.


    Rhenium, a silvery-white, heat resistant metal, has increased significantly in importance since its discovery in 1925. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From 1925 until the 1960s, only two metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. Since then, its uses have steadily increased, including everything from unleaded gasoline to jet engines, and worldwide annual production now tops 45 metric tons.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Papp, John F.


    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  1. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium



    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: tungsten

    Shedd, Kim B.


    The article offers information on tungsten. It says that tungsten is a metal found in chemical compounds such as in the scheelite and ore minerals wolframite. It states that tungsten has the highest melting point and it forms a compound as hard as diamond when combined with carbon. It states that tungsten can be used as a substitute for lead in fishing weights, ammunition, and hunting shot. Moreover, China started to export tungsten materials and products instead of tungsten raw materials.

  3. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea


    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  4. Mineral mixtures from solid salt residues for lambs

    Daniel Bomfim Manera


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate water, mineral, feed and nutrient voluntary intakes, in addition to dry matter and nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance of lambs fed three mineral supplements. The first treatment consisted of solid salt residue (SSR from an aquaculture tank; the second contained SSR from desalination waste; and the third treatment was control, which corresponded to the supplementation of a commercial mineral supplement. The study lasted 20 days, the first 15 of which were used for animals to adapt to the pens and diets, and the last five days were used for data collection. Twenty-four castrated male lambs with a body weight of 19.72±2.52 kg were utilized in the experiment. The mineral supplements evaluated did not affect the intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients, the water and mineral-salt intake or nitrogen balance. Mineral supplements produced from the SSR from aquaculture tanks and from the desalination waste did not reduce feed, nutrient and water intakes or nutrient digestibility, which suggests that these raw materials can be used in the elaboration of mineral mixtures for lambs.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Crangle, Robert D.


    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  6. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali


    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  8. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following mineral resource conservation information, as applicable, must accompany...

  9. A geologic and mineral resource assessment of Indonesia

    Dorian, James P.; Clark, Allen L.; Djumhani

    The Indonesian government has traditionally relied upon revenues generated from petroleum and natural gas exports to fund most of the nation's development expenditures. However, because of recently depressed energy prices, increased domestic consumption of petroleum, and a rapidly growing population, future revenues from Indonesia's energy sector may not be sufficient to sustain economic growth and development. This paper presents an assessment of all undiscovered mineral resources in Indonesia by province. In addition to hydrocarbons, study results indicate that Indonesia may be well-endowed in nonfuel mineral resources, particularly in Timor, Nusa Tenggara, Irian Jaya, and Moluccas. It is concluded that the Indonesian government should begin to accelerate development of the nation's nonfuel mineral resource base as a means of diversifying away from petroleum and natural gas.

  10. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire


    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  11. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.


    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  12. Solid state synthesis of nano-mineral particles

    S.Sakthivel; R.Prasanna Venkatesh


    Many researchers in academia and industries are interested in reducing particle sizes from few submicrometers to nano-meter levels.These nano-particles find application in several areas including ceramics,paints,cosmetics,microelectronics,sensors,textiles and biomedical,etc.This article reviews the present state of the art for solid state synthesis of mineral nano-particles by wet milling,including their operating variables such as ball size,solid mass fraction and suspension stability.This article concludes and recommends with a critical discussion of nano-particles synthesis and a few common strategies to overcome stability issues.

  13. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG


    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  14. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Ilić Miloje M.


    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  15. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)


    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  16. The Ministry of Land and Resources Supports the Western Region to Intensify Efforts in Prospecting and Developing Advantageous Mineral Resources


    <正>The Ministry of Land and Resources supports the western region to intensify efforts in prospecting, developing and utilizing advantageous mineral resources including petrol, natural gas, and coal resources, build advantageous mineral economy, speed up the development of nonferrous metals, key building materials, and non metal mineral resources with obvious

  17. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Duval, Joseph S.


    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  18. The Design and Implementation of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System"

    Zhang,Chunming; Sun,Huoran; Jiang,Shaofei; Zhao, Zhigang


    It is described in detail in this paper the entire development process of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System" exercising software engineering principles together with GIS technology, database analysis and design techniques etc. It is designed to implement the standardization of geological data storage and management, to provide an efficient retrieval system and a visualization tool for data analysis,thus lays a solid foundation for profound exploration and utilization of geological data.

  19. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.


    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  20. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,


    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  1. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.


    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  2. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.


    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  3. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute


    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  4. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling


    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  5. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  6. Research on Mineral Resource Prediction by GA-ANN

    韩万林; 张幼蒂


    Fault recognition and coal seam thickness forecast are important problems in mineral resource prediction. Knowledge of multiple disciplines, which include mining engineering, mine geology, seismic prospecting etc, was used synthetically. Artificial neural network was combined with genetic algorithm to found integrated AI method of genetic algorithm-artificial neural network(GA-ANN). Fault recognition and coal seam thickness forecast were carried to completion by case studies. And the research results are satisfactory.

  7. A Complex Systems Model Approach to Quantified Mineral Resource Appraisal

    Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Fisher, F.S.


    For federal and state land management agencies, mineral resource appraisal has evolved from value-based to outcome-based procedures wherein the consequences of resource development are compared with those of other management options. Complex systems modeling is proposed as a general framework in which to build models that can evaluate outcomes. Three frequently used methods of mineral resource appraisal (subjective probabilistic estimates, weights of evidence modeling, and fuzzy logic modeling) are discussed to obtain insight into methods of incorporating complexity into mineral resource appraisal models. Fuzzy logic and weights of evidence are most easily utilized in complex systems models. A fundamental product of new appraisals is the production of reusable, accessible databases and methodologies so that appraisals can easily be repeated with new or refined data. The data are representations of complex systems and must be so regarded if all of their information content is to be utilized. The proposed generalized model framework is applicable to mineral assessment and other geoscience problems. We begin with a (fuzzy) cognitive map using (+1,0,-1) values for the links and evaluate the map for various scenarios to obtain a ranking of the importance of various links. Fieldwork and modeling studies identify important links and help identify unanticipated links. Next, the links are given membership functions in accordance with the data. Finally, processes are associated with the links; ideally, the controlling physical and chemical events and equations are found for each link. After calibration and testing, this complex systems model is used for predictions under various scenarios.

  8. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Westermann, Andrea


    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  9. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Lawrence D. Meinert


    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  10. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    McKelvey, V.E.


    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  11. Can multfractals be used for mineral resource appraisal?

    Agterberg, Frits


    Various models have been proposed for modeling the worldwide resources of minerals and hydrocarbons. Most of these models assume either a lognormal or a Pareto distribution for the high-value tails of the size-frequency distributions of known deposits and assume that undiscovered deposits would satisfy these statistical models as well. The lognormal size distribution often provides a good fit to all sizes except for the largest deposits. Pareto-type models allow for tails that are thicker than those of the lognormal. With respect to the spatial distribution of the deposits, various statistical discrete frequency distribution models including the Poisson and negative binomial are commonly used. However, these models are based on the assumption that mean point concentration is independent of size of area used for measuring deposit density. Fractal-multifractal point distribution models can provide better results. A good approach to worldwide deposit modeling would consist of (1) quantification of 2-D boundaries of permissive terrains for different types of deposits; (2) assuming that the mineral deposits are spatially distributed as fractals or multifractals; and (3) adopting Pareto-type frequency distributions for the largest mineral deposits. In this paper, examples will be presented of cases in which (a) the fractal/multifractal approach provides better results for spatial distribution of deposits than classical statistical models, and (b) the Pareto is performing better than the lognormal as size distribution model for the largest mineral deposits. In recent years, large worldwide mineral deposit data bases have become available. Statistical analysis of these data confirms the idea that amounts of metals in ore deposits generally satisfy the lognormal model except in their high-value Pareto-type frequency distribution tails.

  12. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design


    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  13. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam


    hundreds of Bq/m 3 of air; the recommended safety limits for civilian exposure are 3.5 mSv/year and 0.15 Bq/m 3 , respectively. 37 REO Mining – a...Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Atlas of Mineral Resources of the ESCAP Region, Vol. 6, Viet Nam. ST/ESCAP/831. Bangkok : UNESCAP, 1990. “US$ 35.5... Bangkok ), July 19, 2013. ProQuest (1400734925). “VINACOMIN and Japanese Firm to Exploit and Process Rare Earth in Lai Chau.” Vietnam National

  14. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Kocoń Paweł


    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  15. Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information

    Wang Shicheng; Ye Shuisheng; Zhou Dongdai


    Metallogenic prognosis of synthetic information uses the geological body and the mineral resource body as a statistical unit to interpret synthetically the information of geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing from the evolution of geology and puts all the information into one entire system by drawing up digitalized interpretation maps of the synthetic information. On such basis, different grades and types of mineral resource prospecting models and predictive models of synthetic information can be established. Hence, a new integrated prediction system will be formed of metallogenic prognosis (qualitative prediction), mineral resources statistic prediction (determining targets) and mineral resources prediction (determining resources amount).

  16. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application


    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  17. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)


    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  18. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.15 Gathering information about resources other... information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such activity... excavations for the purpose of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, shall apply...

  19. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Aird, H. M.


    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  20. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.


    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  1. Application of GIS in Mineral Resource Prediction of Synthetic Information

    Ye Shuisheng; Wang Shicheng; Li Deqiong


    This paper introduces the formation mechanism and synthetic information prediction of large and superlarge deposits in Shandong Province by analyzing and studying on the GIS platform. The authors established a prospecting model of synthetic information from large and superlarge gold deposit concentration region, and the multi-source spatial database from concentration region of deposits and anomalies. On the basis of the spatial database, a target map layer, a model map layer and a predictive map layer were set up. Based on these map layers, geological variables of the model unit and predictive unit were extracted, then launched location and quantitative prediction of the gold deposit concentration region. The achievement of predicting large and superlarge deposits by the GIS platform has enabled the authors to design automation (or semi-automatic) interpretation subsystems, namely geophysics, geochemistry, geologic prospecting and comprehensive prognosis, and a set of the applicable GIS softwarefor mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information.

  2. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio


    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...... breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal...... routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...

  3. Ocean mineral resources and international law. Kaiyo shigen to kokusaiho

    Okuhara, T. (Kokushikan University, Tokyo (Japan))


    Interest to marine resources existing in sea water and on ocean bottoms is heightening. Applicable international laws vary depending on a location of discovery of ocean bottom mineral resources, whether it is within inland waters, territorial waters, continental platform, exclusive economic zone, high seas, or on deep sea bottoms. This report focuses on this fact, and explains the history of how the applicable articles came into existence, and the trends of international administration. The sovereignty of a coastal country on continental platforms and exclusive economic zones is limited to investigations and developments, rather than admitted generally to the space itself. Since these sea areas remain having the nature of high seas, the sovereign power is not an absolute power, and must not prevent freedom of navigation or freedom of laying submarine cables. Investigations and developments in these sea areas are imposed with duties of preventing and reducing environmental contamination (Article 194), but these are the common sense duties in the international laws, regardless of whether being bound by the very article. 16 refs.

  4. Mineral resource assessment of selected areas in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada [Chapters A-L

    Ludington, Steve


    During 2004-2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mineral resource assessment of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada. The purpose of this study is to provide the BLM with information for land planning and management and, specifically, to determine mineral resource potential in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR 2310, which governs the withdrawal of public lands. The Clark County Conservation of Public Land and Natural Resources Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-282) temporarily withdraws a group of areas designated as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) from mineral entry, pending final approval of an application for permanent withdrawal by the BLM. This study provides information about mineral resource potential of the ACECs. Existing information was compiled about the ACECs, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information. Field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences were conducted to determine their geologic setting and mineral potential.

  5. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.


    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  6. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Gavin M. Mudd


    Full Text Available The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals, such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores. For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estimate the recoverable resource, i.e., the amount that could, if desired, be extracted and put into use over the next several decades. We describe here a methodological approach to estimating the recoverable resources of companion metals in metal ores, using preliminary data for some particular host/companion pairs in Australia as examples.

  7. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  8. Harnessing Water and Resources from Clay Minerals on Mars and Planetary Bodies

    Bishop, J. L.


    Clay minerals provide a source of water, metals, and cations that can be harvested to provide resources for human exploration on Mars, asteroids, etc. Planning how to access these resources from clays could be a vital component of human exploration.

  9. China will Implement Total Mining Volume Control on Advantageous Mineral Resources Such As Rare Earth


    On the end of January,the Ministry of Land and Resources convened the third round of mineral resource planning compilation work video conference,which made re-mobilization and re-deployment for a new round of planning compilation work.According to report from the China Land and Resources News,the third round of mineral resource plan compilation will place focus on

  10. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Helen R. Watling


    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  11. Managing raw materials scarcity : safeguarding the availability of geologically scarce mineral resources

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.


    Will the earth be able to keep on providing future generations of sufficient mineral resources, given the growing world population in combination with a growing GDP per world citizen? The research objectives were: To find out what geological scarcity means, which mineral resources are geologically

  12. Managing raw materials scarcity : safeguarding the availability of geologically scarce mineral resources

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.


    Will the earth be able to keep on providing future generations of sufficient mineral resources, given the growing world population in combination with a growing GDP per world citizen? The research objectives were: To find out what geological scarcity means, which mineral resources are geologically s

  13. Assessment of raw-mineral resources exploration influence on economic security of russia

    Andrey Gennad’evich Shelomentsev


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the impact of development of mineral resources on the economic security of Russia. The main branch of the national economy, to which mineral resources have a significant impact, are reviewed. The authors examine the economic security in terms of strategictypes of mineralresources of the nationaleconomy and thecompetitiveness of mineralresources and theirreproduction in thelong term, as well as theimpact of mineral resources development on theregionaleconomy. It isconcluded that the primary socioeconomic development of the regions demands, on the one hand, rapid reproduction and development of mineral resources, and on the other hand, infrastructure of thereclaimed subsoil. The paper presents the activities of the state and recommendations on the formation of public policy in the sphere of economic security at the federal, sectoral and regional levels. The findings are based on the evaluation of the role of mineral resources in the leading economies, developing countries and Russia

  14. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar


    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  15. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.


    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  17. Study on the rights and interests value of mineral resources and its evaluation method

    LIU Hai-bin(刘海滨); RUI Jian-wei(芮建伟)


    The rights and interests value of mineral resources includes the prospecting rights value and the mining rights value. The mining rights value is made up of the mineral resources value and the compensation value based on the inputs of capitals and labors in different exploration stage, the prospecting rights value should be equal to exploration differential rent of resources. According to the stage characteristic of mineral resources exploration and development, the initial evaluating methods and models are used to evaluate the prospecting rights and mining rights value.


    Various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause significant damage to the environment an human health. A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behav...

  19. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  20. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  1. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    Wellmer, F.-W.


    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  2. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.


    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  3. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia


    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  5. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Leontina Pavaloaia


    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  6. Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoover, D.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)


    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

  7. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing


    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long, which af-fected largely by the changeable market. The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theories of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the in-come rate.

  8. Ministry of Land and Resources Plans to Find Out Support Capabilities of Mineral Resources including Copper, Lead, Zinc and Nickel


    <正>On September 10,the Ministry of Land and Resources(MLR)revealed on its website that it decided to carry out a research on the support capability of main mineral resources in China for national economy and social development by 2020,2025 and 2030.According to MLR,China’s research and argumentation on support capacity of important

  9. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is Preparing to Delete the Approval Right for Mineral Resources Geological Prospecting


    <正>Yu Haifeng, Deputy Director of Geological Prospecting Department and Executive Deputy Director of the Mineral Prospecting Office under the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, disclosed at the recently concluded National Prospecting Meeting for 2013 that, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is con

  10. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.


    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  11. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Jr., Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas


    The polygon (vector) feature class represents locatable mineral resource assessment tracts (tracts of land) associated with the Department of the Interior (DOI) Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Montana, Wyoming and Utah, central Idaho, and the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border area. The mineral-resources tracts are geographic areas that were assessed by the USGS and were determined to be geologically favorable for a deposit type of interest to a depth of 1 kilometer. Qualitative assessment methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were used to develop tract boundaries and to assign a level of mineral-resource potential and certainty to each tract. The general process included (1) identifying possible mineral deposit types for locatable commodities specified by BLM for each focal area, (2) outlining those areas that potentially contained mineral deposits based on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, soil and stream-sediment geochemistry, alteration mineral assemblages inferred from satellite imagery, BLM claims and permit data, mineral-exploration activity, and existing mineral-resource assessment data, and (3) evaluating the level of mineral-resource potential and level of certainty associated with the outlined areas using BLM assessment categories. A full description of the assessment is provided in the accompanying report (Day and others, 2016).SFAs, identified by agencies of the DOI, are high-quality sagebrush habitat areas supporting high densities of breeding greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). SFAs are within priority habitat areas or areas where land-use measures are intended to minimize or avoid habitat disturbance. Seven SFAs are within the USGS Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project study area. They include the Bear River Watershed, North-Central Idaho, North-Central Montana, Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada, and

  12. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II


    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  13. Historical perspectives : the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    Kruse, Frigga


    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its

  14. Historical perspectives: the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    Kruse, Frigga


    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its disco

  15. Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium

    Gambogi, Joseph


    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

  16. Research and application of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on SIG

    Yuanyuan Chuai; Keyan Xiao; Yihua Xuan; Shaobin Zhan


    Geological data are usually of the characteristics of multi-source, large amount and multi-scale. The construction of Spatial Information Grid overcomes the shortages of personal computers when dealing with geological data. The authors introduce the definition, architecture and flow of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on Spatial Information Grid (SIG). Meanwhile, a case study on the prediction of copper mineral occurrence in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt is given. The results show that mineral resources assessement based on SIG is an effective new method which provides a way of sharing and integrating distributed geospatial information and improves the efficiency greatly.

  17. The economics of resource recovery from municipal solid waste.

    Abert, J G; Alter, H; Bernheisel, J F


    A prototypical operating statement similar to that used by business firms has been shown to be a useful decision-making tool for a community choosing a solid waste management system. When applied to resource recovery, it highlights the economics of recovery and the values of the input parameters necessary to achieve economic viability, whether in the case of public or private ownership (23). In most communities, refuse processing to recover material resources must be based on more than one source of revenue. In addition to the revenues from the sale of by-products, there must be revenues from processing the incoming refuse and from a user, or dump, fee. In the first case discussed, that of materials recovery by a front end system, resource recovery is shown to be economically feasible for those communities in which the present cost of disposal is relatively high. The indifferent community was one having a current cost of $7.72 per ton; more accurately, this would be the cost for the near-term future. It is not necessary that current costs be used, since many communities are merely "dumping" their refuse. The indifference decision should be based on the cost of an environmentally sound alternative. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste can increase the number of communities in which resource recovery will be an economic adjunct to a solid waste management system. The analysis presented here was based on the assumption that the value of the fuel recovered exactly offset the additional capital and operating costs of the utility which burns it. There could be costs above and beyond this; similarly, there could be a saving by taking into account the economic value of the organic fraction as fuel. However, it is believed that the assumption under which the materials-plus-energy case was analyzed seems to be realistic at this time.

  18. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.


    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007



    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal



    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  1. Mineral resource of the month: platinum group metals

    Loferski, Patricia J.


    The article focuses on platinum group metals (PGMs) and their properties. According to the author, PGMs, which include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium, are among the rarest mineral commodities in the Earth's crust. PGMs are primarily used as catalytic converters that clean harmful exhaust from vehicle engines. They are also used in the chemical industry as catalysts in the production of nitric acid and in the petroleum refining industry.

  2. Geophysical investigation of a mineral groundwater resource in Turkey

    Boiero, Daniele; Godio, Alberto; Naldi, Mario; Yigit, Ercan


    The hydrogeological conditions in Uludag (Nilufer River catchment, Bursa, Turkey) were assessed, using time-domain electromagnetic soundings, electrical resistivity and induced polarisation tomography, to detect the most promising zones for new water-well siting, in order to increase the quantity of water for bottling. The hydrogeological model is quite complex: deep mineral and thermal water rises from a main vertical fault which separates two lithological complexes. The highly mineralised (deep) water is naturally mixed with low mineralised water at a shallow depth, 30-40 m; the mixed mineral water is found in some surface springs and shallow wells, while the highly mineralised water is found at depth in some unused deep wells located close to the main fault. All the water points (springs and wells) are located inside a “mineral water belt” on the north side of the Nilufer River. The geophysical survey confirmed the hydrogeological model and highlighted four promising zones for well siting (zones with very low electrical resistivity and high induced polarisation anomalies, corresponding to the main water-bearing faults). One of the geophysical anomalies, the furthest from the exploited sources, was verified by means of a test well; the drilling results have confirmed the water mixing model.

  3. MLR will Continue to Control the Total Exploitation Quantity of Advantageous Mineral Resources Including Rare Earth


    <正>According to Wang Min,Vice Minister of Land and Resources and chief of China Geological Survey,for some time to come the MLR will continue to implement the policy of controlling the total exploitation quantity of advantageous mineral resources,exercising

  4. Potential mineral resources, Payette National Forest, Idaho: description and probabilistic estimation

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Cookro, Theresa M.; Lund, Karen; Watts, Kenneth C.; King, Harley D.; Kleinkopf, Merlin D.; Pitkin, James A.; Sanchez, J. David; Causey, J. Douglas


    The Payette National Forest (PNF), in west-central Idaho, is geologically diverse and contains a wide variety of mineral resources. Mineral deposit types are grouped into locatable, leasable, and salable categories. The PNF has substantial past production and identified resources of locatable commodities, including gold, silver, copper, zinc, tungsten, antimony, mercury, and opal. Minor lignitic coal is the only leasable mineral resource known to be present in the PNF. Resources of salable commodities in the PNF include sand-and-gravel, basalt for crushed-rock aggregate, and minor gypsum. Locatable mineral resources are geographically divided between eastern and western parts of the PNF. The western PNF lies west of the Riggins-to-Cascade highway (US 95 - Idaho 55), and the eastern PNF is east of that highway. The western and eastern parts of the PNF are geologically distinctive and have different types of locatable mineral deposits, so their locatable mineral resources are described separately. Within the western and eastern parts of the PNF, locatable deposit types generally are described in order of decreasing geologic age. An expert panel delineated tracts considered geologically permissive and (or) favorable for the occurrence of undiscovered mineral deposits of types that are known to be present within or near the PNF. The panel also estimated probabilities for undiscovered deposits, and used numerical simulation, based on tonnage-grade distribution models, to derive estimates of in-situ metals contained. These estimates are summarized in terms of mean and median measures of central tendency. Most grade and tonnage distributions appear to be log-normal, with the median lower than the mean. Inasmuch as the mean is influenced by the largest deposits in the model tonnage-grade distribution, the median provides a lower measure of central tendency and a more conservative estimation of undiscovered resources.

  5. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II


    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  6. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.


    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  7. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    Virta, Robert L.


    Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  8. Peak Nothing: Recent Trends in Mineral Resource Production

    Rustad, James R


    The production histories of seventeen raw materials are analyzed with the logistic model. Although many of these resources have exhibited logistic behavior in the past, they now show exponential or super-exponential growth. In most cases, the transition has occurred in the last ten to twenty years.

  9. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.


    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.


    Alexander Vorob’ev


    Full Text Available Operating efficiency improvement of the Russian company MMC Norilsk Nickel will be determined by the extended involvement in production of both new geogenic off -balance ores from combine deposits and previously accumulated technogenic mineral raw materials – metallized rock mass dumps and sand tailings. This article proposes a complex program of technological initiative in the sphere of mineral resource usage, and justifi es eff ective measures aimed at developing the city-forming mining and metallurgical industry.

  11. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute: Semi-annual report, 1 July 1987--31 December 1987

    Markuszewski, R.; Pedrick, J.


    This semi-annual report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, for the period of July 1, 1987 to December 31, 1987. Thirteen graduate research projects in the areas of Mineral Processing, Mining Engineering, Mineral Characterization, and Mined-Land Reclamation, and Fuel Science are described. The graduate students are associated with several different academic departments and are all minoring in Mineral Resources.

  12. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    Boniello, Annalisa


    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  13. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Lederer, Graham W.


    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  14. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie


    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve


    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  16. 矿产资源核算研究%Study on mineral resources accounting



    Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development .The value accounting is an important proposition in today ’ s economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process ,become the focus of attention at present ,governments around the world and theory circle .This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting , content ,methods and the existing problems ,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting ,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting ,the significance and the method , constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting .%矿产资源是经济社会发展的重要基础。其价值核算是当今经济社会发展和生态文明建设进程中一个重要命题,成为目前世界各国政府及理论界普遍关注的焦点问题。本文分析了资源核算的研究现状、内容、方法及存在的问题,界定了矿产资源核算的内涵及对象,论述了矿产资源核算的理论基础、意义及方法,构建了矿产资源核算的基本框架。

  17. 探矿权价款计量研究%Study on mineral resources accounting



    矿业权价款是一项中国特有的矿业法律制度.其计量核算是当今经济社会发展和市场经济推进进程中一个重要命题,成为目前理论界及矿业企业普遍关注的焦点问题.本文分析了矿业权价款的内涵、历史沿革及存在的问题,论述了探矿权价款理论基础、方法和适用范围,构建了基于区域分异、不同经济行为和勘查阶段的计量适用方法.%Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development. The value accounting is an important proposition in today's economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process,become the focus of attention at present,governments around the world and theory circle. This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting, content,methods and the existing problems,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting,the significance and the method, constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting.

  18. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)


    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  19. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David


    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R


    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  1. Biomineralization associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Kukkadapu, R.K.; Kim, J.; Eberl, D.; Xu, Z.


    Iron-reducing and oxidizing microorganisms gain energy through reduction or oxidation of iron, and by doing so play an important role in the geochemical cycling of iron. This study was undertaken to investigate mineral transformations associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals. A fluid sample from the 2450 m depth of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project was collected, and Fe3+-reducing and Fe2+-oxidizing microorganisms were enriched. The enrichment cultures displayed reduction of Fe3+ in nontronite and ferric citrate, and oxidation of Fe2+ in vivianite, siderite, and monosulfide (FeS). Additional experiments verified that the iron reduction and oxidation was biological. Oxidation of FeS resulted in the formation of goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite as products. Although our molecular microbiological analyses detected Thermoan-aerobacter ethanolicus as a predominant organism in the enrichment culture, Fe3+ reduction and Fe2+ oxidation may be accomplished by a consortia of organisms. Our results have important environmental and ecological implications for iron redox cycling in solid minerals in natural environments, where iron mineral transformations may be related to the mobility and solubility of inorganic and organic contaminants.

  2. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    Sutphin, David M., E-mail:; Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)


    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C{sub 1} (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C{sub 2} (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P{sub 2} (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C{sub 2} and P{sub 2} resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P{sub 2} resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  4. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.


    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  5. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    Kulich, M., E-mail: [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Rericha, V. [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic); Rericha, R. [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic); Shore, D.L. [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, D.P. [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: {yields} Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. {yields} We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. {yields} No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. {yields} Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  6. Spatial database for a global assessment of undiscovered copper resources: Chapter Z in Global mineral resource assessment

    Dicken, Connie L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Parks, Heather L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.


    As part of the first-ever U.S. Geological Survey global assessment of undiscovered copper resources, data common to several regional spatial databases published by the U.S. Geological Survey, including one report from Finland and one from Greenland, were standardized, updated, and compiled into a global copper resource database. This integrated collection of spatial databases provides location, geologic and mineral resource data, and source references for deposits, significant prospects, and areas permissive for undiscovered deposits of both porphyry copper and sediment-hosted copper. The copper resource database allows for efficient modeling on a global scale in a geographic information system (GIS) and is provided in an Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase format.

  7. Mineral Resources in Mobile Phones: A Case Study of Boston and Vienna Teachers and Students

    Bookhagen, Britta; Koeberl, Christian; Juang, Linda; DeRosa, Donald A.


    As part of an outreach initiative by the Natural History Museum in Vienna, Austria, an interdisciplinary educational module was developed to teach students about sustainability through the lens of mineral resources used to produce mobile phones. The overall goal of the module is to provide teachers of different subjects with a multifaceted tool to…

  8. GIS-A Tool to Change Traditional Way of Mineral Resources Appraisal


    Because of the wide application of digital spatial information technology to geology, a large spatial database in geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing is constructed, resulting in a change in conditions, methods and targets of mineral resources appraisal (MRA). In this paper, the difference between the GIS-base MRA and the traditional MRA is studied.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.


    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  10. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory in mineral resource potential mapping


    The Dempster-Shafer theory has been successfully applied to mineral resource potential mapping in GIS environmental. In this applied form, basic probability assignment and combined basic probability assignment are applied to measuring map pattern and map pattern combination, respectively; and the environment composed of the only two singleton sets (deposit set and non-deposit set), is used for expressing the entire map area. For a subarea in which the certain map pattern combination exists, the combined basic probability assignment corresponding to the map pattern combination existing in this subarea, expresses the belief of inferring the subarea belonging to the deposit set from the evidence that the corresponding map pattern combination existing in the subarea. Thus, it may be served as a statistical index measuring the relative mineral resource potentials of the subarea. And it may be determined like 1) dividing the map area into a series of small equal-sized grid cells and then select the training sample set composed of the well-known grid cells or the entire grid cells; 2) estimating the basic probability assignments corresponding to each map pattern fromthe training sample set; 3) determining the map pattern combination existing in each cell, and then appling the Dempster's Rule of Combination to integrating the all basic probability assignments corresponding to the map patterns existing in the cell into the combined basic probability assignment. Mineral resource potential mapping with the Dempster-Shafer theory is demonstrated on a case study to select mineral resource targets. The experimental results manifest that the model can be compared with the weights of evidence model in the effectiveness of mineral resource target selection.

  11. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.


    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  12. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Benjamin C. McLellan


    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  13. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.


    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  14. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation, while large savings were obtained in terms of non-toxic impacts. However, by varying the substitution rate for aluminium recycling between 0.35 and 0.05 (on the basis of aluminium scrap and secondary aluminium alloy market value), it was found that the current recovery system might reach a breakeven point between the benefits of recycling and energy expended on sorting and upgrading the scrap.

  15. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.


    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.


    B. K. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to geological exploration planning. The author assesses the current state of such planning, marks its internal inconsistency and inefficiency. The author proves the system of phased zoning as the basis for the targeted planning of mineral resource development, gives a characteristic of the selected geological and economic areas and mineral centers of economic development in Russia as a result of zoning. The author substantiates a proposition that concentration of the Federal budget and private investments within the centers of economic development contribute to achieving the goals in question.

  17. A review of selected ground penetrating radar applications to mineral resource evaluations

    Francke, Jan


    Since the commercialisation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the 1970s, the technology has been relegated to niche applications in the mining industry. Advances in radar technology, such as flexible collinear antennas and the integration of live differential GPS positioning, have spurred GPR's acceptance in recent years as a standard exploration method for a number of deposit types. Provided herein is an overview of commercialised GPR applications for surface mineral resource evaluations, covering examples of alluvial channels, nickel and bauxitic laterites, iron ore deposits, mineral sands, coal and kimberlites.

  18. Investigating the Effects of Se Solid Phase Substitution in Jarosite Minerals Influenced by Bacterial Reductive Dissolution

    Rachel E. Franzblau


    Full Text Available Jarosite minerals (AB3(TO42(OH6 are iron hydroxysulfate minerals that can readily incorporate trace metals into their mineral structure. A range of metals can be incorporated into the jarosite structure, including oxyanions such as selenate (SeO42−. Selenium is a micronutrient, but is toxic in relatively low doses. Selenium is present in aqueous systems in its two oxyanion forms: selenate and selenite (SeO32−. The tetrahedral sulfate coordination site can be completely substituted for selenate in jarosite minerals (NaFe3(SO4x(SeO42-x(OH6. Bacteria have been observed to reduce Se oxyanions to both more reduced forms and insoluble elemental Se. This is a pathway for selenium immobilization at contaminated sites. This experiment investigates the reductive dissolution of two Se-jarosites (solid substitution containing high and low selenium concentrations in the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. It was observed that both Fe(III and selenate were metabolically reduced and released into solution through jarosite dissolution . Selenate was also found to be incorporated intracellularly and reduced to particulate Se which was released upon cell lysis. Compared to the abiotic samples, enhanced dissolution was found with both the live and dead bacteria treatments.


    A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behavior of metals. Leaching tests in the form of column and batch studies were carried out to investigate liquid to solid ratios ranging from 0.7 to 50. Although the waste pa...

  20. 4D porosity evolution during solid-solid replacement reaction in mineral system (KBr, KCl)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Hamilton, Andrea; Koehn, Daniel; Shipton, Zoe


    An extensive understanding of the controlling mechanisms of phase transformation is key in geosciences to better predicting the evolution of the physical parameters of rocks (porosity, permeability, and rheology) from centimetre-scale (e.g. fingering in siltstones) to kilometer-scale (e.g. Dolostone geobodies), in both the diagenetic and metamorphic domains. This contribution reports the 4D monitoring of a KBr crystal at different time steps during an experimental, fluid-mediated replacement reaction with KCl. Volumes are reconstructed based on density contrast using non-destructive X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) at a resolution of 3 microns. A sample of KBr was immersed in a static bath of saturated KCl at room temperature and pressure. 5 scans were performed during the reaction at 5, 10, 20, 35 and 55 minutes, until 50% of the original crystal was replaced. As a control experiment, two samples reacted continuously for 15 and 55 minutes, respectively. Each 3D dataset was reconstructed to visualize and quantify the different mineral phases, the porosity distribution and connectivity, along with the reaction front morphology. In the case of successive baths, results show that the front morphology evolves from rough with small fingers to flat and thick during the reaction, suggesting a switch between advection and diffusion controlled reactant distribution through time. This switch is also reflected in the mass evolution and the rate of propagation of the replaced zone, being rapid in the first 20 minutes before reaching steady state. The porosity develops perpendicular to the crystal wall, suggesting a self-organization process governed by advection, before connecting laterally. While the reaction changes from advection controlled to diffusion controlled, the direction of the connected pores becomes parallel to the crystal walls. This phenomenon is not observed when the crystal is reacting discontinuously for 55 minutes. In the latter case, self

  1. "Three-Component" Digital Prospecting Method:A New Approach for Mineral Resources Quantitative Prediction and Assessment

    Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianping; Chen Jianguo; Zhang Shouting; Chen Yongqing


    "Three-component" method consists of three close-connected aspects: geological anomaly, diversity of mineralization and mineral deposit spectrum. All these three concepts are not new separately, but it is a new approach to combine these three aspects in one single concept for quantitative mineral resources prediction and assessment and it is also the first time to conduct a more detailed study in each aspect. Investigation and clarification of geological anomalies, diversity of mineralization and spectrum of mineral deposits are realized by digitization and quantification of ore forming controlling factors, ore-existing symbols or marks, characteristics of mineralization and regulation of ore-genesis and laws of distribution. These procedures lead to construction of a "digital model" for mineral resources prediction and assessment.

  2. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction


    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  3. Feasibility study for the quantitative assessment of mineral resources in asteroids

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Hagerty, Justin; Bowers, Amanda; Ellefsen, Karl; Ridley, Ian; King, Trude; Trilling, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Grundy, Will


    This study was undertaken to determine if the U.S. Geological Survey’s process for conducting mineral resource assessments on Earth can be applied to asteroids. Successful completion of the assessment, using water and iron resources to test the workflow, has resulted in identification of the minimal adjustments required to conduct full resource assessments beyond Earth. We also identify the types of future studies that would greatly reduce uncertainties in an actual future assessment. Whereas this is a feasibility study and does not include a complete and robust analysis of uncertainty, it is clear that the water and metal resources in near-Earth asteroids are sufficient to support humanity should it become a fully space-faring species.

  4. Empirical Research on Functional Zoning of Mineral Resource Exploitation in China%我国矿产资源开发功能区划实证研究

    侯华丽; 张玉韩


    This paper has established the index system of functional zoning by means of concept deifnition, as well as on the basis of analyzing inlfuencing factors resulted by mining activities. The functional systems include the key areas for exploiting resources, resource-restricted exploitation areas (ecology), resource-restricted exploitation areas (basic condition), resource-optimized exploitation areas, and general resource exploitation areas. The model is set up for identifying functional areas by using matrix distinguishing analysis method. On this basis, it makes a verifying research on 14 kinds of solid minerals at the county-level administrative regions. As a result, the plan for functional zoning of major solid mineral resource exploitation is introduced; the rule of territorial differentiation with regard to the elements of major solid mineral resources is given a preliminary reveal. In order to provide decision support for the optimization of spatial planning and zoning governance pertaining to the exploitation of mineral resources, differential management policy in line with various functional areas are offered.%文章通过概念界定,在对矿产资源开发影响要素分析的基础上,构建了功能区划指标体系,将功能体系划分为资源重点开发区、资源限制开发区(生态)、资源限制开发区(基础条件)、资源优化开发区和资源一般开发区5种类型,并采用矩阵判别分析法构建了功能区识别模型。在此基础上,以县级行政区为研究尺度,选择了14种主要固体矿产进行实证研究,提出了我国主要固体矿产资源开发功能区划方案,初步揭示了我国主要固体矿产资源要素的地域分异规律,并提出了针对各功能区的差别化管理政策,以期为我国矿产资源开发空间格局优化和分区管治提供决策支撑。

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  6. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  7. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Gongwen Wang


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  8. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.


    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.


    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  10. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.


    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  11. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.


    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  12. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.


    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  13. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.


    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.


    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  15. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Cannon, M.R.


    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  16. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.


    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  17. Mineral-Resource Assessment of Northern Nye County, Nevada - A Progress Report

    Ludington, Steve; John, David A.; Muntean, John L.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Castor, Stephen B.; Henry, Christopher D.; Wintzer, Niki; Cline, Jean S.; Simon, Adam C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), which is a part of the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), have completed the first year of data collection and analysis in preparation for a new mineral- and energy-resource assessment of northern Nye County, Nevada. This report provides information about work completed before October 1, 2009. Existing data are being compiled, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral-deposit information. Field studies are underway, which are primarily designed to address issues raised during the review of existing information. In addition, new geochemical studies are in progress, including reanalyzing existing stream-sediment samples with modern methods, and analyzing metalliferous black shales.

  18. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    Willing, A


    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  19. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)


    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  20. Recultivation of Podmreka quarry by means of closed cycle of mineral resources extraction - chances for future

    Gorazd Žibret


    Full Text Available The main idea is how we could use the scrapped construction materials for the recultivation of abandoned extraction sites in the means of closed cycle from extraction of the non metallic mineral resourced, consumption and deposition at the end. In the article the Slovenian law concerning this area and the case study of Podsmreka quarry is described. The process takes the opposite direction from extraction, which means that the company does not need a lot of additional equipment. This is a good option for the environment, society and for the companies after finishing the exploitation.

  1. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.


    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  2. The mineral resource base of the European sector of the northeastern USSR. Mineral'no-syr'evye resursy evropeiskogo Severo-Vostoka SSSR

    Fishman, M.V.


    The primary results of geological exploration and scientific research operations, which were conducted in the Kom', ASSR and the Nenets Autonomous Region from 1974-1978, are given. The basic directions of the operations for developing the mineral resource base of the European sector of the northeastern USSR for 1980-1985 are proposed.

  3. Mineral Resources of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Hardyman, Richard F.; Poole, Forrest G.; Kleinhampl, Frank J.; Turner, Robert L.; Plouff, Donald; Duval, Joe S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.; Benjamin, David A.


    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of land Management, 83,100 acres of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area (NV-4)60-231/241) was studied. In this report the studied area is called the 'wilderness study area', or simply the 'study area.' No identified mineral or energy resources occur within the study area. The southern part of the area has moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered gold and silver, and the Woodruff Formation in the southern part of the area has high resource potential for undiscovered vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and silver (fig. 1). This assessment is based on field geochemical studies in 1984 and 1985 by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and field geochemical studies and geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1984 and 1985. The remainder of the study area has low resource potential for undiscovered gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, tin, and molybdenum. The study area also has low resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Antelope Wilderness Study Area is about midway between Tonopah and Eureka, Nev., in the northern Hot Creek Range and southern Antelope Range of central Nevada. It is accessible by unimproved dirt roads extending 20 mi (miles) north from U.S. Highway 6 and 40 mi south from U.S. Highway 50 (fig. 2). Most of the study area consists of rugged mountainous terrain having approximately 2,600 ft (feet) of relief. The mountain range is a block tilted gently to the east and bounded on both sides by normal faults that dip steeply to moderately west and have major displacements. Most of the study area is underlain by a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks that predominantly consist of silicic ash-flow tuff, the Windous Butte Formation. Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic (see geologic time chart in appendix) marine sediments occur along the southern margin of the study area, and lower Paleozoic rocks are exposed in the northeast corner. The areas of exposed Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks along the southern

  4. Minerals

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.


    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.


    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  7. Mineral resources of high-tech metals in Russia: State of the art and outlook

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.


    Seven main ore-forming systems—porphyry and epithermal; orogenic related to granitic intrusions; magmatic ultramafic; volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and volcanic-sedimentary; sedimentary basins; related to alkaline magmatic activity; and placers and weathering mantles—are sources of high-tech critical metals. The following promising types of ore deposits containing high-tech critical metals as by-products are recognized: Cu-Mo porphyry, Fe-Cu-Au and Pb-Zn skarn, base-metal epithermal, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, base-metal stratiform, various tin deposits, and placers containing rare metals including REE. The mineral resources of critical metals in Russia are compared with those known in other countries. The contents of high-tech critical metals in ores of some noble-metal deposits of the Russian Northeast are reported. It is shown that the subsurface of Russia possesses considerable mineral resource potential for hightech critical metals, which allows new enterprises to be created or production of operating enterprises to increase.

  8. Ore-bearing Formations and Mineral Resource Prospects of the Peripheral Areas of the Tarim Block


    The tectonic development of the Tarim block has experienced four stages, i. e. Earth's core accretion and block formation in the Precambrian, margin splitting, opening-closing and piecing up in the Early Palaeozoic, rift formation and plate unification in the Late Palaeozoic, and basin-mountain coupling and landform shaping in the Meso-Cenozoic, forming six ore-bearing formations and ore deposits of various genetic types in the Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains and Altun Mountains. In the peripheral areas of Tarim there are four giant intercontinental metallogenic belts passing through, the Central Tianshan and southwestern Tianshan belts in the former USSR and the Qinling-Qilian-Kunlun and Palaeo-Tethys belts in China. According to the macro-analysis on the nearly one thousand known deposits (occurrences) and geophysical-geochemical anomalies, and the information from reconnaissance in some areas, the region has very good prospects for mineral resources. Some of the metallogenic belts may well become the reserve bases for exploration of mineral resources in China.

  9. Aggregate resource alternatives : future options for meeting aggregate minerals supply from outside National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

    Mankelow, J M; Bate, R; Bide, T.; Mitchell, C; Linley, K.; Hannis, S.; Cameron, D.


    The town and country planning system aims to make the best use of land for society as a whole, taking into account a wide range of issues which have a land use dimension; by sustaining the natural environment in which those activities take place; and by managing the resources on which they depend. As mineral resources, and particularly construction mineral resources (principally aggregates), are used to create the ‘goods’ that society ‘needs’ (e.g., housing and infrastructure development), th...

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  11. Mineral processing technologies used to obtain valuable components of the solid wastes from coal combustion in power plants

    Martin Sisol


    Full Text Available This paper presents mineral processing technologies used to achieve components from solid wastes of coal combusted in power plants. By combusting bituminous coal in smelting boilers, mineral novelties are formed which are separable by suitable mineral processing technologies. The separation of unburned coal residues is realized by flotation, using nonionic flotation agents such as Flotalex MR, Flotalex bio, Flotakol NX and others. The Fe component created by the mineral novelty of magnetite is obtained by wet and dry low-intensity magnetic separation. Optimal results were accomplished by the flotation process in which we obtained residues of unburned coal. The waste from the flotation was consequently separated by the wet low-intensity separation. The waste from the flotation and magnetic separation - subtilized fly ash, contained 0 – 2,5% LOI which can be used in architecture.

  12. 矿产资源刑法立法问题研究%Research on Penal Mineral Resources Legislation

    孙红雨; 刘文燕


    Construction of environment-friendly society and circular economy,exploitation of mineral resources development strategy for a sustainable society has a close relationship.This article looks at criminal legislation of mineral resources, Discusses the status quo of China's existing criminal law and lack of mineral resources, with the success stories of developed criminal legislation on mineral resources, ,explore China's mineral resources criminal legislation in line with the recommendations to improve the situation of China.%环境友好型社会与循环经济体系的建设,矿产资源开采对于社会的可持续发展战略有着密不可分的关系。着眼于矿产资源的刑法立法问题,讨论了我国现有矿产资源刑法现状与不足,结合发达国家关于矿产资源的刑法立法成功案例,探索中国矿产资源刑法立法符合中国国情的改善建议。

  13. Present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru; Peru no chika shigen no genjo to shorai

    Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces the present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru. Peru is a great mineral resource country in the world. Silver (the third in the world in 1993), lead (the fifth), zinc (the fourth), tin (the fifth), copper (the sixth), gold (the fourteenth), and iron are occurred as main mineral resources. Peru was laid waste due to long-term colonial rule by Spain. After the independence, confusion caused by the political distrust and breakdown of national economy was continued. Mineral resources were not utilized, effectively. Based on the nationalism of mineral resources, mines were nationalized after the 1970`s. Thus, mines lost the international competitive power due to the withdrawal of overseas capitals. Recently, based on the privatization policy, national mines have been sold through bids with participation of foreign capitals. Law systems for the development have been also arranged, which results in the ambitious participation of major mining companies in the world for the development. Survey companies have gone into the exploration. Prevention of environmental pollution, such as waste water quality standards, has been promoted. Environmental pollution by the illegal alluvial mining is serious. The government is promoting the positive measures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia


    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  15. Characterization and Neutron Shielding Behavior of Dehydrated Magnesium Borate Minerals Synthesized via Solid-State Method

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak


    Full Text Available Magnesium borates are one of the major groups of boron minerals that have good neutron shielding performance. In this study, dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized by solid-state method using magnesium oxide (MgO and boron oxide (B2O3, in order to test their ability of neutron shielding. After synthesizing the dehydrated magnesium borates, characterizations were done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also boron oxide (B2O3 contents and reaction yields (% were calculated. XRD results showed that seven different types of dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized. 1000°C reaction temperature, 240 minutes of reaction time, and 3 : 2, 1 : 1 mole ratios of products were selected and tested for neutron transmission. Also reaction yields were calculated between 84 and 88% for the 3 : 2 mole ratio products. The neutron transmission experiments revealed that the 3 : 2 mole ratio of MgO to B2O3 neutron transmission results (0.618–0.655 was better than the ratio of 1 : 1 (0.772–0.843.

  16. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    Pop, Virgiliu


    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  17. History of the exploitation of thermo-mineral resources in Campi Flegrei and Ischia, Italy

    Giacomelli, Lisetta; Scandone, Roberto


    Thermo-mineral springs are widely spread over the volcanic areas of Campi Flegrei and Ischia, and on the western side of the city of Naples. Their use has, since long, been known by local inhabitants because they were one of the main curative therapies in the past. The fortune and use of the thermal springs have been affected by the volcanic eruptions that occurred in different times in these areas. The exploitation of geothermal springs in Campi Flegrei suffered a decisive decline after the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. Conversely, after that eruption, in Ischia Island there was a progressive increase of the use of thermal spring therapy. The use of geothermal resources for electric generation has not been implemented in Campi Flegrei because of the difficulty in using hypersaline fluids, whereas in Ischia, local authorities preferred only the development of touristic activity based on geothermal springs.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Mineral Resources and Environment in Mid-South of Shandong Province


    On the bases of the field survey and a large number of testing data, we process the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mine environment in the mid-south of Shandong Province using the following grade- I factors:the surface subsidence in mining area, the three wastes of mine industries, the pollution sources, the surface water pollution, the underground water pollution and the air pollution. By means of emitting factor judgment and water quality indexes, we locate pollution sources, main pollutants, pollution type and pollution grade in the study area. Using the MAPGIS, we draw a zonality map of the mine environment. This paper attempts to offer a concrete example, including valuable assessment method, data and conclusion, for the assessment of mine environment from the integrated assessment of mineral resources and mine environment.This research is oriented towards the sustainable development and the ecological environment optimization.

  19. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,


    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.




    Full Text Available Considering the fact that the goal of any enterprise, and those that operate in the field of extracting coal, mineral resources aims at maintaining balance relationship between revenue and expenditure, the problem faced by the management of the companies is finding those methods which allow the sizing and control of this type of relationship. For this purpose it shall draw up a document of financial forecasting, namely "the budget of revenue and expenditure", emerged as "an instrument of harmonization and improvement of the relationship between revenue and expenditure", which due to its mining over a specific period of time, usually one year and broken down by quarters, financial revenue and expenditure, thus ensuring steady financial relationship. In the present work we, as starting from general considerations realiarea the budget, to introduce a new model of its întrocmirea taking into account the secificitatea of coal mining of ore extraction.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood



    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  2. Cluster approach to forming innovative model of developing mineral resources base of Russia’s regions

    Andrey Gennad'evich Shelomentsev


    Full Text Available In this paper, the necessity of applying innovative model of developing mineral resources base of Russia’s regions and relevance of cluster approach for forming this model are proved. Components of process of clustering in the case of innovative developing mineral raw complex are proposed and analyzed: consolidation of socioeconomic potential of region, consolidation of potential of different branches of people’s activities, consolidation of processes of primary (wining sector in the single chain. In particular, the first component implies concentration of population in certain centers of gravitation. The second component implies consolidation of education, fundamental as well as applying science and production. The creating of administrative nets is necessary for that. For the realization of the first and the second components, the availability of clustering organization is necessary. The third component of process of clustering implies in prospect the adding of increasing amount of stages of product manufacturing. Eventually, the multi-stage structure of innovative process is analyzed.

  3. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.


    are being explored and sampled at the present time (1969). A little lead has been mined and smelted in the past but operations were on a very small scale and of short duration. Small amounts of lead, zinc, and copper minerals accompany dolomite replacement of Cretaceous limestone in a few scattered places, and several promising prospects are being investigated by means of trenches and drilling. One magnetite and several hematite prospects were examined but none offers any potential for economic development. Thick beds of gypsum in Lower Cretaceous limestone on Mesa de Los Santos, south of Bucaramanga are being quarried from outcrops for use in cement manufacture. The deposit was discovered shortly before the present project began, and although its extent beneath overlying strata is not yet determined by drilling, it appears to be in a small evaporite basin of about three kilometers in radius. Reserves of gypsum are large, but future development will have to be by underground mining. Outcrops of Cretaceous limestone of high purity are widespread and are more than adequate to meet all demands, which at present are for cement and calcined lime, road construction material, and to a small extent for agricultural lime and polished decorative stone. Upper Paleozoic limestone of the Diamante Formation crops out in a few places; it has been used near Bucaramanga for cement manufacture. Marble is present in several localities of the Santander massif in Lower Paleozoic and Devonian rocks. Impurities, fractures, and solution cavities render most of it unsuitable for decorative purposes, but selected parts are used in floor tile and terrazo. Recrystallized limestone of the Diamante Formation in the same area, usually referred to as marble, is of uniform high purity throughout a thick and uninterrupted section, and offers a good source of limestone raw material. A little is now used for agricultural lime. The potential of this resource has not been fully evalua

  4. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.


    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  5. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.


    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  6. Resources

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  7. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Harris, W.B.


    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  8. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector


    This report summarizes the geology of an area of some 6000 square kilometers in the northern part of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The area, in north-central Department of Antioquia, was mapped between 1964 and 1968 as part of the Inventario Minero Nacional (IMN) project. Mineral resources are summarized within a larger area, designated as subzone ILK of IMN Zone If, which comprises almost 22,000 sq. kin, including the area mapped geologically by IMN and additional areas mapped by other agencies. The oldest formation is a micaceous paragneiss of early Paleozoic or possibly late Precambrian age. A thick geosynclinal sedimentary series accumulated during the Paleozoic Era and became regionally metamorphosed to greenschist (locally amphibolite) facies during the Permian or early Triassic; these schists and gneisses are designated collectively as the Valdivia Group. The Permian(?) orogenic episode included intrusion of concordant syntectonic plutons, mostly of tonalitic composition. Rocks of unequivocal Triassic or Jurassic age are not recognized. The Cretaceous is well represented by both igneous and sedimentary assemblages. Eugeosynclinal alpine ophiolites comprising submarine basalt flows and numerous intrusions of gabbro and serpentinite are prominent in the Lower Cretaceous, together with flysch composed of marine shale and lesser sandstone and conglomerate. The Upper Cretaceous is represented along the west border of the mapped area by submarine basalt flows and pyroclastic rocks, locally Interbedded with fine-grained clastic sedimentary beds, and lenses of dark laminated chert, at least part of which is radiolarian. The Late Cretaceous was marked by an orogenic event that profoundly folded and faulted all rocks and in the Central Cordillera caused low-grade metamorphism, the overprint of which is hardly observable in pre-Cretaceous rocks elsewhere. The Late Cretaceous orogeny culminated with discordant intrusion of the epizonal tonalitic


    V.P. Pakhomov


    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  10. Metal Recovery from Industrial Solid Waste — Contribution to Resource Sustainability

    Yang, Yongxiang

    Increased demand of metals has driven the accelerated mining and metallurgical production in recent years, causing fast depletion of primary metals resources. On the contrary, the mining and metallurgical industry generates large amount of solid residues and waste such as tailings, slags, flue dust and leach residues, with relative low valuable metal contents. On the other hand, end-of-life (EoL) consumer products form another significant resources. The current technology and processes for primary metals production are not readily applicable for direct metals extraction from these waste materials, and special adaptation and tailor-made processes are required. In the present paper, various solid waste resources are reviewed, and current technologies and R&D trends are discussed. The recent research at author's group is illustrated for providing potential solutions to future resource problems, including metal recovery from MSW incinerator bottom ashes, zinc recovery from industrial ashes and residues, and rare earth metals recovery from EoL permanent magnets.

  11. Mineral resources and land-use planning, the Watkins, Colorado case: a workshop synopsis

    LaFevers, J. R.; Agnew, A. B.; Hill, G.; Guernsey, J. L.


    The Reclamation and Land Use Planning Program is sponsored jointly through the U.S. Geological Survey's RALI Program and the U.S. Department of Energy's Land Reclamation Program to provide guidance materials and technical services to mining industry and public sector planners concerned with planning for effective land use in surface mine areas. The Program integrates reclamation planning with land use planning to assure maximum benefits to the public from both the reuse of mined areas and the efficient utilization of surface resources. Argonne's Land Reclamation program is a joint effort of the Laboratory's Energy and Environmental Systems Division and Environmental Impact Studies Division. The Program is conducting coordinated applied and basic research on the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation related to surface mining and is developing cost-effective techniques for reclaiming/rehabilitating mined land to productive end uses. The Program conducts integrated research and development projects focused on near- or long-term reclamation problems in major minerals resource areas throughout the U.S. and is responsible for coordinating, evaluating, and disseminating the results of coal mine reclamation studies conducted at other research institutions. This workshop addressed issues of critical importance relating to the potential development of lignite deposits in the vicinity of Denver, Colorado. This synopsis recaps the issues, discussions, and planning efforts of the workshop participants and the expert ''faculty'' who helped make the workshop a success.

  12. Dairy manure resource recovery utilizing two-stage anaerobic digestion - Implications of solids fractionation.

    Stowe, Edmond J; Coats, Erik R; Brinkman, Cynthia K


    Dairy manure management is increasingly becoming an environmental challenge. In this regard, manure anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to address environmental concerns; however, dairy manure AD remains economically uncompetitive. Ongoing research is focused on enhanced resource recovery from manure, including maximizing AD methane yield through a novel multi-stage AD configuration. Research presented herein centered on the hypothesis that separately digesting fine and coarse solids from fermented dairy manure would improve methane production; the hypothesis was disproven. While maximum methane concentration was realized on fine solids, combined solids AD yielded enhanced VS destruction. The diverse combined-solids substrate enriched for a more heterogeneous bacterial/archaeal consortium that balanced fermentation and methanogenesis to yield maximum product (methane). However, results suggest that targeted AD of the fat-rich fine solids could be a more optimal approach for processing manure; alternate (non-AD) methods could then be applied to extract value from the fibrous fraction.

  13. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.


    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  14. From Field to the Web: Management and Publication of Geoscience Samples in CSIRO Mineral Resources

    Devaraju, A.; Klump, J. F.; Tey, V.; Fraser, R.; Reid, N.; Brown, A.; Golodoniuc, P.


    Inaccessible samples are an obstacle to the reproducibility of research and may cause waste of time and resources through duplication of sample collection and management. Within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mineral Resources there are various research communities who collect or generate physical samples as part of their field studies and analytical processes. Materials can be varied and could be rock, soil, plant materials, water, and even synthetic materials. Given the wide range of applications in CSIRO, each researcher or project may follow their own method of collecting, curating and documenting samples. In many cases samples and their documentation are often only available to the sample collector. For example, the Australian Resources Research Centre stores rock samples and research collections dating as far back as the 1970s. Collecting these samples again would be prohibitively expensive and in some cases impossible because the site has been mined out. These samples would not be easily discoverable by others without an online sample catalog. We identify some of the organizational and technical challenges to provide unambiguous and systematic access to geoscience samples, and present their solutions (e.g., workflow, persistent identifier and tools). We present the workflow starting from field sampling to sample publication on the Web, and describe how the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) can be applied to identify samples along the process. In our test case geoscientific samples are collected as part of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project, a collaboration project between the CSIRO, the Geological Survey of Western Australia, academic institutions and industry partners. We conclude by summarizing the values of our solutions in terms of sample management and publication.


    Dorota Nowak


    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  16. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.


    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  17. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources


    ... dependent upon international market conditions. Natural gas and coal bed methane production depends upon... coal bed gas) or renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal). Mineral... (Oil, Natural Gas, Coal): Bob Just, telephone 720-407-0611, email Renewable...

  18. 75 FR 22153 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources


    ... energy and mineral development study. (Public release is meant to include publications, a poster session... of the location on the reservation where the work will be done. Include relevant page size maps and... geologic setting containing the resource may extend onto the reservation, regardless of the size of...

  19. Winter and growing season nitrogen mineralization from fall-applied composted or stockpiled solid dairy manure

    Adequate characterization of nitrogen (N) mineralization with time from manure and other organic sources is needed to maximize manure N use efficiency, decrease producer costs, and protect groundwater quality. The objective of our two-year field study at Parma, ID, was to quantify in situ N mineral...

  20. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.


    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  1. Influence of desert mineral resource exploitation on the spatial structure of the urban system in Xinjiang

    ZHANG; Xiaolei(张小雷)


    The strategic mineral resource exploration has important influence on the modern urbansystem in arid areas. Large amounts of investment on oil and gas industry have important effect onthe infrastructure which includes cities and communications, and this will become an importantfactor of changing the urban structure of Xinjiang. In the 1950s, Kelamayi and Dushanzi cities haveappeared by the petroleum exploration in the west of the Juggar Basin, which not only changedthe single role of Xinjiang oasis agricultural city but also made the distribution of cites broken fromnatural oasis for the first time, and the network trend of urban spatial structures emerged. In recentyears, the large-scale petroleum exploration in Tuha, Juggar and Tarim Basins gives local citiesmore chance of rapid development. Especially, a large-scale communication construction, with the552 km desert highway as representative, totally changed the traditional oasis spacial structure ofthe urban system in the Tarim Basin. The influence on the spacial structure of the urban system byoil exploration in a large-scale reserve basin can be divided into four stages.

  2. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.


    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  3. Nano-solids in manganese nodules from northern part of Pacific Ocean floor——Nano-solids in minerals and prospects of its uses in industry

    施倪承; 马喆生; 何万中; 罗济民


    The study of the crystal structure and particle size of manganese nodules from the northernpart of the Central Pacific Ocean floor indicates that besides the phases of todorokite,birnessite and δ-MnOwith the crystallite size at the micron scale,there are many other multi-phase solids having particle size at thenanomater scale.The chemical analysis,TEM study,M(?)ssbauer spectroscopy and differential thermal analysisshow that they are mainly ferri-hydroxides with the short-range ordered structure similar to that of goethiteand lepidocrocite.The small-angle X-ray scattering measurements indicate that the peak position of the particlesize distribution is at 5-10nm,hence the existence of nano-solids in minerals is confirmed.

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System (MAS) data set. Most of the information is from the Minerals Industry System Location (MILS) table., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System...

  5. Effects of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones:a case study of Wu’an, China

    Jianjun Zhang; Yongheng Rao; Yang Xu; Meichen Fu


    A mineral resource zone, rich in resources and energy, is intensively developed and disturbed by human activities, which causes an obvious change of landscapes. Taking Wu’an of Hebei Province, China, as a case study, this paper extracts landscape information of mineral resource zones through overlapping mineral resources distribution map and landscape pattern map. And then, various landscape indices are selected for analyzing the effects of grain size (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 m) on landscape patterns. Due to different kinds of landscape information transmitted by indices, the changing trends vary with the increase of grain sizes. Accordingly the landscape indices are classified into three types of effects:disturbance, continuity and sustainability, and each type of effect has its own optimal range for grain sizes. Then the optimal range of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones is gained through a comparison of the effects in various grain sizes of landscape indices. The best first domain of scale covers 30–90 m, with a suitable grain size of 30–60 m before intensive mining and a suitable grain size of 60–90 m after intensive mining. Besides, the suitable grain sizes for reflecting disturbance, continuity and sustainability before intensive mining are 30–60, 30–60 and 30–90 m, respectively, however, the sizes are changed to 60–90, 60–90 and 30–90 m, respectively, after intensive mining. The results are helpful for rational land use and optimal landscape allocation.

  6. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Sharif, J.A.


    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  7. Mineral resource potential map of the Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area, northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Dunn, Maynard L.


    The Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area have minor occurrences of metallic minerals, but no known resource potential for such minerals in the forseeable future, judging by available data, and only a very minor potential for stone for aggregate, road construction, and similar nondimension use. The rocks of the Ducktown massive sulfide district to the northeast do not appear to extend into the study area, and geochemical data derived from samples of rock, soil, and alluvium do not reveal any anomalously high concentrations of trace elements that could be representative of hidden mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks underlying the metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface have an unknown potential for hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas. No reasonable estimate of the potential can be made until some test drilling is done in the area.

  8. Mineral resource assessment of the Iron River 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Cannon, William F.


    The Iron River 1? x 2? quadrangle contains identified resources of copper and iron. Copper-rich shale beds in the north part of the quadrangle contain 12.2 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilograms) of copper in well-studied deposits including 9.2 billion pounds (4.2 billion kilograms) that are economically minable by 1980 standards. At least several billion pounds of copper probably exist in other parts of the same shale beds, but not enough data are available to measure the amount. A small amount, about 250 million pounds (113 million kilograms), of native copper is known to remain in one abandoned mine, and additional but unknown amounts remain in other abandoned mines. About 13.25 billion tons (12.02 billion metric tons) of banded iron-formation averaging roughly 30 percent iron are known within 500 feet (152.4 meters) of the surface in the Gogebic, Marquette, and Iron River-Crystal Falls districts. A small percentage of that might someday be minable as taconite, but none is now believed to be economic. Some higher grade iron concentrations exist in the same iron-formations. Such material was the basis of former mining of iron in the region, but a poor market for such ore and depletion of many deposits have led to the decline of iron mining in the quadrangle. Iron mines of the quadrangle were not being worked in 1980. Many parts of the quadrangle contain belts of favorable host rocks for mineral deposits. Although deposits are not known in these belts, undiscovered deposits of copper, zinc, lead, silver, uranium, phosphate, nickel, chromium, platinum, gold, and diamonds could exist.

  9. The Ministry of Land and Resources Published the “ThreeRate” Indicator for Seven Minerals Including Iron Ore and Copper


    <正>In order to strengthen the supervision and administration of rational exploitation of mineral resources including iron,copper,lead,zinc,rare earth,sylvine and fluorite,the Ministry of Land and Resources has published the Minimum Three-rate Requirements for the Rational Exploitation of Mineral Resources including Iron,Copper,Lead,Zinc,Rare Earth,Sylvine and Fluorite(for trial implementation).

  10. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Felix B. Masok


    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  11. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.


    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  12. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Paul D'Arcy


    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  13. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan


    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state.

  14. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng


    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  15. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  16. Marine mineral resources of the Central Indian Basin: Ferromanganese nodules and crusts

    Rao, P.S.; Nair, R.R.

    as the dominant mineral and contain higher concentrations of Mn, Ni and Cu due to the supply of these metals during early diagenesis. Smooth surface nodules associated with pelagic clays have Delta - MnO...

  17. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.


    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  18. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Allegrini, Elisa, E-mail: [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Holtze, Maria Sommer [Afatek Ltd., Selinevej 18, 2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)


    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  19. Solid-state phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of synthetic solid phases of calcium phosphate: potential models of bone mineral.

    Aue, W P; Roufosse, A H; Glimcher, M J; Griffin, R G


    Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra have been obtained from a variety of synthetic, solid calcium phosphate mineral phases by magic angle sample spinning. The samples include crystalline hydroxyapatite, two type B carbonatoapatites containing 3.2 and 14.5% CO3(2-), respectively, a hydroxyapatite in which approximately 12% of the phosphate groups are present as HPO4(2-), an amorphous calcium phosphate, monetite, brushite, and octacalcium phosphate. Spectra were observed by the standard Bloch decay and cross-polarization techniques, as well as by a dipolar suppression sequence, in order to distinguish between protonated and unprotonated phosphate moieties. The spectra of the synthetic calcium phosphates provide basic information that is essential for interpreting similar spectra obtained from bone and other calcified tissues.

  20. Targeting Mineral Resources with Remote Sensing and Field Data in the Xiemisitai Area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Lamin R. Mansaray


    Full Text Available The Xiemisitai area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential copper mineralization zone in association with small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization characteristics of the intrusions, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ and Quickbird data of the study area were evaluated in mapping lithological units, small intrusions, and alteration zones. False color composites of the first principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, and PCA4 in red (R, green (G, and blue (B of the ETM+ image, and relevant hue-saturation-intensity (HSI color model transformations, were performed. This led to the identification of lithologic units and discrimination of granitic intrusions from wall-rocks. A new geological map was generated by integrating the remote sensing results with two internally published local geologic maps and field inspection data. For the selected region, false color composites from PCA and relevant HSI-transformed images of the Quickbird data delineated the details of small intrusions and identified other unknown similar intrusions nearby. Fifteen separate potash-feldspar granites and three separate hornblende biotite granites were identified using ETM+ and Quickbird data. The principal component analysis-based Crosta technique was employed to discriminate alteration minerals. Some of the mapped alteration zones using the Crosta technique agreed very well with the known copper deposits. Field verification led to the discovery of three copper mineralizations and two gold mineralizations for the first time. The results show that the PCA and HSI transformation techniques proved to be robust in processing remote sensing data with moderate to high spatial resolutions. It is concluded that the utilized methods are useful for mapping lithology and the targeting of small intrusion-type mineral resources within the sparsely vegetated regions of Northwest China.

  1. 矿产资源评价中的核心问题%Critical issues in mineral resources appraisal



    矿产资源评价是过去几十年里全球地质学家关注的重要领域.在过去的研究中,矿产资源评价的方法学及其相应的统计学技术在理论上取得了明显的进展,统计学技术或主观评估已经成为多元数据综合和资源潜力预测的通用方法.然而,这些方法所得出的估计结果或结论时于国家宏观政策制定、矿产资源管理、商业矿产勘探的实际效果和指导意义非常有限.影响矿产资源评价效果的很多问题还有待于进一步研究,新的基础理论问题需得到进一步解决.为此,就其中几个有关矿产资源评价的最为关键的问题进行了深入的探讨,包括矿产资源的随机性、内在的统计关系、矿产的稀有性、本征地质单元、资源经济转化等.就几个信息综合中的技术问题也做了较为系统的讨论,包括信息增强、空间连续性、数据综合及靶区圈定.最后提出了"动态模型区"的概念,试图为矿产资源评价指出一个新的思考方向.%Mineral resources appraisal has been an important research subject for geoscientists around the world in the past three decades. Significant progress has been made in development of statistical techniques and estimation methodologies for mineral resources. Integration of multiple data sets, either by experts or statistical methods, has become a common practice in estimation of mineral po-tentials. However, real effect of these methodologies is at best very limited in term of uses for government macro policy making, re-source management, and mineral exploration in commercial sectors. Several major problems in data integration remain to be solved in order to achieve significant improvement in the effect of resource estimation. Some critical issues, comidered being critical and funda-mental in mineral resources appraisal, are addressed in this paper. Issues related to randomness of mineral endowment, intrinsic statistical relations, exceptionalness

  2. Technologies of oxygen supply for life support during the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas

    Liu Yingshu; Jia Yanxiang; Wu Tianyi; Deng Ling; Yang Xiong; Liu Wenhai; Zhang Hui


    In order to fulfill the needs of life-support oxygen supply during the development of plateau mineral resources,four oxygen supply patterns suitable for the plateau mine in specific environment were developed:tunnel face diffusive oxygen supply,tunnel oxygen-bar car,carried oxygen cylinder and portable oxygen generator.Through the study of safety oxygen supply experiments in low-pressure plateau areas,the mathematical relationship between maximum integration of secure oxygen volume and altitude has been achieved.Oxygen supply safety control should follow this relationship in plateau mines during the time of executing tunnel face or in room air diffusive oxygen supply.The application results of life-support oxygen supplement technologies in the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas show that the oxygen supply for tunneling miners in plateau mines can not only effectively enhance the oxygen saturation,reduce the pulse rate and the breath rate per minute,but also improve various symptoms caused by altitude hypoxia and high-intensity physical labor.

  3. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.


    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  4. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)



    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  5. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.


    The potential for economic development of energy-related or metallic mineral resources in the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas is low to moderate as indicated by geologic, geophysical, and geochemical investigations.

  6. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Villa Rica, Georgia Mine Locations Map, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is...

  7. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Purchased equipment)



    The paper prepared plans of the purchased equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, parcel data base attribute; property code, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006....

  9. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy


    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Sharma Deepika


    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  11. CO2 sequestration using waste concrete and anorthosite tailings by direct mineral carbonation in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes.

    Ben Ghacham, Alia; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy


    Mineral carbonation (MC) represents a promising alternative for sequestering CO2. In this work, the CO2 sequestration capacity of the available calcium-bearing materials waste concrete and anorthosite tailings is assessed in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes using 18.2% flue CO2 gas. The objective is to screen for a better potential residue and phase route and as the ultimate purpose to develop a cost-effective process. The results indicate the possibility of removing 66% from inlet CO2 using waste concrete for the aqueous route. However, the results that were obtained with the carbonation of anorthosite were less significant, with 34% as the maximal percentage of CO2 removal. The difference in terms of reactivity could be explained by the accessibility to calcium. In fact, anorthosite presents a framework structure wherein the calcium is trapped, which could slow the calcium dissolution into the aqueous phase compared to the concrete sample, where calcium can more easily leach. In the other part of the study concerning gas-solid carbonation, the results of CO2 removal did not exceed 15%, which is not economically interesting for scaling up the process. The results obtained with waste concrete samples in aqueous phase are interesting. In fact, 34.6% of the introduced CO2 is converted into carbonate after 15 min of contact with the gas without chemical additives and at a relatively low gas pressure. Research on the optimization of the aqueous process using waste concrete should be performed to enhance the reaction rate and to develop a cost-effective process.

  12. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility


    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  13. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D



    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  14. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.


    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  15. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.


    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  16. Oil, Gas and Minerals: The Impact of Resource-Dependence and Governance on Sustainable Development

    G. Carbonnier (Gilles); N. Wagner (Natascha)


    textabstractIt has often been argued that oil, gas and minerals may have a negative impact on development as measured by income per capita. This does not say much about sustainability, which is critical for developing countries whose economic growth derives primarily from the exploitation of exhaust

  17. Economics of exhaustible resources. I. The peculiar problems of mineral wealth

    Hotelling, H.


    The discussion is confined in scope to absolutely irreplaceable assets. Topics include peculiar problems of mineral wealth, free competition, maximum social value and state regulation, monopoly, value of a mine monopoly, retardation of production under monopoly, price effects from cumulated production, and the author's mathematically derived optimum solutions. (PCS)

  18. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Lynch-Bell, Michael


    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  19. Protection of landowners' rights in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 / Erasmus LJ.

    Erasmus, Lourens Johannes.


    Since the enactment of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 (MPRDA) a fundamental conflict arose between the rights of a holder of either a prospecting or a mining right, and that of a landowner. On the one hand this can be explained by having regard to the impact the granting of a prospecting or a mining right may have on the rights of the landowner to whose land such a right relates. On the other hand, section 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,...

  20. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.


    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  1. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.


    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  2. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E


    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  3. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.


    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of

  4. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C


    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface.




    Full Text Available El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que hasta ahora no habían sido contabilizados. Las herramientas de gestión ambiental (fundamentalmente el Análisis Exergético y el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida, aplicados a la producción mineral son instrumentos para alcanzar este fin, tal como se expresa a continuación.

  6. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  7. Solar photocatalytic treatment of landfill leachate using a solid mineral by-product as a catalyst.

    Poblete, Rodrigo; Prieto-Rodríguez, Lucia; Oller, Isabel; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto; Otal, Emilia; Vilches, Luis F; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino


    The treatment of municipal solid waste landfill leachate in a pilot plant made up of solar compound parabolic collectors, using a solid industrial titanium by-product (WTiO(2)) containing TiO(2) and Fe(III) as a photocatalyst, was investigated. In the study evidence was found showing that the degradation performed with WTiO(2) was mainly due to the Fe provided by this by-product, instead of TiO(2). However, although TiO(2) had very little effect by itself, a synergistic effect was observed between Fe and TiO(2). The application of WTiO(2), which produced coupled photo-Fenton and heterogeneous catalysis reactions, achieved a surprisingly high depuration level (86% of COD removal), higher than that reached by photo-Fenton using commercial FeSO(4) (43%) in the same conditions. After the oxidation process the biodegradability and toxicity of the landfill leachate were studied. The results showed that the leachate biodegradability was substantially increased, at least in the first stages of the process, and again that WTiO(2) was more efficient than FeSO(4) in terms of increasing biodegradability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineral resource potential map of the John Muir Wilderness, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, and Mono counties, California

    Du Bray, E.A.; Dellinger, D.A.; Diggles, M.F.; Oliver, H.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Thurber, H.K.; Morris, R.W.; Perers, T.J.; Lindsey, D.S.


    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the John Muir Wilderness, Inyo and Sierra National Forests, Fresno, lnyo, Madera, and Mono Counties, California. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964.

  9. 矿产资源短缺风险定义初探%Preliminary study on definition of shortage risk of mineral resources



    The shortage of mineral resources is inevitable and it is an issue of risk. There is no definition of the shortage risk of mineral resources in academic by now. Defining the shortage risk of mineral resources is very important for realizing risk. Further more, it will play an important role in risk analysis and management. In this paper,the shortage risk of mineral resources is defined as adverse event scenarios caused by the difference between actual supply and expected demand for mineral resources in the future. The shortage risk of mineral resources has the following characteristics: ( 1) The social attribute of the shortage risk of mineral resources; ( 2 ) The bidirectional attribute of risks conducting; ( 3) Prices as the sources of risk; (4) Two - stage characteristics of risk effect.%矿产资源短缺现象不可避免,矿产资源短缺是一个风险问题.目前理论界尚无矿产资源短缺风险的定义.合理准确地描述矿产资源短缺风险的概念对于认识风险,尤其是开展风险分析和管理具有十分重要的意义.作者将矿产资源短缺风险定义为矿产资源供需与预期差异产生不利事件的未来情景.矿产资源短缺风险具有以下特征:(1)风险的社会属性;(2)风险传导的双向性;(3)最终风险源是价格;(4)风险影响的二阶段特性.

  10. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar


    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  12. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  13. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted


    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...

  14. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.


    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  15. Delineation of Potential Mineral Resources Region Based on Geo-anomaly Unit


    The geological anomaly unit method (GAUM) is a new way to delineate and evaluate ore-finding targets in line with the “geological anomaly ore-finding theory”. Comprehensive ore-finding information from geological, geochemical and geophysical data is used for quantitative measurement of the “ore-forming geological anomaly unit” in this paper. The main procedures are shown as follows: (1) The geo-anomalous events associated with gold mineralization are analyzed in Tongshi gold field; (2) The zonation in the concentrated heavy minerals and the stream-sediment elements of ore-forming geo-anomaly are studied in detail; (3) The deep geological structural framework is deduced by means of the synthetic geological interpretation of gravity and magnetic information;(4) The ore-controlling geo-anomalies and ore anomalies are chosen as the variables of the favorable ore-forming indexes that can be used for the quantitative delineation and evaluation of the potential ore-forming regions.

  16. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.


    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  17. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer


    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth.

  18. 我国矿产资源可持续发展探讨%Study on sustainable development of mineral resources of China



    China is abundant in mineral resources and their deposits are huge,these advantages are not real. Especially the requirement of mineral resources in the rapid development of China has been increasing. Thus it causes many problems in the exploitation and utilization of mineral resources. To the characteristics and status of mineral resources exploitation and utilization,this paper points out some current problems and approaches of mineral resources sustainable development. Finally, it puts forward some methods of circular economy of realizing sustainable development.%我国矿产资源品种丰富,储量很大,但是矿产资源优势不优,尤其经济的迅速发展对矿产资源的需求不断加大,致使矿产资源的开发利用存在很多的问题.本文针对我国矿产资源的特点及开发利用现状,指出其存在的诸多问题,并提出我国矿产资源可持续发展的思路,最后对循环经济——矿产资源可持续发展的必然选择提出了实施构想.

  19. Development of demand forecasting tool for natural resources recouping from municipal solid waste.

    Zaman, Atiq Uz; Lehmann, Steffen


    Sustainable waste management requires an integrated planning and design strategy for reliable forecasting of waste generation, collection, recycling, treatment and disposal for the successful development of future residential precincts. The success of the future development and management of waste relies to a high extent on the accuracy of the prediction and on a comprehensive understanding of the overall waste management systems. This study defies the traditional concepts of waste, in which waste was considered as the last phase of production and services, by putting forward the new concept of waste as an intermediate phase of production and services. The study aims to develop a demand forecasting tool called 'zero waste index' (ZWI) for measuring the natural resources recouped from municipal solid waste. The ZWI (ZWI demand forecasting tool) quantifies the amount of virgin materials recovered from solid waste and subsequently reduces extraction of natural resources. In addition, the tool estimates the potential amount of energy, water and emissions avoided or saved by the improved waste management system. The ZWI is tested in a case study of waste management systems in two developed cities: Adelaide (Australia) and Stockholm (Sweden). The ZWI of waste management systems in Adelaide and Stockholm is 0.33 and 0.17 respectively. The study also enumerates per capita energy savings of 2.9 GJ and 2.83 GJ, greenhouse gas emissions reductions of 0.39 tonnes (CO2e) and 0.33 tonnes (CO2e), as well as water savings of 2.8 kL and 0.92 kL in Adelaide and Stockholm respectively.

  20. 新疆矿产资源开发效应及其对利益相关者的影响%Regional Effects of Mineral Resources Exploitation and Impacts on Stakeholders in Xinjiang

    张新华; 谷树忠; 王兴杰


    Exploitation and utilization of mineral resources affect economy, society, resources, and the environment of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. In general, it involves input-output effect,income distribution effect, the Dutch disease effect, industrial association effect, employment effect, "squeezed out" effect, geological disasters effect, as well as resources effect. Due to an abundance of mineral resources, the exploitation of mineral resources in Xinjiang has been increasingly becoming the pillar industry and significantly prompting economic growth and investment increases. Nevertheless, the driver of economic growth varies with the influence of the price of mineral resources. The simplification of the industrial structure and the development of heavy industry may lead to the Dutch disease. Mineral resources extraction increases income of stakeholders, but the distribution of interests is generally unfair. The allocation proportion of revenue among the central government, the local government, and the enterprise is 73:19:8.Obviously, enterprises gain profits. Except enterprise employees, the local residents indirectly share revenue. The mining industry plays a weak role in driving the development of related industries, only providing employment opportunities for local residents. This does not necessarily lead to employment growth but squeezes out the accumulation of human capital and innovation of science and technology. Mineral resource extraction frequently leads to geological hazards,industrial waste gases emissions, solid wastes and waste water and pollutants, land resources occupation, and large water resources consumption. The influences of these effects on key stakeholders are different. For the central government, mineral resources exploitation ensures economic and resource security of the whole country, and increases national revenue. But it would be detrimental to the environment. For the local government, mineral resources exploitation is a great

  1. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu


    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs.

  2. Study on Poverty Alleviation of Mineral Resources Development%矿产资源开发扶贫研究

    朱清; 王联军


    Poverty alleviation in mineral development is an important issue in solving of "fertile poverty". In this process, the source of wealth is the conversion of resources to assets and capital, and its implementation method is a positive externality spillover mining capital, which is the basic means of mineral development income distribution, and its increased functionality will need system innovation. Mineral development has made an indelible contribution in the history of poverty alleviation, and it has become a common practice internationally. China has also accumulated a lot of experience of which can be conclude into three aspects. However, in the new normal, mineral development and poverty alleviation is also faced with a lot of pressures, such as insufif cient institutional supply, lack of motivation in industry development, improvement of ecological civilization requires cost pressures. This paper presents an improvement system in three aspects, by improving the design and optimization of mining rights management in three areas, converting three opportunities of poverty alleviation based on "Porter hypothesis" under the construction of ecological civilization, in order to constantly improve the ability of poverty alleviation in mineral development.%矿产开发扶贫是破解“富饶的贫困”难题的重要方式。其财富源泉是资源向资产和资本的转化,其实现方式是正外部性的矿业资本外溢,其基本手段是矿产开发收益分配,其功能提升则需要制度创新。矿产开发在历史上为扶贫做出了不可磨灭的贡献,也成为国际社会的通行做法。我国也积累了三大经验。但是在新常态下,矿产开发扶贫也面临着制度供给不足、行业动力不足、生态文明要求提高开发成本等压力。文章提出通过完善三大制度设计,优化矿业权投放三方面管理,转换生态文明建设下的基于“波特假设”的三大扶贫契机,不断提高矿产开发扶贫能力。

  3. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team


    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [] or [] or [] or [] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  4. GIS application in mineral resource analysis—A case study of offshore marine placer gold at Nome, Alaska

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Gang; Li, Hui; Luo, Huayang; Huang, Scott L.


    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has been applied to analyze the offshore marine placer gold deposits at Nome, Alaska. Two geodatabases, namely Integrated Geodatabase (IG) and Regularized 2.5D Geodatabase (R2.5DG), were created to store and integrate digital data sets in heterogeneous formats. The IG served as a data warehouse and used to manage various geological data, such as borehole, bedrock geology, surficial geology, and geochemical data. The R2.5DG was generated based on the IG and could be used for gold resource estimate at any given spatial domain. Information on placer gold deposits can be updated, queried, visualized, and analyzed by making use of these geodatabases. Ore body boundaries, gold distribution, and the resource estimation at various cutoff grades can be calculated in a timely manner. Based on the enhanced GIS architecture, a web-based GIS ( was developed to facilitate remote users to access the offshore marine placer gold data. Users can integrate local data sources with remote data sources for query, visualization and analysis via a web browser. The GIS architecture developed in this project can be readily adapted to mineral resource management in other areas of the state.

  5. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  6. The Resource Curse in Mongolia: Mineral Wealth, Institutional Quality, and Economic Performance


    Development Planning in Mongolia: Failure and Potential,” planning -in-mongolia-failure-and-potential/. 4...46. 33 Naazneen H. Barma, “Petroleum, Governance and Fragility: The Micro-Politics of Petroleum in Postconflict States,” in Beyond the responsible for the state and local budget planning and expenditure, as well as customs, taxation, and insurance policies.47 Mongolia has made

  7. 我国矿产资源税费问题探讨%Discussion on Mineral Resources Taxation and Fee in China

    邱真; 肖惠海


    Scientific mineral resources taxation and fee institution was not only a important mean for nation to manage mineral resources exploration and utilization, but also a safeguard of using mineral resources in reason, protecting the environment and promoting sustainable development of national economy and society. The construction of mineral resources taxation and fee institution had made great progress in China, and played a role in promoting the development of the national economy.But there was certain spatial difference and problems when comparing with the developed country in the west. It needed to be perfect, especially on resource tax and resource compensation fee.%科学的矿产资源税费制度不仅是国家对开发利用矿产资源进行管理的重要手段,而且是合理节约使用资源、保护环境、促进国民经济与社会可持续发展的保障.我国矿产资源税费制度建设已取得很大的进步,对促进国民经济发展起到了一定的作用.但与西方发达国家相比,还存在一定的差距和问题,有待于更进一步的完善,主要体现在资源税与资源补偿费上.

  8. Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: Chapter A in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Day, Warren C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Frost, Thomas P.


    This report, chapter A of Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, provides an overview of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The report also describes the methods, procedures, and voluminous fundamental reference information used throughout the assessment. Data from several major publicly available databases and other published sources were used to develop an understanding of the locatable, leaseable, and salable mineral resources of this vast area. This report describes the geologic, mineral-occurrence, geochemical, geophysical, remote-sensing, and Bureau of Land Management mineral-case-status data used for the assessment, along with the methods for evaluating locatable mineral-resource potential. The report also discusses energy-resource data (oil and gas, coal, and geothermal) used in the assessment. Appendixes include summary descriptive mineral-deposit models that provide the criteria necessary to assess for the pertinent locatable minerals and market-demand commodity profiles for locatable mineral commodities relevant to the project. Datasets used in the assessment are available as USGS data releases.

  9. GeoCube: A 3D mineral resources quantitative prediction and assessment system

    Li, Ruixi; Wang, Gongwen; Carranza, Emmanuel John Muico


    This paper introduces a software system (GeoCube) for three dimensional (3D) extraction and integration of exploration criteria from spatial data. The software system contains four key modules: (1) Import and Export, supporting many formats from commercial 3D geological modeling software and offering various export options; (2) pre-process, containing basic statistics and fractal/multi-fractal methods (concentration-volume (C-V) fractal method) for extraction of exploration criteria from spatial data (i.e., separation of geological, geochemical and geophysical anomalies from background values in 3D space); (3) assessment, supporting five data-driven integration methods (viz., information entropy, logistic regression, ordinary weights of evidence, weighted weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence) for integration of exploration criteria; and (4) post-process, for classifying integration outcomes into several levels based on mineralization potentiality. The Nanihu Mo (W) camp (5.0 km×4.0 km×2.7 km) of the Luanchuan region was used as a case study. The results show that GeoCube can enhance the use of 3D geological modeling to store, retrieve, process, display, analyze and integrate exploration criteria. Furthermore, it was found that the ordinary weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence and logistic regression methods showed superior performance as integration tools for exploration targeting in this case study.

  10. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.


    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  11. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.


    Central Colorado is one of the fastest-growing regions in the Western United States. Population along the Front Range increased more than 30 percent between 1990 and 2000 ( with some counties within the study area, such as Park County, experiencing greater than 100-percent growth ( This growth has caused tremendous demand for natural resources and has created challenging land-management issues related to the interface between wilderness and urban expansion. Management of this wilderness/urban interface will benefit from current digital geoscience information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Colorado Assessment Project that began in 2003. Approximately 20,800 square miles (53,800 km2) of land divided almost equally between the public and private sectors were part of the assessment.

  12. The mineral resources of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Columbia (Zone I)

    Tschanz, Charles McFarland; Jimeno V., Andres; Cruz, Jaime B.


    The Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria on the north coast of Colombia is an isolated triangular mountain area that reaches altitudes of almost 19,000 feet. The exceedingly complex geology is shown on the 1:200,000 geologic map. Despite five major periods of granitic intrusion, three major periods of metamorphism, and extensive volcanic eruptions, metallic deposits are small and widely scattered. Sulfide deposits of significant economic value appear to be absent. Many small copper deposits, of chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, and azurite are found in epidotized rock in Mesozoic redbeds and intercalated volcanic rocks, but their economic potential is very small. Deposits of other common base metals appear to be absent. The most important metallic deposits may prove to be unusual bimineralic apatite-ilmenite deposits associated with gneissic anorthosite. The known magnetite deposits are too small to be exploited commercially. Primary gold deposits have not been identified and the placer deposits are uneconomic and very small. The largest and most important deposits are nonmetallic. Enormous reserves of limestone are suitable for cement manufacture and some high-purity limestone is suitable for the most exacting chemical uses. Small deposits of talc-tremolite could be exploited locally for ceramic use. The important noncoking bituminous coal deposits in the Cerrej6n area are excluded from this study. Other nonmetallic resources include igneous dimension stone in a variety of colors and textures, and agricultural dolomite. There probably are important undeveloped ground water resources on the slopes of the wide Rancheria and Cesar valleys, which separate the Sierra Nevada from the Serrania de Persia.

  13. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.


    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  14. Framework for estimating potential wastes and secondary resources accumulated within an economy--a case study of construction minerals in Japan.

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Yuichi


    Material stocks in economic society are considered to represent a reserve for wastes and secondary resources. From the viewpoints of proper disposal and reutilization of stocked materials, accurate estimation of the amount of materials that will emerge as wastes or secondary resources in the future is important. We defined materials that have a high probability of emerging as wastes or secondary resources as "potential wastes and secondary resources" and estimated that amount for construction minerals in Japan as a case study. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) We classified materials that are input into economic society into four categories: potential wastes and secondary resources, potential dissipated materials, dissipatively used materials, and permanent structures. By clarifying the latter three non-potential wastes and secondary resources, we performed a more accurate assessment of the wastes and secondary resources that will emerge in the future. (2) The share of potential wastes and secondary resources was estimated to be about 30% of all construction minerals that have been input into and accumulated in Japanese economic society. (3) Information related to potential dissipated materials and dissipatively used materials will provide fundamental knowledge to support analyses of the environmental impacts and resource losses which these materials might generate.

  15. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd


    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  16. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste


    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  17. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.


    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  18. A study of the properties of the mineral residue of thermal pyrolysis of shales produced in an installation with a solid heat carrier

    Sidorovich, Ya.I.; Kopachinskiy, K.F.; Lubentsova, V.N.; Makitra, R.G.; Stel' makh, G.P.


    The ash of menilite shales for Carpathia, produced in a laboratory stand with a solid heat carrier, was studied to solve the problem of utilization of its mineral mass. The possibility is demonstrated of using the ash for the production of Portland cement and for construction ceramics. The best results are obtained with the processing of the ash at a temperature of approximately 720 degrees.

  19. Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area

    Gunter Mickey E


    Full Text Available Mining activities in the US Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA have released Se into the environment. Selenium has several different oxidation states and species, each having varying degrees of solubility, reactivity, and bioavailability. In this study we are investigating the speciation of Se in mine-waste rocks. Selenium speciation was determined using bulk and micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, as well as micro-x-ray fluorescence mapping. Rocks used for bulk-XAS were ground into fine powders. Shale used for micro-XAS was broken along depositional planes to expose unweathered surfaces. The near edge region of the XAS spectra (XANES for the bulk rock samples revealed multiple oxidation states, with peaks indicative of Se(-II, Se(IV, and Se(+VI species. Micro-XANES analysis of the shale indicated that three unique Se-bearing species were present. Using the XANES data together with ab initio fitting of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure region of the micro-XAS data (micro-EXAFS the three Se-bearing species were identified as dzharkenite, a di-selenide carbon compound, and Se-substituted pyrite. Results from this research will allow for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Se in the WPRA.

  20. 76 FR 33780 - Assessments for Mismatched Payments or Inadequate Payment Information for Geothermal, Solid...


    ... Amendments'' (73 FR 15885), with effective date April 25, 2008. This rule revised 30 CFR 1218.41 to comply... for Geothermal, Solid Minerals, and Indian Oil and Gas Leases AGENCY: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Regulations for geothermal, solid minerals, and Indian oil...

  1. Mineral resource management of the Outer Continental Shelf : leasing procedures, evaluation of resources, and supervision of production operations on leased lands of the Outer Continental Shelf

    Adams, Maurice V.; John, C.B.; Kelly, R.F.; LaPointe, A.E.; Meurer, R.W.


    An important function of the Geological Survey is the evaluation and management of the mineral resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, particularly with respect to oil and gas, salt, and sulfur. Production of oil and gas from the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States has increased substantially over the past 20 years and represents an increasing percentage of total United States production. As discovery of major onshore production of oil and gas has become more difficult, the search has moved into the surrounding waters where submerged sedimentary formations are conducive to the accumulation of oil and gas. Increased energy demands of recent years have accelerated the pace of offshore operations with a corresponding improvement in technology as exploration and development have proceeded farther from shore and into deeper water. While improved technology and enforcement of more stringent regulations have made offshore operations safer, it is unrealistic to believe that completely accident-free operations can ever be achieved. Only slightly more than six percent of the world's continental terrace is adjacent to the United States, but less than one percent has been explored for oil and gas. Since the lead time for the development of offshore oil and gas resources can be as much as a decade, they do not provide an immediate energy supply but should be viewed in the light of a near-term source with a potential of becoming a medium-range source of supply pending the development of alternative energy sources. Revenues from the Outer Continental Shelf are deposited to the general fund of the United States Treasury. A major portion of these funds is allocated to the Land and Water Conservation Fund, the largest Federal grant-in-aid program of assistance to States, counties, and cities for the acquisition and development of public parks, open space, and recreation lands and water.

  2. Characterization of very young mineral phases of bone by solid state 31phosphorus magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction.

    Roberts, J E; Bonar, L C; Griffin, R G; Glimcher, M J


    The properties of bone mineral change with age and maturation. Several investigators have suggested the presence of an initial or "precursor" calcium phosphate phase to help explain these differences. We have used solid state 31P magic angle sample spinning (MASS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray radial distribution function (RDF) analyses to characterize 11- and 17-day-old embryonic chick bone and fractions obtained from them by density fractionation. Density fractionation provides samples of bone containing Ca-P solid-phase deposits even younger and more homogeneous with respect to the age of mineral than the calcium phosphate (Ca-P) deposits in the whole bone samples. The analytical techniques yield no evidence for any distinct phase other than the poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite phase characteristic of mature bone mineral. In particular, there is no detectable crystalline brushite [DCPD, CaHPO4 2H2O less than 1%] or amorphous calcium phosphate (less than 8-10%) in the most recently formed bone mineral. A sizeable portion of the phosphate groups exist as HPO4(2-) in a brushite (DCPD)-like configuration. These acid phosphate moieties are apparently incorporated into the apatitic lattice. The most likely site for the brushite-like configuration is probably on the surface of the crystals.

  3. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.


    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  4. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    Osipov, Gennady


    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  5. Effective resources for improving mental health among Chinese underground coal miners: perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

    Liu, Li; Wen, Fengting; Xu, Xin; Wang, Lie


    This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), which measure depressive and anxious symptoms, POS and PsyCap were distributed to 2,500 underground coal miners (1,925 effective respondents). Hierarchical linear regression was performed to examine the associations of POS and PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism) with depressive and anxious symptoms and the moderating roles of PsyCap and its components. The mediating roles of PsyCap and its components were examined using asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean levels of depressive and anxious symptoms were 19.91 and 49.69, respectively. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience, optimism and POS × PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. POS, PsyCap, resilience, POS × PsyCap and POS × resilience were negatively associated with anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism partially mediated the association between POS and depressive symptoms. PsyCap and resilience partially mediated the association between POS and anxious symptoms. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism could be effective resources for reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism act as moderators and mediators in the associations of POS with depressive and anxious symptoms. Managers should promote supportive settings and investment in PsyCap to improve workers' mental health.

  6. The use of mineral resources and issues of harmonization between spatial plans for the mining areas in Serbia with other strategic documents

    Petrić Jasna


    Full Text Available Growing development needs and requirements for mineral resources endorsed by the contemporary society reopen the issues of mineral resources finitude and effects that mineral industry imposes on the global scene. Mining is certainly among the activities which raise numerous environmental and social concerns being enhanced by continuous demand for new exploitation areas. Experience supports the need for continuous process of planning in the mining areas and development of extensive research, both fundamental and applied. With particular focus on spatial plans for the mining areas in Serbia, this paper addresses current mining regulatory framework and issue of harmonization between spatial plans for the mining areas with other pertinent strategic documents on environmental and social protection. Regardless they have been prescriptive or legally binding, fundamental principles of these strategic documents serve as guidance towards sustainable development in the mining sector under the new institutional, organization and economic settings.

  7. The Ministry of Land and Resources Considered to Release the Exploration and Approval Authority of Mineral to Private Enterprises for Embracing More Opportunities


    <正>"There is a great room in market-oriented reform."This is the common view expressed by many experts of this industry.Some personage concerned even disclosed that the Ministry of Land and Resources was pushing a number of reforms,including considering to release the approval authority of mineral

  8. 矿产资源价格扰动性及对策分析%Analysis on the Fluctuation of Mineral Resources Price and Its Counter Measures

    廖桂生; 陈建宏; 郑海力


    针对国内外矿产资源价格扰动现象,从西方经济学的供求关系、宏观政策执行、需求预期、替代品等基本理论入手,分析矿产资源价格扰动的动态机理,定性分析各种不同因素造成的价格扰动度,并依此提出强化宏观调控、实行矿产资源战略储备、促进替代品使用和实施两型社会建设等降低价格扰动策略的措施。%Aiming at the fluctuation of mineral resources price at home and abroad, from the basic theories of supply - demand relationship,the execution of macroscopic policy,predictable demand and substitutes, the dynamic mechanism of fluctuation of mineral resources price was analyzed, the qualitative analysis of the disturbance degree of various factors on the price of mineral resources was made. According to these, some measures against the price fluctuation were advanced, such as strengthening the macroscopic regulation, implementing the strategic reserves of mineral resources, promoting the uses of alternatives, and implementing the building of the" two types" society.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  10. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.


    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  11. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood


    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  12. 矿产资源价格改革及对策研究%Price Reform of Mineral Resources and the Responding Strategy

    杨沫; 朱宝玉


    In China, current pricing methods of mineral resources include cost-based pricing, income capitalization approach, supply and demand pricing and pricing by CGE model. The average prices of all mineral resources are low. The regulatory mechanism of markets is backward and the price mechanism is not working. As a result, the price of resources could not reflect the situation of supply and demand. As price reform of mineral resources is significant in facilitating sustainable economic growth. Suggestions and responding strategies are proposed, including repositioning the value of mineral resources, setting up reasonable rent for mines, carrying out complete cost account-ing, building pricing mechanism of mineral resources, giving full play of the market in resource allocation and pricing, and establish a new system of taxes and fees for mineral resources.%目前,我国的矿产资源定价方法主要有成本定价法、收益还原法、供求定价法和CGE模型法。我国矿产资源价格总体偏低,市场供求调节机制滞后,价格机制失灵,资源价格不能反映供需和稀缺状况。应充分认识矿产资源价格改革对促进经济可持续发展的重要意义,重新定位矿产资源价值地位,确定合理的矿山地租,矿山开采实行完全成本核算等,建立矿产资源价格机制,形成政策体系,发挥市场机制在资源配置及资源定价方面的重作用;构建矿产资源税费新体制。

  13. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  14. 对西部矿产资源开发问题的思考%Pondering on Issues Facing Mineral Resources Development in Western China



    西部矿产资源丰富,但知识资源匮乏、自然条件恶劣、水资源严重短缺。因此,在当今技术飞速发展、市场经济日趋全球化的形势下,西部矿产资源的开发必须实施优势资源转换战略和可持续发展战略:以市场为导向,以科技为先导;走企业集团化建设的道路;加强地质勘查工作;实行“生态矿业”;营造良好的投资环境,吸引外部资金。%Western China is abundant in mineral resources but lack in knowledge resource and seriously short of water resources, and the natural conditions are quite adverse. Therefore, under the circum- stances of rapid technology development and increasingly globalised market economy,mineral resources in the west must be exploited through implementation of superior resource-transferred strategy along with sustainable development strategy, i. e., mining must be market driven and technology guided; en-terprise-groupping must be ncouraged; geological exploration must be stressed; and “ecologic mineral industry” must be build; good investmen environment must be created to attract outside funds.

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  16. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.


    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  18. Discussion on Employees' Career Planning of Mineral Resources Enterprise%论矿产资源企业中的员工职业生涯规划

    李羽飞; 郑磊


    矿产资源作为重要的非再生型自然资源,是人类社会赖以生存和发展不可缺少的物质基础。矿产资源是中国国民经济的基础产业,在国民经济中起着重要作用,它既是生活资料的重要来源,又是极其重要的社会生产资料,对整个国民经济持续、健康、稳定和协调发展有着重大的影响。人是一切生产要素的核心,矿产资源企业的发展离不开员工聪明才智的发挥与运用。加强员工的管理对于建设矿产资源的和谐开发与管理具有重要意义。本文从矿产资源企业员工的角度出发,探究员工的职业生涯规划问题,进一步证实矿产资源企业中员工职业生涯规划的现实意义和理论意义。%No-renewable mineral resources, as an important natural resource, are indispensabte to the survival and development of human society material base. Mineral resources are the basis for China's national economy industries that play an important role in the national economy and it is not only important sources of subsistence, but extremely important social means which have a significant impact on the sustained, healthy, stable and harmonious development of the national economy as a whole. Man was core of all production factors and mineral resource enterprises can' t develop well without employees' ability and cleverness play and utilized. To strengthen staff management for the construction of the harmonious development and management of mineral resources is of great significance. In this article, analysis of mineral resources from the employee's perspective is to study staff of career planning issues, further to confirm mineral resource enterprises employees' career planning in practical and theoretical significance.

  19. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.


    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  20. Quality Assurance System of Mineral Resource Survey Project%矿产资源调查项目质量保障体系构建研究

    潘保琦; 王仁志; 匡建超


    文章对矿产资源调查项目的质量保障体系进行了研究,其目的是探索一种科学合理的质量保障体系供矿产勘查项目借鉴.通过归纳总结和对比分析,论文提出基于TQM-ISO矿产资源调查项目的质量保障体系克服了单一质量体系的缺陷,提高了矿产资源调查项目质量管理水平,对提高矿产勘查工作的效率和保证勘查成果的质量,将具有积极意义.%This thesis makes research on the quality assurance system of mineral resource exploration projects. This paper based on these points, carries out the researches in terms of quality assurance system of mineral resource survey projects. The goal is to set up a quality assurance system which is more reasonable and more scientific, so as to provide an example for other mineral resource projects. The quality assurance system of mineral resource exploration projects based on TOM-ISO, which is proposed in this thesis, overcomes the shortcomings of single quality system and improves the project management quality. Therefore, in the respect of improving the efficiency of mineral prospect and guaranteeing the quality of exploration results, this thesis will make a great difference.

  1. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  2. Mineral Supply Challenges


    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  3. Microbial Mineral Transformations at the Fe(II)/Fe(III) Redox Boundary for Solid Phase Capture of Strontium and Other Metal/Radionuclide Contaminants

    F. G. Ferris; E. E. Roden


    The migration of {sup 90}Sr in groundwater is a significant environmental concern at former nuclear weapons production sites in the US and abroad. Although retardation of {sup 90}Sr transport relative to mean groundwater velocity is known to occur in contaminated aquifers, Sr{sup 2+} does not sorb as strongly to iron oxides and other mineral phases as do other metal-radionuclides contaminants. Thus, some potential exists for extensive {sup 90}Sr migration from sources of contamination. Chemical or biological processes capable of retarding or immobilizing Sr{sup 2+} in groundwater environments are of interest from the standpoint of understanding controls on subsurface Sr{sup 2+} migration. In addition, it may be possible to exploit such processes for remediation of subsurface Sr contamination. In this study the authors examined the potential for the solid phase sorption and incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} into carbonate minerals formed during microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction as a first step toward evaluating whether this process could be used to promote retardation of {sup 90}Sr migrations in anaerobic subsurface environments. The demonstration of Sr{sup 2+} capture in carbonate mineral phases formed during bacterial HFO reduction and urea hydrolysis suggests that microbial carbonate mineral formation could contribute to Sr{sup 2+} retardation in groundwater environments. This process may also provide a mechanism for subsurface remediation of Sr{sup 2+} and other divalent metal contaminants that form insoluble carbonate precipitates.

  4. Providing of marketing innovation in the competitive advantages of the management system in the mineral waters producer companies: concept, organizational resource, results

    N.P. Tarnavska


    as an integrative organizational resource that is a combination of product innovation (improved or new that is derived from intellectual capital investment in the new forms, techniques and marketing methods to increase innovator’s business value for a long period by creating an environment that form mostly latent competitive advantages, provides self-transformation and progressive socio-economic systems at the micro level. Conclusions and directions for further research. Results of the study suggest that the use of the theoretical foundations will create a solid foundation for the development of mineral waters producer companies’ own models that provide marketing innovations in competitive advantage management system with a focus on the growth of their latency. The model blocks contain all the elements a company should consider to ensure competitiveness on a dynamic market. Further scientific research require the deployment of the following areas: to deepen the interdisciplinary study of the conceptual foundations of competitive advantage marketing support to meet the challenges and the challenges of a dynamic market environment; to monitor strategic marketing innovation and develop on this basis the tools of competitive intelligence and counterintelligence while creating a system of companies’ economic security; to form the basis for demarcation of innovative changes in marketing activities from seasonal, regular and other routine procedures in marketing technologies that are not marketing innovations.

  5. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six Selected Groups of Deposit Types in Alaska

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, III, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.


    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  6. The Characteristics of the current situation of mineral resources%当前矿产资源形势的基本特点

    刘树臣; 崔荣国; 郭娟; 徐桂芬


    受世界经济增速减缓的影响,2011年四季度以来,主要矿产品需求萎缩,融资难度加大,成本不断上升,铁、铜、铝、铅、锌、镍等金属价格下降,矿业股市下跌,全球矿业又一次进入下行期.但我国矿产资源运行平稳,需求内紧外松,短期缓解、长期趋紧,采矿业固定资产投资逐季度提高,矿产品供应能力不断增强,大宗矿产进口持续增长,重要矿产品价格高位剧烈振荡,矿产权市场活跃.%As the world economic growth is slowing, the demand of major mineral commodities has been shrinking since the fourth quarter of 2011. At the same time, financing is more and more difficult, and the mining cost is rising, and the prices of iron ore, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel and other metal have declined, and mining stocks have fallen. As a result, the global mining has entered again into the down phase. However, the demestic situation of mineral resources runs smooth. The demand of mineral resources is tight in China and loose in the world, which will be relieving in short-term and tightening in long-term. First, the mining fixed asset investment growth has increased by quarter. Second, the supply capability of mineral products has been increasing constantly. Third, the imports of important minerals kept going up. Fourth, the prices of important mineral commodities have kept fluctuating at high level. At last, the markets of exploration and mining rights are active.

  7. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Meirui Zhong


    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  8. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area


    Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management i...

  9. 76 FR 26753 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources


    ... persons listed below: Mineral Projects (Precious Metals, Sand and Gravel): Lynne Carpenter, Tel: (720) 407....g., lead, copper, zinc), and ferrous metal minerals (e.g., iron, tungsten, chromium). This year's... include such items as well drilling rigs, backhoes, bulldozers, cranes, trucks, etc; Drilling of wells...

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  11. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 2. Nitrogen effect of slurry solid matter at rising mineral fertilizer rates

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)


    A combination of organic manuring and mineral fertilization had positive effects on crop yields, first of all on sandy soils, particularly after high nitrogen applications (up to a maximum of 4 g N/pot). These effects correlate with a higher utilization of the mineral nitrogen. Rising mineral fertilizer rates, soil substrate, and parameters of slurry solid matter, especially their C:N ratio, influence the mobility of soil nitrogen as well as the uptake of organic manure nitrogen. The solid matter nitrogen of pig slurry was more easily available to plants on sandy and loess soils. Slurry solid matter applied in addition to mineral nitrogen had positive effects on the quality of the harvested products.

  12. 普洱市矿产资源经济管理系统设计%Design of the Mineral Resources Economic Management System for Puer



      矿产资源经济在如今的国民经济生产总值中占有极大比重。如何有效的存储矿产资源经济数据,如何对经济数据有效分析利用成为一项有实际意义的研究内容。本文结合地理信息系统(GIS)的最新成果,以普洱市为例叙述了矿产资源经济管理系统的设计背景、设计思路和技术路线,系统设计的软件和系统结构与功能模块。%Mineral resources economy in today's GDP occupies a great proportion in the national economy. It had became a significant research content that how to effectively store the mineral resources economic data and how to analyze economic data effectively. Based on the latest achievements of geographic information system (GIS). For example Puer city, it describe the mineral resources economic management system' design background, design thinking and technical route, system design of software and the system structure and function module.

  13. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  14. 全球化背景下的独联体国家矿产资源%Mineral Resources of Commonwealth of Independent States in Globalization

    陈新宇; 南青民; 任宝成; 田洪强


    独联体国家矿产资源丰富,研究这些国家在全球一体化进程中矿产资源发展现状和未来趋势有利于充分认识和利用我国与独联体两个市场的规律性,根据“发挥比较优势”的原则,有计划、有步骤地积极调整矿产品进出口结构,为我国与独联体国家展开矿产资源合作提供参考.通过收集、整理、分析独联体国家矿产资源方面有关数据和法律法规政策,对这些国家矿产资源现有储量现状、出口方式和对象、矿产资源基地的扩大再生产等问题进行阐述.分析得出:我国应建立与独联体矿产资源大国“一对一”或者“一对多”的矿产开发合作模式,通过合资或收购股权方式输出资金和矿山开采先进技术,进口我国发展急需的矿产品和能源资源,使进口矿产资源来源更加多样化,实现和独联体国家的互利共赢.%Countries in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) are rich in mineral resources. The study of mineral resources development as well as future trend of these countries in the process of world integration will help to fully understand the law of utilizing China's and the CIS's markets, and positively adjust mineral imports and exports according to the principle of exerting comparative advantage in a planned way, providing references for the cooperation between China and CIS countries in mineral resources. Through collecting, collating and analyzing laws and regulations related to data and policy on mineral resources of CIS countries, the paper expounds the status of reserves, the patterns and the objects of export and the expansion of production bases of mineral resources, concluding that we are supposed to establish the "one to one" or "one to several" mode of joint exploitation of mineral resources with CIS countries and import mineral and energy resources in urgent need through joint ventures or acquisition of shares by way of output of capital and advanced

  15. Reflections on international cooperation in mineral resources in China%关于我国矿产资源国际合作的几点思考



    Mineral resources is significant guarantee for economic development ,social stability and national security .Throughout the history of the development of world economy ,without exception ,to implement the strategy of global mineral resources to achieve economic expansion .The quantity of resources per person is short relatively ,it limit the sustainable development of national economy seriously .Hence ,in order to ensure the safty of mineral resources supply ,establish the international new mineral resources cooperation which suitable for China is especially important .To break the monopoly of resources ,strengthen the overseas development risk assessment ,construction policy perfect safeguard system are in urgen to be solved .The government ,enterprises linked up and down to promote the development of resources about international cooperation steady ,realize the goal of mining “Go out” .%矿产资源是经济发展、社会稳定、国家安全的重要保障。纵观世界经济强国发展历史,无一例外以实施全球矿产资源战略来实现经济扩张。我国人均占有资源相对不足,严重制约了国民经济的可持续发展。因此,为确保矿产资源安全供给,构建适合我国国情的新型矿产资源国际合作关系显得尤为重要。打破资源垄断、加强境外开发风险预测评估、构建完善的政策保障体系是目前我国矿产资源对外合作亟需解决的问题。政府、企业上下联动,才能不断推进我国资源国际合作的稳健发展,真正实现矿业“走出去”目标。

  16. 论《矿产资源法》制度重构的模式选择与具体路向%On Mode Selection and Ways of Mineral Resources Law’s Reconstruction

    杜辉; 陈德敏


    With a progressive establishment of the socialist market economic system and rapid development of mining economic&technology in China,current Mineral Resources Law does not seem to be able to adapt to reality.Amelioration of Mineral Resources Law is the core proposition of the transformation of mineral resources law.It is important for the sustainable use and protection of mineral resources.This study examined deficiencies in the law and difficulties in the system,and the legislative concepts.The legal relationships between the use and development of mineral resources were stated.The legal text using the inductive and deductive methods was utilized.The novelty of this study was development of a new framework of Mineral Resources Law,with ways to revise the key systems being proposed.Specifically,there are many problems of the law’s structure and system,such as mining right,mineral resource tax,mineral resources planning,mineral resources reserves,environmental protection,and legal responsibility,which formed obstacles on the development and utilization of mineral resources.As for the mode of law,the amended law should account for public interests and private rights together.It should be an integrated law encompassing the content of the civil law and the administrative law.Clarifying the legal relationship between ownership and usufructuary right holder,share interests,and the legal relationship between resource development and environmental protection is the premise of modification of Mineral Resources Law.Improvement of the law’s structure and system should highlight the whole process of exploitation and utilization of mineral resources,but not the mining right.As for its framework,the amended law should include general principles,mineral resources planning,mining right,mineral resources exploration,mineral resources development,mineral resource tax,land use for mining,mine environmental management and monitoring,supervision and inspection

  17. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas


    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  18. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas


    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  19. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Lietzke, K. R.


    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  20. Seamounts an additional tool to confirm the nature of the crust and to locate possible mineral resources for dredging

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    style, sediment thickness, maturity of underlying crust, and time of origin. Studying the seamounts together with integrated geophysical and physical data gave useful indications of their evolution and the existence of possible mineral deposits...

  1. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    A. Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS; however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm, Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm, and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm. Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10 were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05. Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.

  2. Research of the Building of Guangxi Mineral Resources Planning Data Base by Using MapGIS%基于MapGIS广西矿产资源规划数据库标准化建设研究

    梁聪; 林锦富; 段昌盛; 李欢; 高小红; 江泮雨辰


    矿产资源规划数据库是“国家、省、市、县四级矿产资源规划管理信息系统”的重要组成部分.数据库包括空间数据和非空间数据两大类,涵盖了基础地理、地质矿产信息、矿产资源现状、矿产资源规划等方面的内容.建立县市级矿产资源规划数据库,可以为国家和省级矿产资源规划数据库建设提供基础数据,为建立和应用县市级矿产资源规划管理信息系统提供数据保证.主要阐述以MapGIS、ArcGIS、Microsoft Office等软件对广西省矿产资源规划数据库建立的研究.%Mineral resources planning data base is the major component of mineral resources planning management information system of national, provincial, city and county level. Data base include spatial data and aspatial data, and it covers foundation geographical, geology mineral information, mineral resources situation, mineral resources planning and so on.We establish mineral resources planning data base of city and county level so that it can provide basic data for mineral resources planning data base of national and provincial level and provide date for building and appling management information system of city and county level mineral resources mainly states the research of the building of Guangxi mineral resources planning data base by using MapGIS、 ArcGIS、Microsoft Office and so on.

  3. 山西省矿产资源灰色数列预测与评估%The Forecast and Evaluation of the Gray Series of Mineral Resources in Shanxi



    在分析山西省矿产资源特点的基础上,采用灰色系统分析方法,对山西省主要矿产资源的保有储量、产量和消费量进行预测和评估,意在提供一个矿产资源可持续发展的定量分析模型。为山西省矿产资源实现可持续发展提供了理论依据和建设性建议,并为资源省区矿产资源的合理利用与可持续发展提供一定的思路。%Since Shanxi is rich in mineral resources and occupies an important position in the economy construction in China, the sustainable development of mineral resources in Shanxi is becoming more noticeable. By analyzing the features of mineral resources in Shanxi, the author uses the gray system analysis theory to predict and evaluate the available reserves, the output and the consumption of main resources in Shanxi. A quantitative analysis model of the sustainable development of mineral resources is provided. The theory basis and constructive suggestions for the sustainable development of mineral resources in Shanxi are suggested. Some thoughts of how to make reasonable and sustainable use of mineral resources are discussed.

  4. Solid Waste Management in North Carolina: A Curriculum Resource Guide for Teachers.

    Watauga County Board of Education, Boone, NC.

    Renewal is the focus of this curriculum designed for students in kindergarten through Grade 8. The purpose of this guide is to educate students and teachers about the problems faced in managing the amount of solid waste generated by society. Each grade level curriculum is organized into activities that support exploration of the nature of solid…

  5. 关于地质矿产勘查开发的几点认识%Some Views on Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration and Development



    This paper focuses on the geology and mineral resource exploration and development. It points out that the prospecting directions should be around the 16 important metallogenic zones. Exploring oil-gas mineral and sedimentary minerals such as salt and coal should be concentrated on several big basins. And the deep part and periphery of large and medium-sized mines are the key areas for the exploration. This paper goes on to analyze the risk of reconnaissance, that is:the deposits in the surface and shallow areas of the earth has been discovered and developed because of several thousand year mineral development in China. So we must prospect deep concealed deposits. In this case, Traditional method will probably not meet requirements, and the geophysical prospecting and information technology must be innovated to support. As for reducing expenditure of mineral resources, this paper argues that the low-grade tailing heap and waste dump, and its associated resources that a lot of developed and utilized mines precipitated historically have large beneifts for multipurpose utilization of mineral resources, and the additional resources reserves are substantial. Finally, this paper puts forward that real estate infrastructure construction peak has passed in China, plus metals recycling and new alternative material, the demand for mineral resources will become less and less in the future. Therefore, we will continue to seek support.%对地质矿产勘查开发的认识:一是找矿方向,主要围绕16个重要成矿区带开展,油气矿产和煤、盐等沉积矿产围绕几大盆地开展,重点是大中型矿山深部和外围,其它地区难突破。二是找矿风险,因我国几千年的矿产开发史,地表矿、浅层矿已基本发现和开发,寻找深部矿、隐伏矿成为必然,没有物探、信息技术等创新支撑,还靠传统方法难度大。三是矿产资源节流,我国大量已开发利用矿山历史沉淀的尾矿、排土

  6. A centennial to celebrate : energy and minerals science and technology 100 years of excellence : improving the quality of life of Canadians through natural resources

    Udd, J.; Reeve, D.


    The year 2007 marked the 100th anniversary of Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) contribution to science and technology excellence in energy and minerals. This publication discussed the 100 years of excellence of the energy and minerals science and technology sector. It discussed the history of Natural Resources Canada, with reference to the early years; first fuel testing efforts; first World War; the 1920s and 1930s; second World War; post-war years; the 1970s and 1980s; and the 1990s to the present. The publication discussed the creation of the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) as well as some current NRCan science and technology activities, such as alternative energy programs; energy efficiency for buildings, industries and communities; clean coal; oil sands tailings and water management; community energy systems; renewable energy efficient technology projects (RET) such as RETscreen; hybrid scoop; the anti-vibration rock drill handle; mine waste management; and green mines-green energy. Other NRCan science and technology programs that were presented in the publication included materials technology laboratory relocation; corrosion management tools for the oil and gas pipeline industry; lightweight magnesium engine cradle; mine environment neutral drainage program; metallurgical processing; counter-terrorism; and clean energy. figs.

  7. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P


    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, (Quarry Name) GPS locations of Non-Metallic Mining Sites and their stockpiles, Published in 2002, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2002. It...

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, PhosphateDeposits1988-This data set represents phosphate deposit areas in Utah., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It is...

  10. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.


    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.


    孙立; 邓政斌


    The about 25 % of lead and zinc in suspension ultra-fine particles produced from water treatment system during mineral processing of a kind of complex refractory lead-zinc ore is recovered by the approach of mixing certain ratio of lead sulfide concentrate, thus the metal mineral resource utilization of lead and zinc is further improved.%云南某复杂难选铅锌矿水处理系统中的悬浮微细粒中铅锌之和为25%左右,采用按一定配比混入硫化铅精矿的方法进行回收,铅锌金属资源化利用程度进一步提高.

  12. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.


    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  13. Fiber resources

    P. J. Ince


    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  14. Potential demand for recoverable resources from Indonesian wastewater and solid waste

    Kerstens, S.M.; Priyanka, A.; Dijk, Van K.C.; Ruijter, De F.J.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.


    Projected population growth and urbanization will become a challenge for finite natural resources, their distribution and local availability. At the same time, 2.5 billion people do not have access to sanitation facilities. Indonesia is one of these rapidly growing countries with a poorly develop

  15. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  16. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil


    data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap...

  17. The autopsy archive of former uranium miners of the East German WISMUT company - a valuable resource for research on ionizing radiation in interaction with other carcinogens and cancer

    Pesch, B.; Taeger, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Univ. of Bochum (Germany); Wiethege, T. [Inst. of Pathology of Ruhr Univ., Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany)


    In East Germany, uranium mining was undertaken on a large scale for the Soviet nuclear industry from 1946 to 1989. Poor working conditions especially in the early years led to a high level of occupational diseases, in particular lung cancer. For WISMUT miners, comprehensive data is available on working histories and exposure to radiation and quartz dust. After German reunification, the autopsy archive of the Institute of Pathology in Stollberg was opened for research as part of the WISMUT Health Data Archive of the Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin. It contains protocols of about 30,000 persons (including 17,000 miners), 400,000 slides, 66,000 tissue blocks, and 200 whole lungs. Now, the tissue repository is held in trust at BGFA and Institute of Pathology in Bochum, Germany. The source population of the cases is not defined. The archive contains tissues from many - but not from all - former WISMUT miners as well as from local people. For 12,923 miners, median radon exposure was 621 WLM, including about 800 workers with exposure above 1800 WLM. Smoking information is poor, but prevalence of smoking was high. A leading diagnosis was lung cancer in about 5,300 persons, mainly underground miners. A database has been developed at Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum to document relevant autopsy information on the cases. Histopathological classification of 5,270 lung cancer cases has been re-assessed by three pathologists. U.S. NIOSH conducted a study on the feasibility of research on pathologic types of lung cancer. Laboratory studies on the quality of the material for molecular-biological investigations are under way. A project is ongoing to investigate the interaction of radiation and crystalline silica on lung cancer development. A workshop was scheduled December 10, 2004 to discuss the resources, the findings, the pitfalls and challenges presented by the material and the future use of that archive in research. (orig.)

  18. Mineral resource management of Turkey and analysis of investment prospect%土耳其矿产资源管理与投资前景分析

    刘伟; 宋国明; 李延河


    Turkey is a country across Europe and Asia ,geopolitical advantages .The country locate in the special position of the geological structure environment ,and has rich mineral resources ,boron ,trona , chromium and other minerals occupies an important position in the world .Turkey improved mining laws and regulations ,lower mining taxes ,good infrastructure ,abundant labor resources and mining investment environment evaluation centered on the international level in the world’s major mineral resources in the country .In recent years the country to attract foreign investment continued to improve ,the inflow of foreign capital has become a major of country in the world .Turkey is an ideal to Chinese mining enterprises investing country .%土耳其是一个横跨欧亚两大洲的国家,地缘优势明显。由于该国地质构造位置特殊,矿产资源比较丰富,其中硼、天然碱、铬等矿产在世界上占有重要地位。土耳其矿业法律法规完善,矿业税较低,外汇政策宽松,基础设施较好,劳动力资源丰富,矿业投资环境国际评价在全球主要矿产资源国中居中上水平。近年来该国吸引外资水平不断提高,已成为世界主要外资流入国,是中国矿山企业较理想的投资国家。

  19. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.


    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  20. User’s guide for MapMark4—An R package for the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments

    Ellefsen, Karl J.


    MapMark4 is a software package that implements the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of this user’s guide are bundled together in R’s unit of shareable code, which is called a “package.” This user’s guide includes step-by-step instructions showing how the functions are used to carry out the probability calculations. The calculations are demonstrated using test data, which are included in the package.

  1. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    Narayana, Tapan


    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  2. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland


    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S


    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  4. Strategy towards cost-effective low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: A mixed-conductive membrane comprised of natural minerals and perovskite oxide

    Xia, Chen; Cai, Yixiao; Wang, Baoyuan; Afzal, Muhammad; Zhang, Wei; Soltaninazarlou, Aslan; Zhu, Bin


    Our previous work has revealed the feasibility of natural hematite as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), tailoring SOFCs to be a more economically competitive energy conversion technology. In the present work, with the aim of exploring more practical uses of natural minerals, a novel composite hematite/LaCePrOx-La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (hematite/LCP-LSCF) has been developed from natural hematite ore, rare-earth mineral LaCePr-carbonate, and perovskite oxide LSCF as a functional membrane in SOFCs. The heterogeneity, nanostructure and mixed-conductive property of the composite were investigated. The results showed that the hematite/LCP-30 wt% LSCF composite possessed balanced ionic and electronic conductivities, with an ionic conductivity as high as 0.153 S cm-1 at 600 °C. The as-designed fuel cell using the hematite/LCP-LSCF membrane exhibited encouraging power outputs of 303 - 662 mW cm-2 at 500 - 600 °C. These findings show that the hematite/LCP-LSCF based fuel cell is a viable strategy for developing cost-effective and practical low-temperature SOFCs (LTSOFCs).

  5. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M. (comps.)


    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  6. Analysis on Current Issues in Mineral Resource Market%当前矿产资源市场形势分析



    This paper ifrst analyses the issues concerning the weak international mineral market, such as gluts of global base metal;high inventory;price of bulk mineral products has rebounded, but is still“tank shock”;mining capital is shrinking;and the mining enterprise faces ifnancing challenges. And then it gives the reasons why the domestic mining market continues to cool down:scale of production of the main minerals continues to expand, and imports continue to grow;mining investment continues to grow, but shows signs of cooling;minerals prices fall and rebound fatigue;the new material mineral is imbalanced. This paper goes on to look at that owing to some factors:intensiifed monopoly pattern of global resource, the right of saying in setting commodity prices grasped by foreign countries, the geopolitical game, transport channel security, competition for resources in developing countries as well, the dififculty and risk for China to use resources from outside territory is increased. On account of this, this paper proposes that we should seize the opportunity to actively promote international cooperation in the ifeld of resources. At the same time, we should take part in the global market management and resources development in Africa and other places, and boost the construction of the important strategic resource reserve system.%当前,国际矿产市场呈现“疲软”状态:全球基本金属供应过剩,产品库存高位运行;大宗矿产品价格虽有反弹,但仍属于“箱体震荡”;矿业资本大幅缩水,矿企融资困难。国内矿业市场继续“降温”:主要矿产品生产规模继续扩张,进口量继续增长;矿业投资虽然继续增长,但是呈现趋冷迹象;矿产品价格下跌,反弹乏力;新材料矿产“苦乐不均”。受全球资源垄断格局加剧、国外掌握大宗矿产品定价话语权、地缘政治博弈与运输通道安全及发展中国家的资源竞争等因素影响,我国

  7. Mineral Resources of the Hells Canyon Study Area, Wallowa County, Oregon, and Idaho and Adams Counties, Idaho

    Simmons, George C.; Gualtieri, James L.; Close, Terry J.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.


    Field studies supporting the evaluation of the mineral potential of the Hells Canyon study area were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1974-76 and 1979. The study area includes (1) the Hells Canyon Wilderness; (2) parts of the Snake River, Rapid River, and West Fork Rapid River Wild and Scenic Rivers; (3) lands included in the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II); and (4) part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. The survey is one of a series of studies to appraise the suitability of the area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The spectacular and mineralized area covers nearly 950 mi2 (2,460 km2) in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho at the junction of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Plateau.

  8. Trend overtime of total haemoglobin, iron metabolism and trace minerals in veal calves fed high amounts of two different solid feeds

    Anna-Lisa Stefani


    Full Text Available Fifty Polish Friesian veal calves were administrated high amounts of two different solid feeds (maize grain and a mix diet containing 10% of straw and 8% of soy in addition to the traditional milk replacer diet. Compared to the mix diet, maize grain had a lower content of iron, copper and zinc and a minor fibre level. Effects of the two diets on calves’ blood haemoglobin, iron, iron metabolism parameters, copper and zinc concentrations were studied. Haemoglobin concentration resulted higher at the end of the fattening for calves fed the mix diet, as expected. Values remained, however, within ranges that allowed acceptable carcass paleness. Haematic iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels were not significantly different between the two solid feeds. Lower copper and zinc blood concentrations resulted for calves fed the mix diet were likely due to the feed fibre interfering with the bioavailability of the two minerals, according to what happens for iron.

  9. Mineral resource potential of the Stillwater Complex and adjacent rocks in the northern part of the Mount Wood and Mount Douglas quadrangles, southwestern Montana

    Page, Norman J; Dohrenwend, John C.


    The Stillwater Complex contains the largest potential chromite and platinum metal resources and second largest nickel resources in the United States. The Ultramafic zone has produced about 900,000 long tons of chromite concentrate and contains unmined reserves equivalent to 2,520,000 long tons of Cr2O3. Nickel and copper sulfide minerals that occur in the Basal zone and adjacent hornfelsed metasedimentary rocks represent one of the largest nickel potentials in the United States---a known reserve of 150 million tons of 0.25 percent nickel and 0.25 percent copper. The complex has been estimated to contain the largest potential source of platinum metals in the United States---possibly over 150 million troy ounces in the lower chromite zones and the Basal zone. In addition, the anorthosites in the Banded and Upper zones are reported to represent a potential alumina resource of almost 2 billion tons. An iron-formation also is present in the adjacent Precambrian metasedimentary rocks, and a coal bed is present in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone nearby. The eventual utilization of these resources depends on the availability of large quantities of energy, and thus they may not be recovered unless new sources of energy or new recovery techniques are developed.

  10. 马达加斯加地质矿产概况%General Situation of Geology and Mineral Resources in Madagascar

    黄国平; 胡清乐; 陈冬明; 李亮; 张众; 祝安安; 徐海波


    Madagascar is an island country,off the coast of Southeast Africa. It has favorable ore-forming geological condi-tions,and is rich in mineral resources. The country is part of the African craton,the Precambrian tectonic-metamorphic-magmatic complex cover most of the area,only in the west and the east,thers is a small amount of late Paleozoic-Mesozoic clay sandy clastic rocks-carbonate rocks and Cenozoic volcanic-sedimentary rock series. The country�s minerals are mainly distributed in the Precambrian geological bodies,while a few depositional minerals are hosted in the late Paleozoic-Ceno-zoic formation,main minerals are iron,chromium,titanium,nickel,cobalt,aluminum,gold,graphite,coal and gem etc.%马达加斯加是非洲东南部岛国,成矿地质条件有利,矿产资源丰富。该国属非洲克拉通组成部分,以前寒武纪构造-岩浆-变质杂岩为主,西部及东、西海岸带分布少量晚古生代-中生代泥砂质碎屑岩-碳酸盐岩和中新生代火山-沉积岩系。该国矿产主要分布于前寒武纪地质体中,少数沉积型矿产赋存于晚古生代-新生代地层内,主要矿产有铁、铬、钛、镍、钴、铝、金、石墨、煤及宝石等。


    Ugbong I. A.


    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural resources has become a serious problem in terms of security in the world. This article examines the role of the limited resources in conflicts in Africa. The main source of conflict is the issue of control of resources and the right to a healthy environment. Here we consider the case of the regional conflicts in the African context. A large number of major rivers in Africa also have been the cause of conflicts between the riparian countries. However, most of these problems have been successfully solved, and in many cases, this process led to the formation of regional blocs for economic and diplomatic cooperation in the region. In addition to inter-State disputes, there are also internal disputes among regions or states within the same country for the control of resources. However, in some cases these regions have developed wellcoordinated approaches to resolving the disputes: either by judicial apportionment, congressional action or based on negotiated compacts. In general, we believe that a careful application of equitable resource-sharing formula to volatile areas is a basic condition for peace and stability in Africa

  12. Rationing life-saving resources--how should allocation policies be assessed in solid organ transplantation.

    Neuberger, James


    Because the demand for solid organ transplantation exceeds the availability of donated grafts, there needs to be rationing for this life-saving procedures. Criteria for selection of patients to a national transplant list and allocation of donated organs should be transparent yet there is no consistent approach to the development of such guidelines. It is suggested that selection and allocation policies should comply with minimum standards including defining of aims of the allocation process and desired outcome (whether maximizing benefit or utility or ensuring equity of access), inclusion and exclusion criteria, criteria for futility and suspension and removal from the transplant list, appeals processes, arrangements for monitoring and auditing outcomes and processes for dealing with noncompliance. Furthermore, guidelines must be consistent with legislation even though this may compete with public preference. Guidelines must be supported by all stakeholders (including health-care professionals, donor families and potential transplant candidates). However, there must also be flexibility to allow for exceptions and to support innovation and development. © 2011 The Author. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  13. Occupational health aspects of the resource recovery of municipal solid wastes

    Mansdorf, S.Z.


    A comprehensive industrial hygiene study of seven representative municipal solid waste processing facilities was conducted to determine the level of worker exposures to physical, chemical and microbiological hazards of the processes studied. Two mass burn incineration, four waste processing to fuel, and one combined waste processing to steam plant were evaluated. Samples were collected to determine particulate, general organic vapor, pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, bacteria, fungi, human pathogenic virus, and noise exposures. Hazard evaluations were then made based on a comparison of the results of the sampling with currently required or recommended standards for occupational exposures. Examination of the particulate matter from airborne dust samples indicated a wide range of heteromorphic particles and fibers. A size fractionation of these particulates showed that a significant portion of most of the dusts were respirable (<15 aerodynamic diameter). High levels of welding fume exposure at two facilities and area noise levels above 90 dBA in all facilities were found. Total bacteria, fecal coliforms, Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsielly sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces sp., Aspergillus fumigutas, Aspergillus flavus, and mycobacterium sp. were recovered from the workplace air. The implications of worker inhalation exposures to these mixed microbial contaminants are unknown.

  14. Municipal solid waste management for total resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County in Taiwan.

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Dai, Wen-Chien; Hu, Allen; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Chou, Chieh-Mei


    This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7% in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.

  15. Practical analysis of MRRT-Australia's new tax regime on mineral resources%澳大利亚资源税新法案MRRT初探



    澳大利亚政府将于2012年7月1日开始对煤炭和铁矿石矿业企业征收“矿产资源租赁税(Mineral Resource Rent Tax,简称MRRT)”,这将在全球矿业及其下游产业链内引发巨烈的连锁反应.媒体普遍预测,新税法将进一步抬高本已高企的铁矿石与优质煤价格,中国钢铁企业的原料成本压力将更为严峻.在本已低迷的市场形势下,中国赴澳洲收购矿产资源的成本也将随之水涨船高.这样的预测从整体趋势上来判断,应该是正确的;但在具体操作中,MRRT还是留给企业变通的空间.如果操作得当,甚至有可能实现合法避税、免税的效果.为了能够有效利用MRRT的规则,使企业实现效益最大化,本文以澳财政部《新资源税法案》一文为蓝本,详细介绍MRRT的各项具体规定,以及如何在财务操作中将MRRT对企业的影响降至最低.%The Australian Government has announced that a new taxation regime against coal and iron ore mining industry-Mineral Resource Rent Tax (MRRT) will enter into force on July 1, 2012. This new tax will trigger a series of reactions in the global mining industry as well as in its downstream chains. Media widely predicted that under the unoptimistic market situation, the new law will further uplift the already high prices of iron ore and coking coal, and Chinese steel enterprises will have to suffer more pressures on the cost of raw materials. Media also predicted that the cost for Chinese enterprises who are planning acquisitions of Australia mineral resources will subsequently increase as well. Such predictions, from the vision of an overall tendency, should be correct judgments) but on the scale of specific operations, MRRT provided practical margin to resource companies. With proper operations, legitimate tax deductions, including complete tax avoidance will be achievable. Based on Minerals Resource Rent Tax Bill issued by Australian Treasury on Jun. 9, 2011, this analysis focuses on

  16. Physical therapy resources in prevention of bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury – literature review

    Daniele Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This paper comprises a literature review on physical therapytreatment on prevention, stabilization or slowing down the processof bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury.There are few studies in the literature on the efficiency of physicaltherapy treatment for bone demineralization. There are reports offour types of treatment for demineralization: functional electricalstimulation, functional electrical stimulation-induced cycling,standing and ambulation. These treatments are rather questionableand controversial in relation to efficacy and there is no consensuson their methodologies.

  17. How different is mining from mineral processing? A general equilibrium analysis of new resources projects in Western Australia

    Qiang, Ye


    Western Australia has experienced an investment surge in the minerals sector of the economy in recent years. Unlike previous surges, this one involves a large proportion of mineral‐processing projects. In this study, the differential effects on the WA economy of 25 mining and 10 mineral‐processing projects are analysed using an economy‐wide model of WA. The results indicate that: (i) both the mining and mineral‐processing projects will have substantial flow‐on benefits to the WA economy as a ...

  18. The Remote Sensing Prospecting Information Extraction and Mineral Resources Prognosis in the Banqiao Rare Earth Mineral Deposit%板桥稀土矿遥感找矿信息提取与矿产预测研究

    章钦瑜; 张登荣; 黄国成; 朱骏


    通过对离子吸附型稀土矿成矿规律的分析,从浙江省板桥地区的遥感地质特征研究入手,在研究区地表范围内进行稀土遥感找矿信息的提取.首先利用SPOT图像和DEM数据构建的坡度数据对与稀土成矿相关的地貌单元进行解译;然后通过光谱特征分析和基于ASTER图像的矿物遥感异常提取,获取与成矿相关的高岭土、绢云母、绿泥石等风化特征矿物的分布信息;最后叠合分析地貌、坡度及异常提取结果,进行稀土遥感找矿预测.与地质调查资料及化探数据的对比分析证实,上述方法对圈定1:5万的大比例尺离子吸附型稀土矿分布范围是有效的,可为更详细的稀土矿产资源潜力评价提供依据.%In this paper, the prospecting information of the rare earth resources on Earth' s surface was extracted by analyzing the metallogenic regularity and geological remote sensing features of the study area. Firstly, the distribution of geomorphic units of Qedl was interpreted based on SPOT imagery and slope map obtained from DEM data. Then, the distribution of characteristic minerals closely related to rare earth deposits such as kaolin, sericite and chlorite was extracted by using remote sensing alteration anomaly extraction methods in the study area. At last, the potential rare earth ore districts were predicted by using overlap analysis of geomorphic units of Qedl as well as slope and abnormal extraction results. A comparison with the results of geological and geochemical survey shows that the remote sensing methods proposed in this paper are effective and reliable in prognosis of rare earth mineral distribution at the scale of 1 : 50 000 and can provide useful suggestions for more detailed potential evaluation of rare earth mineral resources.

  19. 矿产资源开发中的生态补偿博弈分析%Game Analysis on Ecological Compensation of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    蔡绍洪; 李仁发; 向秋兰


    对矿产资源开发进行生态补偿,是实现资源、环境与经济可持续发展的必然选择。采用博弈论分析方法,就矿产资源生态补偿的博弈进行分析。通过研究居民与居民、企业与企业、居民与企业的博弈关系,得出在当前低碳经济背景下富有成效的生态补偿制度必须以博弈均衡为基础,需要政府部门积极协调平衡各方利益,制定合理生态补偿政策,实现社会综合利益最大化。最后,在博弈均衡的基础上提出了相应的对策与建议。%In order to achieve the sustainable development of resources,environment and economy,the ecology compensation of mineral resources exploitation is an inevitable choice.Appling the method of game theory,the ecology compensation of mineral resources exploitation is analyzed.By analyzing the game relationships between residents and residents,enterprises and enterprises,as well as residents and enterprises,it is considered that under the current background of low-carbon economy,productive ecological compensation system must be based on game equilibriums,and requires the government's departments to actively coordinate and balance the interests of all parties,and to set up reasonable policies of ecological compensation,in order to maximize social comprehensive benefits.Finally,some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward based on the game equilibriums.

  20. Task 3: Evaluation of mineral resource potential, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic framework at and near Yucca Mountain

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    This report summarizes the work of Task 3 that was initially discussed in our monthly reports for the period October 1, 1993 through September 30, 1994, and is contained in our various papers and abstracts, both published and in press or currently in review. Our efforts during this period have involved the continuation of studies begun prior to October, 1993, focussed mainly on aspects of the caldera geology, magmatic activity, hydrothermal mineralization and extensional tectonics of the western and central parts of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), studies of the subsurface rocks of Yucca Mountain utilizing drill-hole sampled obtained in 1991 and 1992, and studies of veins and siliceous ledges cropping out in northwestern Yucca Mountain. These veins and ledges provide evidence for near-surface hydrothermal activity in northwestern Yucca Mountain during the Crater Flat Tuff period of volcanism. During the period of this report we have concentrated our efforts on the production and publication of documents summarizing many of the data, interpretations and conclusions of Task 3 studies pertaining to hydrothermal activity and mineralization in the Yucca Mountain region and their relations to volcanism and tectonic activity. The resulting two manuscripts for journal publication and a compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data are appended to this report.

  1. Research on Trinity of Mineral Resources,Assets and Capital%矿产资源、资产与资本三位一体化研究



    矿产资源资本资产三位一体的过程是将矿产资源禀赋有效转化为合理定价的资产,并进一步将资产投入到社会再生产过程中实现资本的自我增殖的过程,其本质是矿业市场和矿业经济的宏观管理。目前,我国整个矿业经济存在三大问题:区域范围内遭遇“资源的诅咒”、全国范围内面临矿产资源保障能力不足、全球范围内矿业企业竞争力有待提高,其核心障碍在于矿业市场不完善、资本运营能力不足、矿业资本调控能力有待提高。因此,从“三位一体”的理论研究入手,以破解“三位一体”的实践难题为重点,明确“三位一体”的目标和原则,提出了一整套建立健全矿业资本市场、促进区域经济持续发展、提高全国资源保障能力、扩大国际矿业市场份额的方针政策和措施建议。%The essence of the Trinity of mineral resources ,assets and capital is the macro - management on mineral market and economics .The process of the trinity is that mineral resources are transformed effectively into a rational pricing of assets ,and the assets are further transformed into the capital .There are three problems in our mining industry :“resource curse” in some regions;the shortage of the guarantee capacity of mineral resources over the country ,lack of competitiveness of global mining .The reasons lie in that the mining market is not perfect ,the capital operation ability is insufficient ,and mining capital regulation capacity needs to be improved .According to the theory and the practice of the T rinity ,the paper points out the goals and principles of the trinity ,and gives suggestions on improving the mining capital market ,promoting the sustainable development of regional economy ,improving the national resource security ,and expanding the international mining market share .

  2. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D.L.; Griffitts, W.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.


    This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the

  3. Mineral resources and exploration prospect in The Republic of Yemen%也门共和国矿产资源与矿业开发前景

    李娜; 王靓靓; 元春华; 李玉龙


    也门共和国地处阿拉伯-努比亚(Arabian-Nubian)地盾,地质结构复杂多样,在火山岩和沉积岩区蕴藏着丰富的黄金、铅、银、铜、锌和其他金属矿产。也门的金矿主要位于Sana'a省,与火山和岩浆活动有关;铅锌矿成因类型较复杂,最大的铅锌矿产出于JabalSalab地区侏罗纪的白云岩中;铜镍矿存在于基性、超基性的侵入岩中,主要位于Taiz和Amran省。也门矿产资源丰富但大量矿床尚未被开发,有巨大的找矿潜力。本文结合也门矿产的资源情况及矿业开发现状圈定了优势矿产的找矿远景区,如Al Jawf省西部的金-银矿远景区,Sa'ada省北部的铜-镍矿远景区,以及Shabwah省东南部的锌-铅矿远景区等。也门共和国矿产资源丰富,矿业及税收政策宽松,定会成为未来矿业投资的热点区域。%The Republic of Yemen composes part of the Arabian -Nubian Shield .The geological conditions in Yemen and other factors are favourable for many types of mineral deposits ,like gold ,lead , silver ,copper and zinc .The gold deposit located in Sana'a is related to volcanic and magma activity ;the genetic type of lead-zinc deposit is complicated and the biggest deposit appeared in dolomite of Jurassic in JabalSalab region;copper-nickel deposit is located in Taiz and Amran ,in mafic and ultra-mafic intrusive rocks .The mineral potential of Yemen has not been explored .By analysing the mineral resource distribution and the current mineral exploration situation ,the author defined several prospect zones ,like Al Jawf for gold-silver deposit ,Sa'ada for copper-nickel deposit ,and Shabwah for zinc-lead deposits .With favourable mining and fax policy ,The Republic of Yemen will abstract more oversee investment and to be a hot spot for mineral exploration in the future .

  4. Evaluation of mineral resource potential, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic framework at and near Yucca Mountain

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    This report summarizes the result of Task 3 work initially discussed in our monthly reports for the period October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992, and contained in our various papers and abstracts, both published and currently in press or review. Our work during this period has involved (a) the continuation of studies begun prior to October, 1991, focussed mainly on aspects of the caldera geology, volcanic stratigraphy, magmatic activity, hydrothermal mineralization and extensional tectonics of the western and northwestern parts of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), and (b) new studies of the alteration and trace-metal geochemistry of subsurface rocks at Yucca Mountain utilizing drill hole samples obtained in late 1991 and early 1992.

  5. Discussion on the Tasks and Methods for Solid Mineral Examination of Investment Projects%固体矿产地质考察的任务与工作方法

    于文松; 张姗; 廖昌溪; 陈果; 姜维明


    With the increase in investment in the mining areas,the research about methods of solid mineral geological examination of investment projects need to be strengthened and made it standardized.Combinating with years of experience in the solid mineral geological examination,this paper set out a topic that solid mineral examination of investment projects is a special solid mineral exploration,involves its all stages.This paper discusses the objects, tasks, stages and methods of solid mineral examination of investment projects, and put forward the problems that should be given attention in this special mineral exploration.This paper try hard to establish a set of effective specifications for solid mineral examination of investment projects.%随着中国投资者在矿业领域投资增多,矿产资源项目地质考察成为重要工作,其工作方法需要加强研究和规范化。结合多年来固体矿产项目地质考察方面的工作经验,提出固体矿产项目考察为涉及固体矿产勘查与开发各个工作阶段的综合性地质勘查工作的观点,提出固体矿产地质考察工作的对象分类和工作阶段步骤划分,论述考察工作的任务、内容与方法,指出考察工作中应注意的问题,力图建立一套行之有效的固体矿产地质考察工作程序和工作标准,使固体矿产地质考察工作能够为矿业项目投资决策提供更可靠的依据,同时,提出几点关于获取矿产资源项目要领的看法。

  6. Research on the Price Reform of Mineral Resources and Geological Prospecting Work%矿产资源价格改革与地质勘查工作研究

    韩继深; 钱丽苏; 韩爽


    This paper introduces the issues caused by long-term price distortion. These are:the lower overall price leads to the less sensitive of market supply and demand adjustment, and inlfuences the stable development of our economy;price mechanism failure of mineral resources results in resource waste and environmental pollution;there are a lot of problems in the foreign trade and economic development;and the supply capability and degree of mineral resources are badly affected. Some suggestions are included:we will fully understand the signiifcance of the price reform of mineral resource in sustainable development of society and economy, establish the price mechanism of mineral resources, strengthen top-level design, as well as form a policy system;learning from international practice so as to lay the foundation for allocating world mineral resources;we have to bring into play the role of market mechanisms in the pricing of mineral resources, further deepen and improve the pricing mechanism of mineral resources;and new system of taxes and fees based on mineral resource value will be built.%矿产资源长期价格扭曲的严重影响:总体价格偏低,导致市场供求调节不敏感,影响经济平稳发展;矿产资源价格机制失灵,导致资源浪费和环境污染;矿产资源的价格扭曲,导致了外贸经济发展中的大量问题;矿产资源价格扭曲,严重影响了矿产资源的保障能力和保障程度。建议:充分认识矿产资源价格改革对社会经济可持续发展的重要意义;建立矿产资源价格机制,搞好顶层设计,形成政策体系;学习借鉴国际惯例,为矿产资源的世界配置奠定基础;充分发挥市场机制在矿产资源定价中的调节作用;进一步深化和完善矿产资源价格形成机制;构建以矿产资源价值为基础的矿产资源税费新体制。

  7. Analysis of the Assessment System regarding China’s Mineral Resource Planning%我国矿产资源规划评审制度探析

    郭威; 吴芳


    首轮矿产资源规划(1998-2007年)审查内容以政策性审查为主,审查标准尚未统一,规划审查制度尚未建立。第二轮矿产资源规划(2008年以来)在首轮规划评审工作的基础上,规划评审在相关制度建设方面取得了重要进展,工作量与日俱增,技术性大幅度增强。建立科学、规范的规划评审制度是全面深化改革的现实需求,是提高工作效率的重要途径,是强化技术支撑的必然要求。目前已启动的第三轮矿产资源规划亟待完善规划评审制度。建议:明确规划评审的地位与作用;健全评审机构及相关职责;加强规划评审全过程的制度建设;强化规划评审专家责任制度。%When the ifrst round of mineral resource planning was launched during 1998 to 2007, policy review was the focus of our efforts to reviewing. At that time, standard of review has yet to be uniifed; and censorship to underpin mineral resource planning has yet to be established. The second round of mineral resource planning has been launched since the year of 2008; we have made important progress in the establishment of systems to assess the planning on the basis of the ifrst round planning assessment. Following from this, there are a lot of works to do with increasing high technology. This paper points out that establishment of scientiifc and normative system to underpin planning and assessment represents a real requirement in China’s efforts to deepen the reform in all respects, an important way to raise our working efifciency, and a necessary requirement to strengthen the technical support. At present, the system to evaluate the planning needs to be developed in the third round of mineral resource planning that has been started. This paper sets forth some requirements for developing the system to evaluate the planning. These requirements lay emphasis on the following: making the position and function of planning evaluation clear

  8. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.


    geographic, economic, preemptive use, environmental, geologic and political factors. In addition, offshore sand resources should only be considered if the area is seaward of the active zone of significant nearshore sediment transport, about 10 to 12 m in depth, and in sufficiently shallow water so that sand can be extracted within U.S. dredging equipment limits, currently about 40 m in depth. If the material is to be used for beach nourishment, material must be of an appropriate sediment texture and character (grain size, sorting, shape, and color) to match the native beach and have mineralogical properties important to its use. Extraction of sand can disturb or alter the benthic habitat and seafloor ecology, so these factors and other site-specific effects will need to be evaluated for any intended use. These and other factors are not considered in this report but can be expected to reduce the total net volume of sand resources available for production. The purpose of this report is to describe and present results from a probabilistic mineral modeling technique previously applied to onshore mineral resources. This modeling and assessment procedure is being used for the first time to assess and estimate offshore aggregate resources; this study is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Marine Aggregates Resources and Processes Project (

  9. 矿产资源信息系统(MRIS)的设计原理与关键技术%The design principle and key technology of Mineral Resources Information System (MRIS)

    韩冰; 路来君


    Mineral resource is one of the pillar industries of the national economic sustainable development, is the important industrial base of national economy, and has a positive and far-reaching significance in mineral resources planning, management and development. Mineral resources digitization management is an important component of geological information engineering. Mineral resources information system is a computer system for integration and application of regional mineral resources spatial data. For the mineral resources planning, management and development, the construction of a powerful mineral resources information system to provide a user-oriented mineral resources reserves management information platform has positive and far-reaching significance. MRIS system is a comprehensive mineral resources information system, which is developed based on GIS technology platform, service for the provincial, city and county three-level land resources management mode and the geoscientific administrative department needs. The main function of the system is to implemented the geological and mineral resources management, in various scale maps preparation, attribute database establishment, spatial data management and other aspects; and implemented the scientific modern visual dynamic management in all kinds of mineral resources exploration and development, utilization and protection. This paper discusses the design principle and structure optimization scheme of MRIS system when the author develops MRIS system, mainly includes resource space database, open GIS interface module and design criteria、 the calculation and inquires of spatial data, interoperability and reversible conversion of spatial data, The second development of space analysis function、 Multi-user operating system environment design conditions and other key technology problems in development, uses federal database for data integration, put forward and design the user-oriented management way and

  10. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    Ebunilo P. O.


    Full Text Available A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer mill. The new hammer mill, which is a partially closed system while in operation and utilizes suction power, virtually eliminates environmental pollution usually associated with the operation of conventional hammer mills and can be used to mill commonly occurring Nigerian grains like millet, sorghum, maize, cowpeas, guinea-corn and soya beans into flour and also for pulverizing locally occurring solid minerals like clays into powder. This would diversify storage options for the grains, deepen and widen the available food choices for all Nigerians and enhance food security and rural development.

  11. First nodule to first mine-site: Development of deep-sea mineral resources from the Indian Ocean

    Sharma, R.

    - port on availability of Cu, Ni and Mn from ocean Fe–Mn nodules based on data collected at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), USA. However, it was Frazer and Wilson 14 , who provided a detailed description of manga- nese nodule resources... in the Indian Ocean from five re- gions, based on 7000 samples and 700 analyses. Using the criteria of average 2.4% of Cu + Ni + Co, cut-off grade of 1.8% Cu + Ni + Co and cut-off abundance as 5 kg/m 2 , they concluded that ‘the Central Indian Ocean Basin...

  12. Mineral bioprocessing

    Torma, A.E.


    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  13. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema


    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis.

  14. Resource Utilization for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Events in Patients with Solid Tumors Treated with Antiemetic Regimens

    Schwartzberg, Lee; Harrow, Brooke; Lal, Lincy S.; Radtchenko, Janna; Lyman, Gary H.


    Background Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can lead to increased emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which may contribute to increased cost of care. Antiemetic agents, such as neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, are prescribed for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). The current guidelines recommend a 3-drug combination of an NK1 receptor antagonist, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone with HEC regimens and certain MEC regimens. Objective To compare the incidence of CINV and CINV-related resource utilization among patients who receive guideline-adherent HEC and MEC regimens and patients who receive non–guideline-adherent regimens. Methods In this retrospective, claims-based study, Inovalon's Medical Outcomes Research for Effectiveness and Economics Registry (MORE2 Registry) Research Edition database was used to identify 8089 patients with solid tumors receiving therapy with anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC), cisplatin, or carboplatin from June 2013 to December 2013. The patients were stratified according to the use of an NK1 receptor antagonist regimen. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify CINV events associated with hospital, emergency department, and outpatient office visits among patients in the NK1 receptor antagonist group and the non-NK1 receptor antagonist group. Results A total of 1059 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 51% (N = 536) used an NK1 receptor antagonist–based regimen and 49% (N = 523) used non-NK1 receptor antagonist therapy. A higher percentage of patients receiving AC (73%) than cisplatin (56%) or carboplatin (23%) received an NK1 receptor antagonist. The incidence rates of total CINV events and CINV-related emergency department visits were lower in the group receiving an NK1 receptor

  15. Research on Ecological Compensation for Phosphorus Mineral Resource Development in Hubei -From the Perspective of the New Institutional Economics%湖北磷矿矿产资源生态补偿研究--基于新制度经济学视角

    宣博; 张均


    矿产资源生态补偿是湖北省实现矿产资源产业可持续发展的重要手段。通过将新制度经济学和矿产资源生态补偿的理论和思路耦合,进行产权分析,明晰当前矿产生态补偿现状,发现当前税费政策的产权含义存在交集,提出矿产环境生态补偿作为补充,同时指出当前湖北省磷矿资源生态补偿的实践中存在资源浪费、产权不清和空白以及政策冗杂等问题。文章以新制度经济学的思想为指导,提出以下政策建议:(1)明晰生态补偿内涵,完善补偿机制;(2)精简补偿政策;(3)推进磷矿产权、固态废弃物产权和环境产权的界定以及市场建设;(4)建立合理的委托-代理关系,加强监管机制。%The ecological compensation for mineral resources development is an important means that can realize the sustainable development of mineral resources industry in Hubei province. Through coupling new institutional economics with the theory and idea of ecological compensation for mineral resource development, analyzing property rights, making the current situation of mineral resources ecological compensation clear, there is an overlap emerged in the meaning of property rights pertaining to tax policy. In light of this, ecological compensation for mining environments is presented as a supplement. At the same time, this paper points out that resources wasted, unclear and blank property rights, and miscellaneous policy have been the constituents of the problems that Hubei province face in the practice of ecological compensation for phosphorus resources. Guided by the ideas of new institutional economics, suggestions are listed in the following: clarifying the connotation of ecological compensation and improving the compensation system; streamlining the compensation policy; promoting the deifnition of phosphate rock property, solid waste property, and environmental property rights; accelerating market construction

  16. Preliminary Discussion on the Interests Distribution System of China's Mineral Resources%我国矿产资源利益分配制度刍议



    Since the reform and opening up, the development of China's economy has made remarkable achievements. However, the depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution come with the "growth miracle". From the macroscopic level, those negative consequences are caused by the extensive pattern of economic growth, and in the meantime, it is directly re- lated to the defects of the interests distribution system of China's mineral resources. The current interests distribution system leads to an irrational pattern of interests, and among various stakeholders, the problems of "inconsistent rights and responsi- bilities, unreasonable allocation and cost externalization" are existed. In order to construct a socialist harmonious society and realize sustainable development, it is imperative to establish a new mineral resources interest distribution system of "clear property rights, clear taxes, reasonable allocation and compensation in place".%改革开放以来,中国经济发展取得了举世瞩目的成就,然而在“增长的奇迹”背后却是资源耗竭和环境污染。从宏观层面而论,这是我国长期以来实行粗放型经济增长方式的负面结果,但同时需要认识到,它与我国矿产资源利益分配制度的缺陷有直接关系。现行矿产资源利益分配制度导致了一种不合理的利益格局,各个利益相关者之间存在着“权责不一致、分配不合理、成本外部化”等问题。为构建社会主义和谐社会,实现可持续发展,建立“产权清晰、税费明确、分配合理、补偿到位”的矿产资源利益分配制度势在必行。

  17. 有色金属急缺矿产资源的界定及其品种转换研究。%Research on Definition of Much- Lacking Non- ferrous Metal Mineral Resources and the Switch of Their Varieties

    吴爱祥; 姚志华; 禹智潭


    The definition of much - lacking non - ferrous metal mineral resources is favorable for getting a clear understanding of the situation of supply and demand situation of non - ferrous metal mineral resources in China and the characteristics of the market, also is favorable for the related policy - making. Based on the results of previous researches, this paper defines the con- notation of much - lacking non - ferrous metal mineral resources, and constructs a evaluation system of much - lacking grade. The evaluation of various non - ferrous metal mineral re- sources are made using AHP. And the conclusion is that the copper, aluminum, cobalt, zinc, nickel belong to much- lacking non -ferrous metal mineral resources in China at present, hut the varieties of much - lacking non - ferrous metal mineral resources will dynamically switch with changes in science and technology, as well as the international situation.%界定有色金属急缺矿产资源有利于认清我国有色金属矿产资源的供需形势和市场特征,有利于我国有色金属矿产资源相关政策的制定。在前人成果的基础上,界定了有色金属急缺矿产的内涵,构建了急缺性评价体系,并运用AHP方法对有色金属品种进行了评价,结论是:铜、铝、钴、锌、镍属于我国目前的有色金属急缺矿产资源。随着科技、国际态势的变化,有色金属急缺矿产资源品种也将需要随之动态调整。

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  19. 城市垃圾资源化工程实例分析%Analysis on the Municipal Solid Waste Resource Project



    目前国内城市垃圾处理大多采用卫生填埋,真正实现城市垃圾资源化的寥寥无几,造成资源的浪费.而且个别城市垃圾资源化处理厂建成后,由于垃圾分选技术关键设备没能解决,导致不能正常运行,造成投资浪费.工程采用分选、厌氧发酵、复合肥制造、沼气发电综合处理系统处理城市垃圾,并较好地解决了垃圾分选技术与设备,实现了垃圾资源化,为城市垃圾实现“减量化、资源化、无害化”以借鉴.%In our country, sanitary landfill was mostly applied in municipal solid waste treatment. However, little municipal solid waste resource project was realized, leading to a great waste of material. What is worse, because the key technical equipments for waste sorting have not been set up, some municipal solid waste resource plants could not run smoothly after being built, resulting in a waste of investment. Sorting system, anaerobic fermentation, compound fertilizer making, and marsh gas power generation were introduced into this project for the treatment of municipal solid waste. This project solved the problem exiting in waste sorting equipment and technique, which made waste resource come true, and provide a good example for quantitative reduction, resource, and harmless disposal of municipal solid waste.

  20. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  1. International Experiences of Overseas Investment in Mineral Resources and China's Strategic Choice%矿产资源海外投资的国际经验借鉴及我国的战略选择

    陈琳; 陈云


    矿产资源是国民经济社会发展的基础和国家安全的保障。在分析了世界矿产资源形势及以美国、日本、英国、韩国等为代表的主要国家的矿产资源海外战略的基础上,指出在全球化日益深入和国内矿产资源日益匮乏的双重背景下,要突破当前矿产资源海外投资的困境,我国应该学习和借鉴国际经验,从政府和企业的层面制定海外矿产资源获取的战略规划,有计划、分步骤地加以实施,为我国社会经济的可持续发展提供稳定、可靠的资源保障。%Mineral resources serve as the foundation for national economic and social development as well as the safeguard of national security. Through a study on the situation of mineral resources around the world, and on the related overseas investment strategies of representative countries including the United States, Japan, England, and Korea, etc., the essay examines the dual plight of intensified globalization and domestic shortage of mineral resources in China, proposing that China should learn from international experiences to formulate strategic plans of overseas mineral resources development for both the government and the enterprise as well as to carry out step-by-step implementation of such plans, in the purpose of overcoming the current difficulties of overseas investment in mineral resources and maintaining resource safety for sustainable economic and social development.

  2. 挪威油气工业中的资源、资产、资本综合管理模式%Mineral resource, mineral property and mineral capital integration management in Norway oil industry

    杨宗喜; 金玺; 唐金荣; 郑人瑞


    油气工业对挪威经济的发展起到了重要作用,为挪威创造了巨大的财富,而这主要源于挪威政府对其油气资源的高效管理。本文从资产管理和资本运作的角度出发,探讨了挪威油气资源的综合管理模式。在油气资源国家所有的体现形式方面,挪威并未实行世界通行的权利金制度,而是通过国有资产管理公司(Petoro公司)在很多油气项目上大量参股、对油气公司征税、以及国有油气公司(Statoil公司)的占股分红等方式获得油气资源的所有权权益收益,体现出挪威油气资源的资产化管理模式。而挪威与油气资源有关的所有收入都被纳入政府(全球)养老金,这笔基金也只投资海外市场,在不影响其本国经济的基础上,实现了基金的保值增值,体现了油气资源的资本化管理方式。%Oil-Gas sector is significant in the economic development of Norway ,and provides Norway a huge fortune because of the efficient management of Norway government .We discuss the integration management model in the Norway Oil-Gas industry in the view of resource ,property and capital .The results show that Norway doesn’t take a royalty share of its oil and gas production .Instead ,Norway makes all of its oil-gas money by oil-gas company taxing ,taking a equity share by Petoro ,and earning stock dividends from Statoil .This is a management way of capitalization management .While all of the cash flow from Petoro ,the Statoil dividends and oil and gas profits taxes go into Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global ,and all of the money is invested abroad that maintain and increase the value of Fund .This is a management way of asset management .

  3. Research on transmission mechanism of mineral resources supply policy under the macro-control%矿产资源供给政策参与宏观调控传导机制研究

    石吉金; 吴继刚; 杨景胜


    This study puts forward the definition and the overall framework of mineral re-sources supply policy under the macro-control,and constructs transmission mechanism of miner-al resources supply policy under the macro-control based on industry,finance and asset prices channel.%提出了矿产资源供给政策参与宏观调控的内涵和总体框架,并重点从产业、财政和资产价格三方面研究构建了矿产资源供给政策参与宏观调控的传导机制。

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  5. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  6. 省级尺度矿产资源综合区划方法及应用%Research on the Method and Application of Comprehensive Zoning of Mineral Resources at the Provincial Level

    杨博; 吕新彪; 魏彦芳


    Research on comprehensive zoning of mineral resources has important significance on regional mineral resources policy formulation, establishment of planning system and partition space management. Based on concept definition of comprehensive zoning of mineral resources, put forward a zone method of bottom to up clustering, using the graphic overlay method, and propose the method of division for comprehensive zoning of mineral resources, and take Gansu province as a case study. There are 4 strategic areas in Gansu mainly in includes Hexi region, central region, longdong region and southern region. And to provide some theory and demonstration for the third round of mineral resources planning.%开展矿产资源综合区划研究,对差别化的区域矿产资源政策制定,规划体系的建立及分区空间管理有重要意义. 在矿产资源综合区划概念界定的基础上,采用"从上而下"的区划方法及叠置法等技术手段,提出了省级尺度的矿产资源综合区划方法,并以甘肃省为例进行了实证研究. 提出甘肃省划分为河西、中部、陇东、南部四大战略区,并明确了每个分区的战略导向. 为第三轮矿产资源规划编制提供理论和实证基础.

  7. 矿产资源型地区生态系统服务功能:缘起、理论及最新进展%Ecosystem Services in Mineral Resources Region: Origins, Theories and the Latest Developments

    万伦来; 丁焱燕; 朱琴


    生态系统服务功能是指生态系统与生态过程所形成及所维持的人类赖以生存的自然环境条件与效用.我国矿产资源型地区生态系统服务功能因受到矿产资源开发的严重威胁正在不断恶化,建立该区域生态系统服务功能科学调控与可持续管理的长效机制至关重要.文章对矿产资源型地区生态系统服务功能的思想渊源和相关理论进行了系统梳理,总结该领域研究的最新进展,以此作为深入探讨生态系统服务功能与矿产资源统筹协调发展的切入点.%The natural environment and its effectiveness sustained by ecosystem for human life are defined as ecosystem services or ecosystem service functions. At high risk from mineral resources exploitation, ecosystem services in China's mineral resources region are continuing to deteriorate, so it is of great importance to establish a long scientific regulation and sustainable management effect mechanism of ecosystem services in mineral resources areas. The paper systematically reviews the ideological origins and the related theories of the mineral resources region's ecosystem services and summarizes the latest research developments in this field as entry points to further discuss plans of the overall and coordinated development between ecosystem services and mineral resources.

  8. Management System of China's Mineral Resources Based on Property Right Constraint%基于产权约束的中国矿产资源管理体制分析

    汪小英; 成金华


    In the extensive mode of economic growth with the cost of resource consumption, reinforcing the management system reform of mineral resources with property rights as its core, is a key subject related to the utilization efficiency of mineral resources and the sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. From the perspective of system transition, it is the imperfection of property arrangement that caused the low efficiency of mineral resources management in China, so institutional change has appeared. According to the current situation of mineral resources management in China, based on property rights, the paper pointed out that an efficient mineral resource management model should be an optimal combination of assets management and resources management as well as of administration and market allocation, and the core of the model is the market assignment of mineral resource allocation system, which is mainly embodied in mining rights being estimated, auctioned and traded as a kind of property rights. Therefore, the essence of market-driven mineral resources property rights reform is a reform and creation on both the mineral resources utilization system and the value exchange system based on upholding the state ownership of mineral resources.%在以消耗资源为代价的粗放型经济增长模式下,加强以产权为核心的矿产资源管理体制改革,是关系到矿产资源利用效率高低和我国经济社会可持续发展的重要命题.从制度变迁来看,产权安排的不完善是我国矿产资源管理低效的主要制度根源.因此,我国矿产资源管理体制开始了适应性的制度变迁.本文针对我国矿产资源管理的现状,以产权约束为基础,认为一种有效率的矿产资源管理模式应当是在市场机制的基础上寻求资产化管理与资源性管理、行政和市场配置方式的最优组合,而模式构建的核心是市场化的矿产资源配置制度安排,其主要表现为把矿业权

  9. 矿产资源产权制度演进及其改革思考%The Evolution of Mineral Resources Property Rights Institution and Some Thoughts on the Reform



    This paper has introduced the basic connotation and characteristics of mineral resources property rights,discussed the evolution path of establishment and development of the mineral resources property management system. On this basis, this paper has analyzed the main theoretical defects and actual problems that we face in the design and operation of current mineral resources property rights system. This can be seen most clearly in the following aspects:the ownership does notreach the designated position;confusing administrative licensing with property right; the administrative power infringes the property rights; property acting is ambiguous; and the economic relationship isn't in sequence. According to the reform requirements of improving national natural resources assets management system, this paper not only puts forward the thinking framework for further deepening the reform of mineral resources property rights institutions, but also proposes some measures for strengthening top-level design of mineral resource institutions, implementing the national ownership of mineral resources,perfecting both property entrusted agency relationship and paid use system of resources.%文章阐述了矿产资源产权的基本内涵和特点,梳理了我国矿产资源产权管理制度建立与发展的演变轨迹,剖析了现行矿产资源产权制度设计和运行中的主要理论缺陷和现实问题,突出表现为所有权落实不到位、行政许可与财产权混淆、行政权侵害财产权、产权代理不明确、经济关系未理顺。在现状和问题分析基础上,按照健全国家自然资源资产管理体制的改革要求,提出了进一步深化矿产资源产权制度改革的思路框架,提出了加强矿产资源制度顶层设计、落实矿产资源国家所有权、完善产权委托代理关系、完善有偿使用制度等对策建议。

  10. RSW-MCFP: A Resource-Oriented Solid Waste Management System for a Mixed Rural-Urban Area through Monte Carlo Simulation-Based Fuzzy Programming

    P. Li


    Full Text Available The growth of global population and economy continually increases the waste volumes and consequently creates challenges to handle and dispose solid wastes. It becomes more challenging in mixed rural-urban areas (i.e., areas of mixed land use for rural and urban purposes where both agricultural waste (e.g., manure and municipal solid waste are generated. The efficiency and confidence of decisions in current management practices significantly rely on the accurate information and subjective judgments, which are usually compromised by uncertainties. This study proposed a resource-oriented solid waste management system for mixed rural-urban areas. The system is featured by a novel Monte Carlo simulation-based fuzzy programming approach. The developed system was tested by a real-world case with consideration of various resource-oriented treatment technologies and the associated uncertainties. The modeling results indicated that the community-based bio-coal and household-based CH4 facilities were necessary and would become predominant in the waste management system. The 95% confidence intervals of waste loadings to the CH4 and bio-coal facilities were 387, 450 and 178, 215 tonne/day (mixed flow, respectively. In general, the developed system has high capability in supporting solid waste management for mixed rural-urban areas in a cost-efficient and sustainable manner under uncertainty.

  11. Antagonistic perception of a rock-mass as geomorphosite and/or mineral resource with specific concern of natural stone for heritage conservation

    Prikryl, Richard


    Prior to industrial era, the quarrying of natural stone was primarily local (the stone has been used very close to its extraction in most of the cases), small scale, occasional (the stone has been extracted only when needed for specific construction, permanent operations were much rarer than nowadays) but long-term (the quarrying activity at one site persisted over centuries very often). The landscape affected by such quarrying (as we can observe it at present) gained numerous new values (e.g., increased morphological contrast, succession of wildlife habitat, etc.) that are often appreciated more than the presence of valuable mineral resource - natural stone. If these site were claimed natural monuments or gained another type of environmental protection, any further extraction of natural stone is prohibited. However, if the specific site was used for extraction of natural stone that has been used for construction which later became cultural heritage object, the antagonistic perception of the site might appear - the site might be protected as a geomorphosite but, at the same time, it can be a source of unique natural stone required for the restoration of cultural heritage objects. This paper, along with above mentioned basic relationships, provides some real examples connected with the difficulties to find the extractable source of natural stone for restoration of iconic cultural heritage objects - specifically search for sources of Carboniferous arkoses to be used for replacement of the decayed ashlars at the Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague (Czech Republic).

  12. 哥伦比亚矿产资源及矿业管理概况%Overview of Mineral Resources and Mining Management in Colombia

    唐尧; 王英林


    Colombia is rich in coal oil, uranium, emeralds and other mineral resources. However, the degree of their exploration and exploitation is low. There is a large prospecting potentiality in Colombia. This paper points out that at present, in Colombia, the economy is in sustainable development stage;the market economy is implemented under government regulation;laws and regulations are comparatively sound. Moreover, there are so many investment opportunities, and the rights can be protected owing to their mining management policy such as the mining concession contract system. Therefore, Colombia is one of the ideal regions for China’s enterprises to carry out the out-going strategy.%哥伦比亚拥有丰富的煤炭、石油、铀矿和绿宝石等矿藏资源,但勘查、开发、利用程度较低,找矿潜力巨大。当前哥伦比亚经济处于可持续发展阶段,实行政府监管的市场经济,法律法规较为健全,因实行矿山特许合同制度等矿业管理政策,投资机会较多,权益有保障,是我国企业“走出去”较为理想地区之一。

  13. 数字地球与地质矿产资源开发利用%Digital Earth and the Exploration of the Geological and Mineral Resources

    朱大明; 高建国; 秦德先


    Digital Earth speech by U.S. Vice president Al Gore has been paid much attention from the politicians and scientists in many countries of the world. Digital Earth not only can be used to increase economy and society sustainable development, but also would accelerate the ability on the creativity of science and technology. Digital Earth technology is specially suited to geo-sciences. It would exert an important role and an extensive influence on geological exploration and mineral resources.%美国副总统戈尔关于数字地球的演讲引起许多国家政界、学术界的关注。数字地球对实现经济社会可持续发展和拓展科技自主创新能力等战略目标具有极其重要的意义。数字地球作为地球科学与信息科学的集成,对地质勘探、矿产资源开发利用具有重要的作用和广阔的发展前景。

  14. Discussing on using Google Earth assisted management of mineral resources%浅谈利用Google Earth辅助矿产资源管理



    Google Earth as a free software can be very rich and powerful three-dimensional model .However, the weak import feature coordinate conversion ArcGIS 9.2 or later supports Google Earth data (KML/KMZ format) vector data conversion. This article presents a turning point coordinate aid ArcGIS software to quickly convert and put on the Google Earth map of ways and means .Also introduced the using of Google Earth auxiliary mineral resources management approach.%Google Earth作为免费软件,三维模型上能十分的丰富和强大,但坐标转换导入功能薄弱,ArcGIS 9.2以上版本支持Google Earth数据(KML/KMZ格式)的矢量数据式转换。文章介绍了一种借助ArcGIS软件实现坐标拐点快速转换并投放到Google Earth地图中的方法和途径,同时介绍了利用Google Earth辅助矿产资源管理的方法。

  15. 加强攀西战略资源创新开发试验区矿产资源开发%Strengthen Exploitation of Mineral resources in the Pnaxi Strategic Resources Innovation Development Experimental Zone



    长期以来攀西战略资源创新开发试验区内的许多战略价值极高的矿产原料,都未进行足够的经济技术投入。随着高新科技的迅猛发展,市场对战略性矿产原料的需求强劲,试验区的设立以及相关优惠扶持政策措施,为试验区更多战略性矿产原料的勘查开发,搭建了平台提供了动力和保障。抓住这宝贵机遇,重视和加强区内战略性高新技术矿产原料的勘查开发工作,探索资本与技术高度融合的最佳模式,统筹谋划科学编制经济可行的工作实施方案,及时进行并加大相应的资本及技术投入,推动和加快试验区的建设与发展。%Panxi strategic resources innovation and development experimental zone with minerals of strategic value don't get enough of economic and technological investment for a long time due to the national development planning, science and technology level, exploration theory and method as well as other historical reasons. Rapid development of high technology and strong market demand for strategic minerals, establishment of the experimental zone and related preferential policies has provided platforms and measures of power and security for more strategic exploration and development of minerals. We should seize this precious opportunity in order to promote and accelerate the construction and development of the experimental zone.

  16. Reducing costs and improving the level of metallurgical mineral resources development and utilization%降低成本提高冶金矿山资源综合利用水平

    王雪峰; 朱春华; 王海军; 赵玉凤


    Metallurgical mines in our country faces resources endowment disadvantage has significantly reduced year by year,the national economy,iron ore reserves of iron,manganese resources rigid demand continues to increase, and the challenges of ecological environment deterioration.The purpose is to explore China's ferrous metallurgical mines efficient and reasonable development and utilization of mineral resources and the effective way to sustainable development of ferrous metallurgical mines in China mineral resources development and utilization level of current situation and existing problems of in-depth analysis.It comes to the conclusion that China's ferrous metallurgical mines way out is to reduce the cost of exploitation and utilization of mineral resources and comprehensive utilization of resources,from the national support,tax adjustment,technology innovation,management innovation,tailings u-tilization,expand incentives category in six aspects,such as ferrous metallurgical mine production to reduce costs, improve the comprehensive utilization of ferrous metallurgical mineral resources,China's ferrous metallurgical miner-al core competitiveness can be improved.%中国冶金矿山面临资源禀赋劣势愈发明显、铁矿石储量逐年减少、国民经济对铁、锰资源的刚性需求持续增强以及生态环境恶化的诸多挑战,因此需要在探索中国黑色冶金矿山矿产资源高效合理开发利用及可持续发展的有效途径。通过对中国铁矿资源开发利用水平现状及存在问题的深入分析,认为中国黑色冶金矿山矿产资源开发利用的出路在于降低成本和开展资源综合利用,可以从国家扶持、税收调节、科技创新、管理创新、尾矿利用、扩大激励范畴等6个方面降低黑色冶金矿山生产成本、提高黑色冶金矿产资源的综合利用水平,进而提高中国黑色冶金矿产品核心竞争力。

  17. Mass balance calculation of the pyrolysates generated from marine crude oil: A prediction model of oil cracking gas resources based on solid bitumen in reservoir

    WANG TongShan; GENG AnSong; XIONG YongQiang; GENG XinHua


    Oil cracking gas plays an important role in the resources of natural gas in the basins with high and over mature marine source rocks in China. The prediction of the oil cracking gas resources becomes necessary and urgent in the gas exploration in these basins. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracking gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this prediction model were discussed. This model would enlighten and provide some new ideas for the resource assessment of natural gas in the high and over mature marine carbonate source rock areas in China. It is expected to be valuable in gas exploration.

  18. Analysis of mineral resource tax and design of complex collecting mode%矿产资源税的现状分析与复合式计征方式的设计

    周衍安; 汪应宏; 王辉; 牟毅


    我国矿产资源税征收过程中,国家同时具备所有权人和管理人双重身份.资源税的计税方式不合理、资源税课税税额较低、应征范围较窄、资源税管理体制不完善.从价和从量两种计征方式各有优缺点,可以采用复合型计征方式,即资源税包括开采阶段资源税和销售阶段资源税,开采阶段资源税与开采回采率结合.建议把现行的资源补偿费改成权利金,并把资源税种包含的级差收入的权力并入其中,资源税原有的调节级差收入的责任交由资源补偿费去完成,实现真正的税费分离.%Both the development of social economy and the improvement and complement of mineral resources market have imposed an urgent requirement to the revolution of mineral resources tax. So, in the basis of comprehensive analysis of the process that China mineral resources tax is set, conducted, as well as the experience that similar taxes are designed in foreign countries, this paper perform a analysis on the issues exist in the resources tax system of our country. Such issues include unreasonable tax assessment, low tax rate, limited incidence of taxation and the faultiness of the current tax management system. What' s more, combine with the resources tax revolution in Xinjiang as well as the matured resources tax system in foreign countries, we can come up with ideas that the evaluate the influence of resources tax revolution in provinces with huge amount of mineral resources and some enterprises deal with natural resources. After the comparison of advantage and disadvantage of two taxation charge method: quantity-based collection and ad valorem collection. Finally, we design a composed taxation charge method which related to recovery rate and come up with some advices on the improvement of resources tax of our country.

  19. 对市场在矿产资源配置中起决定性作用的思考%Thinking over the Decisive Role of Market in Mineral Resource Allocation



    China's economic development has great potential, which can become a powerful driving force for economic development, if the decisive role of market in the allocation of resources can be seriously implemented. This paper mainly introduces the aspects that the market plays a decisive role in mineral resource allocation, that is, market allocation can not only promote the mineral resource economy more efficient and more sustainable development, but also can propel mineral resources of economic operation more equitable.%我国的经济发展还有很大潜力,如果能够认真落实市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,现有潜力可以形成经济发展的强大推动力。这种潜力和推动力,在矿产资源的管理中同样是存在的。市场在矿产资源配置中起决定性作用体现在三个方面:(1)市场配置可以推动矿产资源经济更有效率;(2)市场配置可以推动矿产资源经济运行更加公平;(3)市场配置可以推动矿产资源经济更可持续发展。

  20. Coastal geomorphology and mineral resources

    Paropkari, A.L.

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  1. Early life and mineral resources

    Schidlowski, M.


    The recent breathtaking advances in the field of radio astronomy have made it increasingly clear that the beginnings of organic chemistry are to be found in interstellar space. From there, an impressive array of molecules have been discovered which have been shown to act as intermediates in the prebiotic synthesis of organic matter. These findings certainly tend to blur the arbitrary limit often drawn between the living and the non-living realms. The authors may, therefore, reasonably assume that life arose at a certain stage of either cosmic or planetary evolution as an intrinsically new property of matter. IGCP Project 157, launched in 1977, has been devoted to interdisciplinary research of those blurred areas where evolutionary biology, organic chemistry and economic geology seem to blend or overlap. This article summarizes the project's main findings to date, and shows how a community of 120 scientists from 19 countries have worked together to help unravel the mystery of life's origins on our planet. 6 references, 5 figures.

  2. 国外优势矿产资源保护策略对我国的启示%Enlightenment to China from foreign protection strategy for superior mineral resources



    优势矿产资源合理利用与保护问题受到各国政府的重视.以美国为代表的西方发达国家、以加拿大为代表的矿产资源丰富国家和以俄罗斯为代表的经济转轨国家的优势矿产资源保护策略,基本代表了国外优势矿产资源保护总体现状.国外优势矿产资源保护策略给我们的启示包括:①完善优势矿产资源保护的法规;②加强针对小型矿山资源开发利用的立法;③加强优势矿产资源保护和开发利用的监督;④加强政府作用和舆论宣传,同时鼓励社会公众积极参与;⑤资源和环境保护并重;⑥依靠科学技术进步,提高优势矿产资源保护和合理利用水平.%Government paid much more attention to the protection and rational use of superior mineral resources. The protection strategies of the United States, Canada and Russia are typical representatives of the foreign protection strategy for superior mineral resources. The inspirations we got from the foreign protection strategies including: (1) to perfect laws and regulations on the protection of superior mineral resources; (2) to strengthen the legislation on the development and utilization of resources for small-scale mining; (3) to strengthen the supervision on the work about the protection and utilization of superior mineral resources; (4) to strengthen the role of government and public opinion publicity, while encouraging active participation of the public; (5) to push resources and environmental protection at the same times (6) to rely on scientific and technological progress to impel the protection and rational utilization of superior mineral resources.

  3. GIS支持的江苏省矿产资源规划环境影响评价%Environmental impact assessment of mineral resources planning for Jiangsu Province based on GIS

    华建伟; 王宝军; 方强; 宋珂; 施斌


    With the rapid increase in demand for mineral resources induced by the fast development of economy, it is becoming more and more important to coordinate the relationship among mineral exploration, exploitation and environmental protection.To abate the environmental impact caused by the mineral exploitation, one of the most important means is to assess environmental impact of mineral resources planning.The method for environmental impact assessment of mineral resources planning using GIS is proposed in this research.The identification and selection of environmental impact factors are introduced first, and then the system for environmental impact assessment is set up in this search.In this paper, taking the second round of environmental impact assessment of mineral resources planning for Jiangsu Province as example, the approach is introduced in detail.Through spatial analysis method provided by ArcGIS software, the environmental impact of mineral resources planning to ecological environment, geological environment, water environment, atmospheric environment and acoustic environment is given quantitatively.Based on the result of environmental impact assessment of mineral resources planning for Jiangsu Province, some valuable suggestions are also given.The application shows that GIS is a very practical and efficient method in environmental impact assessment of mineral resources planning.It can provide reasonable analysis processes, quantitative and visual results, which makes the environmental impact assessment more scientific.%本文提出了一种基于GIS技术,实现矿产资源规划环境影响的定量评价方法.利用ArcGIS提供的空间分析功能,实现了敏感环境保护目标筛选、影响范围确定以及矿产资源开发对环境保护目标的影响程度定量描述.研究结合江苏省第二轮矿产资源规划草案,根据不同类型矿产资源对环境保护目标的影响特征,分别就其对生态环境、地质环境、水环境、

  4. 浅析城市生活垃圾的资源化处理方式%A Study of Resources Recovery Methods to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)



      Disposals to municipal solid waste (MSW) have transferred gradually to cycle economy& resourceful treatments from traditional filling, burning and biochemical treatment methods. There are positive explorations and attempts developed in MSW resourceful treatment in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. The two projects of MSW enclosed low-temperature carbonization process and organic solid waste treatment plant are introduced in detail. By researching and comparing the application conditions of these two resourceful treatment methods, the suitable conditions and scales of new process technologies are proposed further. The suggestion is recommended about strengthening resource management combined with MSW charging system reform to realize the overall objective of MSW resourceful treatment.%  城市生活垃圾的处理已从传统的填埋、焚烧和生化处理方式逐步过渡至循环经济和资源化处理。上海浦东新区在生活垃圾资源化处理方面开展积极探索和尝试,介绍了生活垃圾封闭式低温炭化处理和有机质固废处理厂的项目建设。通过研究、比对2种资源化处理方式的应用条件,进一步提出研究新工艺技术的适用条件及适度规模,建议结合城市垃圾收费制度改革,加强源头管理,以实现生活垃圾资源化处理的总体目标。

  5. 探查水下矿物资源的AUV动力控制系统开发%Development of a power control system for AUVs probing for underwater mineral resources

    Young Jin KIM; Hyung Tae KIM; Young June CHO; Kang Won LEE


    Valuable mineral resources are widely distributed throughout the seabed, autonomous underwater vehicles(AUVs)are preferable to remotely-operated vehicles(ROVs)when probing for such mineral resources as the extensive exploration area makes it difficult to maintain contact with operators. AUVs depend on batteries, so their power consumption should be reduced to extend exploration time. Power for conventional marine instrument systems is incorporated in their waterproof sealing. External intermittent control of this power source until termination of exploration is challenging due to limitations imposed by the underwater environment. Thus, the AUV must have a power control system that can improve performance and maximize use of battery capacity. The authors developed such a power control system with a three-step algorithm. It automatically detects underwater operational states and can limit power, effectively decreasing power consumption by about 15%.

  6. In the beginning was the rock. The history of the West - a run for mineral resources. Am Anfang war der Stein. Die Geschichte des Abendlandes - ein Wettlauf um die Bodenschaetze

    Maser, W.


    The author follows the trace of man and his relationships to mineral resources through the cultural history known: From the first evidence of working and use of rock by man, over copper and iron, then gold and silver, to zinc and lead. The book points out how all sectors of human life received important stimuli from mineral resources. It encompasses a huge section of history, reaching from Mesopotamia as the cradle of culture to the historically relevant events in the central European countries, and describing primitive mining in Anatolia between 8000 and 5000 B.C. as well as the extraction of minerals and their processing in the 20th century. Thus the reader comes to know astonishing facts and details relating to the working conditions for instance of Egyptian and Greek slaves, the mines of Solomon, the first strike in antiquity, the art and social position of smiths since antiquity, and the economic situation of miners and foundry workers. The chapter on medieval mining is restricted to individual aspects of mining in Germany. Mining in modern times is only marginally deals with. The scientific results of the last 20 years are not taken into account. (MOS).

  7. Progress in Resource Utilization of Tannery Solid Wastes%制革固体废弃物的资源化利用进展



    This paper reviewed the resource utilization of tannery sludge and leather shaving in tannery solid wastes and put forward a view that the sustainable development of the leather industry could be achieved by the realization of the high-value transformation of tannery solid wastes and the control of chrome pollution from the source.%本文综述了制革固体废弃物中的制革污泥和废革屑的资源化利用情况,提出只要实现制革固体废弃物的高值转化,从源头上控制铬污染,就能实现制革工业的可持续发展.

  8. 西部地区矿产资源开发社会环境问题探究%Study on Social and Environmental Issues in Exploration of Mineral Resources in Western China

    杨站君; 孟楠; 张径伟; 杨树旺


    经济增长对矿产资源需求依然迫切的现状使得社会环境问题成为影响矿产资源开发的重要因素.地方政府对矿业企业的隐性干预、地方法律法规不健全、未能妥善处理利益分配问题、文化教育背景及企业自身的问题是导致西部地区矿产资源开发过程中社会环境问题加剧的几个原因.在对其成因进行分析的基础上,从政府服务意识提升、文化教育环境营造、利益共享机制搭建等方面探讨矿产资源开发过程中社会环境问题及矛盾的缓和方案.%Economic growth will induce great demand for mineral resources, thus the social and environmental issues have become important factors affecting the exploration of mineral resources. The social and environmental issues in exploration of mineral resources have got worsen in the western region for several reasons: Firstly, the local government got recessive intervention on mining companies. Secondly, local laws and regulations are not sound. Thirdly, the local government failed to deal with the distribution of beneifts properly. Fourthly, there're cultural and educational background issues and the companies have their own problems. Based on the analysis above, we prompt several suggestions to ease the social and environmental issues in the exploration of mineral resources as follow: improve the awareness of enhance government services, create cultural and educational environment, build the beneift-sharing mechanisms and others.

  9. 基于ArcGIS的矿产资源规划管理系统研究%Research on management system of mineral resources planning based on ArcGIS

    费明明; 韩璐


    Mineral resources planning is an important basis for the exploration examination and approval,supervise,development,utilization and protection on the mineral resources according to law. This paper discusses the business functions about mineral resources planning management of land branch. The database construction and information system construction has been elaborated. The authors introduce the part of the database and build processes;at the same time,the general framework and function structure of mineral resources planning management system has been designed. Finally, the system has been realized based on ArcGIS,and the concrete realization method is introduced.%矿产资源规划是各级国土资源主管部依法审批和监督矿产资源勘查、开发利用和保护以及矿山生态环境保护的重要依据.本文针对国土部门的矿产资源规划职能进行了分析,并阐述了矿产资源规划数据库建设和信息系统建设这两项任务.对数据库的组成部分和建立流程进行了分析,并设计了矿产资源规划管理信息系统的总体架构,深入介绍了系统的功能结构,最后,基于ArcGIS实现了该系统,并介绍了具体实现方式.

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008



    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  11. A holistic approach for food waste management towards zero-solid disposal and energy/resource recovery.

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu


    This study developed a holistic approach which was based on the ultra-fast hydrolysis of food waste with the fungal mash rich in various hydrolytic enzymes produced in situ from food waste as well. After the 8-h hydrolytic treatment, the solid residue and liquor were separated. It was found that the produced solid residue can meet all the requirements for biofertilizer in terms of NPK and heavy metal contents, while the separated liquor with high soluble organics concentration was further subject to anaerobic digestion for enhanced biomethane production. The results showed that 0.41kg of biofertilizer with a moisture content of 76.9% and 54.4L of biomethane could be produced from 1kg of food waste. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management with the ultimate target of zero-solid discharge.

  12. Analysis of the Situation of "Going Out to Africa" for Mineral Resources Exploration and Some Suggestions%矿产资源"走出去"进入非洲的形势及建议

    雷岩; 郑镝; 郭振华


    文章分析了非洲矿产资源分布、投资环境及优势矿产资源对我国的可供性,总结了我国矿产资源走入非洲勘查开发的形势和取得的成效及找矿成功模式.我国实施非洲矿产资源勘查开发战略的对策建议:(1)建立以重点支持的矿种为基础的非洲矿产供应长效机制和以重点支持区域为保障的非洲资源配置体系;(2)要从总体思路、区域选择、勘查开发、企业运作四方面做战略部署;(3)以大型矿业企业为核心建立整体产业链(群),树立合作共赢的理念,开展中长期规划,加强技术创新;(4)加强政府引导,制定非洲矿产资源勘查开发战略,构建技术信息交流平台,开展非洲重要成矿区带成矿规律研究,建立优势矿产资源潜力评价体系.%This paper analyses African mineral resources distribution, investment environment, and the availability of superiority mineral resources for our country; summarizes the situation, the results and successful pattern that China's enterprises go out to Africa for mineral exploration. On this basis, this paper focuses on the suggestions for implementing the strategy of mineral resources exploration development in Africa. These suggestions are: establishing a long-term mechanism for African minerals supply based on key supporting minerals, and an African resource allocation system through efforts to enhance the key supporting regions; making strategic plan from the aspects such as general idea, the region, exploration & exploitation, and enterprise operations; establishing the whole industry chain with large mining companies at its core; setting up the notion of win-win cooperation; carrying out the medium and long term planning; strengthening technical innovation; enhancing our efforts to promote the guiding role of the government, formulate the strategy for the development of mineral resources exploration in Africa, build technical information exchange platform, research on

  13. The Analysis on Investment Strategy of Nickel Mineral Resources in Indonesia%印度尼西亚镍资源投资策略分析

    林志峰; 杨建龙; 洪托


    Indonesia has rich nickel ore mineral resources and is one of the major importers of nickel mines for China.In recent years,the government of Indonesia has made great efforts in improving foreign investment environment.However,there still exits too much government intervention,ore export ban,poor infrastructure, strict environmental protection and other problems.Therefore,combining a variety of investment strategies, building joint venture smelters in local areas,building infrastructures,attaching great importance to the environ-mental protection,consulting the embassy of China in Indonesia and other concerned parties,hiring local staffs, increasing investment in exploration and development of nickel resources in Indonesia,accelerating the develop-ment of the internal international management talents,getting the help from the intermediary force and other measures -all these and more can reduce the investment risk of enterprise in Indonesia and ensure the smooth progress of enterprise investment.The feasibility analysis of the policy,law,economic and social benefits in In-donesia concludes that Indonesia is the better nickel resource investment area for Chinese enterprises.%印度尼西亚镍资源丰富,是我国镍矿原料的主要进口国之一。近年来,印度尼西亚政府在不断改善外商投资环境方面做出了很多努力,然而仍然存在着干预过多、原矿出口禁令、基础设施差、环保要求严格等问题。因此,采取多种投资策略相结合、在当地合资建设冶炼厂、进行一部分基础建设、重视环保工作、向驻印尼大使馆等有关人士进行咨询、聘用本土人员、加大镍矿资源勘探开发的投资力度、加快培育企业内部国际化经营管理人才以及借助中介力量等措施可以降低企业在印尼的投资风险、保证企业投资的顺利进行。针对印度尼西亚的政策、法律、经济和社会效益的可行性分析,得出印度尼西亚是

  14. Designing of Compensation Policy System Frame for Mineral Resource Source Areas%我国矿产资源原产地补偿政策体系框架设计

    苏迅; 鹿爱莉


    在总结分析矿产资源原产地补偿相关概念的基础上,遵循对需要解决的实际问题要有针对性、符合相关学科的理论、处理好与现有相关概念和政策的关系、尊重有关名词的历史沿革和文化习惯、尽可能与国际上的相关概念接轨等原则,界定了矿产资源原产地补偿政策体系的概念.并针对矿产资源原产地补偿政策体系框架建立的总体目标、补偿的内容、补偿的主体,结合我国矿产资源原产地补偿的现状,从资源补偿、生态环境补偿和资源所在地经济补偿三方面设计了矿产资源原产地补偿政策体系框架.%Based on a conceptual analysis of compensation for mineral resource source areas, this paper defines the concept of compensation policy system for the mineral resource source areas on the principle of solving practical problems with corresponding theories and respecting historical and cultural convention of the related terms, and designs compensation policy system frame for the mineral resource source areas according to the general goal, the content and the main body of the compensation policy system frame, the present situation of compensation in terms of the resources compensation, the ecological environment compensation and the resources locus economy compensation.

  15. 京津冀矿产资源协同开发机制研究%On the Collaborative Development Mechanism of Mineral Resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

    吴文盛; 高荣杰


    Collaborative development of regional economy is an advanced stage of regional economic integration. Col-laborative development of mineral resources is the objective necessity for coordinated development of regional econo-my, differentiated industrialization process, and strengthening the governance of the mines ecological environment in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. This thesis, as a starting point of the necessity of collaborative development of min-eral resources in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, explores the content of collaborative development mechanism of min-eral resources and its implementing measures, and points out that collaborative development of mineral resources in-cludes regulators, implementers and their duties and powers, collaborative planning sub-mechanism, collaborative incentives sub-mechanism, collaborative regulatory sub-mechanisms and collaborative security sub-mechanism. To implement coordinative mechanisms, it is needed to integrate the guiding and incentive policies, coordinative inter-action supervision and handle the relationships developing mineral resources with urbanization, environmental resto-ration management, and transportation.%京津冀矿产资源协同开发是京津冀区域经济协同发展的客观需要、京津冀差异化工业化进程的必然要求,也是加强矿山生态环境治理的必然要求。论文以京津冀矿产资源协同开发的必要性为切入点,探讨协同开发机制的内容和实施协同开发机制的措施,认为协同开发机制包括协同开发监管主体和实施主体、协同规划机制、协同激励机制、协同监管机制和协同保障机制。实施协同开发机制需要整合引导激励政策、协同联动监管,并处理好矿产资源开发与城镇化、环境恢复治理、交通运输的关系。

  16. 矿产资源开发生态补偿博弈分析%Game theory analysis on ecological compensation of mineral resources exploitation

    张倩; 曲世友


    本文采用博弈论分析方法,研究了矿产资源生态补偿过程中,企业与政府、公众与企业和政府共谋之间的合作博弈关系。通过构建博弈模型求均衡解,结果表明:①企业的生态补偿积极性受生态补偿成本、生态破坏惩罚力度、生态补偿收益等因素影响;政府的监管效果取决于监管成本、监管收益等因素;②公众是否参与取决于参与成本和收益;因共谋导致的企业声誉损失和政府政治成本及公众监督效果影响企业与政府的共谋。矿产资源生态补偿应以博弈均衡为基础,降低补偿成本,加强政府监管,强化公众的参与度,积极协调政府、企业和公众之间的利益关系,制定合理生态补偿政策,实现社会综合利益最大化。%This paper studies the game relationships between enterprise and government ;among the public ,enterprise and government in the process of ecological compensation of mineral resources .By constructing a game model for the equilibrium ,the result indicates that :① ecological compensation costs , penalty ,ecological compensation benefits are related to enterprise ecological compensation ,the government's supervision costs ,regulatory earnings influence government regulation's effect ;② the cost of public participation influence public participation enthusiasm ,enterprise reputation losses and government political cost caused by conspiracy and public participation effects have effects on the complicity of the enterprise and the government .Ecological compensation should be based on game equilibrium ,and use function of the market mechanism ,strengthens government regulation ,and encourages the public participation ,coordinates the relationship among government ,enterprises and public interest ,formulates reasonable ecological compensation policies ,to realize social comprehensive benefit maximization .

  17. Minerals in environmental technology

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences


    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  18. Think about overseas mineral resources investment under the new situation%新形势下实施境外矿产资源投资战略的思考

    毛成栋; 王志刚; 高兵


    我国境外矿产投资遭受国际矿业深刻调整影响,出现矿产投资项目和金额双下滑趋势。本文梳理近些年我国境外矿产投资案例,总结出矿产投资主要面临的资源民族主义活跃、矿企金融融资困难、矿产投资平台失位、矿产投资决策草率等方面问题,并提出新形势下构建“政府引导、中介搭台、基金衔接、地勘先行、民企跟进、金融支持、保险保障”境外矿产投资机制的对策建议。%There comes out double-declining trend of overseas mineral investment projects and amount as suffering international mining adjustment profoundly . T his paper analyzes recent overseas mineral investment cases ,summarizes four problems mineral investment faced with ,such as resource nationalism actively ,mining corporation financing difficultly ,mineral investment platform absently ,mineral investment decision hastily . In response to these problems , then made proposals of establishing overseas mineral investment mechanism of “government guidance , intermediary setting up stage , exploration fund convergence , geological exploration units first pilot , private enterprise follow-up , financial support , insurance guarantee” under the new situation .

  19. Temporal and spatial variation of hardness and total dissolved solids concentration in drinking water resources of Ilam City using Geographic Information System

    Zabihollah Yousefi


    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, the decreasing groundwater reserves due to over-consumption of water resources and the unprecedented reduction of precipitation, during the past 1 decades, have resulted in a change in the volume and quality of water with time. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal variations of hardness and total dissolved solids in drinking water resources of Ilam city, using the GIS system. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 sources of drinking water in Ilam and the results of 5 years archived by the Water and Sewage Co were analyzed using geographic information system (GIS software version 9.3, SPSS version 16 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The sampling and measurement were also performed in this study based on the Standard Method book. Results: The ordinary kriging method and spherical model are the best interpolation methods for hardness and total dissolved solid, due to the normal distribution of data. The highest values of parameters in most cases are related to the western parts based on maps. The one-way ANOVA test showed that the average amount of total hardness (P = 0.68 and total dissolved solids (P = 0.6 in different seasons of the year are the same. Conclusion: Overuse of groundwater due to illegal digging and permanent easy access to water, increased the salinity of water in the central sections of the studied area. Proper planning that allows the withdrawal of water from authorized underground aquifers or water supply from surface water or dams should be done to overcome this problem.

  20. Study on Uranium Resource Minerals of Douzhashan Uranium-bearing Granite, Northeastern Guangxi%桂东北豆乍山产铀花岗岩的铀源矿物研究

    胡欢; 王汝成; 陈卫锋; 丁海红; 陈培荣; 凌洪飞


    豆乍山花岗岩是桂东北重要的产铀花岗岩之一,通过精细矿物学研究,豆乍山花岗岩中绿泥石主要为铁绿泥石和辉绿泥石,而含铀副矿物的蚀变和形成温度相对较高的铁绿泥石密切相关.花岗岩中主要富铀副矿物为晶质铀矿、锆石、独居石、磷钇矿和铀钍石,其中晶质铀矿是公认铀源矿物,而其他副矿物的赋存状态及蚀变特征决定了其是否为铀源矿物.锆石多未发生蚀变,U仍保持其结构中,因此不是铀源矿物;而铁绿泥石附近的独居石和磷钇矿均发生不同程度的蚀变,蚀变作用不仅使独居石和磷钇矿结构中的U 得以释放进入热液,而且原磷钇矿包裹的铀钍石变为赋存于次生磷灰石中,其所含铀容易活化而成为铀源矿物.总之,在豆乍山产铀花岗岩含铀副矿物中,晶质铀矿、蚀变的独居石和磷钇矿、次生磷灰石中铀钍石是铀源矿物.%Douzhashan granite is an important uranium-bearing granite in Miaoershan uranium ore field, northeastern Guangxi. Based on mineralogical study, chlorites can be classified as two types; ripidolite and diabantite, and the alteration of U-riched accessory minerals is closely correlated to the ripidolite which formed in higher temperature. The major hosted minerals for uranium are uraninite, zircon, monazite, xenotime and thorite-coffinite. Among these U-riched minerals, uraninite is generally acknowledged as uranium resource mineral, but if the other U-riched minerals are uranium resource minerals depend on their occurrence and alteration. Most zircons are unaltered and still preserved U in internal structure, so zircon is not a uranium resource mineral. In near ripidolite, monazite and xenotime often have various degrees of alteration. The hydrothermal alteration not only made the uranium liberated from the altered accessory minerals into fluid, but also changed the occurrence of thorite-coffinite from included in xenotime to secondary

  1. Study on Mineral Resources Tax Reform f rom the Perspective of the Theory of Property Rights%从产权理论看矿产资源税改革



    随着经济的发展,人口和资源红利逐步消减,资源、能源与生态环境对经济体的约束将逐步收紧,具体表现为诸多发展迅猛的资源型城市迅速由盛转衰。在保障自然资源市场价值实现的前提下,切实规范矿产资源产权制度,理顺中央政府和地方政府以及地方政府和地方政府之间的权责关系,设计相对独立且得当的地方税收体系,实现地方税收自治,最终将矿产资源所带来的价值,通过资源税在各相关利益主体之间进行合理的分配,实现可持续发展。%With the development of economy ,dividend of resource and demographic are gradually decrea-sing .The constraint of resources energy and ecological environment on the economy will be gradually tightened .In the premise of guarantee realize the market value of the natural resources ,we should stand-ardize the mineral resources property right system ,straighten out the power relationship between the local and central governments ,w hich also include local and local government ,and make sure that the local tax system design is relatively independent and properly .We should realize tax local autonomy ,and finally through the resources tax ,make mineral resources value of reasonable allocation between the stakeholde-rs ,and realize sustainable development .

  2. 我国企业海外矿产资源开发合作运行模式综述%Running Mode with Regard to Overseas Mineral Resources Development and Cooperation of Chinese Enterprises

    雷岩; 郑镝; 郭振华


    我国企业海外矿产资源开发合作模式日趋成熟,呈现出合作规模不断扩大、参与投资主体多元化、合作方式多样化、依附资源多产业化发展等特点;但相对于国际矿业巨头,整体规模有限。我国企业应根据自身实际需求和竞争优势,结合资源发展战略,选择适宜的合作模式和合作伙伴,多模式组合,多伙伴联合,多产业整合,积极主动参与全球资源配置,构建海外矿产资源开发合作体系,为我国经济的可持续发展提供资源保障。%Overseas mineral resources development and cooperation mode of Chinese enterprises is more and more mature, which is characterized by cooperation scale constantly expanding, diversiifed investors, the diversiifcation of the cooperative way, multi-industry development of attachment resources. However, the whole scale is limited relative to the international mining giants. On account of this, Chinese enterprises should devote their efforts to choosing appropriate cooperation patterns and partners with multiple models combination, multiple partners association, and multiple industries integration based on their actual needs and competitive advantage, as well as resources development strategy. They should participate in the resource assignment of the global market in a proactive fashion, set up a system of overseas mineral resources development and cooperation, thus providing guarantee of resources for the sustainable development of economy in our country.

  3. 矿产资源综合利用基本术语概念体系研究%Research on the Concept System of Basic Terminological Standard for Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources

    于常亮; 兰井志; 刘亚改


    Basic terminological standard is one of the most important elements in normative management and technology of comprehensive utilization. The author analyzes the implication and extension of the term "comprehensive utilization of mineral resources", and cleares the main elements of basic terminological standard for comprehensive utilization of mineral resources and the relationship between them; According to the concerned fields with comprehensive utilization of mineral resources and results in front of the paper, researcher builds the concept system of the basic terminological standard.%术语标准是综合利用管理和技术规范化的重要基础。笔者从矿产资源综合利用概念的内涵和外延入手,在明确术语标准的研究主体及主体之间关系的基础上,按照矿产资源综合利用工作涉及的具体领域,研究构建了矿产资源综合利用术语标准的概念体系。

  4. Mineral oils

    Furby, N. W.


    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  5. Research into the relationship between domestic mineral resources exploitation and regional economic development%我国矿产资源开发与区域经济发展的关系研究

    吴琪; 陈从喜


    This thesis quoted relevant data from National Non-petroleum Mineral Resources Exploitation and Utilization Statistical Yearbook of 2013 from three aspects as abundance,exploitation strength of mineral resources,and dependence on mineral resources.It can be seen that basic reserves of coal in the Eastern,the Central,and the Western region accounted for 7.2%,49.4% and 43.4%,the exploitation and utilization strength of mineral resources is 20.5 1%,42.12% and 37.38%,mineral resource dependence is 0.99%,5.88% and 5.94% respectively.It drew a conclusion that the Western region has relatively the most abundant,as well as the exploitation strength of mineral resources comparing to the Eastern and the Central region.But the economic development is relatively slow in Western region due to simple economic structure,irrational industrial structure,lack of human resources and technological innovation,unsound regulatory system,sinister geographical conditions,poor infrastructure and so on.The Western region may improve or reverse the status by optimizing the industrial structure,increasing investment in technological innovation,and optimizing the environment for enterprises development.%矿产资源丰裕度、矿产资源开发强度和矿产资源依赖度是研究矿产资源开发利用与区域经济发展分析的重要参数。本文利用2013年度全国非油气矿产资源开发利用统计数据研究这3个参数发现,全国煤炭基础储量东、中、西部占比为7.2%、49.4%和43.4%,矿产资源开发利用强度为20.51%、42.12%和37.38%,矿产资源依赖度为分别为0.99%、5.88%和5.94%。可以看出,西部地区矿产资源相对最为丰富,且矿产资源开发强度也远领先于东、中部地区,但其经济增长速度却相对缓慢。这主要是由于西部地区矿产资源产业布局不合理、人力资源与技术创新不足、资源开发利用监管制度不健全、地理条件险恶和基础设施落后等原因造成

  6. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie


    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction.

  7. Assessment of metallic mineral resources in the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada, with a section on Platinum-Group-Element (PGE) Potential of the Humboldt Mafic Complex

    Wallace, Alan R.; Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Theodore, Ted G.; Ponce, David A.; John, David A.; and Berger, Byron R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Sidder, Gary B.; Zierenberg, Robert A.


    The Humboldt River Basin is an arid to semiarid, internally drained basin that covers approximately 43,000 km2 in northern Nevada. The basin contains a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits and occurrences, and, at various times, the area has been one of the Nation's leading or important producers of gold, silver, copper, mercury, and tungsten. Nevada currently (2003) is the third largest producer of gold in the world and the largest producer of silver in the United States. Current exploration for additional mineral deposits focuses on many areas in northern Nevada, including the Humboldt River Basin.

  8. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Rosa Marchetti


    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  9. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Hershaft, Alex


    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  10. Opportunities for offshore mineral exploration in the Indian Ocean

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Ocean offers several opportunities for offshore mineral resources in the nearshore and coastal areas, the EEZs of different countries as well as the deep sea regions. The coastal and nearshore resources of heavy mineral placers are being...

  11. 全面实施国外矿产资源勘查开发战略的思考%Reflection on full implementation of strategy for exploration and development of foreign mineral resources

    雷岩; 杜清坤; 宋菲; 李韩雨; 郑镝; 郭振华


    Today ,with the increasing development of resource globalization ,implementing the strategy for exploration and development of foreign mineral resources is of great significance to sustainable development of social economy in China .This paper has set forth a series of policies and measures taken by the nation for propelling the mineral resources’ “walking out” ;discussed new opinions on the work for mineral resources’ “walking out” ;explored the new mechanism for foreign exploration and development ;formed the strategic target of“creating big net for more fishes”and cultivating Chinese international mining enterprises that can contend with world top mining enterprises ,as well as the work idea ,such as taking different supporting system in different stages ,and directionally allocating the business combination and cooperation between exploration companies ;put forward the countermeasure and suggestions of implementing the strategy for exploration and development of foreign mineral resources ,and fulfilling the historical task of mineral resources’“walking out” .%在资源全球化日益发展的今天,实施国外矿产资源勘查开发战略,对于我国社会经济的可持续发展具有重大意义。本文阐述了国家为持续推进矿产资源“走出去”而采取的一系列政策措施,论述了对矿产资源“走出去”工作的新认识,探索了国外勘查开发的新机制,形成了“织大网,造大渔”,培育能与世界矿业巨头相抗衡的中国国际矿业企业的战略目标,以及在不同阶段采取不同支持方式、有导向性配置勘企联姻和企业联合等工作思路,提出了全面实施国外矿产资源勘查开发战略,圆满完成矿产资源“走出去”重大历史任务的对策建议。

  12. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten and for stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    Elliott, J.E.; Moll, S.H.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.


    This report documents the assessment for potential occurrences of undiscovered porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten (porphyry Cu-Mo-W) and stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver (disseminated Au-Ag) in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the best known mineral producing regions in the U.S. Mining districts in the quadrangle, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in this resource assessment for porphyry Cu-Mo-W and disseminated Au-Ag deposits in the quadrangle include a compilation of all data, the development of descriptive occurrence models, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of several maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed for the Butte quadrangle, and maps (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Miscellaneous Investigation Series Maps) for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, and tungsten (Elliott, Wallace, and others, 1992a) and skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron (Elliott and others, 1992b ). Other publications resulting from this study include linear features map (Rowan and others, 1991

  13. Mineral resources of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas, Lake County, Oregon

    Keith, W.J.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Johnson, F.L. (US Bureau of Mines (US))


    The Devel's Garden lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas include approximately 70,940 acres and are underlain entirely by Pleistocene or Holocene lava flows and associated sediments. There is no evidence of hydrothermal alteration in the study areas. No resources were identified in the study areas, but there is low potential for perlite resources in the southern part of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed and the northern half of the Squaw Ridge Lava Bed areas. All three study areas have low potential for geothermal resources and for oil and gas resources.

  14. Thoughts and Proposes on Planning Auditing of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation%关于矿产勘查开发项目规划审核的几点思考



    结合矿产资源规划管理实际,阐述了矿产勘查开发项目规划审核的主要依据,审核的具体流程、主要内容和要求。但是,矿产资源规划法律地位不高、规划分区管理制度不完善、其它配套措施不健全、规划数据库建设不到位等问题直接影响了勘查开发项目规划审核制度的建设和规划的有效实施,需要从强化规划编制基础、完善规划实施制度建设、加强规划数据库建设等方面入手,完善矿产勘查开发项目规划审核制度,推进矿产资源规划实施。%Combined with the actual planning and management of mineral resources , the main ba-sis, contents and requirements of mineral resources exploration and exploitation planning audit were briefed.However, because of the low legal status of mineral resources planning , imperfection of zoning management , the unsoundness of supporting measures and the lacking of planning database building , the institutional improvement and effective implementation of the plan were directly affect-ed.In order to improve the audit system and promote the implementation of the planning , the plan-ning formulation foundation should be intensified , the database building work should be reinforced and the audit mechanism should be improved .

  15. Mineral Atlas of the World


    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  16. Marketization' s Influence on the Scientific Development of Mineral Resources Industry%市场化程度影响我国矿业科学发展的实证研究

    张希; 陈文俊; 刘小庆


    选取2004--2008年中国矿产资源产业的数据为分析样本,构建了市场化程度影响矿产资源产业科学发展的静态面板计量模型。分别从产业科学发展水平、产业发展、产业协调性、产业可持续性和产业人文关怀五个方面实证研究了市场化程度对矿产资源产业科学发展的影响,结果表明:产权多元化和市场化定价会推动矿产资源产业协调发展、可持续发展和人文关怀,市场开放将有利于提高产业科学发展总体水平、产业经济发展水平、协调程度、可持续发展能力和产业人文关怀,市场竞争机制则能够促进产业经济发展水平和产业协调发展水平提高。%This paper builds an econometric model to explore how marketization affects China' s scientific development of mineral resources industry from five aspects of industry' s scientific development level, industry development, coordination, sustainability and humanistic care. This is based on the Chinese mineral resources industry' s data from 2004 to 2008. The empirical result shows that property diversification and market-oriented pricing promote mineral resources industry' s coordination, sustainability and humanistic care, market opening improves mineral resources industry' s scientific development level, coordination, sustainability and humanistic care, while market competition mechanism promote its coordination and sustainability.

  17. Simply analysis of using function model to solve the problems of exploiting and utilizing mineral resources%浅析用泛函模型解决矿产资源开发利用问题



    矿产资源合理利用是保障国家经济可持续发展的基本要求,如何有效利用矿产资源是经济问题也是管理问题。本文首先以矿产资源开发利用的最优化为目标,以微分方程和泛函变分的方法相结合,考虑储量、价格、采掘率、开采成本等要素,构建了一个泛函最大值模型来量化,从而用矿产资源开采模型确定不可再生矿产资源的最优采掘率的方案,即在矿产市场价格不低于一个与时间相关的函数值时,用最大开采率开采,否则停止开采。接着文章讨论了建立数学模型对矿产资源问题进行量化分析的局限性,阐述了运用数学方法解决矿产资源问题的思考,提出了矿产资源问题与数学方法相结合的有关建议。%The rational utilization of mineral resources is a fundamental requirement to guarantee the sustainable economic development of our country ,how to utilize mineral resources effectively is a problem in both the aspects of economy and management .In this paper ,we firstly put the optimization of exploiting and using mineral resources as the target ,combined differential equation with calculus of variation ,and took reserves ,prices ,exploiting rate and cost of mining into consideration to build a model of maximum of function for quantification in order to formulate the optimalscheme of exploiting rate:If the price of ore market is higher than a function value that related with time ,we should exploit it with the maximum exploiting amount ,otherwise stop mining .Next we discussed the limitation of building mathematical model to analyze the problems of mineral resources ,expounded thinking of using mathematical method to solve these problems ,and put forward advices of combining problems with themethod .

  18. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR

    Wershaw, R. L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.


    The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

  19. Resource recovery using whey permeate to cultivate Phellinus linteus mycelium: Solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation.

    Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Kim, Na Kyung; Bae, Hyokwan; Hwang, Seokhwan


    The growth characteristics of Phellinus linteus mycelium were assessed and compared under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged liquid fermentation (SLF) systems on whey permeate medium. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the growth rates of mycelia under various conditions of operating temperature (TO), initial pH, and substrate concentration ([S]). The optimal growth conditions of P. linteus mycelium were determined to be 26.1°C, pH 4.6, and 60.3g of lactose/L in the SSF system, and 29.0°C, pH 5.0, and 65.3g of lactose/L in the SLF system. The maximum growth rates were predicted to be 1.92 ± 0.01 mm/d in SSF and 192.1 ± 0.0mg/L per day in SLF. Random trials were conducted to experimentally validate the evaluated optimal conditions. The differences between the modeled and observed values were only 5.3% in the SSF system and 6.1% in the SLF system. Significant engineering factors differed between the fermentation techniques; TO was significant in both cultivation systems, whereas initial pH was significant in SSF but [S] was significant in SLF. Our findings can be used to guide the operation of the bioconversion process for cultivating P. linteus mycelium using whey permeate wastewater.

  20. The Global Resource Nexus

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.


    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together t

  1. Production of manganese peroxidase and organic acids and mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) during solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with the white rot fungus Nematoloma frowardii

    Hofrichter, M.; Scheibner, K.; Fritsche, W. [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Microbiology; Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Galkin, S.; Hatakka, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology


    The basidiomycetous fungus Nematoloma frowardii produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) as the predominant ligninolytic enzyme during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 50 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.2. In addition to MnP, low levels of laccase and lignin peroxidase were detected. Synthetic {sup 14}C-ring-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) was efficiently degraded during SSF. Approximately 75% of the initial radioactivity was released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, while only 6% was associated with the residual straw material, including the well-developed fungal biomass. On the basis of this finding the authors concluded that at least partial extracellular mineralization of lignin may have occurred. This conclusion was supported by the fact that they detected high levels of organic acids in the fermented straw, which rendered MnP effective and therefore made partial direct mineralization of lignin possible. Experiments performed in a cell-free system, which simulated the conditions in the straw cultures, revealed that MnP in fact converted part of the {sup 14}C-DHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labelled water-soluble products in the presence of natural levels of organic acids.

  2. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)


    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  3. Providing of marketing innovation in the competitive advantages of the management system in the mineral waters producer companies: concept, organizational resource, results

    N.P. Tarnavska; O.S. Golodniuk


    The aim of article. The article aims to develop and study the conceptual model of marketing innovations provision in competitive advantage management system of mineral waters producer companies to form a innovation portfolio for a particular company. The results of the analysis. The necessity to provide on innovative orientation to manage the competitive advantages through the development and implementation of marketing practices in innovation on the basis of the multidisciplinary approach...

  4. Thorium in mineral products.

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J


    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  5. Recursos fisioterapêuticos na prevenção da perda da densidade mineral óssea com lesão medular Physiotherapy resources on bone mineral density loss prevention in patients with spinal cord injuries

    Daniele Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os tratamentos fisioterápicos destinados a prevenção, estabilização ou lentificação da perda da densidade mineral óssea em pacientes portadores de lesão medular. Foram encontrados poucos trabalhos que se destinaram aos tratamentos fisioterápicos para desmineralização óssea. Em relação aos tipos de tratamentos encontrados foram: estimulação elétrica funcional, estimulação elétrica funcional com bicicleta ergométrica, ortostatismo e deambulação. Estes tratamentos são bastante questionáveis não tendo um consenso na metodologia, apresentando muitas controvérsias em relação à eficácia dos tratamentos, que serão discutidos no decorrer deste trabalho.This work is bibliographic review about the physiotherapy treatments for the attenuation, prevention and stabilization or slowing down of the bone mineral density loss in spinal cord injured patients. There are few studies focusing the efficiency the physiotherapy treatment for bone demineralization. The kinds of treatments found were: functional electrical stimulation, functional electrical stimulation with an bycicle ergometry, orthostatic and deambulation. These treatments are much questionable, and with no consensus on the methodology, with the lot of controversies in relation to the efficacy of the treatments, which are going to be discussed in the development of this study.

  6. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao


    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  7. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao


    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny.

  8. 澳大利亚矿产资源租赁税政策对中国的启示%The Inspirations of Australian Mineral Resource Lease Tax Policy for China

    杨树琪; 徐静冉


    征收租赁型资源税是世界各国资源税改革新的趋势,澳大利亚政府的矿产资源租赁税改革伴随着各种利益博弈获得了成功推行。其中一条重要经验就是视自然资源为全体澳大利亚人民的共同财富,政府有权对私人企业在开采这些公共资源时所获得的超额利润征税,因征收资源使用费稳定不变,不能有效反映企业的盈利能力,且矿业主支付的特许使用费呈下降趋势,政府并未从矿产业的繁荣中分享到更多的收入,这就增强了澳政府出台矿产资源租赁税的信心。但是,改革的阻力来自反对党派、来自矿业巨头及其他资源开发企业,如何协调各方利益赢得公众支持,关键在于制定矿产资源租赁税的政策目标、制度框架及其政策导向,有效发挥税收政策功效,其改革中的许多经验与教训值得中国政府借鉴。%Imposing the lease type resources tax is a world. Accompanying with various kinds of interest games Australia government has been implemented successfully. new trend of resources tax reforming throughout the , the mineral resource lease tax reform Carried out by Among them, an important experience is that natural resources are the common wealth for all Australian; thus, the government has the right to impose tax on the ex- cess profits which the private companies gains in the exploitation of these public resources. Because the costs of imposing the resources tax which makes are stable, they are not able to reflect the enterpriseg profit effectively, and mine owners'pay -royalties have a descending trend. Moreover, the government did not get enough income from the prosperity of the mining industry. So the Australian government enhanced the confidence of carrying out the mineral resources lease tax. However, there is the reformation resistance coming from the anti - party, min- ing tycoon, the others resource development enterprises, and so how to

  9. The Research on Mineral Resources Optimization in China:Based on the Analysis of Principal-agent Model%基于委托代理模型的我国矿产资源优化配置研究

    罗能生; 王仲博


    矿产资源对经济社会的发展起到举足轻重的作用,对矿产资源的产权管理是解决目前供需缺口的主要方向.本文以信息经济学中的委托代理模型为基础,通过对矿产资源产权的明确界定,以及目前我国矿产资源产权管理存在的问题进行分析,通过建立多重委托代理模型,即政府垄断产权的委托代理一体化,政府所有、经营产权与企业使用产权的委托代理关系,以及引入资产经营管理公司后的双重委托代理关系,逐个分析各个模型中委托人和代理人的行为选择所带来的收益和潜在问题,探讨哪种产权配置更有效率.模型分析结果表明:构建政府、资产经营管理公司和矿业企业的三级矿产资源产权安排是最优的,能同时满足政府部门收益最大化和企业利润最大化目标.本文的结论致力于为有效解决矿产资源资产化管理中的产权配置问题提供了改革和创新思路.%Mineral resources play an important role in the development of economy and society. Currently the main direction to solve the gap of supply and demand is the property management of mineral resources. Based on the principal-agent model of information economics, this paper gives a clear definition of property rights of the mineral resources, as well as the analysis of the existing problems of the mineral resources in property management. This paper establishes the double-principal-agent model of government monopolying the property rights, principal-agent relationship that the government owns and runs the property while mining enterprise using the property, and double agent relationship by introducing the equity management company, analyzing benefits and potential problems due to principal and agent' s behavior choice in each model, discussing what kind of property right configuration will be more efficient. The results show that; the construction the three-level property right arrangement of the

  10. South African royalty act and inlightenment to China's compensation fee for mineral resource%南非权利金制度及对我国矿产资源补偿费改革的启示



    经过漫长的起草和讨论咨询,南非《矿产与石油资源权利金法》于2010年3月1日起开始实施,这项法案对南非国内就业、外国投资和矿产资源勘查都将产生深远的影响.本文探讨了《矿产与石油资源权利金法》产生的历史背景,介绍了权利金的征收主体、新权利金公式的原理和计算公式、补贴和减免政策等.本文认为,对选矿或其他加工产品征收较低权利金率,有利于减轻企业负担;权利金率随利润变化并设定范围,既保证政府在矿业经济不景气时能够取得一定财政收入,矿业经济繁荣时能随企业效益提高增加权利金收入,又增强了企业进行风险勘查,加大矿业投资的积极性,较好协调了政府增加财产收入和维护矿业繁荣稳定两者之间的关系.然而,权利金制度是否具有国际竞争力以及对选冶企业影响还有待继续研究和探讨.通过对南非权利金制度的研究,本文认为,我国矿产资源补偿费改革,应重新界定税费关系,完善矿产品含义和计征对象,加快调整费率制度.%After a prolonged drafting and consultation process, the Minerals and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act (MPRRA) became effective on 1 March 2010. This legislation may have a significant impact on employment, foreign investment and future exploration in the South African mining industry. This article explores the historical background of the "Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act", describes the mam royalty collection, the new royalty formula and the formula subsidies and relief policies, etc. This paper argues that levying a lower royalty rate on downstream beneficiation will help reduce the burden on enterprises. The royalty rate changing with the profits and setting the range can not only ensure that government can achieve a certain revenue in times of economic difficulties and a higher royalties in times of prosperity, but also achieve an optimal trade

  11. Analysis on the Benefit Distribution of Mineral Resources Exploitation based on the Game Theory%浅析矿产资源开发中的利益分配博弈

    刘春学; 李连举; 李春雪


      由于矿产资源的特殊性,利益分配不均现象在矿产资源开发中尤为显著,资源富饶的地区经济发展还较为落后,居民生活水平提高不大,矛盾冲突多,社会安定堪忧。本文根据对云南部分矿种和矿区的实际调研,利用相关的博弈理论和方法,构建了矿产资源开发企业和矿区居民之间的不完全信息动态博弈模型,通过对该模型精炼贝叶斯均衡的求解,表明矿产资源开发中企业倾向于向矿区居民分配很低的利益且这种分配策略属于“混同均衡”,进而推导出了各均衡点存在的必要条件,并以实际调研案例验证了其存在的真实性。在此基础上从监管、补偿机制及分配制度三个方面提出了确保在矿产资源开发中进行利益合理分配的对策建议,为维护矿区社会稳定、实现经济社会的可持续发展提供参考。%Due to the special characteristics of the mineral resources, the unreasonable benefit distribution phenomenon is particu-larly significant in mineral resources exploitation. Mining area residents lived for generations in the fertile area of mineral resources, but the development of the local economy is still lagging behind. Many of the mineral resource-rich regions become more poverty relatively, which leads to the various contradictions and conflicts which affecting social stability. According to the field survey on some mine areas in Yunnan province, the game theories and methods are used to establish an incomplete information dynamic game theory model for the stakeholders between the mining enterprises and mining area residents. After analyzing perfect Bayesian equilibrium of the proposed model, it was proved that there exists a pooling equilibrium for the mining enterprises to distribute very low benefit to the mining area residents. The necessary conditions for each equilibrium point were derived, and the authenticities of their existences were

  12. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio


    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.



    20152386 Hao Yuanfang(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,CGS,Shenyang 110032,China);Xu Yingkui Determination of Calcium Oxide in Nickel Ores with EDTA Titration(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,23(6),2014,p.580-582,2tables,6 refs.)

  14. 西部矿产资源生态补偿的利益之争%On the Interest Conflict of Ecological Compensation for Mineral Resources in Western China

    孙红霞; 张志超


    西部地区矿产资源丰富,但由于其生态补偿体系中的各补偿主体(中央政府、矿产企业、西部与东部地方政府)之间存在多重利益诉求等原因,致使现存的补偿机制失去操作平台,进而造成了资源严重浪费和环境极度恶化。为此,在构建西部生态补偿机制的实践中,中央政府需要切实加强环保政策的支持力度和干预强度,并从制度设计上完善资源税费等配套改革,同时还应设立西部生态补偿基金,积极动员各方力量拓宽筹资渠道。%Western China is rich in mineral resources.However,because there exist multiple interest demands between all the compensation entities(the central government,mineral enterprises,the local governments of the West and the East) in the eco-compensation system,the existing eco-compensation mechanism has thus lost its operation platform,leading to serious waste of resources and deterioration of environment.Therefore,during the construction of the eco-compensation mechanism for the Western part,the central government has to strengthen its support and intervention in its environmental protection policies and perfect the coordinated reforms on resource taxes from the institutional design.Meanwhile,the eco-compensation fund for the Western part should be established,so as to broaden the fund raising channels by actively mobilizing all the parties concerned.

  15. 矿产资源开发生态补偿指标体系及模型构建研究%Study on construction of ecological compensation index system and model of mineral resources exploitation

    李涛; 廖建军; 杨知建


    According to the survey data and related documents of bureau of land and resources in Hengyang city,use of environmental pollution, environmental damage compensation and other environmental tort compensation,a total of 11 factors to build Hengyang mineral resources devel-opment ecological compensation index system,using AHP method to determine the index compensation priority,and on the basis of constructing the index system,combined with the relevant statistical information,according to the estimation method to establish the compensation standard of the 11 factors model of environmental cost. The results can provide scientific basis for Hengyang city make policy of mineral resources exploita-tion compensation.%依据调查所得资料及衡阳市国土资源局相关文件,利用环境污染补偿、环境破坏补偿及其他环境侵权补偿方面共11个因子构建衡阳市矿产资源开发生态补偿指标体系,采用层次分析法( AHP)得出各指标补偿优先顺序,并依据构建的指标体系,结合相关统计信息,按环境成本估算法建立这11个因子的补偿标准模型,研究结果可为衡阳市在本区域内进行矿产资源开发补偿决策提供科学依据。

  16. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong


    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  17. Research on Current Situation and Resources Recovery Technology of Municipal Solid Wastes%城市生活垃圾现状与资源化处理技术研究

    宋建利; 石伟勇; 倪亮; 王亮


    综述了国内外城市生活垃圾的现状及其对生态环境的危害,介绍了目前我国城市生活垃圾处理现状及城市生活垃圾资源化主要技术,并提出了未来我国城市生活垃圾资源化综合处理的发展趋势.%The current situation of municipal solid wastes at home and abroad and its harm to ecological environment are summarized,the treatment status and the main resources recovery technologies of municipal solid wastes at present in China are introduced,and the development trend of the resources recovery comprehensive treatment of municipal solid wastes in the future China is put forward.

  18. 矿产资源领域“走出去”问题探讨--以河南省有色金属地矿局为例%Discussion on the Issues of“Going Global”Facing Mineral Resource Field-Henan Provincial Non-ferrous Metals Geological and Mineral Resources Bureau, for Example



    河南省有色金属地矿局积极响应国家“走出去”战略,部分项目取得了较好的找矿效果。从当前矿业发展的形势看,困难与机遇同在。地勘单位在“走出去”过程中应科学规划、合理布局;密切关注国际矿业市场动态信息、政策;积极申请基金和社会资本支持;拓展业务建立境外找矿平台;重视全方位、多层次的深入研究;“借船出海”,降低投资风险;内引外联和外引内联相结合。针对地勘单位“走出去”面临的政治、经济、文化、环境等方面的主要风险和项目实施中的具体困难,建议:(1)管理部门应进一步提供系统的支持和帮助;(2)政府应加强资源外交,努力实现互利共赢;(3)企业和地勘单位要加强自身能力建设。%Henan Provincial Non-ferrous Metals Geological and Mineral Resources Bureau respond to the call of government, and actively implement the"going global"strategy. Therefore, good results have been achieved in the geological prospecting. This paper analyses the current situation of the mining development; and points out opportunities are together with dififculties. It is suggested that the geological prospecting units should make scientiifc planning and distribute rationally in their push abroad;pay close attention to dynamic information and policy of the international mining industry market; actively apply for funds and social capital support;establish overseas prospecting platform; attach great importance to the all-round and multi-level study; reduce the investment risk;and introduce investment from abroad and establish lateral ties with enterprises at home and vice versa. This paper puts forward some measures aimed at the main risks and dififculties of political, economic, cultural and environment, etc facing geological prospecting units in the implementation of “going global” strategy. These include: management departments should further provide

  19. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.


    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall

  20. Thoughts on Accelerating Our Efforts to Promote the Amendment of The Mineral Resource Law%关于加快推进矿产资源法修订工作的若干思考



    新一轮矿产资源法修订工作取得阶段性进展,在修法指导思想和基本原则方面达成共识的基础上,充分尊重原矿法框架,形成了12章100条内容的矿法修订草稿,修改的主要内容可总结归纳为九个方面。其中涉及的热点问题主要有关于矿法的定位、矿法宗旨与调整范围、矿业权属性;难点问题主要有关于矿业权审批改革、矿业权出让方式、矿业权价款、资源税费改革。下一步矿产资源法修订应在内容方面增设“矿产资源保护”一章,调整“矿业权”的内容,补充“地质资料和矿产资源储量”的内容,将“矿山环境治理恢复”调整为“矿山环境治理恢复与和谐矿区”,完善“矿产资源税费”的内容;同时,应采取“主法加众条例”模式,新设、修订和保留部分配套法规。%A new round of revision work relating the Law of Mineral Resources has made phased progress. That means, on the basis of the consensus on guiding revision doctrine and basic principles, we fully respect the framework of original law, as a result, the revised draft including article 100 in chapter 12 has been formed. The amendment of present law is mainly the change in nine aspects, in which the hot topics mainly include the positioning, the purpose, and adjustment range of the law, as well as the attribute of mining rights; while the dififcult issues include the reforms in examination and approval of mining rights, the transfer of mining right, the price of mining right, and taxation and fee of resources. On this basis, this paper points out that the next step for us is to add a chapter for mineral resources protection, to adjust the content of mining rights, to supplement the content with regard to geological data and mineral resources reserves, to change mine rehabilitation to recovery and control mine environment and harmonious mining areas, to improve mineral resources tax and fee. In