WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid matrix composed

  1. Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy Applied to Positron Moderatioin in Cryogenic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Current Positron Applications • 2-γ decay exploited in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. • Positrons localize & annihilate preferentially at...Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2011-024 Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy Applied to Positron Moderation in Cryogenic Solids Distribution... Spectroscopy Applied to Positron Moderation in Cryogenic Solids 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 62602F 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  3. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of a Solid Phase DNA Binding Matrix for Downstream PCR Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, Douglas E; Fisher, Glen R; Stratilo, Chad W

    2005-01-01

    A commercially available solid-phase DNA binding matrix (FTA cards) was evaluated for its ability to capture and release DNA for downstream gene amplification and detection assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  5. Wave bandgap formation and its evolution in two-dimensional phononic crystals composed of rubber matrix with periodic steel quarter-cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Guan; Luo, Dong; Cao, Xiaoshan

    2018-02-01

    The band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal, which is composed of four homogenous steel quarter-cylinders immersed in rubber matrix, is investigated and compared with the traditional steel/rubber crystal by the finite element method (FEM). It is revealed that the frequency can then be tuned by changing the distance between adjacent quarter-cylinders. When the distance is relatively small, the integrality of scatterers makes the inner region inside them almost motionless, so that they can be viewed as a whole at high-frequencies. In the case of relatively larger distance, the interaction between each quarter-cylinder and rubber will introduce some new bandgaps at relatively low-frequencies. Lastly, the point defect states induced by the four quarter-cylinders are revealed. These results will be helpful in fabricating devices, such as vibration insulators and acoustic/elastic filters, whose band frequencies can be manipulated artificially.

  6. Band gaps in the low-frequency range based on the two-dimensional phononic crystal plates composed of rubber matrix with periodic steel stubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kunpeng; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical investigation of elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystals composed of an array of steel stepped resonators on a thin rubber slab is presented. For the first time the rubber material is used as the matrix of the PCs. With the finite-element method, the dispersion relations of this novel PCs structure and some factors of the band structure are studied. Results show that, with the rubber material as matrix, the PC structures exhibit extremely low-frequency band gaps, in the frequency range of hundreds of Hz or even tens of Hz; the geometrical parameters and the material parameters can modulate the band gaps to different extents. Furthermore, to understand the low-frequency band gaps caused by this new structure, some resonance eigenmodes of the structure are calculated. Results show that the vibration of the unit cell of the structure can be seen as several mass–spring systems, in which the vibration of the steel stepped resonator decides the lower boundary of the first band gap and the vibration of the rubber that is not in contact with the resonator decides the upper boundary

  7. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  8. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  9. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  10. Spectroscopy of lithium atoms sublimated from isolation matrix of solid Ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, R L; Scudeller, L A; Lambo, R; Crivelli, P; Cesar, C L

    2011-10-07

    We have studied, via laser absorption spectroscopy, the velocity distribution of (7)Li atoms released from a solid neon matrix at cryogenic temperatures. The Li atoms are implanted into the Ne matrix by laser ablation of a solid Li precursor. A heat pulse is then applied to the sapphire substrate sublimating the matrix together with the isolated atoms at around 12 K. We find interesting differences in the velocity distribution of the released Li atoms from the model developed for our previous experiment with Cr [R. Lambo, C. C. Rodegheri, D. M. Silveira, and C. L. Cesar, Phys. Rev. A 76, 061401(R) (2007)]. This may be due to the sublimation regime, which is at much lower flux for the Li experiment than for the Cr experiment, as well as to the different collisional cross sections between those species to the Ne gas. We find a drift velocity compatible with Li being thermally sublimated at 11-13 K, while the velocity dispersion around this drift velocity is low, around 5-7 K. With a slow sublimation of the matrix we can determine the penetration depth of the laser ablated Li atoms into the Ne matrix, an important information that is not usually available in most matrix isolation spectroscopy setups. The present results with Li, together with the previous results with Cr suggest this to be a general technique for obtaining cryogenic atoms, for spectroscopic studies, as well as for trap loading. The release of the isolated atoms is also a useful tool to study and confirm details of the matrix isolated atoms which are masked or poorly understood in the solid. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Magnetic study of solid uranium-fluorine complexes; Contribution a l'etude magnetique de composes fluores solides de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianoux, A J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A study of the magnetic susceptibility of uranium V fluorine complexes and of the magnetic resonance of fluorine atoms in uranium VI fluorine complexes has made it possible to put forward a structural model for these compounds for which it is impossible, because of the lack of suitable single crystals for X-ray diffraction work, to deduce the exact position of the fluorine atoms. It is shown that it is difficult to interpret the paramagnetism of uranium fluorides, because the uranium ions are in low-symmetry sites. A theoretical study of the magnetism of the U{sup V} ion in complex fluorides of the type M{sub 3}UF{sub 8} (M = NH{sub 4}, Na, Rb, Cs) leads to an interpretation based on a trigonal deformation of the eight fluorine atom structure surrounding the uranium atom. By applying a Hamiltonian spin formalism and making a systematic use of group theory, it is possible to present the susceptibility calculations very concisely. Study of the resonance and of the relaxation of the fluorine atoms in powdered uranium VI complex fluorides suggests a structural model in the case of NaUF{sub 7}. It is shown that the shape of the magnetic resonance absorption lines is strongly affected by the presence of large anisotropic chemical shifts. In the model proposed here, six fluorine atoms are linked to the uranium, atom by strongly covalent bonds in a deformed UF{sub 6} octahedral structure; the seventh fluorine atom remains ionic. The occurrence of a rotational movement of the octahedron is confirmed by a study of the longitudinal relaxation of the fluorine atoms, the activation energy being 0.46 eV. (author) [French] L'etude de la susceptibilite magnetique de complexes fluores d'uranium V et la resonance magnetique des fluors dans des complexes fluores d'uranium VI permettent de proposer un modele structural pour ces composes, ou la diffraction des rayons X, en l'absence de monocristaux convenables, est incapable de preciser la position des atomes de fluor. Nous montrons

  12. Magnetic study of solid uranium-fluorine complexes; Contribution a l'etude magnetique de composes fluores solides de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianoux, A.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A study of the magnetic susceptibility of uranium V fluorine complexes and of the magnetic resonance of fluorine atoms in uranium VI fluorine complexes has made it possible to put forward a structural model for these compounds for which it is impossible, because of the lack of suitable single crystals for X-ray diffraction work, to deduce the exact position of the fluorine atoms. It is shown that it is difficult to interpret the paramagnetism of uranium fluorides, because the uranium ions are in low-symmetry sites. A theoretical study of the magnetism of the U{sup V} ion in complex fluorides of the type M{sub 3}UF{sub 8} (M = NH{sub 4}, Na, Rb, Cs) leads to an interpretation based on a trigonal deformation of the eight fluorine atom structure surrounding the uranium atom. By applying a Hamiltonian spin formalism and making a systematic use of group theory, it is possible to present the susceptibility calculations very concisely. Study of the resonance and of the relaxation of the fluorine atoms in powdered uranium VI complex fluorides suggests a structural model in the case of NaUF{sub 7}. It is shown that the shape of the magnetic resonance absorption lines is strongly affected by the presence of large anisotropic chemical shifts. In the model proposed here, six fluorine atoms are linked to the uranium, atom by strongly covalent bonds in a deformed UF{sub 6} octahedral structure; the seventh fluorine atom remains ionic. The occurrence of a rotational movement of the octahedron is confirmed by a study of the longitudinal relaxation of the fluorine atoms, the activation energy being 0.46 eV. (author) [French] L'etude de la susceptibilite magnetique de complexes fluores d'uranium V et la resonance magnetique des fluors dans des complexes fluores d'uranium VI permettent de proposer un modele structural pour ces composes, ou la diffraction des rayons X, en l'absence de monocristaux convenables, est incapable de preciser la position des atomes de

  13. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  14. Mobile plant for encapsulating of solid high-level radioactive waste in metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Arustamov, A.Eh.; Shiryaev, V.V.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Semenov, K.N.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Technology for disposal of spent radionuclide sources of ionizing radiation into the standard well-type storage facilities is considered. Universal mobile facility, providing for incorporation of high-level solid wastes into metallic matrices, is proposed. The facility consists of separate moduli, assembled on a transport platform. Electrical meter, wherein the matrix metal (lead and its alloys) is melted and heated up to 600-800 C constitutes the basic modulus in the facility. 4 refs., 4 figs

  15. EVALUATION OF A BUFFERED SOLID PHASE DISPERSION PROCEDURE ADAPTED FOR PESTICIDE ANALYSES IN THE SOIL MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Domínguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the pesticides extracted from the soil matrix was conducted using a citrate-buffered solid phase dispersion sample preparation method (QuEChERS. The identification and quantitation of pesticide compounds was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Because of the occurrence of the matrix effect in 87% of the analyzed pesticides, the quantification was performed using matrix-matched calibration. The method's quantification limits were between 0.01 and 0.5 mg kg-1. Repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation percentage, were less than 20%. The recoveries in general ranged between 62% and 99%, with a relative standard deviation < 20%. All the responses were linear, with a correlation coefficient (r ≥0.99.

  16. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae extracellular matrix: a top-down solid-state NMR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Fong, Jiunn C N; Yildiz, Fitnat; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacterial cells surrounded by a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae, the human pathogen responsible for cholera, contributes to its environmental survival and infectivity. Important genetic and molecular requirements have been identified for V. cholerae biofilm formation, yet a compositional accounting of these parts in the intact biofilm or extracellular matrix has not been described. As insoluble and non-crystalline assemblies, determinations of biofilm composition pose a challenge to conventional biochemical and biophysical analyses. The V. cholerae extracellular matrix composition is particularly complex with several proteins, complex polysaccharides, and other biomolecules having been identified as matrix parts. We developed a new top-down solid-state NMR approach to spectroscopically assign and quantify the carbon pools of the intact V. cholerae extracellular matrix using ¹³C CPMAS and ¹³C{(¹⁵N}, ¹⁵N{³¹P}, and ¹³C{³¹P}REDOR. General sugar, lipid, and amino acid pools were first profiled and then further annotated and quantified as specific carbon types, including carbonyls, amides, glycyl carbons, and anomerics. In addition, ¹⁵N profiling revealed a large amine pool relative to amide contributions, reflecting the prevalence of molecular modifications with free amine groups. Our top-down approach could be implemented immediately to examine the extracellular matrix from mutant strains that might alter polysaccharide production or lipid release beyond the cell surface; or to monitor changes that may accompany environmental variations and stressors such as altered nutrient composition, oxidative stress or antibiotics. More generally, our analysis has demonstrated that solid-state NMR is a valuable tool to characterize complex biofilm systems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Combinational approach using solid dispersion and semi-solid matrix technology to enhance in vitro dissolution of telmisartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faisal Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was focused to formulate semi-solid capsules (SSCs of hydrophobic drug telmisartan (TLMS by encapsulating semi-solid matrix of its solid dispersion (SD in HPMC capsules. The combinational approach was used to reduce the lag time in drug release and improvise its dissolution. SDs of TLMS was prepared using hot fusion method by varying the combinations of Pluronic-F68, Gelucire 50/13 and Plasdone S630. A total of nine batches (SD1-SD9 were characterized for micromeritic properties, in vitro dissolution behavior and surface characterization. SD4 with 52.43% cumulative drug release (CDR in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in 120 min, t50% 44.2 min and DE30min 96.76% was selected for the development of semi-solid capsules. Differential scanning calorimetry of SD4 revealed molecular dispersion of TLMS in Pluronic-F68. SD4 was formulated into SSCs using Gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 as semi-solid components and PEG 6000 as a suspending agent to achieve reduction in lag time for effective drug dissolution. SSC6 showed maximum in vitro drug dissolution 97.49 % in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 with in 20 min that was almost a three folds reduction in the time required to achieve similar dissolution by SD. Thus, SSCs present an excellent approach to enhance in vitro dissolution as well as to reduce the lag time of dissolution for poorly water soluble drugs especially to those therapeutic classes that are intended for faster onset of action. Developed approach based on HPMC capsules provided a better alternative to target delivery of telmisartan to the vegetarian population.

  18. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane as a polymer electrolyte matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Shi, Gaojian; Tao, Can; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chen; Cheng, Liang; Qian, Gang; Chen, Chunhua

    2018-06-01

    Four kinds of polycarbonate-based polyurethane with 8-14 wt% hard segments content are synthesized via reactions of polycarbonatediol, hexamethylene diisocyanate and diethylene glycol. The mechanical strength of the polyurethanes increase with the increase of hard segments content. Solid polymer electrolytes composed of the polycarbonate-based polyurethanes and LiTFSI exhibits fascinating characteristics for all-solid-state lithium batteries with a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C, an electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent mechanical strength and superior interfacial stability against lithium metal. The all-solid-state batteries using LiFePO4 cathode can deliver high discharge capacities (161, 158, 134 and 93 mAh g-1 at varied rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C) at 80 °C and excellent cycling performance (with 91% capacity retention after 600 cycles at 1 C). All the results indicate that such a polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte can be a promising candidate for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  19. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  20. Comparison of ethylcellulose matrix characteristics prepared by solid dispersion technique or physical mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of ethylcellulose matrices prepared from solid dispersion systems were compared with those prepared from physical mixture of drug and polymer. Sodium diclofenac was used as a model drug and the effect of the drug:polymer ratio and the method of matrix production on tablet crushing strength, friability, drug release profile and drug release mechanism were evaluated. The results showed that increasing the polymer content in matrices increased the crushing strengths of tablets. However the friability of tablets was independent of polymer content. Drug release rate was greatly affected by the amount of polymer in the matrices and considerable decrease in release rate was observed by increasing the polymer content. It was also found that the type of mixture used for matrix production had great influence on the tablet crushing strength and drug release rate. Matrices prepared from physical mixtures of drug and polymer was harder than those prepared from solid dispersion systems, but their release rates were considerably faster. This phenomenon was attributed to the encapsulation of drug particles by polymer in matrices prepared from solid dispersion system which caused a great delay in diffusion of the drug through polymer and made diffusion as a rate retarding process in drug release mechanism.

  1. Self-Aggregation in Pyrrole:  Matrix Isolation, Solid State Infrared Spectroscopy, and DFT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2004-01-01

    Pyrrole (C4H5N) was embedded in low-temperature solid inert matrixes (argon, xenon; T = 9 K) and both the monomer and low-order aggregates characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The spectroscopic studies were complemented by extensive theoretical [DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p)] structural and vibrational studies carried out for the monomer and their self-aggregates (up to four units). The calculated spectrum for monomeric pyrrole fits well those obtained immediately after deposition (at 9 K) of dilut...

  2. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianjun; Liu, Yun; Liu, Qianping; Hui, Junfeng; Liu, Yangzi

    2017-01-01

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO 4 powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r 2  = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  3. Growth and dissolution of liquid 3He droplets in solid 4He matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shin, A.N.; Grigor'ev, V.N.; Majdanov, V.A.; Penzev, A.A.; Rudavskij, Eh.Ya.; Rybalko, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The phase separation kinetics of solid 3 He - 4 He mixtures was investigated using pressure measurements in the conditions when the two-phase system formed consists of concentrated phase liquid droplets (almost pure 3 He) in the dilute phase crystal matrix (almost pure 4 He). It is shown that the liquid droplet growth may be described by a sum of two exponential processes with small and large time contacts as cooling down step by step. This is a result of the strong influence of strains which appear in the crystal at the phase separation due to a large difference in molar volume between the phases and probably give rise to plastic deformation of the matrix and to non-equilibrium 3 He concentration in it. The 3 He atom transfer occurs only to the extent of strain relaxation. It is found that the cyclic growth and dissolution of the liquid droplets affect the crystal quality and lead to pressure increase. The coexistence of liquid and solid phases in droplets is speculated to be possible

  4. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianjun, E-mail: bootan12@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yun [College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Qianping [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yangzi [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO{sub 4} powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r{sup 2} = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  5. Solid state diffusion in zirconium-copper and zirconium-nickel systems. Study of the intermetallic compounds formed; Diffusion a l'etat solide dans les systemes zirconium-cuivre et zirconium-nickel. Etude des composes intermetalliques formes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meny, L; Champigny, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Solid state diffusion has been provoked in pure Zr-Cu and Zr-Ni metal couples. The tests were carried out in the following experimental conditions : the samples were maintained at a mechanical pressure of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}; annealing was carried out in a secondary vacuum during 100 and 500 hours, at temperatures of between 650 C and 900 C. In all cases, a diffusion zone made up of several parallel layers was formed. The various intermetallic compounds have been studied by metallography (optical microscopy and micro-hardness) X-ray diffraction and micro-analysis with an electronic probe. In the Zr-Cu system, six compounds have been determined, Zr{sub 2}Cu, ZrCu, Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, ZrCu{sub 4} and ZrCu{sub 5}. These results confirm a recent publication mentioning for the first time the existence of ZrCu{sub 5} and demonstrating the formulae ZrCu{sub 3} and ZrCu{sub 4}. In a similar manner, we have found six compounds, stable at room temperature, in the Zr-Ni system: these are Zr{sub 2}Ni, ZrNi, Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi{sub 3}, ZrNi{sub 4} and ZrNi{sub 5}; the results of American workers are confirmed for four of these compounds; however we identify as ZrNi{sub 3} and ZrNi{sub 4} the compounds for which they proposed the formulae Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 5} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}. A comparison of these results suggests that the two systems ZrCu and ZrNi have the same type of equilibrium diagrams. (authors) [French] Des diffusions a l'etat solide ont ete effectuees entre les couples de metaux purs Zr-Cu et Zr-Ni. Les essais ont eu lieu dans les conditions experimentales suivantes: les echantillons ont ete maintenus par une pression mecanique de 3O kg/cm{sup 2}; les recuits ont ete effectues sous vide secondaire pendant des temps de 100 et 500 heures, a des temperatures comprises entre 650 C et 900 C. Dans tous les cas, il y a eu formation d'une zone de diffusion formee de plusieurs couches paralleles. Les differents composes intermetalliques ont ete etudies par metallographie

  6. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  7. Composing and Arranging Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  8. 2D matrix engineering for homogeneous quantum dot coupling in photovoltaic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Walters, Grant; Munir, Rahim; Abdelsamie, Maged; Proppe, Andrew H; Sarkar, Amrita; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Ouellette, Olivier; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Li, Jie; Fan, James; Quan, Lina; Todorovic, Petar; Tan, Hairen; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kelley, Shana O; Stefik, Morgan; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-04-23

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising photovoltaic (PV) materials because of their widely tunable absorption spectrum controlled by nanocrystal size 1,2 . Their bandgap tunability allows not only the optimization of single-junction cells, but also the fabrication of multijunction cells that complement perovskites and silicon 3 . Advances in surface passivation 2,4-7 , combined with advances in device structures 8 , have contributed to certified power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that rose to 11% in 2016 9 . Further gains in performance are available if the thickness of the devices can be increased to maximize the light harvesting at a high fill factor (FF). However, at present the active layer thickness is limited to ~300 nm by the concomitant photocarrier diffusion length. To date, CQD devices thicker than this typically exhibit decreases in short-circuit current (J SC ) and open-circuit voltage (V OC ), as seen in previous reports 3,9-11 . Here, we report a matrix engineering strategy for CQD solids that significantly enhances the photocarrier diffusion length. We find that a hybrid inorganic-amine coordinating complex enables us to generate a high-quality two-dimensionally (2D) confined inorganic matrix that programmes internanoparticle spacing at the atomic scale. This strategy enables the reduction of structural and energetic disorder in the solid and concurrent improvements in the CQD packing density and uniformity. Consequently, planar devices with a nearly doubled active layer thicknesses (~600 nm) and record values of J SC (32 mA cm -2 ) are fabricated. The V OC improved as the current was increased. We demonstrate CQD solar cells with a certified record efficiency of 12%.

  9. 2D matrix engineering for homogeneous quantum dot coupling in photovoltaic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Walters, Grant; Munir, Rahim; Abdelsamie, Maged; Proppe, Andrew H.; Sarkar, Amrita; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Ouellette, Olivier; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Li, Jie; Fan, James; Quan, Li Na; Todorovic, Petar; Tan, Hairen; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kelley, Shana O.; Stefik, Morgan; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising photovoltaic (PV) materials because of their widely tunable absorption spectrum controlled by nanocrystal size1,2. Their bandgap tunability allows not only the optimization of single-junction cells, but also the fabrication of multijunction cells that complement perovskites and silicon 3 . Advances in surface passivation2,4-7, combined with advances in device structures 8 , have contributed to certified power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that rose to 11% in 2016 9 . Further gains in performance are available if the thickness of the devices can be increased to maximize the light harvesting at a high fill factor (FF). However, at present the active layer thickness is limited to ~300 nm by the concomitant photocarrier diffusion length. To date, CQD devices thicker than this typically exhibit decreases in short-circuit current (JSC) and open-circuit voltage (VOC), as seen in previous reports3,9-11. Here, we report a matrix engineering strategy for CQD solids that significantly enhances the photocarrier diffusion length. We find that a hybrid inorganic-amine coordinating complex enables us to generate a high-quality two-dimensionally (2D) confined inorganic matrix that programmes internanoparticle spacing at the atomic scale. This strategy enables the reduction of structural and energetic disorder in the solid and concurrent improvements in the CQD packing density and uniformity. Consequently, planar devices with a nearly doubled active layer thicknesses (~600 nm) and record values of JSC (32 mA cm-2) are fabricated. The VOC improved as the current was increased. We demonstrate CQD solar cells with a certified record efficiency of 12%.

  10. 2D matrix engineering for homogeneous quantum dot coupling in photovoltaic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2018-04-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising photovoltaic (PV) materials because of their widely tunable absorption spectrum controlled by nanocrystal size1,2. Their bandgap tunability allows not only the optimization of single-junction cells, but also the fabrication of multijunction cells that complement perovskites and silicon 3 . Advances in surface passivation2,4-7, combined with advances in device structures 8 , have contributed to certified power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that rose to 11% in 2016 9 . Further gains in performance are available if the thickness of the devices can be increased to maximize the light harvesting at a high fill factor (FF). However, at present the active layer thickness is limited to ~300 nm by the concomitant photocarrier diffusion length. To date, CQD devices thicker than this typically exhibit decreases in short-circuit current (JSC) and open-circuit voltage (VOC), as seen in previous reports3,9-11. Here, we report a matrix engineering strategy for CQD solids that significantly enhances the photocarrier diffusion length. We find that a hybrid inorganic-amine coordinating complex enables us to generate a high-quality two-dimensionally (2D) confined inorganic matrix that programmes internanoparticle spacing at the atomic scale. This strategy enables the reduction of structural and energetic disorder in the solid and concurrent improvements in the CQD packing density and uniformity. Consequently, planar devices with a nearly doubled active layer thicknesses (~600 nm) and record values of JSC (32 mA cm-2) are fabricated. The VOC improved as the current was increased. We demonstrate CQD solar cells with a certified record efficiency of 12%.

  11. 2D matrix engineering for homogeneous quantum dot coupling in photovoltaic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Walters, Grant; Munir, Rahim; Abdelsamie, Maged; Proppe, Andrew H.; Sarkar, Amrita; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Ouellette, Olivier; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Li, Jie; Fan, James; Quan, Lina; Todorovic, Petar; Tan, Hairen; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kelley, Shana O.; Stefik, Morgan; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising photovoltaic (PV) materials because of their widely tunable absorption spectrum controlled by nanocrystal size1,2. Their bandgap tunability allows not only the optimization of single-junction cells, but also the fabrication of multijunction cells that complement perovskites and silicon3. Advances in surface passivation2,4-7, combined with advances in device structures8, have contributed to certified power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that rose to 11% in 20169. Further gains in performance are available if the thickness of the devices can be increased to maximize the light harvesting at a high fill factor (FF). However, at present the active layer thickness is limited to 300 nm by the concomitant photocarrier diffusion length. To date, CQD devices thicker than this typically exhibit decreases in short-circuit current (JSC) and open-circuit voltage (VOC), as seen in previous reports3,9-11. Here, we report a matrix engineering strategy for CQD solids that significantly enhances the photocarrier diffusion length. We find that a hybrid inorganic-amine coordinating complex enables us to generate a high-quality two-dimensionally (2D) confined inorganic matrix that programmes internanoparticle spacing at the atomic scale. This strategy enables the reduction of structural and energetic disorder in the solid and concurrent improvements in the CQD packing density and uniformity. Consequently, planar devices with a nearly doubled active layer thicknesses ( 600 nm) and record values of JSC (32 mA cm-2) are fabricated. The VOC improved as the current was increased. We demonstrate CQD solar cells with a certified record efficiency of 12%.

  12. Analysis of semi-solid processing for metal matrix composite synthesis using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratus Ranieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this work is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the mechanical stir casting process for obtaining particulate metal matrix composites. A combined route of stirring at semi-solid state followed by stirring at liquid state is proposed. A fractional factorial design was developed to investigate the influence and interactions of factors as: time, rotation, initial fraction and particle size, on the incorporated fraction. The best incorporations were obtained with all factors at high levels, as well as that very long stirring periods have no strong influence being particle size and rotation the most important factors on the incorporated fraction. Particle wetting occurs during stirring at semi-solid state, highlighting the importance of the interactions between particles and the alloy globularized phase. The role of the alloying element Mg as a wettability-promoting agent is discussed. The shear forces resulting from the stirring system is emphasized and understood as the effect of rotation itself added to the propeller blade geometry.

  13. Studies on supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from liquid and solid matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Pal, Ankita; Saxena, M.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2006-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is being widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry. Because of its simplicity, ease of operation and more importantly the reduction in the analytical waste generation, this technique is being viewed as a potential application technique in nuclear industry also. CO 2 is employed as supercritical fluid (SCF) as it is easily recyclable, non-toxic, chemically inert, radiochemically stable and inexpensive. Radioanalytical chemistry section (Radiochemistry and Isotope group) has recently procured a supercritical fluid extraction/chromatography system. The present report describes the work carried out on the system. Detailed study on uranium and thorium extraction from highly acidic medium and tissue paper matrix has been carried out. Direct dissolution and extraction of uranium compounds employing SCF has been carried out. CO 2 was employed as supercritical fluid along with very small amount of Tri n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and Tri n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as co-solvents. The effect of various operating parameters like CO 2 flow rate, co-solvent percentage, temperature and pressure on extraction was investigated and parameters for maximum extraction were optimized. For comparison, the modes of extraction viz. static and dynamic and modes of complexation viz. in-situ and online were studied. Uranium extraction of ∼98% has been achieved from nitric acid medium employing TBP as co-solvent in 30 minutes extraction time, whereas with TOPO ∼99% uranium extraction could be achieved. Uranium from tissue paper matrix could be extracted upto the extent of 98% with TOPO as co-solvent whereas with TBP extraction of (66.83± 9.80)% was achievable. Direct dissolution of UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , U metal, U-Al alloy solids into SCF CO 2 was carried out employing TBP-HNO 3 complex and SFE of uranium was performed using TBP as co-solvent. UO 2 and U 3 O 8 solids could be dissolved within 20 minutes and extraction of ∼98% was achieved. For U

  14. My Career: Composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  15. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yufeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and

  16. Reduction of protein adsorption to a solid surface by a coating composed of polymeric micelles with a glass-like core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Keizer, de A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption studies by optical reflectometry show that complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly([4-(2-amino-ethylthio)-butylene] hydrochloride)49-block-poly(ethylene oxide)212 and poly([4-(2-carboxy-ethylthio)-butylene] sodium salt)47-block-poly(ethylene oxide)212 adsorb in equal

  17. Reduction of protein adsorption to a solid surface by a coating composed of polymeric micelles with a glass-like core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, B.; Brzozowska, A.; de Keizer, A.; Norde, W.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption studies by optical reflectometry show that complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly([4-(2-amino-ethylthio)-butylene]hydrochloride)(49)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)(212) and poly([4-(2carboxy-ethylthio)-butylene] sodium salt)(47)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)(212) adsorb in

  18. Headspace versus direct immersion solid phase microextraction in complex matrixes: investigation of analyte behavior in multicomponent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Souza-Silva, Érica A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-08-18

    This work aims to investigate the behavior of analytes in complex mixtures and matrixes with the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Various factors that influence analyte uptake such as coating chemistry, extraction mode, the physicochemical properties of analytes, and matrix complexity were considered. At first, an aqueous system containing analytes bearing different hydrophobicities, molecular weights, and chemical functionalities was investigated by using commercially available liquid and solid porous coatings. The differences in the mass transfer mechanisms resulted in a more pronounced occurrence of coating saturation in headspace mode. Contrariwise, direct immersion extraction minimizes the occurrence of artifacts related to coating saturation and provides enhanced extraction of polar compounds. In addition, matrix-compatible PDMS-modified solid coatings, characterized by a new morphology that avoids coating fouling, were compared to their nonmodified analogues. The obtained results indicate that PDMS-modified coatings reduce artifacts associated with coating saturation, even in headspace mode. This factor, coupled to their matrix compatibility, make the use of direct SPME very practical as a quantification approach and the best choice for metabolomics studies where wide coverage is intended. To further understand the influence on analyte uptake on a system where additional interactions occur due to matrix components, ex vivo and in vivo sampling conditions were simulated using a starch matrix model, with the aim of mimicking plant-derived materials. Our results corroborate the fact that matrix handling can affect analyte/matrix equilibria, with consequent release of high concentrations of previously bound hydrophobic compounds, potentially leading to coating saturation. Direct immersion SPME limited the occurrence of the artifacts, which confirms the suitability of SPME for in vivo applications. These findings shed light into the implementation of in

  19. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, R.; Hess, P.; Boer, de J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC¿MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  20. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, A. M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, L.; Hess, P.; de Boer, J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  1. Matrix effect on hydrogen-atom tunneling of organic molecules in cryogenic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2000-01-01

    Although the tunneling of atoms through potential energy barriers separating the reactant and reaction systems is not paid much attention in organic reactions, this plays an important role in reactions including the transfer of light atoms. Atomic tunneling is especially important for chemical reactions at low temperatures, since the thermal activation of reactant systems is very slow process in comparison with the tunneling. One of the typical reactions of atomic tunneling is hydrogen-atom abstraction from alkanes in cryogenic solids exposed to high-energy radiation. Irradiation of alkane molecules causes the homolytic cleavage of C-H bonds, which results in the pairwise formation of free hydrogen atoms and organic free radicals. Since the activation energies for the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from alkane molecules by free hydrogen atoms are higher than 5 kcal/mol, the lifetime of free hydrogen atoms at 77 K is estimated from the Arrhenius equation of k=vexp(-E a /RT) to be longer than 10 hrs. However, except for solid methane, free hydrogen atoms immediately convert to alkyl radicals even at 4.2 K by hydrogen-atom tunneling from alkane molecules to the free hydrogen atoms. The rate of hydrogen atom tunneling does not necessary increase with decreasing activation energy or the peak height of the potential energy barrier preventing the tunneling. Although the activation energy is the lowest at the tertiary carbon of alkanes, hydrogen atom tunneling from branched alkanes with tertiary carbon at the antepenultimate position of the carbon skeleton is the fastest at the secondary penultimate carbon. Based on our experimental results, we have proposed that the peculiarity of the hydrogen-atom abstraction in cryogenic solids comes from the steric hindrance by matrix molecules to the deformation of alkane molecules from the initial sp 3 to the final sp 2 configurations. The steric hindrance causes the increase of the height of the potential energy barrier for the

  2. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Enrofloxacin in Eggs by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion-Flow Injection Chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study based on the chemiluminescence (CL reaction of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in sodium hydroxide medium, enrofloxacin (ENRO could dramatically enhance CL intensities and incorporated with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique (Florisil used as dispersant, dichloromethane eluted the target compounds. A simple flow injection chemiluminescence (FL-CL method with MSPD technique for determination of ENRO in eggs was described. Under optimal conditions, the CL intensities were linearly related to ENRO concentration ranging from 4.0×10-8 g.L−1 to 5.0×10-5 g.L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and detection limit of 5.0×10-9 g.L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.6% at an ENRO concentration of 2.0×10-6 g.L−1. Our testing technique can help ensure food safety, and thus, protect public health.

  4. Preparation of milk samples for immunoassay and liquid chromatographic screening using matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A; Long, A R

    1994-01-01

    The use of drugs to maintain the health and maximize the output of dairy cattle has made the monitoring of milk for such agents essential. Screening tests based on immunological, microbial inhibition, and bacterial receptor assays have been developed for the detection of violative levels of therapeutic substances. However, such assays are not infallible, and false positive or negative results can occur when contaminants bind receptors or compete for the binding of the target residues. Such effects may arise from dietary sources, diseases, or other variables. Thus, a violation by such a test is not definitive until further confirmation is obtained. Our laboratory has developed extraction procedures for several drugs used in dairy production. Our method uses matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) to isolate drugs away from contaminants and to eliminate many possible interferences. MSPD can also be used to enhance the specificity of such assays by fractionating various classes of drugs that may cross-react. Similarly, such methods may be used for liquid chromatographic screening and confirmation of a suspect sample.

  5. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  6. Low-temperature matrix effects on orientational motion of Methyl radical trapped in gas solids: Angular tunneling vs. libration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yurij A.; Zelenetckii, Ilia A.; Benetis, Nikolas P.

    2018-05-01

    EPR investigation of the lineshape of matrix -isolated methyl radical, CH3, spectra recorded in solid N2O and CO2 was carried out. Reversible temperature-dependent line width anisotropy was observed in both matrices. This effect is a fingerprint of the extra-slow radical rotation about the in-plane C2 axes. The rotation was found to be anisotropic and closely correlated to the orientational dynamics of the matrix molecules. It was suggested that a recently discovered "hoping precession" effect of matrix molecules in solid CO2 is a common feature of matrices of the linear molecules CO, N2O, and CO2. A new low-temperature matrix effect, referred to as "libration trap", was proposed which accounts for the changing CH3 reorientational motion about the radical C3-axis from rotation to libration. Temperature dependence of the intensity of the EPR satellites produced by these nonrotating-but librating methyls was presented. This allowed for a rough estimation of the rotation hindering potential due to correlation mismatch between the radical and the nearest matrix molecules' librations.

  7. Matrix supported tailored polymer for solid phase extraction of fluoride from variety of aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Wagh, D.N.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Th complexed with poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) as tailored polymer membranes. ► Membranes offered high capacity and selectivity for fluoride in aqueous media. ► Quantitative uptake (80 ± 5%) of fluoride. ► Fast sorption kinetics. ► Reusability of polymer membranes. - Abstract: Fluoride related health hazards (fluorosis) are a major environmental problem in many regions of the world. It affects teeth; skeleton and its accumulation over a long period can lead to changes in the DNA structure. It is thus absolutely essential to bring down the fluoride levels to acceptable limits. Here, we present a new inorganic–organic hybrid polymer sorbent having tailored fixed-sites for fluoride sorption. The matrix supported poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) was prepared by photo-initiator induced graft-polymerization in fibrous and microporous (sheet) host poly(propylene) substrates. These substrates were conditioned for selective fluoride sorption by forming thorium complex with phosphate groups on bis[2-methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] phosphate (MEP). These tailored sorbents were studied for their selectivity towards fluoride in aqueous media having different chemical conditions. The fibrous sorbent was found to take up fluoride with a faster rate (15 min for ≈76% sorption) than the sheet sorbent. But, the fluoride loading capacity of sheet sorbent (4320 mg kg −1 ), was higher than fibrous and any other sorbent reported in the literature so far. The sorbent developed in the present work was found to be reusable after desorption of fluoride using NaOH solution. It was tested for solid phase extraction of fluoride from natural water samples.

  8. Study of the dissolution velocity of dispersed solid particles. Development of a calculation method for analyzing the kinetic curves. Extension to the study of composed kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    The dissolution of a solid in an aqueous phase is studied, the solid consisting of dispersed particles. A continuous colorimetric analysis method is developed to study the dissolution process and a two-parameter optimization method is established to investigate the kinetic curves obtained. This method is based on the differential equation dx/dt=K(1-x)sup(n). (n being the decrease in the dissolution velocity when the dissolved part increases and K a velocity parameter). The dissolution of SO 4 Cu and MnO 4 K in water and UO 3 in SO 4 H 2 is discussed. It is shown that the dissolution velocity of UO 3 is proportional to the concentration of the H + ions in the solution as far as this one is not higher than 0.25N. The study of the temperature dependence of the UO 3 dissolution reaction shows that a transition phase takes place from 25 to 65 0 C between a phase in which the dissolution is controlled by the diffusion of the H + ions and the chemical reaction at the interface and a phase in which the kinetics is only controlled by the diffusion [fr

  9. Energy use of biomass composed by agroforestry and organic matter from the urban solid waste and applicable techniques for better performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Frutos, Jose Luis; Iza Lopez, Jon Mario; Orella Saenz, Josu

    2009-01-01

    The energy crises, increase of the price of petroleum, fear to the shortage of supplies, shift towards more sustainable energy policies, make return the view towards renewable production systems of energy. A common error is to use the term 'biomass' like synonymous of energy, without considering that the relation between useful energy and biomass is as variable as variable they are the elements that can conform the biomass. The useful energy can be extracted of the biomass by two conduits: either by direct combustion, or by products obtained from the transformations of physical-chemistry-biological processes. The present work to try to analyze the power advantage of the biomass as mixture of residues of the wood, agricultural residues and the MO contained in the urban solid residues, as well as the main usable systems for its advantage. (author)

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  11. Thermodynamic characteristics of systems with solid solutions composed of crystal hydrates of lanthanide and yttrium chlorides, at 250C. III. Systems of Roozeboom's type IV, with restricted solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The values of the activity, the activity coefficients, the free energy of mixing and the excess free energy of mixing have been calculated for CeCl 3 -LnCl 3 -H 2 O systems (where Ln identical with Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) containing solid solutions of types IV and IVa. It is shown that the stability of the solid solutions decreases with increasing difference between the radii of the cations of cerium and the second lanthanide, which enter into the composition of the components of the solid solutions. The factors determining the composition of a liquid solution corresponding to the eutonic point are specified

  12. Experimental considerations on producing highly polarized liquid 3He in a matrix of solid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.S.; Hebral, B.; Papoular, M.; Beal-Monod, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are briefly reviewed in which droplets of 3 He were formed in solid 4 He. These experiments indicate such conditions are favorable for the production of quasi-stable highly polarized liquid 3 He. A solid solution of dilute 3 He in 4 He is proposed as a promising system to produce experimentally realizable highly polarized liquid 3 He using the Castaing-Nozieres decompression

  13. Matrix-isolation and solid state low temperature FT-IR study of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, R.

    2003-01-01

    2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) was studied by matrix-isolation and low temperature solid state FT-IR spectroscopy, supported by molecular orbital calculations undertaken at the DFT(B3LYP) and MP2 levels of theory with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Both in the crystalline phase and in the matrices, the compound exists in the C2h symmetry trans conformation (O=C-C=O dihedral angle of 180°). This form corresponds to the single conformational state predicted by the theoretical calculations for the com...

  14. Finite element evaluation of elasto-plastic accommodation energies during solid state transformations: Coherent, spherical precipitate in finite matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Sethuraman, R.

    1996-01-01

    The molar volume difference between the matrix and the precipitate phases in the case of solid state phase transformations results in the creation of stain energy in the system due to the misfit strains. A finite element model based on the initial strain approach is proposed to evaluate elasto-plastic accommodation energies during solid state transformation. The three-dimensional axisymmetric model has been used to evaluate energies as a function of transformation for α-β hydrogen transformations in the Nb-H system. The transformation has been analyzed for the cases of transformation progressing both from the center to surface and from the surface to center of the system. The effect of plastic deformation has been introduced to make the model realistic, specifically to the Nb-NbH phase transformation which involves a 4% linear misfit strain. It has been observed that plastic deformation reduces the strain energies compared to the linear elastic analysis

  15. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using solid-phase extraction and bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion to quantify the fungicide tebuconazole in controlled frog exposure study: analysis of water and animal tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    and on tissue from exposed and non-exposed adult X. laevis. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), the analytical method allows for quantification of tebuconazole at concentrations as low as 3.89 pg mL(-1) in 10 mL water samples. Using bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), it was possible...

  16. Determination of clenbuterol in bovine liver by combining matrix solid phase dispersion and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crescenzi, C; Bayoudh, S; Cormack, P.A G; Klein, T; Ensing, K

    2001-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion(MSPD) is a new sample pretreatment for solid samples. This technique greatly simplifies sample pretreatment but, nonetheless, the extracts often still require an extra cleanup step that is both laborious and time-consuming. The potential;of combining MSPD with

  17. Composability in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Quade, Joern; Renner, Renato

    2009-01-01

    If we combine two secure cryptographic systems, is the resulting system still secure? Answering this question is highly nontrivial and has recently sparked a considerable research effort, in particular, in the area of classical cryptography. A central insight was that the answer to the question is yes, but only within a well-specified composability framework and for carefully chosen security definitions. In this article, we review several aspects of composability in the context of quantum cryptography. The first part is devoted to key distribution. We discuss the security criteria that a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol must fulfill to allow its safe use within a larger security application (e.g. for secure message transmission); and we demonstrate-by an explicit example-what can go wrong if conventional (non-composable) security definitions are used. Finally, to illustrate the practical use of composability, we show how to generate a continuous key stream by sequentially composing rounds of a QKD protocol. In the second part, we take a more general point of view, which is necessary for the study of cryptographic situations involving, for example, mutually distrustful parties. We explain the universal composability (UC) framework and state the composition theorem that guarantees that secure protocols can securely be composed to larger applications. We focus on the secure composition of quantum protocols into unconditionally secure classical protocols. However, the resulting security definition is so strict that some tasks become impossible without additional security assumptions. Quantum bit commitment is impossible in the UC framework even with mere computational security. Similar problems arise in the quantum bounded storage model and we observe a trade-off between the UC and the use of the weakest possible security assumptions.

  18. Semi-solid high pressure die casting of metal matrix composites produced by liquid state processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stirring. The composite was then transferred to a High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) machine in the semi-solid state. The micron size particles were found to be predominantly in the intergranular eutectic while the nano-particles were predominantly...

  19. Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy of H2O2, D2O, and HDO in Solid Parahydrogen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario

    2003-01-01

    ...) solids doped with H2O, D2O and HDO molecules. Analysis of the rovibrational spectra of the isolated H20, D2O and HDO monomers reveals their existence as very slightly hindered rotors, typically showing only 2 to 5...

  20. Quantitative methods for compensation of matrix effects and self-absorption in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy signals of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoko; Thornton, Blair

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews methods to compensate for matrix effects and self-absorption during quantitative analysis of compositions of solids measured using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and their applications to in-situ analysis. Methods to reduce matrix and self-absorption effects on calibration curves are first introduced. The conditions where calibration curves are applicable to quantification of compositions of solid samples and their limitations are discussed. While calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), which corrects matrix effects theoretically based on the Boltzmann distribution law and Saha equation, has been applied in a number of studies, requirements need to be satisfied for the calculation of chemical compositions to be valid. Also, peaks of all elements contained in the target need to be detected, which is a bottleneck for in-situ analysis of unknown materials. Multivariate analysis techniques are gaining momentum in LIBS analysis. Among the available techniques, principal component regression (PCR) analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis, which can extract related information to compositions from all spectral data, are widely established methods and have been applied to various fields including in-situ applications in air and for planetary explorations. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), where non-linear effects can be modelled, have also been investigated as a quantitative method and their applications are introduced. The ability to make quantitative estimates based on LIBS signals is seen as a key element for the technique to gain wider acceptance as an analytical method, especially in in-situ applications. In order to accelerate this process, it is recommended that the accuracy should be described using common figures of merit which express the overall normalised accuracy, such as the normalised root mean square errors (NRMSEs), when comparing the accuracy obtained from different setups and analytical methods.

  1. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silica Modified with Polyaniline as a Potential Sorbent for Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) of Plant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Sawicki, Jan; Staniak, Michał; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Mołdoch, Jarosław; Latalski, Michał

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and matrix solid–phase extraction (MSPD). The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) quantitative analysis. The quality of the sorbent was verified by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy combined with automated procedure using computer image analysis. For extraction experiments, triterpenes were chosen as model compounds. The optimal conditions were as follows: protonated Si-PANI impregnated with water, 160/1 sorbent/analyte ratio, 3 min of extraction time, 4 min of desorption time and methanolic solution of ammonia for elution of analytes. The proposed procedure was successfully used for pretreatment of plant samples. PMID:29565297

  3. Silica Modified with Polyaniline as a Potential Sorbent for Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD and Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE of Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Sowa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANI is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME. In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE and matrix solid–phase extraction (MSPD. The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD quantitative analysis. The quality of the sorbent was verified by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy combined with automated procedure using computer image analysis. For extraction experiments, triterpenes were chosen as model compounds. The optimal conditions were as follows: protonated Si-PANI impregnated with water, 160/1 sorbent/analyte ratio, 3 min of extraction time, 4 min of desorption time and methanolic solution of ammonia for elution of analytes. The proposed procedure was successfully used for pretreatment of plant samples.

  4. Solid Lubrication of Laser Deposited Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nickel Matrix Nanocomposites Preprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    thickness 440C stainless steel (SS) and the deposited composites had a square geometry in order to assure a uniform laser heat distribution during the...tested against (a) 440C stainless steel counterface with Pmax=0.6 GPa and (b) Si3N4 counterface with Pmax=0.8 GPa. Fig. 4. (a) Pure Ni and (c...decrease in friction coefficients compared to pure Ni. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Tribology , friction, wear, solid lubricant, carbon nanotubes, metal

  5. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  6. Mobile unit for enclosing hot solid waste in a metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Shiryaev, V.V.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Semenov, K.N.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    After termination of their service life, the sources of ionizing radiation are transported to special burial points of radioactive waste in pitlike repositories near the surface. The repositories are cylindrical 200-litter cavities of stainless steel and are situated at a depth of 6 m in a concrete pit. The pit is concrete enveloped. The spent sources enter the cavity via a curve loading a tube. Water was observed in repositories of this type; in a powerful radiation field (with up to 10 4 R/sec), water accelerates the corrosion of the shells of the sources and liberates radiolytic hydrogen. In order to obtain reliable isolation of the sources, a new technique of enclosing the sources in a metal matrix of low-melting metals (layer-by-layer and directly in the repository) has been used since 1986 in the Moscow Scientific Planning Department 'Radon'. This makes it possible to preserve the traditional burial of spent sources and, in addition, to use the radiation shielding of the repository proper. Investigations have shown that this technique is very reliable: There are no radiolytic gases, the radiation field and the temperature field in the repository are substantially reduced, and therefore the volume of the repositories is increased by a factor of 5-6. The total activity of the spent sources enclosed in a metal matrix in accordance with this technique amounted to about 500,000 Ci in test units and semi-industrial units

  7. Separating DDTs in edible animal fats using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with activated carbon filter, Toyobo-KF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2006-09-01

    A technique is presented for the economical, routine, and quantitative analysis of contamination by dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) [pp'-DDT, pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloreothane in beef tallow and chicken fat samples, based on their separation using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction with Toyobo-KF, an activated carbon fiber. Toyobo-KF is a newly applied MSPD sorbent, and it is followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. The resulting analytical performance parameters [recoveries of spiked DDTs (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/g) > or = 81%, with relative standard deviations of < or = 8% (n = 5), and quantitation limits < or = 0.03 microg/g], with minimal handling and cost-efficiency, indicate that the present MSPD-HPLC method may be a useful tool for routine monitoring of DDT contamination in meat.

  8. Extraction of acetanilides in rice using ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion-solvent flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Wang, Changyuan; Li, Zuotong; Zhao, Changjiang; Zhang, Hanqi; Zhang, Dongjie

    2018-04-15

    Ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion-solvent flotation coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of the acetanilide herbicides, including metazachlor, propanil, alachlor, propisochlor, pretilachlor, and butachlor in rice samples. Some experimental parameters, including the type of dispersant, the mass ratio of dispersant to sample, pH of sample solution, the type of extraction solvent, the type of ionic liquid, flotation time, and flow rate of N 2 were optimized. The average recoveries of the acetanilide herbicides at spiked concentrations of 50, 125, and 250 µg/kg ranged from 89.4% to 108.7%, and relative standard deviations were equal to or lower than 7.1%, the limits of quantification were in the range of 38.0 to 84.7 µg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Different Colloidal Porous Silicon Solutions and Their Composite Solid Matrix Rods by Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Naziruddin; Aldalbahi, Ali; Almohammedi, Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal porous silicon (PSi) in different solvents was synthesized by simple chemical etching. Colloidal solutions were then prepared using different quantities of silicon wafer pieces (Pcs) and chloroplatinic (Pt) acid in catalyst solution. The effect on the properties of the colloidal solutions and composite rods were investigated using various optical characterization techniques. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the colloidal PSi solutions are observed to depend on the quantity of wafer Pcs, the Pt-solution, and the porosity formation on the wafer surface. The morphological structure of the PSi in a solvent and the solid-rod environments were studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and were observed to have different structures. A mono-oriented structure of PSi exists in tetrahydrofuran, which has stereo orientation in dioxane and dimethylsulfoxide (approximately 5-8 nm as confirmed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy). Subsequently, some colloidal PSi solutions were directly embedded in three types of sol-gel-based matrices, silica, ormosils (or organically modified silica) and polymer, which easily generated solid rods. Spontaneous emission (SE) of the PSi solutions and their composite rods were examined using a high power picosecond 355 nm laser source. The emitted PL and SE signals of the colloidal PSi solutions were dependent on the Pt volume, nature of the solvent, quantity of Si wafer piece, and pumping energy. The response of SE signals from the PSi composites rods is an interesting phenomenon, and such nanocomposites may be used for future research on light amplification.

  10. Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chensong; Xu, Songyun; Zou, Hanfa; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baochuan

    2005-02-01

    A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized.

  11. Molecular Structure, Vibrational Spectra, Quantum Chemical Calculations and Photochemistry of Picolinamide and Isonicotinamide Isolated in Cryogenic Inert Matrixes and in the Neat Low-Temperature Solid Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, R.

    2007-01-01

    Picolinamide (PA) and isonicotinamide (INA), two structural isomers of pyridinecarboxamide, have been investigated by matrix isolation and low-temperature solid-state infrared spectroscopy, combined with UV (λ > 235 nm) photoexcitation and density functional theory and ab initio (MP2) theoretical studies. In consonance with the theoretical data, both PA and INA were found to exist in a single conformation in cryogenic rare gas matrixes. Comparison between the experimental spectra of the matri...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of new polymer matrix for solid-phase extraction of nonylphenol from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António; Soares, Ana; Piletska, Elena; Mattiasson, Bo; Piletsky, Sergey

    2008-03-31

    Molecularly imprinted (MIP) and blank polymers with affinity for nonylphenol were designed using computational modelling. Chromatographic tests demonstrated higher affinity of imprinted polymers towards the template nonylphenol as compared with blank polymers. The performance of both polymers in solid-phase extraction was however very similar. Both blank and imprinted polymers appeared to be suitable for the removal and pre-concentration of nonylphenol from contaminated water samples with 99% efficiency of the recovery. The commercial resins PH(EC) (Biotage) and C18 (Varian) tested in the same conditions used for comparative purposes had recovery rate <84%. The polymer capacity for nonylphenol was 231 mg g(-1) for blank and 228 mg g(-1) for MIP. The synthesised materials can have significance for sample pre-concentration and environmental analysis of this class of compounds.

  13. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  14. Thermal characterization of polymer matrix composites containing microencapsulated paraffin in solid or liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari-Bey, Sana; Fois, Magali; Krupa, Igor; Ibos, Laurent; Benyoucef, Boumédiène

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal characterization of PCL/Micronal composites. • Melting enthalpy and heat capacity measured by DSC. • Interest: have measured thermal properties at different temperatures. • Thermophysical properties measurement temperatures chosen outside phase changes. • Characteristics useful to model composites heat transfer for LHTES applications. - Abstract: This work focuses on the study of heat transfer mechanisms in composites materials which may be used for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage applications. These composites contain phase change material (PCM) which can absorb and release energy during thermal cycling. PCM’s used here are paraffins microencapsulated in poly(methylmethacrylate); microencapsulation avoids the flow of paraffin when it is in the liquid state. Samples with different paraffin weight fractions and particles shape and distribution were studied in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used to determine morphology and perform measurements of phase changes temperatures, enthalpies and heat capacity respectively. Further, a periodic method (DICO) allowed measuring thermal conductivity (λ) and diffusivity (a) of the composites at temperatures below and above of the paraffin phase change from crystalline solid to isotropic liquid

  15. The COMPOSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletta, P.; Biagini, M.; Gallinaro, G.; Vernucci, A.

    2003-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-going project COMPOSE, an EC co-funded project aiming to define, specify and validate an innovative mobile-services scenario in support of travellers, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new proposed location-based value-added services. COMPOSE is supported by organisations belonging to numerous categories covering, as a whole, the entire value-chain of infomobility services provision to the final user. The project team comprises, in addition to the affiliations of the authors, also Teleatlas (NL), ARS T&TT (NL), Alcatel-Bell Space (B), Skysoft (P), Hitech Marketing (A) and MobileGis (IR). The paper describes the services that will be offered to users, encompassing both the pre-trip and the on-trip framework, presents the overall hybrid system architecture also including a via-satellite component based upon the Wideband-CDMA (W-CDMA) technique adopted in UMTS, discusses the access solutions envisaged for that component permitting multiple feeder-link stations to share the CDMA multiplex capacity by directly transmitting their codes to the satellite, and illustrates the results of some computer simulations intended to assess the performance of said access solutions, with regard to the effects of the inevitable up- link frequency errors and transponder non-linearity.

  16. Contribution of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Genotypes to the Risk of Non-solid Tumor, Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jen-Sheng; Chou, An-Kuo; Hsu, Pei-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Wu, Meng-Feng; Wu, Ming-Hsien; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Shun-Ping; Bau, DA-Tian

    2017-12-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in inflammation and carcinogenesis, and the genotypic role of MMP7 has never been examined in leukemia to date. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate the contribution of the genotypic variants in the promoter region of MMP7 (A-181G and C-153T) to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk in Taiwan. In this case-control study, 266 patients with childhood ALL and 266 non-cancer controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. The distribution of AA, AG and GG for MMP7 promoter A-181G genotype was 83.5, 12.0 and 4.5% in the childhood ALL group and 89.8%, 9.4 and 0.8% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.0134), significantly differentially distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The comparisons in allelic frequency distribution also support the findings that G appears to be the risky allele in childhood ALL. In genotype and gender interaction analysis, it was found that boys carrying the MMP7 A-181G GG and AG+GG genotypes had 9.05- and 2.45-fold odds ratios (ORs) (p=0.0135 and 0.0142, respectively) for childhood ALL compared to those carrying wild-type AA genotype. But these differences were not found in girls. Analysis of genotype interaction with age of onset age showed those aged less than 3.5 years at onset carrying the GG or AG+GG genotypes also had elevated ORs of 8.79- and 2.04-fold (p=0.0150 and 0.0413, respectively) for childhood ALL, but there was no such difference for those having an age at onset of 3.5 years or more. Our results indicate that the MMP7 A-181G genotype interacts with age and gender and may serve as an early and predictive biomarker for childhood ALL. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  19. Determination of Parabens by Injection-Port Derivatization Coupled With Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djatmika, Rosalina; Ding, Wang-Hsien; Sulistyarti, Hermin

    2018-01-01

    A rapid determination of four parabens preservatives (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. Analytes were extracted and purified using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method, followed by Injection port acylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with acetic anhydride reagent. In this method, acylation of parabens was performed by acetic anhydride at GC injection-port generating reduction of the time-consuming sample-processing steps, and the amount of toxic reagents and solvents. The parameters affecting this method such as injection port temperature, purge-off time and acylation (acetic anhydride) volume were studied. In addition, the MSPD influence factors (including the amount of dispersant and clean-up co-sorbent, as well as the volume of elution solvent) were also investigated. After MSPD method and Injection port acylation applied, good linearity of analytes was achieved. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g (dry weight). Compared with offline derivatization commonly performed, injection port acylation employs a rapid, simple, low-cost and environmental-friendly derivatization process. The optimized method has been successfully applied for the analysis of parabens in four kind of marketed seafood. Preliminary results showed that the total concentrations of four selected parabens ranged from 16.7 to 44.7 ng/g (dry weight).

  20. Matrix-isolation and solid state low temperature FT-IR study of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Fausto, R.

    2003-12-01

    2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) was studied by matrix-isolation and low temperature solid state FT-IR spectroscopy, supported by molecular orbital calculations undertaken at the DFT(B3LYP) and MP2 levels of theory with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Both in the crystalline phase and in the matrices, the compound exists in the C 2h symmetry trans conformation (OC-CO dihedral angle of 180°). This form corresponds to the single conformational state predicted by the theoretical calculations for the compound in vacuum. However, in the low temperature amorphous state, obtained by fast deposition of the vapour of the compound onto a suitable cold (9 K) substrate, as well as in the liquid and gaseous phases, spectroscopic features are observed that can only be explained by assuming that conformations without an inversion centre ( C 2 symmetry) do also contribute to the spectra. These results are in agreement with the experimental evidence that diacetyl has a permanent dipole moment (ca.1 Debye) in the vapour phase at room temperature and are here explained taking into consideration the influence of the low frequency large amplitude torsional vibration around the central C-C bond on the molecular properties.

  1. Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of organophosphorus pesticide using SiO2-poly(N-vinylimidazole)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Solís, M C; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D; Carrera-Figueiras, C; Ávila-Ortega, A; Medina-Peralta, S

    2013-01-01

    A sorbent material based on silica particles modified with poly(N-vinylimidazole) (SiO 2 -PVI) has been evaluated for the treatment of samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The extraction of four organophosphorus pesticides was done from a spiked tomato and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Six elution solvents were evaluated and acetone was selected due to better recovery of the four pesticides and low background signal in the chromatograms. A factorial design 2 4 was used for selection of extraction conditions. The factors were contact time, acetone volume, treatment (with or without freeze-drying) and adsorbent (SiO 2 or SiO 2 -PVI). The best recoveries were obtained using 15 minutes of contact, 2 mL of solvent and sorbent without freeze-drying. The recoveries were between 60 and 83% for SiO 2 -PVI in spiked tomato with 0.2 and 0.8μg/g.

  2. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Felix F; Foertsch, Tobias C; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A R; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm(2).

  3. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A.R.; Breitling, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm"2. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm"2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  4. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Barbara [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Foertsch, Tobias C. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Welle, Alexander [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattes, Daniela S. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Meier, Michael A.R., E-mail: m.a.r.meier@kit.edu [Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Breitling, Frank, E-mail: frank.breitling@kit.edu [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm{sup 2}. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm{sup 2}, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  5. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  6. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol–gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol–gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol–gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol–gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol–gel polymer (sol–gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol–gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol–gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol–gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work

  8. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol–gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanidou, Victoria, E-mail: samanidu@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kehagia, Maria [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kabir, Abuzar, E-mail: akabir@fiu.edu [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Furton, Kenneth G. [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol–gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol–gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol–gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol–gel polymer (sol–gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol–gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol–gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol–gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work

  9. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  10. Development of matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Liu, Huijin; Wang, Yingjun; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely used worldwide, and they can be released into the environment during their production, transport, usage and disposal, which pose potential risks for human health. In this work, an efficient, reliable and rapid pretreatment method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed for the analysis of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) in human placenta by gas chromatograph-electron capture negative ion low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) and gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-HRMS). The MSPD-relevant parameters including dispersing sorbent, sample-to-sorbent mass ratio, and elution solvent were optimized using the orthogonal test. Silica gel was found to be the optimal dispersing sorbent among the selected matrices. Under the optimal conditions, 44% acidic silica gel can be used as the co-sorbent to remove lipid and eluted by the mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (7:3, V/V). The spiked recoveries of the optimized method were 77.4% and 91.4% for analyzing SCCPs in human placenta by GC-ECNI-LRMS and GC-QTOF-HRMS, and the corresponding relative standard deviations were 10.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The method detection limit for the total SCCPs was 36.8ng/g (dry weight, dw) and 19.2ng/g (dw) as measured by GC-ECNI-LRMS and GC-QTOF-HRMS, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in four human placentas were in the range of

  11. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion for the extraction of short chain chlorinated paraffins from indoor dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Yu; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-11-11

    A simple and effective method for determining short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor dust is presented. The method employed a modified vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion (VH-MSPD) prior to its detection by gas chromatography - electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) operating in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Under the best extraction conditions, 0.1-g of dust sample was dispersed with 0.1-g of silica gel by using vortex (2min) instead of using a mortar and pestle (3min). After that step, the blend was transferred to a glass column containing 3-g acidic silica gel, 2-g basic silica gel, and 2-g of deactivated silica gel, used as clean-up co-sorbents. Then, target analytes were eluted with 5mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) mixture. The extract was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was then re-dissolved in n-hexane (10μL), and subjected to GC-ECNI-MS analysis. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.06 to 0.25μg/g for each SCCP congener. Precision was less than 7% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Trueness was above 89%, which was calculated by mean extraction recovery. The VH-MSPD combined with GC-ECNI-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively detect SCCPs from various indoor dust samples, and the concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 31.2μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Panchromatic response composed of hybrid visible-light absorbing polymers and near-IR absorbing dyes for nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Joong; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leventis, Henry C.; Haque, Saif A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Torres, Tomas [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of panchromatic sensitizers for mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells, a near-IR absorbing zinc phthalocyanine dye (coded TT1) was firstly adsorbed over relatively thin ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films and then a visible-light absorbing polymer [regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT] was incorporated into the mesopores as both a second sensitizer and a solid hole conductor. After optimizing some experimental parameters, these hybrid solid-state cells exhibited a clear panchromatic response, and an overall conversion efficiency of around 1% at full sun intensity. (author)

  14. Multiplicity dependence of matrix-induced frequency shifts for atomic transitions of the group 12 metals in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, S.L.; Cartland, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic resonances of the group 12 metal atoms, Hg, Cd, and Zn, undergo frequency shifts from the gas phase atomic line when trapped in rare gas matrices of Ar, Kr, and Xe at 12 K. As expected, the shifts are approximately linear in polarizability of the rare gas, but the slope of this line depends on whether the transition in question is 1 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 or 3 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 . Thus the matrix-induced frequency shift is dependent on the singlet or triplet nature of the excited state as well as on the matrix material. This dependence on multiplicity is discussed in terms of interactions between the excited-state atomic orbitals and the matrix. The results are compared to matrix studies of other metals and to related gas-phase work on diatomic van der Waals complexes of group 12 metals with rare gases

  15. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Box-Behnken design to optimize multi-sorbent solid phase extraction for trace neonicotinoids in water containing high level of matrix substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised great concerns about their ecological risk. A reliable method to measure trace neonicotinoids in complicated aquatic environment is a premise for assessing their aquatic risk. To effectively remove matrix interfering substances from field water samples before instrumental analysis with HPLC/MS/MS, a multi-sorbent solid phase extraction method was developed using Box-Behnken design. The optimized method employed 200mg HLB/GCB (w/w, 8/2) as the sorbents and 6mL of 20% acetone in acetonitrile as the elution solution. The method was applied for measuring neonicotinoids in water at a wide range of concentrations (0.03-100μg/L) containing various amounts of matrix components. The recoveries of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked samples ranged from 76.3% to 107% while clothianidin and dinotefuran had relatively lower recoveries. The recoveries of neonicotinoids in water with various amounts of matrix interfering substances were comparable and the matrix removal rates were approximately 50%. The method was sensitive with method detection limits in the range of 1.8-6.8ng/L for all target neonicotinoids. Finally, the developed method was validated by measurement of trace neonicotinoids in natural water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S

    2008-01-01

    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  18. A planar, solid-state amperometric sensor for nitrogen dioxide, employing an ionic liquid electrolyte contained in a polymeric matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherná, M.; Opekar, F.; Reiter, Jakub; Stulík, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2012), s. 811-817 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Amperometry * Gas sensor * Solid-state sensor * Planar sensor * Ionic liquid * Solid polymer electrolyte * Gold minigrid electrode * Nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  19. Recovery evaluation of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction using sorbents based on silica and titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Perea, C; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D; Carrera-Figueiras, C; Medina-Peralta, S; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2013-01-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the recovery of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen after matrix solid phase-dispersion extraction (MSPD). Materials based on silica, titania and titania modified with polivylnylimidazole or polyestirene were used as adsorbents for the extraction of pesticides. Small amounts of fortified pollen (0.1 g, at 1 micro-g/g of pesticides), adsorbent (0.4 g) and solvent elution (1 mL de acetonitrile – ACN) were used in the extractions. For recovery evaluation, pollen extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

  20. Synthesis and application of mesoporous molecular sieve for miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of bioactive flavonoids from toothpaste, plant, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wan; Cao, Jun; Ye, Li-Hong; Xu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Peng, Li-Qing

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the use of the mesoporous molecular sieve KIT-6 as a sorbent in miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in combination with ultra-performance LC for the determination of bioactive flavonoids in toothpaste, Scutellariae Radix, and saliva. In this study, for the first time, KIT-6 was used as a sorbent material for this mode of extraction. Compared with common silica-based sorbents (C18 and activated silica gel), the proposed KIT-6 dispersant with a three-dimensional cubic Ia3d structure and highly ordered arrays of mesoporous channels exhibits excellent adsorption capability of the tested compounds. In addition, several experimental variables, such as the mass ratio of sample to dispersant, grinding time, and elution solvent, were optimized to maximize the extraction efficiency. The proposed analytical method is simple, fast, and entails low consumption of samples, dispersants and elution solvents, thereby meeting "green chemistry" requirements. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of three bioactive flavonoids obtained by analyzing the spiked samples were from 89.22 to 101.17%. Also, the LODs and LOQs for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg/mL and 0.07-0.13 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion method was successfully applied to the analysis of target solutes in real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...

  2. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Vutha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the z ^ -direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park et al. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state that has its electron spin perpendicular to z ^ , and a magnetic field along z ^ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment d e would affect this precession due to the up to 100 GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring d e to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  3. Oriented Polar Molecules in a Solid Inert-Gas Matrix: A Proposed Method for Measuring the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutha, A.; Horbatsch, M.; Hessels, E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a very sensitive method for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using polar molecules embedded in a cryogenic solid matrix of inert-gas atoms. The polar molecules can be oriented in the $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ direction by an applied electric field, as has recently been demonstrated by Park, et al. [Angewandte Chemie {\\bf 129}, 1066 (2017)]. The trapped molecules are prepared into a state which has its electron spin perpendicular to $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$, and a magnetic field along $\\hat{\\rm{z}}$ causes precession of this spin. An electron electric dipole moment $d_e$ would affect this precession due to the up to 100~GV/cm effective electric field produced by the polar molecule. The large number of polar molecules that can be embedded in a matrix, along with the expected long coherence times for the precession, allows for the possibility of measuring $d_e$ to an accuracy that surpasses current measurements by many orders of magnitude. Because the matrix can inhibit molecular rotations and lock the orientation of the polar molecules, it may not be necessary to have an electric field present during the precession. The proposed technique can be applied using a variety of polar molecules and inert gases, which, along with other experimental variables, should allow for careful study of systematic uncertainties in the measurement.

  4. In situ characterization of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in collagen and model extracellular matrix by solid state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Rajan, R; Wong, W C V; Reid, D G; Duer, M J; Somovilla, V J; Martinez-Saez, N; Bernardes, G J L; Hayward, R; Shanahan, C M

    2017-12-14

    Non-enzymatic glycation of extracellular matrix with (U- 13 C 5 )-d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P), enables in situ 2D ssNMR identification of many deleterious protein modifications and crosslinks, including previously unreported oxalamido and hemiaminal (CH 3 -CH(OH)NHR) substructures. Changes in charged residue proportions and distribution may be as important as crosslinking in provoking and understanding harmful tissue changes.

  5. On some features of the effective behaviour of porous solids with J2- and J3-dependent yielding matrix behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Some features od the constitutive behaviour of voided materials taking into account possible effects of the Lode angle in the yielding behaviour of the matrix are discussed. The Gurson approach is used to this end. After providing a parametric representation of the effective behaviour of such materials, some closed-form results are given for pure shear stress states and also at very high stress triaxialities. In the former case corresponding to a zero macroscopic mean stress, the contour of the yield domain in the π-plane has exactly the shape of the yield surface of the matrix in the deviatoric plane, but a size reduced by a factor 1 - f, with f the porosity of the voided material. In the latter, effective yield stresses for the voided material are slightly different from the Gurson result and found to be set by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle π/3 for very high positive triaxiality and by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle 0 for very high negative triaxiality. This last result is extended for porous materials with yielding depending further on the hydrostatic stress, fully exhibiting the interaction between volumetric and shear interactions on the yielding behaviour of isotropic porous materials. Applications to many usual yielding criteria for the matrix are also provided. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with MEEKC for quantitative analysis of lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus using molecular sieve TS-1 as a sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Wei, Mengmeng; Wang, Shan; Zheng, Liqiong; He, Zheng; Cao, Jun; Yan, Jizhong

    2017-09-15

    A simple and effective method was developed for determining lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus by using a micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique coupled with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC). Molecular sieve, TS-1, was applied as a solid supporting material in micro MSPD extraction for the first time. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency, such as type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, elution solvent and volume were optimized. The optimal extraction conditions involve dispersing 25mg of powdered Schisandrae samples with 50mg of TS-1 by a mortar and pestle. A grinding time of 150s was adopted. The blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction cartridge and the target analytes were eluted with 500μL of methanol. Moreover, several parameters affecting MEEKC separation were studied, including the type of oil, SDS concentration, type and concentration of cosurfactant, and concentration of organic modifier. A satisfactory linearity (R>0.9998) was obtained, and the calculated limits of quantitation were less than 2.77μg/mL. Finally, the micro MSPD-MEEKC method was successfully applied to the analysis of lignans in complex Schisandrae fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of six pesticides in the medicinal herb Cordia salicifolia by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Viana; Prata, Vanessa de Menezes; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Navickiene, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed for acephate, chlorpropham, pyrimicarb, bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone in leaves of the medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia, whose extracts are commercialized in Brazil as diuretic, appetite suppressant, and weight loss products. The determination method was GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid phase (C18, alumina, silica gel, and Florisil) and the amount of solid phase and eluent (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and cyclohexane). The best results were obtained using 0.5 g herb sample, 0.5 g neutral alumina as the dispersant sorbent, 0.5 g C18 as the cleanup sorbent, and cyclohexane-dichloromethane (3 + 1, v/v) as the eluting solvent. The method was validated using herb samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (seven replicates) ranged from 67.7 to 129.9%, with relative standard deviations between 6.3 and 26%. Detection and quantitation limits for the herb ranged from 0.10 to 0.15 and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/kg, respectively.

  8. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 101-105 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management, * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Dimensions of the Composing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Aviva

    As a by-product of a study concerning how university level writers develop new genres of discourse, a study was undertaken to examine what factors or dimensions affect the composing process of university writers. Six undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa participated, making available to researchers information about how they…

  10. Experimental investigation of the effect of latex solid/water ratio on latex modified co-matrix mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches were performed on latex modified concretes and associated properties, however; some vital factors were not given attention in previous works. This study focus on new factor which significantly affects the properties of latex modified cement paste, mortar or concrete. This factor is termed as ‘latex solid/water ratio’ which is defined herein as the ratio of weight of solid latex to weight of total water content of cement composite including the water in latex itself. The effect of this factor on some properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete were experimentally evaluated. Properties of cement paste include the produced calcium hydroxide and ettringite content during hydration process, while those of cement mortar take account of absorption and effect of temperature on compressive strength. Furthermore, the effect of this factor on the compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, water penetration depth and drying shrinkage of concrete were explored. Based on experimental evidences, and spite of using different cement contents, sources of latex, water–cement ratios and slump values, it can be generally concluded that the latex solid/water ratio is a dominant factor affecting different properties of latex modified mortars and concrete.

  11. Study on solid-liquid interfacial phenomena and advancement of migration model in diffusion and migration processes of radionuclides in buffer materials and rock matrixes for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-06-01

    This study was performed particularly focused on diffusive pathway and effects receive when nuclides and ions diffuse near solid-liquid interface, among various interactions occurring in the diffusion process of nuclides and ions in buffer material and rock matrix composing multi-barrier system of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. This study was carried out with the following objectives. (1) To clarify the effects of porewater chemistry (particularly ionic strength) and changes in diffusive pathway and micropore structure on diffusion from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. (2) To obtain information with regard to porewater properties, particularly viscosity. (3) To apply for predictions of diffusivities and diffusion process by developing a model concerning electrostatic interaction with ions near solid-liquid interface and viscosity distribution. This report consists of 9 chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction, in which the background and objectives for this study are explained. In chapter 2, it is reported on physical and chemical properties for sandstone (Shirahama sandstone), of which fundamental data and information for diffusion is quite limited and physical properties for bentonite, which is important as a buffer material. In chapter 3, it is discussed on the results studied using tritiated water and deuterated water for the orientation properties of clay particles and the effect of the orientation of clay particles on diffusive pathway in compacted bentonite. In chapter 4, it is discussed on the effects of the orientation of clay particles and ionic strength on diffusivities and activation energies for Cs + and I - ions in compacted bentonite. In chapter 5, it is reported on the diffusion properties of Cs + and I - ions in sandstone obtained by a non-steady state diffusion method and it is discussed on applicability of a solid-liquid interfacial model based on electric double layer theory. In chapter 6, it is reported on thermodynamic

  12. Strong work-hardening behavior induced by the solid solution strengthening of dendrites in TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively

  13. Multivariate analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix by means of diffuse reflectance NIR spectroscopy and PLS regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Sabrina C; Barbosa, Juliana M; Freitas, Matheus P; Martins, José A

    2006-01-23

    A multivariate method of analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix, based on diffuse reflectance NIR measurements and partial least squares regression, is reported. The product, a vaginal cream used in the antifungal and antibacterial treatment, is usually, quantitatively analyzed through microbiological tests (nystatin) and HPLC technique (metronidazole), according to pharmacopeial procedures. However, near infrared spectroscopy has demonstrated to be a valuable tool for content determination, given the rapidity and scope of the method. In the present study, it was successfully applied in the prediction of nystatin (even in low concentrations, ca. 0.3-0.4%, w/w, which is around 100,000 IU/5g) and metronidazole contents, as demonstrated by some figures of merit, namely linearity, precision (mean and repeatability) and accuracy.

  14. Determination of the major constituents in fruit of Arctium lappa L. by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with HPLC separation and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Zhang, Yupu; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Xue; Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Ye; Sun, Shuo; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Yinghua

    2010-10-15

    The arctiin and arctigenin in the fruit of Arctium lappa L. were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The experimental conditions for the MSPD were optimized. Silica gel was selected as dispersion adsorbent and methanol as elution solvent. The calibration curve showed good relationship (r>0.9998) in the concentration range of 0.010-5.0μgmL(-1) for arctiin and 0.025-7.5μgmL(-1) for arctigenin. The recoveries were between 74.4% and 100%. The proposed method consumed less sample, time and solvent compared with conventional methods, including ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interface analysis of A1 matrix composites produced by hot isostatic pressing, squeeze casting and semi-solid processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsul, J.B.; Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Faaizulaswad, M.S.; Azmi, R.

    2000-01-01

    The interface analysis has been carried out an aluminium based composites system produced by hot isostatic pressing, squeeze casting and semi-solid processing. A range of different fabrication techniques has been used to produce different types of microstructure of Al 2124 (Al-Cu-Mg) reinforced with 5 weight % SiC particles. Blending followed by hot isostatic pressing is used to fabricate composite I. Composite II was 6061 (Al-Si-Mg) wrought aluminium alloy reinforced with fibres of alumina-silica (V f = 0.58) and fabricated by squeeze casting. Finally, A356 (AlSi7Mg0.3) alloy was reinforced with 20 Vol.% of SiC particles (13 μm) and namely as composite III. Composite III is fabricated by semi-solid processing. Interface analysis was done by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Composite I exhibited good interface bonding and dislocation was also observed near the interface. Elements such as Al, Fe, Cr, Mn were found near the interface of composite II and intermetallic of iron rich inclusion and Mg 2 Si were observed near the interface of composite III. (Author)

  16. A Solid Binding Matrix/Mimic Receptor-Based Sensor System for Trace Level Determination of Iron Using Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II-(1,10-phenanthroline complex imprinted membrane was prepared by ionic imprinting technology. In the first step, Fe(II established a coordination linkage with 1,10-phenanthroline and functional monomer 2-vinylpyridine (2-VP. Next, the complex was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as a crosslinker in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO as an initiator. Potentiometric chemical sensors were designed by dispersing the iron(II-imprinted polymer particles in 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE plasticizer and then embedded in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix. The sensors showed a Nernstian response for [Fe(phen3]2+ with limit of detection 3.15 ng mL−1 and a Nernstian slope of 35.7 mV per decade.

  17. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New method based on combining ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion and homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of some organochlorinated pesticides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Farahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Milani

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with HLLE was developed as a new method for the extraction of OCPs in fish. → The goal of this combination was to enhance the selectivity of HLLE procedure and to extend its application in biological samples. → This method proposed the advantages of good detection limits, lower consumption of reagents, and does not need any special instrumentation. - Abstract: In this study, ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (US-MMSPD) combined with homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in fish prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). In the proposed method, OCPs (heptachlor, aldrin, DDE, DDD, lindane and endrin) were first extracted from fish sample into acetonitrile by US-MMSPD procedure, and the extract was then used as consolute solvent in HLLE process. Optimal condition for US-MMSPD step was as follows: volume of acetonitrile, 1.5 mL; temperature of ultrasound, 40 deg. C; time of ultrasound, 10 min. For HLLE step, optimal results were obtained at the following conditions: volume of chloroform, 35 μL; volume of aqueous phase, 1.5 mL; volume of double distilled water, 0.5 mL; time of centrifuge, 10 min. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors for the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 185-240, and the overall recoveries were ranged from 39.1% to 81.5%. The limits of detection were 0.4-1.2 ng g -1 and the relative standard deviations for 20 ng g -1 of the OCPs, varied from 3.2% to 8% (n = 4). Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the OCPs in real fish sample, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  19. New method based on combining ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion and homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of some organochlorinated pesticides in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Farahnaz [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Milani, E-mail: drmilani@iust.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with HLLE was developed as a new method for the extraction of OCPs in fish. {yields} The goal of this combination was to enhance the selectivity of HLLE procedure and to extend its application in biological samples. {yields} This method proposed the advantages of good detection limits, lower consumption of reagents, and does not need any special instrumentation. - Abstract: In this study, ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (US-MMSPD) combined with homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in fish prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). In the proposed method, OCPs (heptachlor, aldrin, DDE, DDD, lindane and endrin) were first extracted from fish sample into acetonitrile by US-MMSPD procedure, and the extract was then used as consolute solvent in HLLE process. Optimal condition for US-MMSPD step was as follows: volume of acetonitrile, 1.5 mL; temperature of ultrasound, 40 deg. C; time of ultrasound, 10 min. For HLLE step, optimal results were obtained at the following conditions: volume of chloroform, 35 {mu}L; volume of aqueous phase, 1.5 mL; volume of double distilled water, 0.5 mL; time of centrifuge, 10 min. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors for the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 185-240, and the overall recoveries were ranged from 39.1% to 81.5%. The limits of detection were 0.4-1.2 ng g{sup -1} and the relative standard deviations for 20 ng g{sup -1} of the OCPs, varied from 3.2% to 8% (n = 4). Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the OCPs in real fish sample, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Determination of selected UV filters in indoor dust by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreira, N; Rodríguez, I; Rubí, E; Cela, R

    2009-07-31

    A simple, inexpensive sample preparation procedure, based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, for the determination of six UV filters: 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate (Homosalate, HMS), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), isoamyl-p-methoxycinnamate (IAMC), 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR), in dust from indoor environments is presented and the influence of several operational parameters on the extraction performance discussed. Under the final working conditions, sieved samples (0.5 g) were mixed with the same amount of anhydrous sodium sulphate and dispersed with 2 g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18) in a mortar with a pestle. This blend was transferred to a polypropylene solid-phase extraction cartridge containing 2 g of activated silica, as the clean-up co-sorbent. The cartridge was first rinsed with 5 mL of n-hexane and the analytes were then recovered with 4 mL of acetonitrile. This extract was adjusted to 1 mL, filtered and the compounds were determined by gas chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Recoveries for samples spiked at two different concentrations ranged between 77% and 99%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method between 10 and 40 ng g(-1). Analysis of settled dust from different indoor areas, including private flats, public buildings and vehicle cabins, showed that EHMC and OCR were ubiquitous in this matrix, with maximum concentrations of 15 and 41 microg g(-1), respectively. Both UV filters were also quantified in dust reference material SRM 2585 for first time. EHS, 4-MBC and IAMC were detected in some of the analyzed samples, although at lower concentrations than EHMC and OCR.

  1. In vivo evaluation and in-depth pharmaceutical characterization of a rapidly dissolving solid ocular matrix for the topical delivery of timolol maleate in the rabbit eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Raeesa M; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Kumar, Pradeep; Carmichael, Trevor R; Pillay, Viness

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in-depth pharmaceutical properties and in vivo behavior of a novel lyophilized rapidly dissolving solid ocular matrix (RD-SOM) as a 'solid eye drop' formulation comprising timolol maleate as the model drug. Thermal and molecular transition analysis displayed similar findings with no incompatibility between formulation components. Porositometric studies confirmed the presence of interconnecting pores across the matrix surface. The HETCAM test indicated an irritation score of 0 with the inference of good tolerability for the RD-SOM in the New Zealand White albino rabbit eye model. Ex vivo permeation across excised rabbit cornea showed an improved steady state drug flux (0.00052 mg cm(-2)min(-1)) and permeability co-efficient (1.7 × 10(-4)cmmin(-1)) for the RD-SOM compared to pure drug and a marketed eye drop preparation. UPLC analysis quantitatively separated timolol maleate and the internal standard (diclofenac sodium) and gamma irradiation was used as a terminal sterilization procedure. In vivo results revealed a peak concentration of timolol was reached at 104.9 min. In the case of a typical eye drop formulation a lower Cmax was obtained (1.97 ug/mL). Level A point-to-point IVIVC plots via the Wagner-Nelson method revealed a satisfactory R(2) value of 0.84. In addition, the biodegradability and ocular compatibility of the RD-SOM was confirmed by histopathological toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology of stable, prolonged-release eye-drops containing Cyclosporine A, distributed between lipid matrix and surface of the solid lipid microspheres (SLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Eliza; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to prepare solid lipid microspheres (SLM) with incorporated Cyclosporine A (Cs), suitable for ocular application. For this purpose, SLM were formulated by using different lipids and three different nonionic surfactants. The SLM were produced using a hot emulsification method. The SLM dispersions contained 10, 20 or 30% of lipid (w/w) and up to 2% (w/w) of Cs. The size of the microspheres with Cs ranged from 1 to 15 μm. Physically stable SLM with Cs were prepared using Compritol, as a lipid matrix, and Tween 80, as a surfactant. In contrast, dispersion with Precirol alone, formed semi-solid gels during storage, while in formulations with Precirol and Miglyol, crystals of Cs were observed. In vitro release profile of Compritol formulations showed that 40% of Cs is released within 1h, while the release of the following 40% takes more time, depending on lipid content in the formulations. The large part of Cs, added to SLM formulations (from 45 to 80%), was found on the surface of microparticles, but no drug crystallization occurred during a long-term storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  5. Matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of benzotriazole UV absorbers in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteiro, I; Abuín, B; Ramil, M; Rodríguez, I; Cela, R

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective and low solvent consumption method, based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, for the determination of six benzotriazole UV absorbers in sediments is presented. Sieved samples (0.5 g) were first mixed in a mortar with a solid sorbent and then transferred to a polypropylene syringe containing a layer of clean-up co-sorbent. Analytes were eluted with a suitable solvent and further determined by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Under final conditions, diatomaceous earth and silica, deactivated to 10%, were used as inert dispersant and clean-up co-sorbent, respectively. Analytes were recovered using just 5 mL of dichloromethane, and this extract was concentrated and exchanged to 1 mL of isooctane. Further removal of co-extracted sulphur was achieved adding activated copper powder to final extracts, which were stored overnight, before injection in the GC-MS/MS system. The accuracy of the method was assessed with river and marine sediment samples showing different carbon contents and spiked at different concentrations in the range from 40 to 500 ng g(-1). Recoveries varied between 78% and 110% with associated standard deviations below 14%. The limits of quantification of the method stayed between 3 and 15 ng g(-1). Levels of target compounds in sediment samples ranged from not detected up to a maximum of 56 ng g(-1) for Tinuvin 328.

  6. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid matrix priming with chitosan enhances seed germination and seedling invigoration in mung bean under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy SEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the response of the mung bean seeds of ‘Sonali B1’ variety primed with chitosan in four different concentrations (0, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% under salinity stress of five different concentrations (i.e., 0, 4, 6, 8 and 12 dS*mm-1 and halotolerance pattern by applying Celite as matrix at three different moisture levels (5%, 10% and 20%. Improved germination percentage, germination index, mean germination time, coefficient of velocity of germination along with root and shoot length was observed comparing with control. Germination stress tolerance index (GSI, plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI and root length stress tolerance index (RLSI were used to evaluate the tolerance of the mung bean seeds against salinity stress induced by chitosan. Results of GSI, PHSI, RLSI showing noteworthy inhibitory effect of salinity stress in control set was significantly less pronounced in chitosan treated seedlings. Chitosan can remarkably alleviate the detrimental effect of salinity up to the level of 6 dS*m-1, beyond which no improvement was noticed. In conclusion present investigation revealed that chitosan is an ideal elicitor for enhancing the speed of germination and seedling invigoration that synchronize with emergence of radicle and salinity stress tolerance.

  8. Solid-phase microextraction Ni-Ti fibers coated with functionalised silica particles immobilized in a sol-gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azenha, Manuel; Ornelas, Mariana; Fernando Silva, A

    2009-03-20

    One of the possible approaches for the development of novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers is the physical deposition of porous materials onto a support using high-temperature epoxy glue. However, a major drawback arises from decomposition of epoxy glue at temperatures below 300 degrees C and instability in some organic solvents. This limitation motivated us to explore the possibility of replacing the epoxy glue with a sol-gel film, thermally more stable and resistant to organic solvents. We found that functionalised silica particles could be successfully attached to a robust Ni-Ti wire by using a UV-curable sol-gel film. The particles were found to be more important than the sol-gel layer during the microextraction process, as shown by competitive extraction trials and by the different extraction profiles observed with differently functionalised particles. If a quality control microscopic-check aiming at the rejection of fibers exhibiting unacceptably low particle load was conducted, acceptable (6-14%) reproducibility of preparation of C(18)-silica fibers was observed, and a strong indication of the durability of the fibers was also obtained. A cyclohexyldiol-silica fiber was used, as a simple example of applicability, for the successful determination of benzaldehyde, acetophenone and dimethylphenol at trace level in spiked tap water. Recoveries: 95-109%; limits of detection: 2-7 microg/L; no competition effects within the studied range (

  9. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    restrictive, disallowing subtypings that lead to more than one possible injection and should therefore be considered programming errors. Furthermore, from this refined subtyping constraint we derive a new constraint to express type isomorphism. We show how this isomorphism constraint allows us to decompose......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  10. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  11. Determination of UV filters in high ionic strength sample solutions using matrix-compatible coatings for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Anderson, Jared L

    2018-05-15

    A double-confined polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating was fabricated for the determination of nine ultraviolet (UV) filters in sample solutions containing high salt content by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The IL monomer and crosslinker cations and anions, namely, 1-vinyl-3-decylimidazolium styrenesulfonate ([VImC 10 ][SS]) and 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane distyrenesulfonate ([(VBIm) 2 C 12 ] 2[SS]), were co-polymerized to create a highly stable sorbent coating which allowed for up to 120 direct-immersion extractions in 25% NaCl (w/v) solution without a decrease in its extraction capability. Extraction and desorption parameters such as desorption solvent, agitation rate, extraction time, desorption solvent volume, and desorption time were evaluated and optimized. The analytical performance of the styrenesulfonate anion-based PIL fiber, PIL fiber containing chloride anions, and a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber were compared. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) for the styrenesulfonate anion-based PIL fiber ranged from 0.995 to 0.999 and the limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.1 to 5 µg L -1 . The developed method was successfully applied in real water samples including tap, pool, and lake water, and acceptable relative recovery values were obtained. The lifetime of the PIL fiber containing chloride anions as well as the PDMS/DVB fiber were considerably shorter than the PIL fiber containing the styrenesulfonate anion, with both fibers showing a notable decrease in reproducibility and significant damage to the sorbent coating surface after 40 and 70 extractions, respectively. The R 2 values for the chloride anion containing PIL fiber were at or higher than 0.991 with LODs ranging from 0.5 to 5 µg L -1 . For the PDMS/DVB fiber, R 2 values ranged from 0.992 to 0.999 and LODs were found to be as low as 0.2

  12. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  13. Universal chemiluminescence flow-through device based on directed self-assembly of solid-state organic chromophores on layered double hydroxide matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

    2013-02-19

    In this work, a universal chemiluminescence (CL) flow-through device suitable for various CL resonance energy transfer (CRET) systems has been successfully fabricated. Highly efficient CRET in solid-state photoactive organic molecules can be achieved by assembling them on the surface of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). We attribute these observations to the suppression of the intermolecular π-π stacking interactions among aromatic rings and the improvement of molecular orientation and planarity in the LDH matrix, enabling a remarkable increase in fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of organic molecules. Under optimal conditions, using peroxynitrous acid-fluorescein dianion (FLUD) as a model CRET system, trace FLUD (10 μM) was assembled on the surface of LDHs. Peroxynitrous acid/nitrite could be assayed in the range of 1.0-500 μM, and the detection limit for peroxynitrous acid/nitrite (S/N = 3) was 0.6 μM. This CL flow-through device exhibited operational stability, high reproducibility, and long lifetime. While LDHs were immobilized in a flow-through device in the absence of FLUD, the detection limit for peroxynitrous acid/nitrite was 100 μM. On the other hand, FLUD at the same concentration can not enhance the CL intensity of peroxynitrous acid system. This fabricated CL flow-through column has been successfully applied to determine nitrite in sausage samples with recoveries of 98-102%. These satisfactory results demonstrated that our studies pave a novel way toward flow-through column-based CRET using solid-state organic molecules as acceptors for signal amplification.

  14. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD coupled with gas chromatography (GC, was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples.

  15. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition.

  16. Development of a Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction Combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for Determination of Phenolics and Terpenoids from the Euphorbia fischeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Lin, Yu; Wang, Yuchun; Hong, Bo

    2017-09-11

    A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana . The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down. The highest extraction yields of chromatogram information and the five compounds were obtained under the optimized conditions. A total of 25 constituents have been identified and five components have been quantified from Euphorbia fischeriana . A linear relationship (r² ≥ 0.9964) between the concentrations and the peak areas of the mixed standard substances were revealed. The average recovery was between 92.4% and 103.2% with RSD values less than 3.45% ( n = 5). The extraction yields of two phenolics and three terpenoids obtained by the MSPD were higher than those of traditional reflux and sonication extraction with reduced requirement on sample, solvent and time. In addition, the optimized method will be applied for analyzing terpenoids in other Chinese herbal medicine samples.

  17. Optimization of a method based on micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD for the determination of PCBs in mussel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Carro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development and optimization of micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis by using a two-level factorial design. Four variables (amount of sample, anhydrous sodium sulphate, Florisil and solvent volume were considered as factors in the optimization process. The results suggested that only the interaction between the amount of anhydrous sodium sulphate and the solvent volume was statistically significant for the overall recovery of a trichlorinated compound, CB 28. Generally most of the considered species exhibited a similar behaviour, the sample and Florisil amounts had a positive effect on PCBs extractions and solvent volume and sulphate amount had a negative effect. The analytical determination and confirmation of PCBs were carried out by using GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS, respectively. The method was validated having satisfactory precision and accuracy with RSD values below 6% and recoveries between 81 and 116% for all congeners. The optimized method was applied to the extraction of real mussel samples from two Galician Rías.

  18. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in different types of maize by matrix solid phase dispersion and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Barros; de Castro Gomes Vieira, Carolyne Menezes; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2017-10-15

    This work involved the optimization and validation of a method, according to Directive 2002/657/EC and the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual of Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brazil, for simultaneous extraction and determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize. The extraction procedure was based on a matrix solid phase dispersion approach, the optimization of which employed a sequence of different factorial designs. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determining these analytes using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method employed only 1g of silica gel for dispersion and elution with 70% ammonium formate aqueous buffer (50mmolL -1 , pH 9), representing a simple, cheap and chemically friendly sample preparation method. Trueness (recoveries: 86-106%), precision (RSD ≤19%), decision limits, detection capabilities and measurement uncertainties were calculated for the validated method. The method scope was expanded to popcorn kernels, white maize kernels and yellow maize grits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple and sensitive approach to quantify methyl farnesoate in whole arthropods by matrix-solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Rosa; Rodil, Rosario; Neuparth, Teresa; Santos, Miguel M; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, José Benito

    2017-07-28

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) is an arthropod hormone that plays a key role in the physiology of several arthropods' classes being implicated in biological processes such as molting and reproduction. The development of an analytical technique to quantify the levels of this compound in biological tissues can be of major importance for the field of aquaculture/apiculture conservation and in endocrine disruption studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to measure native levels of MF in the tissue of three representative species from different arthropods classes with environmental and/or economic importance. Thus, a new approach using whole organisms and the combination of matrix solid-phase dispersion with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. This method allows quantifying endogenous MF at low levels (LOQs in the 1.2-3.1ng/g range) in three arthropod species, and could be expanded to additional arthropod classes. The found levels ranged between 2 and 12ng/g depending on the studied species and gender. The overall recovery of the method was evaluated and ranged between 69 and 96%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aluminum powder size and microstructure effects on properties of boron nitride reinforced aluminum matrix composites fabricated by semi-solid powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cunguang; Guo, Leichen; Luo, Ji; Hao, Junjie; Guo, Zhimeng; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-01-01

    Al matrix composite reinforced by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with nearly full densification was successfully fabricated by the semi-solid powder metallurgy technique. The h-BN/Al composites were synthesized with elemental pure Al powder size of d_5_0=35, 12 and 2 μm. The powder morphology and the structural characteristics of the composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The density, Brinell hardness and compressive behavior of the samples were characterized. Density measurement of the Al composites revealed that the composite densification can be effectively promoted by plenty of embedded liquid phase under pressure. Composites prepared using Al powder with varying granularity showed different grain characteristics, and in situ recrystallization occurred inside the original grains with 35 μm Al powder. A sharp interface consisting of Al/Al_2O_3/h-BN was present in the composites. Both the compressive strength and the fracture strain of the investigated composites increased with the decrease of the Al powder size, along with the Brinell hardness. The composite with 2 μm Al powder exhibited the highest relative density (99.3%), Brinell harness (HB 128), compressive strength (763 MPa) and fracture strain (0.299).

  1. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Nande, Marta; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae) is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain) and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD), and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition. PMID:29039745

  2. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  3. Rapid and selective screening of melamine in bovine milk using molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Ning; Cai, Tianyu; Wu, Ruijun; Han, Kun

    2012-11-01

    A simple, convenient and high selective molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) using water-compatible cyromazine-imprinted polymer as adsorbent was proposed for the rapid screening of melamine from bovine milk coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized by cyromazine as dummy template and reformative methanol-water system as reaction medium showed higher affinity and selectivity to melamine, and so they were applied as the specific dispersant of MSPD to extraction of melamine and simultaneously eliminate the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.24-60.0μgg(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The recoveries of melamine at three spiked levels were ranged from 86.0 to 96.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD)≤4.0%. This proposed MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD and MIPs, and could be used as an alternative tool for analyzing the residues of melamine in complex milk samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Extraction and Determination of Ellagic Acid Content in the Peels of Six Iranian Pomegranates Cultivars Using a New Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Nazari Serenjeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:The peels of six Iranian pomegranates (Punica granatum L. cultivars, as a traditional medicine, were treated with a new miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD method for the HPLC determination of ellagic acid (EA. Materials and Methods:In the proposed method, only 10mg of the sample powder was ground and blended with an equal amount of C18 sorbent in an agate mortar. The use of the agate mortar with smooth surface facilitated the sample transfer into a cartridge and reduced the required amount of sample and sorbent. Micro volumes of dichloromethane, n-hexane and methanol were used as modifier, washing and elution solvents, respectively. The eluate was injected into an HPLC-UV system for the analysis. Results:Several factors such as the type and amount of dispersing sorbent, modifier, washing solvent and eluent were carefully studied and optimized. Six replicated analyses at the optimized conditions resulted in a recovery of 96.7% and a relative standard deviation of 5.87%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of EA in the peels samples. Conclusion:According to the ultimate results, the MSPD method is an efficient technique for the quantitative extraction of EA from the peels of pomegranate. Malas cultivar has the highest amount (18.1 g kg-1 of ellagic acid content compared to the other studied pomegranate cultivars.

  5. Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction of ultra trace polychlorinated biphenyls in water prior to GC-ECD determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Chunpeng; Li, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion (MMSPD) assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied to extract ultra traces of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCBs in water were adsorbed by micro particles of magnetic bamboo charcoal and then transferred into the elution solvent. PCBs in the elution solvent of the MMSPD were further concentrated into trace volume extraction solvent of the DLLME procedure. Under optimized conditions, good linearity in the range of 0.2–100 ng L"−"1 was obtained with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9987. Based on a signal-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.05–0.1 ng L"−"1. These LODs are much lower than those of MMSPD or DLLME alone. Relative standard deviations are between 4.9–8.2 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in lake and river water. Relative recoveries were 85.5–117.4 % for the spiked environmental water samples. (author)

  6. Determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in breast milk using vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion and direct chiral liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-González, M E; Rosales-Conrado, N

    2017-09-08

    A mixture of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and primary and secondary amine (PSA) sorbents was employed for the extraction and quantification of ibuprofen enantiomers from human breast milk, combining a vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion method (MSPD) and direct chiral liquid chromatography (CLC) with ultraviolet detection (UV). The MSPD sample preparation procedure was optimized focusing on both the type and amount of dispersion/sorption sorbents and the nature of the elution solvent, in order to obtain acceptable recoveries and avoiding enantiomer conversion. These MSPD parameters were optimized with the aid of an experimental design approach. Hence, a factorial design was used for identification of the main variables affecting the extraction process of ibuprofen enantiomers. Under optimum selected conditions, MSPD combined with direct CLC-UV was successfully applied for ibuprofen enantiomeric determination in breast milk at enantiomer levels between 0.15 and 6.0μgg -1 . The proposed analytical method also provided good repeatability, with relative standard deviations of 6.4% and 8.3% for the intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Grünastel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. PMID:27795344

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Grünastel, Barbara; Becker, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Matrix solid-phase dispersion on column clean-up/pre-concentration as a novel approach for fast isolation of abuse drugs from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Alvarez-Freire, Iván; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2010-10-08

    A simple and fast sample pre-treatment method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair has been developed. The MSPD approach consisted of using alumina (1.80 g) as a dispersing agent and 0.6M hydrochloric acid (4 mL) as an extracting solvent. For a fixed hair sample mass of 0.050 g, the alumina mass to sample mass ratio obtained was 36. A previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge (2 mL methanol, plus 2 mL ultrapure water, plus 1 mL of 0.2M/0.2M sodium hydroxide/boric acid buffer solution at pH 9.2) was attached to the end of the MSPD syringe for on column clean-up of the hydrochloric acid extract and for transferring the target compounds to a suitable solvent for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Therefore, the adsorbed analytes were directly eluted from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% acetic acid in methanol before concentration by N(2) stream evaporation and dry extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The optimization/evaluation of all the factors affecting the MSPD and on column clean-up procedures has led to a fast sample treatment, and analytes extraction and pre-concentration can be finished in approximately 30 min. The developed method has been applied to eight hair samples from poli-drug abusers and measured analyte concentrations have been found to be statistically similar (95% confidence interval) to those obtained after a conventional enzymatic hydrolysis method (Pronase E). Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  12. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  13. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  14. Water-equivalent solid sources prepared by means of two distinct methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Potiens Junior, Ademar

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory at IPEN is involved in developing radioactive water-equivalent solid sources prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide using two distinct methods for polymerization. One of them is the polymerization by high dose of 60 Co irradiation; in the other method the solid matrix-polyacrylamide is obtained from an aqueous solution composed by acrylamide, catalyzers and an aliquot of a radionuclide. The sources have been prepared in cylindrical geometry. In this paper, the study of the distribution of radioactive material in the solid sources prepared by both methods is presented. (author)

  15. Matriz de indicadores de sustentabilidade para a gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos Matrix of sustainability indicatorsfor the urban solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Santos Santiago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma matriz de indicadores de sustentabilidade para a gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos e a forma de sua construção. A construção foi realizada baseando-se em informações adquiridas em referências nacionais e internacionais. Os indicadores foram organizados em uma matriz preliminar, a qual passou por um processo de validação externa, com especialistas, por meio do método Delphi. Para a realização deste método foram necessárias duas rodadas. A matriz final possui 6 dimensões de sustentabilidade: política, tecnológica, econômica/financeira, ambiental/ecológica, conhecimento e inclusão social, contemplando 42 indicadores e 126 descritores. A matriz elaborada poderá ser utilizada como instrumento de avaliação e planejamento da gestão dos resíduos sólidos em municípios.This paper presents a matrix of Sustainability Indicators for the Urban Solid Waste Management and the way of its construction. The construction was performed based on information acquired in national and international references. The indicators were organized into a primary matrix, which has gone an external validation process, with experts through the Delphi method. To perform this method two rounds were necessary. The final matrix has 6 dimensions of sustainability: politics, technology, economic/financial, environmental/ecological, knowledge and social inclusion, comprising 42 indicators, 126 descriptors. The matrix produced can be used as a tool for evaluation and planning of the solid waste management in municipalities.

  16. Sustained Cytotoxicity of Wogonin on Breast Cancer Cells by Encapsulation in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suep Baek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While wogonin has been known to have cytotoxicity against various cancer cells, its bioavailability and cytotoxicity are low due to its low water solubility. Therefore, wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were fabricated using a hot-melted evaporation technique. The highest solubility of wogonin was observed in stearic acid. Hence, wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were composed of stearic acid as the lipid matrix. The physicochemical properties of the wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles exhibited sustained and controlled release up to 72 h. In addition, it was observed that the wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and inhibited poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the results indicate that wogonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles could be an efficient delivery system for the treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Music and emotion-a composer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives.

  18. Sensitive determination of three aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in human plasma by matrix solid-phase dispersion with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Li, Xuwen; Li, Lanjie; Li, Min; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Li, Peng; Jin, Yongri

    2016-05-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of three aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in human plasma was developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The plasma sample was directly purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was concentrated and further clarified by vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Some important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as type and amount of dispersing sorbent, type and volume of elution solvent, type and volume of extraction solvent, salt concentration as well as sample solution pH, were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method has good repeatability and reproducibility with intraday and interday relative standard deviations lower than 5.44 and 5.75%, respectively. The recoveries of the aconitum alkaloids ranged from 73.81 to 101.82%, and the detection limits were achieved within the range of 1.6-2.1 ng/mL. The proposed method offered the advantages of good applicability, sensitivity, simplicity, and feasibility, which makes it suitable for the determination of trace amounts of aconitum alkaloids in human plasma samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An Area Efficient Composed CORDIC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUIRRE-RAMOS, F.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a composed architecture for the CORDIC algorithm. CORDIC is a widely used technique to calculate basic trigonometric functions using only additions and shifts. This composed architecture combines an initial coarse stage to approximate sine and cosine functions, and a second stage to finely tune those values while CORDIC operates on rotation mode. Both stages contribute to shorten the algorithmic steps required to fully execute the CORDIC algorithm. For comparison purposes, the Xilinx CORDIC logiCORE IP and previously reported research are used. The proposed architecture aims at reducing hardware resources usage as its key objective.

  20. Novel solid-state synthesis of alpha-Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded in a MgO matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Zbořil, R.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Mašláň, M.; Petrovský, Eduard; Tuček, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2006), s. 607-616 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : nanocrystalline, materials, composite, iron, magnetite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.037, year: 2006

  1. Studies in Composing Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Peliti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies in composing elementary wavefunctions of a hydrogen-like atom and identify several relationships between physical phenomena and musical composition that helped guide the process. The hydrogen-like atom accurately describes some of the fundamental quantum mechanical phenomen...

  2. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  3. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  4. Composing Networks: Writing Practices on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article is an investigation of composing practices through which people create networks with mobile phones. By looking through the lens of actor-network theory, the author portrays the networking activity of mobile phone users as translation, what Latour describes as an infralanguage to which different disciplinary perspectives can be…

  5. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  6. Methodical evaluation and improvement of matrix compatible PDMS-overcoated coating for direct immersion solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (DI-SPME-GC)-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Shirey, Robert; Sidisky, Len; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-05-12

    The main quest for the implementation of direct SPME to complex matrices has been the development of matrix compatible coatings that provide sufficient sensitivity towards the target analytes. In this context, we present here a thorough evaluation of PDMS-overcoated fibers suitable for simultaneous extraction of different polarities analytes, while maintaining adequate matrix compatibility. For this, eleven analytes were selected, from various application classes (pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) and with a wide range of log P values (ranging from 1.43 to 6). The model matrix chosen was commercial Concord grape juice, which is rich in pigments such as anthocyanins, and contains approximately 20% of sugar (w/w). Two types of PDMS, as well as other intrinsic factors associated with the PDMS-overcoated fiber fabrication are studied. The evaluation showed that the PDMS-overcoated fibers considerably slowed down the coating fouling process during direct immersion in complex matrices of high sugar content. Longevity differences could be seen between the two types of PDMS tested, with a proprietary Sylgard(®) giving superior performance because of lesser amount of reactive groups and enhanced hydrophobicity. Conversely, the thickness of the outer layer did not seem to have a significant effect on the fiber lifetime. We also demonstrate that the uniformity of the overcoated PDMS layer is paramount to the achievement of reliable data and extended fiber lifetime. Employing the optimum overcoated fiber, limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.2-1.3 ng/g could be achieved. Additional improvement is attainable by introducing washing of the coatings after desorption, so that any carbon build-up (fouling) left on the coating surface after thermal desorption can be removed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Composability-Centered Convolutional Neural Network Pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xipeng [North Carolina State University; Guan, Hui [North Carolina State University; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    This work studies the composability of the building blocks ofstructural CNN models (e.g., GoogleLeNet and Residual Networks) in thecontext of network pruning. We empirically validate that a networkcomposed of pre-trained building blocks (e.g. residual blocks andInception modules) not only gives a better initial setting fortraining, but also allows the training process to converge at asignificantly higher accuracy in much less time. Based on thatinsight, we propose a {\\em composability-centered} design for CNNnetwork pruning. Experiments show that this new scheme shortens theconfiguration process in CNN network pruning by up to 186.8X forResNet-50 and up to 30.2X for Inception-V3, and meanwhile, the modelsit finds that meet the accuracy requirement are significantly morecompact than those found by default schemes.

  8. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    simplistic module that performs a mathematical operation on two numbers. The most important method is the Execute() method. This will get called when it is...addition, an input control is also specified in the example below. In this example, the mathematical operator can only be chosen from a preconfigured...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  9. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  10. Gene Composer in a structural genomics environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Mixon, Mark; Burgin, Alex; Staker, Bart; Stewart, Lance

    2011-01-01

    For structural biology applications, protein-construct engineering is guided by comparative sequence analysis and structural information, which allow the researcher to better define domain boundaries for terminal deletions and nonconserved regions for surface mutants. A database software application called Gene Composer has been developed to facilitate construct design. The structural genomics effort at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) requires the manipulation of large numbers of amino-acid sequences and the underlying DNA sequences which are to be cloned into expression vectors. To improve efficiency in high-throughput protein structure determination, a database software package, Gene Composer, has been developed which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their underlying gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bioinformatics steps used in modern structure-guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An example of the structure determination of H1N1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PB2 subunit is given

  11. D2O clusters isolated in rare-gas solids: Dependence of infrared spectrum on concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and matrix material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of D2O monomers and clusters isolated in rare-gas matrices were systematically reinvestigated under the control of the following factors: the D2O concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and rare-gas species. We clearly show that the cluster-size distribution is dependent on not only the D2O concentration but also the deposition rate of a sample; as the rate got higher, smaller clusters were preferentially formed. Under the heating procedures at different temperatures, the cluster-size growth was successfully observed. Since the monomer diffusion was not enough to balance the changes in the column densities of the clusters, the dimer diffusion was likely to contribute the cluster growth. The frequencies of the bonded-OD stretches of (D2O)k with k = 2-6 were almost linearly correlated with the square root of the critical temperature of the matrix material. Additional absorption peaks of (D2O)2 and (D2O)3 in a Xe matrix were assigned to the species trapped in tight accommodation sites.

  12. Comparative study on occurrence characteristics of matrix water in static and gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentations using low-field NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qin; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2015-12-01

    The water in a solid substrate is generally divided into three forms: hygroscopic, capillary, and free. However, there are few methods available for detecting the contents of different states of water in substrates. In this paper, low-field NMR and MRI were used to analyze the water occurrence characteristics of steam-exploded corn straw in solid-state fermentation (SSF). A significant linear relationship was found between the total NMR peak areas and the total water contents with a correlation coefficient of 0.993. It was further proved to be successful in comparing the contents and distributions of different states of water in static SSF and gas double-dynamic SSF (GDD-SSF). The results showed that among the three states of water, capillary water was the main form of water present and lost in substrates during fermentation. Total water and capillary water contents did not significantly differ as a result of different sample treatments, but hygroscopic water and free water contents in static SSF were respectively 0.38 and 2.98 times that in GDD-SSF with a packing height of 3 cm after fermentation. A relatively uniform water distribution and deep-depth region for microbial growth were found in GDD-SSF, suggesting that GDD-SSF was more suitable for industrialization. This technology has great potential for achieving efficient on-line water supply through water loss detection in SSF.

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-07

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  14. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Sun, Rui; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Na; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Aimin; Qiu, Fangping; Zhang, Hanqi

    2014-10-15

    The silica-supported ionic liquid (S-SIL) was prepared by impregnation and used as the dispersion adsorbent of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the simultaneous extraction of eight phenolic acids and flavonoids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, morin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, chrysin, and kaempferide in raw propolis. High performance liquid chromatography with a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3.5μm) was used for separation of the analytes. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile and the flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.5mL/min. The experimental conditions for silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion (S-SIL-based MSPD) were optimized. S-SIL containing 10% [C6MIM]Cl was used as dispersant, 20mL of n-hexane as washing solvent and 15mL of methanol as elution solvent. The ratio of S-SIL to sample was selected to be 4:1. The standard curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9995). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.8-22.2ngmL(-1) and 19.2-74.0ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determination were lower than 8.80% and 11.19%, respectively. The recoveries were between 65.51% and 92.32% with RSDs lower than 8.95%. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction, the present method consumed less sample, organic solvent, and extraction time, although the extraction yields obtained by S-SIL-based MSPD are slightly lower than those obtained by UAE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel solid-state synthesis of α-Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded in a MgO matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, O.; Zboril, R.; Pizurova, N.; Mashlan, M.; Petrovsky, E.; Tucek, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally induced reduction of amorphous Fe2O3 nanopowder (2-3 nm) with nanocrystalline Mg (~20 nm) under a hydrogen atmosphere is presented as a novel route to obtain α-Fe and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a MgO matrix. The phase composition, structural and magnetic properties, size and morphology of the nanoparticles were monitored by x-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy at temperatures of 24-300 K, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. Spherical magnetite nanoparticles prepared at a reaction temperature of 300 °C revealed a well-defined structure, with a ratio of tetrahedral to octahedral Fe sites of 1/2 being common for the bulk material. A narrow particle size distribution (20-30 nm) and high saturation magnetization (95 ± 5 A m2 kg-1) predispose the magnetite nanoparticles to various applications, including magnetic separation processes. The Verwey transition of Fe3O4 nanocrystals was found to be decreased to about 80 K. The deeper reduction of amorphous ferric oxide at 600 °C allows α-Fe (40-50 nm) nanoparticles to be synthesized with a coercive force of about 30 mT. They have a saturation magnetization 2.2 times higher than that of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles, which corresponds well with the ratio usually found for the pure bulk phases. The magnetic properties of α-Fe nanocrystals combined with the high chemical and thermal stability of the MgO matrix makes the prepared nanocomposite useful for various magnetic applications.

  16. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  17. Lipidomic fingerprint of almonds (Prunus dulcis L. cv Nonpareil) using TiO₂ nanoparticle based matrix solid-phase dispersion and MALDI-TOF/MS and its potential in geographical origin verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Dong, Wei; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2013-08-14

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) as sorbent was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids from almond samples, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) was employed for analysis. A remarkable increase in the signals of phospholipid accompanied by a decrease in those of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols was observed in the relevant mass spectra. The proposed method was applied to five batches of almonds originating from four geographical areas, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to normalize the relative amounts of the identified phospholipid species. The results indicated that the lipidomic fingerprint of almonds was successfully established by the negative ion mode spectrum, and the ratio of m/z 833.6 to 835.6 as well as m/z 821.6 could be introduced as potential markers for the differentiation of the tested almonds with different geographical origins. The whole method is of great promise for selective separation of phospholipids from nonphospholipids, especially the glycerides, and superior in fast screening and characterization of phospholipids in almond samples.

  18. Q&A: The AI composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Computer scientist Luc Steels uses artificial intelligence to explore the origins and evolution of language. He is best known for his 1999-2001 Talking Heads Experiment, in which robots had to construct a language from scratch to communicate with each other. Now Steels, who works at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), has composed an opera based on the legend of Faust, with a twenty-first-century twist. He talks about Mozart as a nascent computer programmer, how music maps onto language, and the blurred boundaries of a digitized world.

  19. Clasp Together: Composing for Mind and Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harry Whalley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore questions of agency, control and interaction and the embodied nature of musical performance in relation to the use of human-computer interaction (HCI, through the experimental work Clasp Together (beta 2 for small ensemble and live electronics by J. Harry Whalley. This practice-led research is situated at the intersection of music neurotechnology for sound synthesis and brain-computer interfaces (BCI, and explores the use of neural patterns from Electroencephalography (EEG as a control instrument. The composition departed from the traditional composer/performer paradigm by including both non-instrumental physical gestures and cognitive or emotive instructions integrated into the score.

  20. A combination of solid-phase extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction effectively reduces the matrix interference in liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection during pyraclostrobin analysis in perilla leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Waziha; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jung, Da-I; Kabir, Md Humayun; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Sung-Woo; Im, So Jeong; Lee, Young-Jun; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok; Son, Young-Wook; Lee, Kang-Bong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-12-01

    Perilla leaves contain many interfering substances; thus, it is difficult to protect the analytes during identification and integration. Furthermore, increasing the amount of sample to lower the detection limit worsens the situation. To overcome this problem, we established a new method using a combination of solid-phase extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction to analyze pyraclostrobin in perilla leaves by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection. The target compound was quantitated by external calibration with a good determination coefficient (R(2) = 0.997). The method was validated (in triplicate) with three fortification levels, and 79.06- 89.10% of the target compound was recovered with a relative standard deviation <4. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.0033 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The method was successfully applied to field samples collected from two different areas at Gwangju and Muan. The decline in the resiudue concentrations was best ascribed to a first-order kinetic model with half-lives of 5.7 and 4.6 days. The variation between the patterns was attributed to humidity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 nanorods composed of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    LiFePO4 nanorods composed of nanoparticles were synthesized from ... olivine structure; belongs to Pnma space group. ... LiFePO4 has one-dimensional (1D) channel along the ... phases of LiFePO4 ... Among the various synthesis techniques available, the .... Prosini P, Lisi M, Zane D and Pasquali M 2002 Solid State. Ion.

  3. Effects of solid-medium type on routine identification of bacterial isolates by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil W; Buchan, Blake W; Riebe, Katherine M; Parsons, Lauren N; Gnacinski, Stacy; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2012-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for the identification of bacteria. Factors that may alter protein profiles, including growth conditions and presence of exogenous substances, could hinder identification. Bacterial isolates identified by conventional methods were grown on various media and identified using the MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) using a direct smear method and an acid extraction method. Specimens included 23 Pseudomonas isolates grown on blood agar, Pseudocel (CET), and MacConkey agar (MAC); 20 Staphylococcus isolates grown on blood agar, colistin-nalidixic acid agar (CNA), and mannitol salt agar (MSA); and 25 enteric isolates grown on blood agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (XLD), Hektoen enteric agar (HE), salmonella-shigella agar (SS), and MAC. For Pseudomonas spp., the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 83% from blood, 78% from MAC, and 94% from CET. For Staphylococcus isolates, the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 95% from blood, 75% from CNA, and 95% from MSA. For enteric isolates, the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 100% from blood, 100% from MAC, 100% from XLD, 92% from HE, and 87% from SS. Extraction enhanced identification rates. The direct method of MALDI-TOF analysis of bacteria from selective and differential media yields identifications of varied confidence. Notably, Staphylococci spp. from CNA exhibit low identification rates. Extraction enhances identification rates and is recommended for colonies from this medium.

  4. Composite electrolytes composed of Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acid and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Song-Yul, E-mail: ms089203@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Go [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kurume National College of Technology, 1-1-1 Komorino, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8555 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Composite electrolytes composed of cesium hydrogen sulfate containing phosphotungstic acids (CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) were prepared by casting the corresponding precursor for application in fuel cells. Partially Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acids (Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) were formed in the CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} system by mechanochemical treatment. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Flexible composite electrolytes were obtained and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, into the SPEEK matrix. A maximum power density of 213 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained from the single cell test for 50H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-50CsHSO{sub 4} in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolyte at 80 deg. C and at 80 RH%. Electrochemical properties and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that three-dimensional cluster particles were formed and homogeneously distributed in the SPEEK matrix. The mechanochemically synthesized Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. The composite electrolytes were successfully formed with Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which consist of hydrogen bonding between surface of inorganic solid acids and not only -HSO{sub 4}{sup -} dissociated from CsHSO{sub 4} but also -SO{sub 3}H groups in the SPEEK.

  5. Bandgap calculation of two-dimensional mixed solid-fluid phononic crystals by Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fenglian; Wang Yuesheng; Zhang Chuanzeng

    2011-01-01

    A numerical method based on the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map is presented to compute the bandgaps of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are composed of square or triangular lattices of circular solid cylinders in a fluid matrix. The DtN map is constructed using the cylindrical wave expansion in a unit cell. A linear eigenvalue problem, which depends on the Bloch wave vector and involves relatively small matrices, is formulated. Numerical calculations are performed for typical systems with various acoustic impedance ratios of the solid inclusions and the fluid matrix. The results indicate that the DtN-map based method can provide accurate results for various systems efficiently. In particular it takes into account the fluid-solid interface conditions and the transverse wave mode in the solid component, which has been proven to be significant when the acoustic impedance of the solid inclusions is close to or smaller than that of the fluid matrix. For systems with an acoustic impedance of the inclusion much less than that of the matrix, physical flat bands appear in the band structures, which will be missed if the transverse wave mode in the solid inclusions is neglected.

  6. Novel Insight for Organic Matter Sourcing: Interest of Time Resolved Fluorescence to Qualify and Quantify PAH Content of Solid Matrix at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Perrette, Y.; Jacq, K.; Pousset, E.; Plassart, G.

    2017-12-01

    OM fluorescence is today a well-developed tool used to characterize and quantify organic matter (OM), but also to evaluate and discriminate OM fate and changes related to climate and environmental modifications. While fluorescence measurements on water and soils extracts provide information about organic fluxes today, solid phase fluorescence using natural archives allows to obtain high resolution records of OM evolution during time. These evolutions can be discussed in regards of climate and environmental perturbations detected in archives using different proxies, and thus provide keys for understanding factors driving carbon fluxes mechanisms. Among fluorescent organic species, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) have been used as probe molecules for organic contamination tracking. Moreover, monitoring studies have shown that PAH could also be used as markers to discriminates atmospheric and erosion factors leading to PAH and organic matter fluxes to the aquifer. PAH records in soils and natural archives appear as a promising proxy to follow both past atmospheric contamination and soil erosion. But, PAH fluorescence is difficult to discriminate from bulk OM fluorescence using steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technics as their fluorescence domains recover. Time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) increases the information provided by SSF technic, adding a time dimension to measurements and allowing to discriminate PAH fluorescence. We report here a first application of this technic on natural archives. The challenge is to obtain TRES signature along the sample, including for low PAH concentrations. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of high resolution TRES measurement as PAH carbon fluxes sources. Method is based on LIF instrument for solid phase fluorescence measurement. An instrument coupling an excitation system constituting by 2 pulsed lasers (266 and 355 nm) and a detection system was developed. This measurement provides high resolution record of

  7. Polymeric Sorbent with Controlled Surface Polarity: An Alternate for Solid-Phase Extraction of Nerve Agents and Their Markers from Organic Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kanchan Sinha; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chandra, Buddhadeb; Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2018-06-05

    Extraction and identification of lethal nerve agents and their markers in complex organic background have a prime importance from the forensic and verification viewpoint of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and commercially available solid phase silica cartridges are extensively used for this purpose. Silica cartridges exhibit limited applicability for relatively polar analytes, and acetonitrile extraction shows limited efficacy toward relatively nonpolar analytes. The present study describes the synthesis of polymeric sorbents with tunable surface polarity, their application as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) material against nerve agents and their polar as well as nonpolar markers from nonpolar organic matrices. In comparison with the acetonitrile extraction and commercial silica cartridges, the new sorbent showed better extraction efficiency toward analytes of varying polarity. The extraction parameters were optimized for the proposed method, which included ethyl acetate as an extraction solvent and n-hexane as a washing solvent. Under optimized conditions, method linearity ranged from 0.10 to 10 μg mL -1 ( r 2 = 0.9327-0.9988) for organophosphorus esters and 0.05-20 μg mL -1 ( r 2 = 0.9976-0.9991) for nerve agents. Limits of detection (S:N = 3:1) in the SIM mode were found in the range of 0.03-0.075 μg mL -1 for organophosphorus esters and 0.015-0.025 μg mL -1 for nerve agents. Limits of quantification (S:N = 10:1) were found in the range of 0.100-0.25 μg mL -1 for organophosphorus esters and 0.05-0.100 μg mL -1 for nerve agents in the SIM mode. The recoveries of the nerve agents and their markers ranged from 90.0 to 98.0% and 75.0 to 95.0% respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility (with relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) for organophosphorus esters were found in the range of 1.35-8.61% and 2.30-9.25% respectively. For nerve agents, the repeatability range from 1.00 to 7.75% and reproducibility

  8. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  9. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Guadeloupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Guadeloupe retains more than its colonial and cultural roots from France. It has been an Overseas Department of that country since 1946. Many of the art-musical styles of Guadeloupe are derived from the ballroom and couple-dance traditions of old, reinvented in a creole tradition: quadrilles, waltzes, biguines and mazurkas (Gerstin, 2007-2011. Two of the most influential and consumed popular music genres are gwoka and compas. The Festival Internationale Saint-Georges, held annually since 2010, was created to celebrate the music of Saint-Georges, to promote artists of colour and to perform classical music written by composers of African descent, though the main focus of the festival is classical music.

  11. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Guadeloupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gangelhoff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Guadeloupe retains more than its colonial and cultural roots from France. It has been an Overseas Department of that country since 1946. Many of the art-musical styles of Guadeloupe are derived from the ballroom and couple-dance traditions of old, reinvented in a creole tradition: quadrilles, waltzes, biguines and mazurkas (Gerstin, 2007-2011. Two of the most influential and consumed popular music genres are gwoka and compas. The Festival Internationale Saint-Georges, held annually since 2010, was created to celebrate the music of Saint-Georges, to promote artists of colour and to perform classical music written by composers of African descent, though the main focus of the festival is classical music.

  12. Nailed timber beams with I composed section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Nunes de Góes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of built-up timber beams, made of commercial dimensions pieces, is becoming increasingly important in timber structures in Brazil, mainly due to the ever-growing scarcity of timber elements in larger sizes. The built-up system has vast application, from beams for residential buildings to girders for small bridges. The objective of this work is the theoretical and experimental study of nailed timber beams with composed cross section I. The design procedure of EUROCODE 5/93 and NBR 7190/97 are shown and evaluated, as well as the theory about the subject matter. The experimental evaluation of the theoretical models was made by means of bending tests in prototypes of built-up timber beams. The obtained results shows that the EUROCODE 5/93 procedure is the most indicated for evaluating effective bending stiffness, normal and shear stresses as well as the load on fasteners.

  13. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  14. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, M; Zhao, W; Tanioka, K; Decrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A

    2012-11-01

    The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography∕fluoroscopy (R∕F) applications. The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all clinically relevant

  15. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  16. In matrix derivatization of trichloroethylene metabolites in human plasma with methyl chloroformate and their determination by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Meenu; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Sudhir Kumar; Khan, Haider A; Murthy, R C

    2013-04-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial chemical that has been widely used as metal degreaser and for many industrial purposes. In humans, TCE is metabolized into dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trichloroethanol (TCOH). A simple and rapid method has been developed for the quantitative determination of TCE metabolites. The procedure involves the in situ derivatization of TCE metabolites with methyl chloroformate (MCF) directly in diluted plasma samples followed by extraction and analysis with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Factors which can influence the efficiency of derivatization such as amount of MCF and pyridine (PYR), ratio of water/methanol were optimized. The factors which can affect the extraction efficiencies of SPME were screened using 2(7-4) Placket-Burman Design (PBD). A central composite design (CCD) was then applied to further optimize the most significant factors for optimum SPME extraction. The optimum factors for the SPME extraction were found to be 562.5mg of NaCl, pH at 1 and an extraction time of 22 min. Recoveries and detection limits of all three analytes in plasma were found to be in the range of 92.69-97.55% and 0.036-0.068 μg mL(-1) of plasma, respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be in the range of 0.990-0.995. The intra- and inter-day precisions for TCE metabolites were found to be in the range of 2.37-4.81% and 5.13-7.61%, respectively. The major advantage of this method is that MCF derivatization allows conversion of TCE metabolites into their methyl esters in very short time (≤30 s) at room temperature directly in the plasma samples, thus makes it a solventless analysis. The method developed was successfully applied to the plasma samples of humans exposed to TCE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  18. Preparation of magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites with phenyl-functionalized pore-walls as the restricted access matrix solid phase extraction adsorbent for the rapid extraction of parabens from water-based skin toners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianan; He, Xinying; Liu, Xiaodan; Sun, Xueni; Li, Yan

    2016-09-23

    In this work, phenyl-functionalized magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites (MG-mSiO2-Ph) were prepared and applied as restricted access matrix solid phase extraction (RAM-SPE) adsorbents to determine the parabens in commercially available retail cosmetics. MG-mSiO2-Ph composites were synthesized by a surfactant-mediated co-condensation reaction in which mesoporous silica with phenyl-functionalized pore-walls was coated on a magnetic graphene sheet. The obtained nano-composites were proven to be of sufficient quality for an ideal RAM-SPE adsorbent with a large specific surface area of 369m(2)g(-1), uniform mesopores of 2.8nm, and special phenyl-functionalized pore-walls. Parabens, such as methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben, were extracted from water-based skin toners using one step of the RAM-SPE and were then analysed by a HPLC-DAD system. The SPE conditions were optimized by studying the parameters, such as the adsorbent amount, elution solvent type, adsorption time and desorption time, that influence the extraction efficiency. For each analyte, there were good linearities of approximately 0.10-120μgmL(-1) with determination coefficients (R(2))>0.995. The sensitivity was as low as 0.01-0.025μgmL(-1) for the LOD, and the percent recoveries were 98.37-105.84%. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 1.44-6.11% (n=6) and 3.12-11.70% (n=6), respectively. The results indicated that this method with novel RAM-SPE adsorbents is sensitive and convenient. The results also offered an attractive alternative for the extraction and determination of paraben preservatives in a complex matrix, such as cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenyltrichlorosilane-functionalized magnesium oxide microspheres: Preparation, characterization and application for the selective extraction of dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils with matrix solid-phase dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Dongqin [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Fang [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sun, Xiaoli [Department of Chemistry, Lishui University, Lishui 32300 (China); Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium oxide microspheres functionalized with phenyltrichlorosilane (PTS-MgO) were synthesized by surface modification through silanization reaction, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The result indicated that PTS-MgO not only possessed the ability of enhancing the retention with PAHs, but also weakening the interference from chlorinated compounds. As a sorbent for the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction, PTS-MgO was used to selectively extract seven dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (DL-PAHs) from soil samples. Various parameters affecting the recoveries of seven DL-PAHs were investigated and optimized, such as sorbent/sample mass ratio, grinding time, rinsing and eluting conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method combining MSPD with HPLC-FLD exhibited good sensitivity (0.02–0.12 ng g{sup −1} detection of limits) and linearity (linear correlation coefficient greater than 0.9997). Satisfactory recoveries with DL-PAHs spiked at two levels (10 and 80 ng g{sup −1}) were obtained in the range of 72.2–113.1% with RSD < 9.6%, indicating that PTS-MgO had a potential in MSPD extraction of DL-PAHs in soils. Additionally, the proposed MSPD-HPLC-FLD method was also verified by detecting seven DL-PAHs in the standard reference soil. Based on the developed method, DL-PAHs in soil samples were detected with the concentration ranging from 70.08 to 555.05 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The total toxic equivalency quotients (TEQ) of seven DL-PAHs varied from 9.93 to 143.94 ng TEQ/g dw. - Highlights: • Phenyltrichlorosilane modified magnesium oxide microsphere (PTS-MgO) was presented. • PTS-MgO was used for a new sorbent material in matrix solid-phase dispersion. • The sorbent showed high selectivity for DL-PAHs with satisfactory recoveries obtained. • The

  20. Negative refraction imaging of solid acoustic waves by two-dimensional three-component phononic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin

    2008-01-01

    By using of the multiple scattering methods, we study the negative refraction imaging effect of solid acoustic waves by two-dimensional three-component phononic crystals composed of coated solid inclusions placed in solid matrix. We show that localized resonance mechanism brings on a group of flat single-mode bands in low-frequency region, which provides two equivalent frequency surfaces (EFS) close to circular. The two constant frequency surfaces correspond to two Bloch modes, a right-handed and a left-handed, whose leading mode are respectively transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) modes. The negative refraction behaviors of the two kinds of modes have been demonstrated by simulation of a Gaussian beam through a finite system. High-quality far-field imaging by a planar lens for transverse or longitudinal waves has been realized separately. This three-component phononic crystal may thus serve as a mode selector in negative refraction imaging of solid acoustic waves

  1. Re-Composing the Digital Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Barker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the temporality that is produced in some recent and historical examples of media art. In exploring works by Janet Cardiff, Dennis Del Favero, and Omer Fast, I use the philosophy of Michel Serres and Gilles Deleuze to understand the convergence of temporalities that are composed in the digital present, as one moment in time overlays another moment. Developing Serres' concept of multi-temporality and Deleuze's philosophy of time and memory into a means to understand the non-linear time presented in these works, I argue that the different compositional strategies enacted by these artists provide the aesthetic grounding to experience “temporal thickness.” From here I investigate the interactive digital artworks Frames by Grahame Weinbren and Can You See Me Now? by the artist group Blast Theory. In this investigation, I understand interaction with technology, and the way that it shapes our sensory and processual experience, as a specifically temporal and temporalizing transaction, where human movements in the present are overlayed by technological processes.

  2. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  3. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381 of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000 and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700–1.999. When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  4. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, He; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381) of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000) and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700-1.999). When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  5. Non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 Based vortex- synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the simultaneous determination of six compounds with various polarities from Forsythiae Fructus by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kunze; Li, Jin; Tian, Fei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2018-02-20

    A simple nonionic detergent - based vortex- synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion (ND-VSMSPD) method was developed to extract bioactive compounds in Forsythiae Fructus coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Nonionic detergent Triton 114 was firstly used as a green elution reagent in vortex- synchronized MSPD procedure. The optimum parameters were investigated to attain the best results, including Florisil as sorbent, 2mL 10% (v/v) nonionic detergent Triton X-114 as the elution reagent, 1:1 of sample/sorbent ratio, grinding for 3min, and whirling for 2min. The recoveries of the six compounds in Forsythiae Fructus were in the range of 95-104% (RSD arctigenin (r≥0.999). It was proved that the extraction yields of almost all compounds attained by the established vortex- synchronized MSPD, which required lower sample, reagent and time, were higher than the normal MSPD and the traditional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Consequently, this developed vortex- synchronized MSPD coupled with simple UHPLC method could be efficiently applies to extract and analyze the target compounds in real Forsythiae Fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Composing Interactive Dance Pieces for the MotionComposer, a device for Persons with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsland, Andreas; Wechsler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The authors have developed a new hardware/software device for persons with disabilities (the MotionComposer), and in the process created a number of interactive dance pieces for non- disabled professional dancers. The paper briefly describes the hardware and motion tracking software of the device before going into more detail concerning the mapping strategies and sound design applied to three interactive dance pieces. The paper concludes by discussing a particular philosophy championing trans...

  8. On Consensus of Star-Composed Networks with an Application of Laplacian Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we mainly study the performance of star-composed networks which can achieve consensus. Specifically, we investigate the convergence speed and robustness of the consensus of the networks, which can be measured by the smallest nonzero eigenvalue λ2 of the Laplacian matrix and the H2 norm of the graph, respectively. In particular, we introduce the notion of the corona of two graphs to construct star-composed networks and apply the Laplacian spectrum to discuss the convergence speed and robustness for the communication network. Finally, the performances of the star-composed networks have been compared, and we find that the network in which the centers construct a balanced complete bipartite graph has the most advantages of performance. Our research would provide a new insight into the combination between the field of consensus study and the theory of graph spectra.

  9. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables

  10. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, 7800024 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago, 9170124 (Chile)

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  11. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    A desirable goal for cryptographic protocols is to guarantee security when the protocol is composed with other protocol instances. Universally composable (UC) protocols provide this guarantee in a strong sense: A protocol remains secure even when composed concurrently with an unbounded number of ...

  12. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  13. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  14. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  15. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on ionic liquid-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles for the determination of flavonoids in bio-matrix samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Yuan, Danhua; Gao, Zhanqi; Xiao, Deli; He, Hua; Dai, Hao; Peng, Jun; Li, Nan

    2014-01-10

    A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on mixed hemimicelles of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coated Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of flavonoids in bio-matrix samples. A comparative study on the use of RTILs (C16mimBr) and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs as sorbents was presented. Owing to bigger adsorption amounts for analytes, RTILs-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs was selected as MSPE materials and three analytes luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol can be quantitatively extracted and simultaneously determined coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in urine samples. No interferences were caused by proteins or endogenous compounds. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9993) for all calibration curves was obtained, and the limits of detection (LOD) for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol were 0.10 ng/mL, 0.50 ng/mL and 0.20 ng/mL in urine samples, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries (93.5-97.6%, 90.1-95.4% and 93.3-96.6% for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol) in biological matrices were achieved. It was notable that while using a small amount of Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs (4.0 mg) and C16mimBr (1.0 mg), satisfactory preconcentration factors and extraction recoveries for the three flavonoids were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a mixed hemimicelles MSPE method based on RTILs and Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs magnetic separation has ever been used for pretreatment of complex biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments ℓ up to rank 10 and of the linear polarizability of the H2 molecule in the condensed phase have been computed taking into account the effect of the intermolecular potential. Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is ...

  19. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  20. Simultaneous determination and qualitative analysis of six types of components in Naoxintong capsule by miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Jiang, Yan; Ding, Mingya; Li, Jin; Hao, Jia; He, Jun; Wang, Hui; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2018-02-03

    A simple and effective sample preparation process based on miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylqunic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylqunic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, and salvianolic acid B), flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, calycosin, and formononetin), lactones (ligustilide and butyllidephthalide), monoterpenoids (paeoniflorin), phenanthraquinones (cryptotanshinone), and furans (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in Naoxintong capsule by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography. The optimized condition was that 25 mg Naoxintong powder was blended homogeneously with 100 mg Florisil PR for 4 min. One milliliter of methanol/water (75:25, v/v) acidified by 0.05% formic acid was selected to elute all components. It was found that the recoveries of the six types of components ranged from 61.36 to 96.94%. The proposed miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the six types of components in Naoxintong capsules. The results demonstrated that the proposed miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography could be used as an environmentally friendly tool for the extraction and determination of multiple bioactive components in natural products. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Birth Location, Migration and Clustering of Important Composers: Historical Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O’Hagan, John

    2010-01-01

    and 1899. This information is compiled from the large, Grove Music Online (2009) encyclopedia. There is also some discussion of the biases evident in choosing “significant” composers. The data show a marked level ofmigration of important composers going back many centuries suggesting that the phenomenon......This article examines the 522 most important composers in the last 800 years, as identified by Charles Murray (2003), in terms of their birth location and migration. It also examines detailed patterns of migration and tendencies to cluster in certain cities for those composers born between 1750...

  2. Composer: Authoring Tool for iTV Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); R.M.R. Costa; L.F.G. Soares

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper presents Composer, an authoring tool to help creating interactive TV programs for the Brazilian Terrestrial Digital TV System. In Composer, several abstractions are defined creating different document views (structural, temporal, layout and textual). One of these views, the

  3. FeelSound : Collaborative Composing of Acoustic Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    2009-01-01

    FeelSound is a multi-user application for collaboratively composing music in an entertaining way. Up to four composers can jointly create acoustic music on a top-projection multitouch sensitive table. The notes of an acoustic instrument are represented on a harmonic table and, by drawing shapes on

  4. Affective evolutionary music composition with MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Eklund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the MetaCompose music generator, a compositional, extensible framework for affective music composition. In this context ‘affective’ refers to the music generator’s ability to express emotional information. The main purpose of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...

  5. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  6. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  7. Ultrafine Ceramic Grains Embedded in Metallic Glass Matrix: Achieving Superior Wear Resistance via Increase in Both Hardness and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Wen, Mao; Dai, Xuan; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Kan

    2018-05-09

    As structural materials, crystalline or metallic glass materials have attracted scientific and practical interests. However, some mechanisms involving critical size and shear bands have adverse effects on their mechanical properties. Here, we counter these two effects by introducing a special structure with ultrafine ceramic grains (with a diameter of ∼2.0 nm) embedded into a metallic glass matrix, wherein the grains are mainly composed of a Ta-W-N solid solution structure in nature, surrounded by a W-based amorphous matrix that contains Ta and N atoms. Such a structure is in situ formed during preparation, which combines the merits of both phases to achieve simultaneous increase in hardness and toughness relative to references (pure TaN and W) and thus superior wear resistance. Even more remarkable, a favorable variation of increased hardness but reduced elasticity modulus can be induced by this structure. Intrinsically, ultrafine ceramic grains (free of dislocations), embedded in the metallic glass matrix, could prevent shear band propagation within the glass matrix and further improve the hardness of the matrix material. In return, such glass matrix allows for stiffness neutralization and structural relaxation to reduce the elasticity modulus of ceramic grains. This study will offer a new guidance to fabricate ultrahigh-performance metal-based composites.

  8. A Time-Composable Operating System for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziccardi, Marco; Schoeberl, Martin; Vardanega, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    -composable operating system, on top of a time-composable processor, facilitates incremental development, which is highly desirable for industry. This paper makes a twofold contribution. First, we present enhancements to the Patmos processor to allow achieving time composability at the operating system level. Second......, we extend an existing time-composable operating system, TiCOS, to make best use of advanced Patmos hardware features in the pursuit of time composability.......In the last couple of decades we have witnessed a steady growth in the complexity and widespread of real-time systems. In order to master the rising complexity in the timing behaviour of those systems, rightful attention has been given to the development of time-predictable computer architectures...

  9. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  10. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  11. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  12. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  13. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  14. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  15. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  17. The contribution of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to understanding biomineralization: Atomic and molecular structure of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has had a major impact on our understanding of the structure of mineralized tissues, in particular bone. Bone exemplifies the organic-inorganic composite structure inherent in mineralized tissues. The organic component of the extracellular matrix in bone is primarily composed of ordered fibrils of collagen triple-helical molecules, in which the inorganic component, calcium phosphate particles, composed of stacks of mineral platelets, are arranged around the fibrils. This perspective argues that key factors in our current structural model of bone mineral have come about through NMR spectroscopy and have yielded the primary information on how the mineral particles interface and bind with the underlying organic matrix. The structure of collagen within the organic matrix of bone or any other structural tissue has yet to be determined, but here too, this perspective shows there has been real progress made through application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with other techniques. In particular, NMR spectroscopy has highlighted the fact that even within these structural proteins, there is considerable dynamics, which suggests that one should be cautious when using inherently static structural models, such as those arising from X-ray diffraction analyses, to gain insight into molecular roles. It is clear that the NMR approach is still in its infancy in this area, and that we can expect many more developments in the future, particularly in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bone diseases and ageing.

  18. The Ulster Cycle: Cultural Significance for Irish Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Goff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than three hundred years, Irish composers have engaged with tales from early Irish saga-literature which comprises four main series: Mythological, Ulster and Fenian cycles as well as the Cycle of Kings. This literary corpus dates from 600–1200 CE and is amongst the oldest in Europe. The fragmented history of the literature reveals a continuity of tradition in that the ancient sagas evolved from the oral Irish tradition, were gradually recorded in Irish, and kept alive in modern times through translation into the English language. The timelessness and social impact of these sagas, centuries after they were documented, resonate with Irish composers through the identification of local features and/or universal themes of redemption, triumph or tragedy depicted in the literature. The focus here is on sagas from the Ulster Cycle as they have been most celebrated by Irish composers; the majority of which have been composed since Thomas Kinsella’s successful translation of the Táin Bó Cuailnge in 1969. How the composers chose to embrace the Irish past lies in each composer’s execution of the peculiar local and universal themes exhibited in the sagas. The aim of this article is to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion of the cultural significance of this literary corpus for Irish composers by exploring an area of Irish musicological discourse that has not been hitherto documented. A brief literary background to the Ulster Cycle leads to a discussion of what prompted the composers to engage with Ulster Cycle themes at a particular time in their respective careers. An exploration of the various stylistic features employed in selected works sheds light on the cultural ideologies that prevailed in Ireland at the time of their respective composition.

  19. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter II: principles and theory of radiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation of a count rate distribution obtained from radiometric assay of a given waste items population in terms of source strength distribution is discussed. A model for the evaluation of errors, arising from non uniform source density distribution (Pu) within the item volume and heterogeneity of matrix materials, is presented. Points concerning calibration procedures and representativity of reference materials are dealt with. Qualification procedures for possible monitoring systems are outlined on the basis of comparison with reference systems. The latter are composed of reference monitors based on high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive and active neutron techniques. The importance of information upon the elemental composition and density distribution of matrix materials for the interpretation of radiometric assay of solid wastes is stressed

  20. A wave propagation matrix method in semiclassical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.

    1977-05-01

    A wave propagation matrix method is used to derive the semiclassical formulae of the multiturning point problem. A phase shift matrix and a barrier transformation matrix are introduced to describe the processes of a particle travelling through a potential well and crossing a potential barrier respectively. The wave propagation matrix is given by the products of phase shift matrices and barrier transformation matrices. The method to study scattering by surface transparent potentials and the Bloch wave in solids is then applied

  1. Neurosyphilis in Anglo-American Composers and Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Kust, Davor; Breitenfeld, Tomislav; Prpić, Marin; Lucijanić, Marko; Zibar, Davor; Hostić, Vedran; Franceschi, Maja; Bolanča, Ante

    2017-09-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report. In this group of Anglo-American composers and musicians, most of them died from progressive paralysis while still in the creative phase of life. Additionally, diagnoses of eleven other famous neurosyphilitic composers, as well as basic biographic data on ten less known composers that died from neurosyphilis-progressive paralysis are also briefly mentioned. In conclusion, neurosyphilis can cause serious neurological damage, as well as permanent disability or death, preventing further work and skill improvement.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell integral matrix tape and bubble barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell matrix material is described made up of a matrix tape portion and a bubble barrier portion. The matrix tape portion comprises particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte, ceramic particles and a polymeric binder, the matrix tape being flexible, pliable and having rubber-like compliance at room temperature. The bubble barrier is a solid material having fine porosity preferably being bonded to the matrix tape. In operation in a fuel cell, the polymer binder burns off leaving the matrix and bubble barrier providing superior sealing, stability and performance properties to the fuel cell stack

  3. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  4. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...... idea through their exposition and staging of the composer. The examples used to illustrate my argument are analyses of All the Time (Hodkinson, 2001), Buenos Aires (Steen-Andersen 2014) and Ord for Ord (Rønsholdt, 2014)...

  5. Ritornelo: composição passo a passo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ferraz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to present the mecanism of « objects incrustation » and the « continuous variation of composition techniques » – operators that guided the composition of Ritornelo, for flute and percussion. The article also focus the relation between these strategies and an especific way to compose where sound and musical objects don’t assume the first position in the compositional plan. The technical aspects of Ritornelo’s composition are also related to a way of composing withouth a previous plan, at the same time, it doesn’t follow the cause-effect logic present ed in more tradicional musical improvisation.

  6. Composable power management with energy and power budgets per application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, A.; Molnos, A.M.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    Embedded Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) commonly run multiple applications at once. These applications may have different time criticalities, i.e. non real-time, soft real-time, and firm or hard real-time. Application-level composability is used to provide each application with its own

  7. The Nigerian Art Music Composer, His Training, Vocal Compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The music arena has undergone some changes within the past decades in Nigeria; partly due to contact of Nigerians with music of the other world cultures and due to intercultural borrowings within Nigeria. This trend has been a masterminding force in the shaping of the musical arena in Nigeria with the art music composer ...

  8. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  9. Sound Computational Interpretation of Formal Encryption with Composed Keys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laud, P.; Corin, R.J.; In Lim, J.; Hoon Lee, D.

    2003-01-01

    The formal and computational views of cryptography have been related by the seminal work of Abadi and Rogaway. In their work, a formal treatment of encryption that uses atomic keys is justified in the computational world. However, many proposed formal approaches allow the use of composed keys, where

  10. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  11. Composes organiques et activités antioxydantes de Ampelocissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2015 ... additives or the necessary supplements in the food preserving. Key words: Composed organic, activity antioxidant, Ampelocissus multistriata. INTRODUCTION. Sur le plan physiologique, les végétaux verts en cours de croissance utilisent l'énergie que leur fournit la lumière solaire captée par les feuilles.

  12. Quiet Grove in a Savage Garden: A Composer's Bicameral Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This author, a composer, states that music has been the primal generator of his existence and the definition of living creatively; and that understanding the bicameral reality of creativity through a study of the nature of consciousness involves a symbiotic host of disciplines. In the study of the occurrence of "creativity," consciousness as well…

  13. Component Composability Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    1997-01-01

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  14. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  15. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C-800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400°C.

  16. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Tavallali, H.; Shokrollahi, A.; Zahedi, M.; Montazerozohori, M.; Soylak, M.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and simple solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of trace and toxic metals in food samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of zinc, nickel, iron and lead on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina, which is also chelated with bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine (BHAPN). The retained analyte ions on modified solid phase were eluted using 8 mL of 4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The analyte determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some metal ions and anions on the recoveries of understudy analyte ions were investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in some traditional food samples from Iran.

  17. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    primitives and protocols while retaining security guarantees. Moreover, commitments with homomorphic properties enable significantly more efficient constructions of protocols for applications such as zero knowledge proofs, two-party computation through garbled circuits and multiparty computation. However......, achieving universal composability for commitment schemes often sacrifices both concrete and asymptotic efficiency, specially if homomorphic properties are required. In this thesis we bridge the gap between stand alone and universally composable commitment schemes, for which we achieve optimal efficiency...... related to a statistical security parameter as a setup. The rest of our constructions leverage secret sharing and coding theory techniques, including a novel method for verifying that a large number of strings are codewords of a given linear code with linear complexity....

  18. Magnetic motion capture system using LC resonant magnetic marker composed of Ni-Zn ferrite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashi, S.; Toyoda, M.; Ohya, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Yabukami, S.; Ishiyama, K.; Arai, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a magnetic motion capture system using an LC resonant magnetic marker. The proposed system is composed of an exciting coil, an LC marker, and a 5x5-matrix search coil array (25 search coils). The LC marker is small and has a minimal circuit with no battery and can be driven wirelessly by the action of electromagnetic induction. It consists of a Ni-Zn ferrite core (3 mmφx10 mm) with a wound coil and a chip capacitor, forming an LC series circuit with a resonant frequency of 186 kHz. The relative position accuracy of the system is less than 1 mm within the area of 100 mm 3 up to 150 mm from the search coil array. Compared with dc magnetic systems, the proposed system is applicable for precision motion capture in optically isolated spaces without magnetic shielding because the system is not greatly influenced by earth field noise

  19. The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Christopher G; Vila, Taissa; Romo, Jesus A; Montelongo-Jauregui, Daniel; Wall, Gina; Ramasubramanian, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2017-03-01

    A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans -the most frequent fungal pathogen-are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections.

  20. The methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov N.P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The original methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls was considered. More than 10 publications were analysed. On the lesson with fit balls the problem was revealed. In the experiment took part 30 students at the age from 18 till 21. All the famous exercises were systematized. As a result, a big attractiveness and assimilability of the proposed complex was revealed. The effectiveness of the complex of physical exercises with fit balls for students was proved.

  1. Semantic Service Discovery Techniques for the composable web

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Villamor, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the problem of resource and service discovery in the context of the composable web. In the current web, mashup technologies allow developers reusing services and contents to build new web applications. However, developers face a problem of information flood when searching for appropriate services or resources for their combination. To contribute to overcoming this problem, a framework is defined for the discovery of services and resources. In this framework, thr...

  2. Nanoscale biomemory composed of recombinant azurin on a nanogap electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Min, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate a nanoscale biomemory device composed of recombinant azurin on nanogap electrodes. For this, size-controllable nanogap electrodes are fabricated by photolithography, electron beam lithography, and surface catalyzed chemical deposition. Moreover, we investigate the effect of gap distance to optimize the size of electrodes for a biomemory device and explore the mechanism of electron transfer from immobilized protein to a nanogap counter-electrode. As the distance of the nanogap electrode is decreased in the nanoscale, the absolute current intensity decreases according to the distance decrement between the electrodes due to direct electron transfer, in contrast with the diffusion phenomenon of a micro-electrode. The biomemory function is achieved on the optimized nanogap electrode. These results demonstrate that the fabricated nanodevice composed of a nanogap electrode and biomaterials provides various advantages such as quantitative control of signals and exclusion of environmental effects such as noise. The proposed bioelectronics device, which could be mass-produced easily, could be applied to construct a nanoscale bioelectronics system composed of a single biomolecule. (paper)

  3. Composing the theme of city to be diverse and sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranegara, H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To give a path for developing a city needs a theme. City’s goal stated in a document of a spatial plan were too broad and insufficient detail in giving a direction. To make more detail and precise, every city has to compose a city theme. It is developed based on the potential, the uniqueness, the excellence, and the sustainability of its human resources, natural resources, and man-made resources. An integration among the three of resources which have the highest score become a theme of the city. The aim of this research was to formulate the conceptual framework to compose a city theme. The research design was the interview survey in Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, and Kupang. Informants were the government officials, academics, figures, the private sector and public who considered related to the intended information being collected. Having set the conceptual framework, the interview directed to check the implementation in realities. The result was that the conceptual framework could accommodate the phenomenon of composing the theme of the city. Yet, it was a preliminary in nature and needed more research to get a complete result.

  4. Extra-fibrillar matrix mechanics of annulus fibrosus in tension and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Daniel H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-07-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the disk is a highly nonlinear and anisotropic material that undergoes a complex combination of loads in multiple orientations. The tensile mechanical behavior of AF in the lamellar plane is dominated by collagen fibers and has been accurately modeled using exponential functions. On the other hand, AF mechanics perpendicular to the lamella, in the radial direction, depend on the properties of the ground matrix with little to no fiber contribution. The ground matrix is mainly composed of proteoglycans (PG), which are negatively charged macromolecules that maintain the tissue hydration via osmotic pressure. The mechanical response of the ground matrix can be divided in the contribution of osmotic pressure and an elastic solid part known as extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Mechanical properties of the ground matrix have been measured using tensile and confined compression tests. However, EFM mechanics have not been measured directly. The objective of this study was to measure AF nonlinear mechanics of the EFM in tension and compression. To accomplish this, a combination of osmotic swelling and confined compression in disk radial direction, perpendicular to the lamella, was used. For this type of analysis, it was necessary to define a stress-free reference configuration. Thus, a brief analysis on residual stress in the disk and a procedure to estimate the reference configuration are presented. The proposed method was able to predict similar swelling deformations when using different loading protocols and models for the EFM, demonstrating its robustness. The stress-stretch curve of the EFM was linear in the range 0.9 disk and can be applied to differentiate between functional degeneration effects such as PG loss and stiffening due to cross-linking.

  5. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  6. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  7. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  9. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  10. Microscopic and spectroscopic properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films composed of flavins and their aggregation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Kuk; Jo, Jihee; Jang, Dasol; Jang, Hyeong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Isoalloxazine derivatives (flavins) are commonly found in natural systems that are involved in an electron transfer process, such as photosynthetic or metabolic systems, and are also frequently used as electron donors in organic-based electronic devices. As an example, molecular photodiodes composed of 7,8-dimethyl-10-dodecyl isoalloxazine (DDI) have been fabricated by the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique, and such devices showed characteristic properties of photodiodes. The efficiency of molecular photodiodes is dependent on the assembled structure of the LB films, which is related to the morphology of the LB films. For that reason, Lim has investigated the morphology of LB films, and found that rod-shaped domains are formed when a DDI monolayer is transferred to a solid substrate above a specific surface pressure (Thin Solid Films, 531 (2013) 499). In that paper, rod-shaped domains were revealed to be collapsed triple layers, i.e., double layers collapsed on the monolayer; however, the detailed aggregation structure of the constituent molecules (DDI) has not been studied. Herein, we investigate the microscopic and spectroscopic properties of LB films composed of DDI. We apply the extended dipole model to explain spectral changes in the absorption spectra and propose an aggregation structure for DDI in the LB films. - Highlights: • Aggregation structure of DDI in LB films was experimentally investigated. • Theoretical estimation is in good agreement with experimental result. • Molecular aggregation structure for DDI in LB films was proposed. • Molecular configuration in LB films is changed from side-by-side to face-to-face.

  11. Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Silveira Dórea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1 showed an average recovery of 96.2% (71.4-128.4% and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%. The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

  12. ANALYSING EFFICIENCY OF AGGRESSIVE ETF-COMPOSED PORTFOLIO STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Zaviyalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates investment characteristics of Exchange Traded Funds, a unique category of mutual funds which can be traded like any common equity on any stock exchange through authorized broker companies. One can buy and sell ETFs during the entire trading session, one can open short positions using ETFs and trade on margin. ETF price is determined by supply and demand and due to arbitrage, prices are very close to net asset values (NAV. ETFs attract both individual and institutional investors because they combine the benefits of open-end and closed-end funds. The article explores the results of statistical research to find a principal opportunity to implement an "aggressive" ETF-composed portfolio strategy which can secure stable above-market returns. To put it otherwise, the research aims to test the market efficiency hypothesis in the sector of ETF-composed portfolios. The research methodology centers on statistically testing the null hypothesis whether the average S&P500 return and each of the ETF-composed portfolio strategies average returns are equal to zero. To test such a hypothesis one should perform t-tests with several significance levels. If the null hypothesis is rejected on a certain significance level, this would mean that the average return of the portfolio strategy is significantly different from the average return of the S&P500 index. Based on the results of the t-tests, one can conclude whether the above-mentioned market segment is inefficient or partially inefficient, which would mean one can find an "aggressive"strategy to secure stable above-market returns.

  13. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  14. Drug product immobilization in recycled polyethylene/polypropylene reclaimed from municipal solid waste: experimental and numerical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Walid; Slika, Wael; Mawla, Zara; Saad, George

    2017-12-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying suitable routes for the disposal of pharmaceutical wastes. This study investigates the potential of matrix materials composed of recycled polyethylene/polypropylene reclaimed from municipal solid wastes at immobilizing pharmaceutical solid wastes. Diclofenac (DF) drug product was embedded in boards of recycled plastic material, and leaching in water was assessed at various temperatures. DF concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and revealed a maximum leachable fraction of 4% under accelerated conditions of 70°C, and less than 0.3% following 39 days of exposure at 20°C. The Ensemble Kalman Filter was employed to characterize the leaching behavior of DF. The filter verified the occurrence of leaching through diffusion, and was successful in predicting the leaching behavior of DF at 50°C and 70°C.

  15. Solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, J

    2001-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) uses a small volume of sorbent dispersed typically on the surface of small fibres, to isolate and concentrate analytes from sample matrix. After contact with sample, analytes are absorbed or adsorbed by the fibre phase (depending on the nature of the coating) until an equilibrium is reached in the system. The amount of an analyte extracted by the coating at equilibrium is determined by the magnitude of the partition coefficient of the analyte between the sample matrix and the coating material. After the extraction step, the fibres are transferred, with the help of a syringe-like handling device, to analytical instrument, for separation and quantitation of target analytes. This technique integrates sampling, extraction and sample introduction and is a simple way of facilitating on-site monitoring. Applications of this technique include environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, process monitoring, clinical, forensic, food, flavour, fragrance and drug analyses, in laboratory and on-site analysis.

  16. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  17. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPOSING A REFERENCE BOOK OF REGIONAL TOPONYMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Dmitriy Yuryevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic issues of composing a reference book of regional toponyms – a genre that requires special consideration in national lexicography. The assortment of these issues gave the possibility to carry out complex description of regional toponyms on the basis of semantic, functional, and orpthologuos criteria that let unify the names of Volgograd region settlements that are registered in various documents. The significance of the composed reference book is determined by several factors – the presence of local subsystems of geographical names in Russian toponymy; the inconsistency of current orthography norms on using capital letter in compound proprius names and fused-with-hyphen spelling of toponyms and off-toponym derivations; the lack of linguistically justified explanation of peculiarities of grammatical norms in the field of proper names use. The reference book of regional toponyms is based on the object description (toponymic vocabulary, principles of lexical units selection (description of spelling and grammatical properties of toponyms, encyclopedic information, the glossary (full list of toponyms of Volgograd region, typical article. The articles in the reference book are arranged in lexicographical zones with grammatical and semantic markers, lexicographical illustrations, other lexicographical labels, word etymology including. The reference book on Volgograd region toponymy is addressed to executive and administration authorities, journalists, regional ethnographers.

  18. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  19. Study of theophylline stability on polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Kiriaki M.S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Bustillos, Oscar V.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2007-01-01

    Theophylline is a bronchodilator, commonly known and used as a drug model in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The stability of the drug and the matrix, scope of this study, was evaluated in the solid formulation. Polymeric matrix based on PHB containing the drug (theophylline) was prepared and submitted to radiation sterilization at different doses of: 5, 10, 20 and 25 kGy using a Cobalt- 60 source. The modified drug release of theophylline sterilized tablets has been studied. Modern techniques of HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (Thermogravimetry analysis) were employed. The results have shown the influence of sterilization by radiation process in both the theophylline and the polymeric drug delivery matrix samples. The increasing of polymeric matrix crosslinking under radiation conditions retards the drug release while the theophylline structure is stable under the radiation (author)

  20. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  1. Fast and robust direct immersion solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method employing a matrix compatible fiber for determination of triazole fungicides in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica A Souza; Lopez-Avila, Viorica; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-10-25

    A fast and robust method was developed for the determination of ten triazole fungicides in fruit samples using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS). In this work, a newly developed concept of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent, which allows for direct immersion extraction in complex food matrices, has been applied in the analysis of 10 triazole fungicides in grapes and strawberries pulps. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including extraction temperature, sample pH, and ionic strength, agitation speed, extraction and desorption times. Under optimized conditions, the method was linear for over 4 orders of magnitude in concentration, with linear regression coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 for all test compounds in both matrices. Method reproducibility, as determined by analysis of spiked grapes and strawberries, was better than ±20%. The limits of quantitation objective (LOQs) ranged from 0.25 to 5 ng g(-1) for both matrices, well below the maximum residues levels allowed for those compounds in both matrices. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of commercial samples of grapes and strawberries. Finally, the new SPME method was compared to a modified version of t QuEChERS AOAC method: the limits of quantitation reached by SPME were at least one order of magnitude lower than those achieved by the QuEChERS method, whereas precision and accuracy were comparable for both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exact solution of a coupled spin–electron linear chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čisárová, Jana; Strečka, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Exact solution of a coupled spin–electron linear chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons is found. The investigated spin–electron model is exactly solvable by the use of a transfer-matrix method after tracing out the degrees of freedom of mobile electrons delocalized over a couple of interstitial (decorating) sites. The exact ground-state phase diagram reveals an existence of five phases with different number of mobile electrons per unit cell, two of which are ferromagnetic, two are paramagnetic and one is antiferromagnetic. We have studied in particular the dependencies of compressibility and specific heat on temperature and electron density. - Highlights: • A coupled spin–electron chain composed of Ising spins and mobile electrons is exactly solved. • Quantum paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ground states are found. • A compressibility shows a non-monotonous dependence on temperature and electron density. • Thermal dependences of specific heat display two distinct peaks

  3. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  4. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of linear algebra is devoted to reducing a matrix (via similarity or unitary similarity) to another that has lots of zeros. The simplest such theorem is the Schur triangularization theorem. This says that every matrix is unitarily similar to an upper triangular matrix. Our aim here is to show that though it is very easy to prove it ...

  5. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  6. Gas transport behavior of mixed-matrix membranes composed of silica nanoparticles in a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1)

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Juhyeon; Chung, Wookjin; Pinnau, Ingo; Song, Jingshe; Du, Naiying; Robertson, Gilles P.; Guiver, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, high-free volume, glassy ladder-type polymers, referred to as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM), have been developed and their reported gas transport performance exceeded the Robeson upper bound trade-off for O2/N2 and CO2/CH4. The present work reports the gas transport behavior of PIM-1/silica nanocomposite membranes. The changes in free volume, as well as the presence and volume of the void cavities, were investigated by analyzing the density, thermal stability, and nano-structural morphology. The enhancement in gas permeability (e.g., He, H2, O2, N2, and CO2) with increasing filler content shows that the trend is related to the true silica volume and void volume fraction. Crown Copyright © 2009.

  7. Enrichment of glioma stem cell-like cells on 3D porous scaffolds composed of different extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanzhi; Dai, Xingliang; Zhang, Xinzhi; Li, Xinda; Xu, Tao; Lan, Qing

    2018-04-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), being tumor-initiating with self-renewal capacity and heterogeneity, are most likely the cause of tumor resistance, reoccurrence and metastasis. To further investigate the role of CSCs in tumor biology, there is a need to develop an effective culture system to grow, maintain and enrich CSCs. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model has been widely used in tumor research and drug screening. Recently, researchers have begun to utilize 3D models to culture cancer cells for CSCs enrichment. In this study, glioma cell line was cultured with 3D porous chitosan (CS) scaffolds or chitosan-hyaluronic acid (CS-HA) scaffolds to explore the possibility of glioma stem cells (GSCs)-like cells enrichment, to study the morphology, gene expression, and in vivo tumorigenicity of 3D scaffolds cells, and to compare results to 2D controls. Results showed that glioma cells on both CS and CS-HA scaffolds could form tumor cell spheroids and increased the expression of GSCs biomarkers compared to conventional 2D monolayers. Furthermore, cells in CS-HA scaffolds had higher expression levels of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related gene. Specifically, the in vivo tumorigenicity capability of CS-HA scaffold cultured cells was greater than 2D cells or CS scaffold cultured cells. It is indicated that the chemical composition of scaffold plays an important role in the enrichment of CSCs. Our results suggest that CS-HA scaffolds have a better capability to enrich GSCs-like cells and can serve as a simple and effective way to cultivate and enrich CSCs in vitro to support the study of CSCs biology and development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Allan, Benjamin A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dahlgren, Tamara L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Epperly, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Foley, Samantha S [ORNL; Hulette, Geoffrey C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Prantl, Adrian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Panyala, Ajay [Louisiana State University; Sottile, Matthew [Galois, Inc.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  9. THE COMPOSER AND FOLKLORE PROBLEM: FACTORS OF STYLISTIC STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCEAROVA GALINA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the author’s earlier study of the Composer and Folklore problem from the stylistic point of view. It is noted that in academic music, where the attention is focused not only on the speech or text characteristics, but primarily on the linguistic and stylistic material of folklore, the appeal to folk sources leads to the emergence of a number of stylistic factors, both, in the formation of the national style, and in the field of ethnic culture as a whole and integral stable system. The research points to the role of folklore as the genetic code of ethnic culture, as well as to other factors acting at on the level ,of musical discourse and musical language, contributing to the formation of „language flexibility” (A. Kolmogorov and, as a result, „flexibility of style”.

  10. Forget about switching keyboard layouts with the "Compose Key"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Growing up with a Spanish keyboard was not an easy childhood (using Shift+7 (/) to search in vim, or having to type AltGr+[ to actually have an opening bracket), so at some point in my life I switched to an American keyboard. At the beginning I was happy switching layouts to either do some coding or talk to my mum (I am not a fan of the classical excuse "sorry for my typos, I don't have the 'ñ' in my keyboard"). Things got much worse when I started to need French characters (ç, è) to interact with some services at CERN, or some Slovak letters (č, đ) to talk to Robert, my Slovak colleague . Then I discovered the Compose Key and my life has been different ever since.

  11. Large-scale Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Koichi; Goto, Hayato; Sato, Rie

    2017-10-01

    We propose Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons, that is, magnetic bits in a recording track. In large-scale machines, the sizes of both neurons and synapses need to be reduced, and neat and smart connections among neurons are also required to achieve all-to-all connectivity among them. These requirements can be fulfilled by adopting magnetic recording technologies such as race-track memories and skyrmion tracks because the area of a magnetic bit is almost two orders of magnitude smaller than that of static random access memory, which has normally been used as a semiconductor neuron, and the smart connections among neurons are realized by using the read and write methods of these technologies.

  12. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Etude de la magnetoresistance du compose supraconducteur YB a2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    00 ;0,01 ; 0,03 ; 0,06 ; 0,10 ; 0,20 ; 0,25) ont été élaborés par la méthode de réaction à l'état solide. L'effet de différents cycles de recuit sur la substitution du cuivre par le titane dans l'YBCO a été faite à travers des mesures de résistivité ...

  14. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  15. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kandiah

    Full Text Available For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW. At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  16. Nuclear reaction matrix and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Sinobu; Bando, Hiroharu; Akaishi, Yoshinori.

    1979-01-01

    An essentially exact method of solution is presented for the reaction- matrix (G-matrix) equation defined with the orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate spectrum for high-lying two-particle states. The accuracy is examined for introduced truncations and also in comparison with the Tsai-Kuo and Sauer methods. Properties of the G-matrix are discussed with emphasis on the relation with the saturation mechanism, especially overall saturation from light to heavy nuclei. Density and starting-energy dependences of the G-matrix are separately extracted and discussed. It is demonstrated that the triplet-even tensor component of the nuclear force is principally responsible for these dependences and hence for the saturation mechanism. In this context different nuclear potentials are used in the renormalized Brueckner calculation for energies of closed-shell nuclei in the harmonic oscillator basis. A semi-phenomenological ''two-body potential'' is devised so that it can reproduce the saturation energies and densities of nuclear matter and finite nuclei in the lowest-order Brueckner treatment. It is composed of a realistic N-N potential and two additional parts; one incorporates the three-body force effect and the other is assumed to embody higher-cluster correlations in G. The tensor component in the triplet-even state of this potential is enhanced by the three-body force effect. The G-matrix is represented in the effective local form and decomposed into central, LS and tensor components. (author)

  17. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  18. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  19. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  20. World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph; Whitney, Rob; Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Rose, Karl; Rieser, Dan A.; Al-Qahtani, Ayed; Thomas, Philip; Turton, Hal; Densing, Martin; Panos, Evangelos; Volkart, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050 is the result of a three-year study conducted by over 60 experts from nearly 30 countries, with modelling provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report assesses two contrasting policy scenarios, the more consumer driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario with a key differentiator being the ability of countries to pass through the Doha Climate Gateway. The WEC scenarios use an explorative approach to assess what is actually happening in the world now, to help gauge what will happen in the future and the real impact of today's choices on tomorrow's energy landscape. Rather than telling policy-makers and senior energy leaders what to do in order to achieve a specific policy goal, the WEC's World Energy Scenarios allow them to test the key assumptions that decision-makers decide to better shape the energy of tomorrow This document includes the French and English versions of the executive summary and the English version of the full report

  1. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  2. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  3. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  4. Can Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate form via the free particle mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Söhnel, O

    2017-09-08

    The likelihood of a Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) forming by the free particle mechanism in a model of kidney with a structure recently described by Robertson was examined at the most favourable conditions for the considered mechanism. The Robertson model of the kidney is used in the following development. The classical theory of crystallization was used for calculations. Initial COM nuclei were assumed to form at the beginning of the ascending loop of Henle where the supersaturation with respect to COM has been shown to reach the threshold level for spontaneous nucleation. Nucleation proceeds by a heterogeneous mechanism. The formed particles are transported in the nephron by a laminar flow of liquid with a parabolic velocity profile. Particles travel with a velocity dependent on their position in the cross-section of the nephron assumed to be straight tubule with smooth walls and without any sharp bends and kinks. These particles move faster with time as they grow as a result of being surrounded by the supersaturated liquid. Individual COM particles (crystals) can reach maximum diameter of 5.2 × 10 -6  m, i.e. 5.2 μm, at the opening of the CD and would thus always be washed out of the CD into the calyx regardless of the orientation of the CD. Agglomeration of COM crystals forms a fractal object with an apparent density lower than the density of solid COM. The agglomerate that can block the beginning of the CD is composed of more crystals than are available even during crystaluria. Moreover the settling velocity of agglomerate blocking the opening of the CD is lower than the liquid flow and thus such agglomerate would be washed out even from upward-draining CD. The free particle mechanism may be responsible for the formation of a Randall's plug composed by COM only in specific infrequent cases such as an abnormal structure of kidney. Majority of incidences of Randall's plug development by COM are caused by mechanism different

  5. Structure and photoluminescence of films composed of carbon nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi@cqut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054, P R China (China); Li, Lin [College of Chemistry, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, P R China (China); Cheng, Qijin [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P R China (China); He, Chunlin [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044, P R China (China)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon nanoflake films (CNFFs) were directly synthesized by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The results of field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, micro-Raman spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope indicate that the CNFFs are composed of bending carbon nanoflakes with the hydrocarbon and hydroxyl functional groups, and the carbon nanoflakes become thin in a long deposition time. The structural change of carbon nanoflakes is related to the formation of structural units and the aggregation of hydrocarbon radicals near the carbon nanoflakes. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of CNFFs were studied in a Ramalog system and a PL spectroscope. The PL results indicate that the PL intensity of CNFFs is lowered with the increase of thickness of CNFFs. The lowering of PL intensity for the thick CNFFs originates from the effect of more dangling bonds in the CNFFs. In addition, we studied the structural difference of carbon nanoflakes grown by different CVD systems and the PL difference of carbon nanoflakes in different measurement systems. The results achieved here are important to control the growth and structure of graphene-based materials and fabricate the optoelectronic devices related to carbon-based materials. - Highlights: • Carbon nanoflake films (CNFFs) were synthesized by PEHFCVD. • The structure of CNFFs is related to the aggregation of carbon hydrocarbon radicals. • The PL intensity of CNFFs is lowered with the thickness increase of CNFFs. • The change of PL intensity of CNFFs is due to the dangling bonds in CNFFs. • The widening of PL bands of CNFFs results from the diversity of carbon nanofalkes.

  6. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  7. Large landslides, composed of megabreccia, interbedded in Miocene basin deposits, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Medora Louise Hooper

    1977-01-01

    The landslides in the Kearny and El Capitan Mountain quadrangles, Pinal and Gila Counties, Ariz., are tabular or lens like masses of megabreccia enclosed in Miocene basin deposits. The megabreccias within individual slide blocks are composed of pervasively brecciated Precambrian and younger formations that remain in normal stratigraphic sequence, indicating that each landslide moved as a fairly coherent mass. The megabreccias consist of fresh, mostly angular rock fragments in a comminuted matrix of the same composition as the fragments. The matrix ranges in amount from sparse to abundant. Where the matrix is sparse, the fragments fit tightly with little or no rotation. Locally fragments are rotated but not moved far; most units within a slide block are lithologically homogeneous. The Kearny landslides are conformably interbedded in steeply east-dipping playa and alluvial deposits. They form map units from a few tens of meters to nearly 4 km long and from less than 1 to 270 m wide. Narrow ridges expose sections through the landslides at about right angles to the direction of movement. The upper (proximal) ends have been eroded; the lower (distal) ends are buried. The El Capitan landslide dips very gently southward. Although partly dissected during erosion of the enclosing alluvial and lakebed deposits, its approximate original outline is still preserved. It forms a thin sheet, 5-15 m thick and at least 3.8 km long; the maximum outcrop width, near its distal end, is about 1.5 km. The Kearny landslides show little evidence of having exerted differential pressure on the underlying soft playa and alluvial deposits, and the contacts with the underlying sediments have little relief. The distal end of the El Capitan landslide, on the other hand, has considerable relief. As the landslide came to an abrupt stop, the end plowed into the underlying sediments, compressing them into fol9.s and forming sandstone dikes. The source of the El Capitan landslide is a well

  8. Algorithm of composing the schedule of construction and installation works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehaj, Rustam; Molotkov, Georgij; Rudchenko, Ivan; Grinev, Anatolij; Sekisov, Aleksandr

    2017-10-01

    An algorithm for scheduling works is developed, in which the priority of the work corresponds to the total weight of the subordinate works, the vertices of the graph, and it is proved that for graphs of the tree type the algorithm is optimal. An algorithm is synthesized to reduce the search for solutions when drawing up schedules of construction and installation works, allocating a subset with the optimal solution of the problem of the minimum power, which is determined by the structure of its initial data and numerical values. An algorithm for scheduling construction and installation work is developed, taking into account the schedule for the movement of brigades, which is characterized by the possibility to efficiently calculate the values of minimizing the time of work performance by the parameters of organizational and technological reliability through the use of the branch and boundary method. The program of the computational algorithm was compiled in the MatLAB-2008 program. For the initial data of the matrix, random numbers were taken, uniformly distributed in the range from 1 to 100. It takes 0.5; 2.5; 7.5; 27 minutes to solve the problem. Thus, the proposed method for estimating the lower boundary of the solution is sufficiently accurate and allows efficient solution of the minimax task of scheduling construction and installation works.

  9. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  10. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  11. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  12. GEODYNAMICS AS WAVE DYNAMICS OF THE MEDIUM COMPOSED OF ROTATING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomedium block concept envisages that stresses in the medium composed of rotating blocks have torque and thus predetermine the medium's energy capacity (in terms of [Ponomarev, 2008]. The present paper describes the wave nature of the global geodynamic process taking place in the medium characterized by the existence of slow and fast rotation strain waves that are classified as a new type of waves. Movements may also occur as rheid, superplastic and/or superfluid motions and facilitate the formation of vortex geological structures in the geomedium.Our analysis of data on almost 800 strong volcanic eruptions shows that the magma chamber’s thickness is generally small, about 0.5 km, and this value is constant, independent of the volcanic process and predetermined by properties of the crust. A new magma chamber model is based on the idea of 'thermal explosion’/‘self-acceleration' manifested by intensive plastic movements along boundaries between the blocks in conditions of the low thermal conductivity of the geomedium. It is shown that if the solid rock in the magma chamber is overheated above its melting point, high stresses may occur in the surrounding area, and their elastic energy may amount to 1015 joules per 1 km3 of the overheated solid rock. In view of such stresses, it is possible to consider the interaction between volcano’s magma chambers as the migration of volcanic activity along the volcanic arc and provide an explanation of the interaction between volcanic activity and seismicity within the adjacent parallel arcs.The thin overheated interlayer/magma chamber concept may be valid for the entire Earth's crust. In our hypothesis, properties of the Moho are determined by the phase transition from the block structure of the crust to the nonblock structure of the upper mantle.

  13. Fuzzy risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Adam S.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2008-01-01

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated

  14. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  15. NERIES: Seismic Data Gateways and User Composed Datasets Metadata Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Trani, Luca; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    One of the NERIES EC project main objectives is to establish and improve the networking of seismic waveform data exchange and access among four main data centers in Europe: INGV, GFZ, ORFEUS and IPGP. Besides the implementation of the data backbone, several investigations and developments have been conducted in order to offer to the users the data available from this network, either programmatically or interactively. One of the challenges is to understand how to enable users` activities such as discovering, aggregating, describing and sharing datasets to obtain a decrease in the replication of similar data queries towards the network, exempting the data centers to guess and create useful pre-packed products. We`ve started to transfer this task more and more towards the users community, where the users` composed data products could be extensively re-used. The main link to the data is represented by a centralized webservice (SeismoLink) acting like a single access point to the whole data network. Users can download either waveform data or seismic station inventories directly from their own software routines by connecting to this webservice, which routes the request to the data centers. The provenance of the data is maintained and transferred to the users in the form of URIs, that identify the dataset and implicitly refer to the data provider. SeismoLink, combined with other webservices (eg EMSC-QuakeML earthquakes catalog service), is used from a community gateway such as the NERIES web portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu). Here the user interacts with a map based portlet which allows the dynamic composition of a data product, binding seismic event`s parameters with a set of seismic stations. The requested data is collected by the back-end processes of the portal, preserved and offered to the user in a personal data cart, where metadata can be generated interactively on-demand. The metadata, expressed in RDF, can also be remotely ingested. They offer rating

  16. A software-based technique enabling composable hierarchical preemptive scheduling for time-triggered applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.; Molnos, A.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded real-time applications are typically time-triggered and preemptive schedulers are used to execute tasks of such applications. Orthogonally, composable partitioned embedded platforms use preemptive time-division multiplexing mechanism to isolate applications. Existing composable systems

  17. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node extracellular matrix are distinct from contractile left ventricular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Gluck

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin. The extracellular matrix protein distribution suggests that resident pacemaking cardiomyocytes are enclosed in fibrillar collagens that can withstand greater tensile strength while the surrounding elastin-rich regions may undergo deformation to reduce the mechanical strain in these cells. Moreover, basement membrane-associated adhesion proteins that are ligands for integrins were of low abundance in the sinoatrial node, which may decrease force transduction in the pacemaking cardiomyocytes. In contrast to extracellular matrix of the left ventricle, extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node may reduce mechanical strain and force transduction in pacemaking cardiomyocytes. These findings provide the criteria for a suitable matrix scaffold for engineering biopacemakers.

  18. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  19. IPNS grooved, solid methane moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Schulke, A.W.; Scott, T.L.; Wozniak, D.G.; Benson, B.E.; Leyda, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    There are two motives for using cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources, to provide higher fluxes of long-wavelength neutrons, and to extend the epithermal range with its short pulse structure to lower energies. For both these purposes solid methane, operated at the lowest possible temperatures, is the best material we know of. Two problems accompany the use of solid methane in high power sources, namely heat transport in view of the low thermal conductivity of solid methane, and deterioration due to radiation damage. We have designed a system suitable to operate in IPNS, subject to nuclear heating of about 25 W, which incorporates an aluminum foam matrix to conduct the heat from within the moderator. We report the results of the first few months' operation and of a few tests that we have performed

  20. Combination of (M)DSC and surface analysis to study the phase behaviour and drug distribution of ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Joke; Scurr, David J; Chen, Xinyong; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Miscibility of the different compounds that make up a solid dispersion based formulation play a crucial role in the drug release profile and physical stability of the solid dispersion as it defines the phase behaviour of the dispersion. The standard technique to obtain information on phase behaviour of a sample is (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((M)DSC). However, for ternary mixtures (M)DSC alone is not sufficient to characterize their phase behaviour and to gain insight into the distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a two-phased polymeric matrix. MDSC was combined with complementary surface analysis techniques, specifically time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three spray-dried model formulations with varying API/PLGA/PVP ratios were analyzed. MDSC, TOF-SIMS and AFM provided insights into differences in drug distribution via the observed surface coverage for 3 differently composed ternary solid dispersions. Combining MDSC and surface analysis rendered additional insights in the composition of mixed phases in complex systems, like ternary solid dispersions.

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

  2. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, and maximal tori.

  3. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  4. Composing art songs based on Igbo traditional music:concept and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composing modern African art music from the African stock has drawn the attention of many African and non-African composers and scholars alike in recent times. The common interest to decipher the creative concept and process of the new works emerging from the attempts of African composers at creative continuum of ...

  5. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  6. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  7. Thermal conductivity of microPCMs-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Su, J.F.; Wang, X.Y; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.H.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The thermal conductivity of these microPCMs/matrix composites is an important property need to be considered. In this study, a series of microPCMs have been fabricated using the in situ polymerization with various core/shell ratio and average diameter; the thermal conductivity of microPCMs/epoxy composites were investigated in detai...

  8. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  10. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

  11. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  12. Solid state storage of radioactive krypton in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Lytle, J.M.; Gray, W.J.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of loading a low density SiO 2 glass with krypton for storage of radioactive 85 Kr has been demonstrated by studies using non-radioactive krypton. A 96% SiO 2 glass with 28% porosity was heated at an elevated pressure of Kr gas to a temperature of 850 to 900 0 C and held at that temperature to sinter the glass-krypton composite to a density of about 2 g/cm 3 . A krypton content of 30 cm 3 of Kr(STP)/cm 3 of glass has been demonstrated when loading pressures of 140 MPa are used. Krypton release rates from the glass are lower than reported for any other waste form considered currently. At 420 0 C a diffusion parameter, D/r 0 2 , of 8.66 x 10 -13 min -1 was determined which leads to a total release of 0.7% of the krypton in 10 years. Release rates increase moderately with increasing temperature up to 600 0 C and increase rapidly above 600 0 C. The lower loading pressures (about 40 MPa) may appear to yield a more favorable product from the point of view of krypton release than the high pressures. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are given in the conclusions section

  13. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  14. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    College, Patti 143 416, India. 3Department of Mathematics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, ... lem in microstretch elastic solid by employing the eigenvalue approach. 975. Page 2. 976. Rajneesh Kumar et al. 2. Basic equations ..... of the matrix A are characteristic roots of (29) assuming that real parts of qs.

  15. Anisotropic intermolecular interaction and rotational ordering in hydrogen-containing solids. Progress report No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in these areas: nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in ortho-para mixtures of solid deuterium below T/sub lambda/; pulsed NMR experiments of matrix isolated HCl; stimulated Raman scattering in solid hydrogen and nitrogen; and infrared line broadening of matrix isolated molecules. (GHT)

  16. Anisotropic intermolecular interaction and rotational ordering in hydrogen-containing solids. Progress report No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in these areas: nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in ortho-para mixtures of solid deuterium below T/sub lambda/; pulsed NMR experiments of matrix isolated HCl; stimulated Raman scattering in solid hydrogen and nitrogen; and infrared line broadening of matrix isolated molecules

  17. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2009-03-15

    A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.

  18. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  19. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  20. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  1. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  2. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  3. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-01

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  5. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Are Composers Different? Historical Evidence on Conflict-induced Migration (1816-1997)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether, and to what extent, the incidence of war affects the migration intensity of 164 prominent classical composers born after 1800. We model the aggregate stock of composers in a country and find that periods of war correspond negatively with the number of artists. We...... also find that conflict-induced migration intensity is considerably higher for composers than for the overall population and demonstrate that the share of composers in the overall population drops due to the incidence of war. We further find that the observed outmigration substantially diminishes...

  7. A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Steven S; Chu, Frances; Kearns, Daniel B; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    Microbes construct structurally complex multicellular communities (biofilms) through production of an extracellular matrix. Here we present evidence from scanning electron microscopy showing that a wild strain of the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis builds such a matrix. Genetic, biochemical and cytological evidence indicates that the matrix is composed predominantly of a protein component, TasA, and an exopolysaccharide component. The absence of TasA or the exopolysaccharide resulted in a residual matrix, while the absence of both components led to complete failure to form complex multicellular communities. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that a functional matrix can be assembled even when TasA and the exopolysaccharide are produced by different cells, reinforcing the view that the components contribute to matrix formation in an extracellular manner. Having defined the major components of the biofilm matrix and the control of their synthesis by the global regulator SinR, we present a working model for how B. subtilis switches between nomadic and sedentary lifestyles.

  8. Flow acoustics in solid-fluid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Mads, Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin

    2008-01-01

    along the x direction. In the first part of the paper, the governing set of differential equations are derived as well as the imposed boundary conditions. Solutions are provided using Hamilton's equations for the wavenumber vs. frequency as a function of the number and thickness of solid layers......The governing two-dimensional equations of a heterogeneous material composed of a fluid (allowed to flow in the absence of acoustic excitations) and a crystalline piezoelectric cubic solid stacked one-dimensionally (along the z direction) are derived and special emphasis is given to the discussion...

  9. Mechanocatalytic polymerization and cross-linking in a polymeric matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, R.T.M.; Ma, Shuang; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    A latent olefin metathesis catalyst, bearing two polymeric NHC ligands, was embedded in a semicrystalline polymer matrix containing cyclic olefins. The catalyst was activated by straining the solid material under compression, resulting in polymerization and cross-linking reactions of the monomers in

  10. Ethical Matrix Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.

  11. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.

  12. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  13. Challenging the CSCW matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration...

  14. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Li, Jidong; Zhu, Qingmao; Guo, Shuquan; Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Weichao; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF) composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery.

  15. Matrix Optical Absorption in UV-MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kenneth N; Steven, Rory T; Bunch, Josephine

    2018-03-01

    In ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS) matrix compound optical absorption governs the uptake of laser energy, which in turn has a strong influence on experimental results. Despite this, quantitative absorption measurements are lacking for most matrix compounds. Furthermore, despite the use of UV-MALDI MS to detect a vast range of compounds, investigations into the effects of laser energy have been primarily restricted to single classes of analytes. We report the absolute solid state absorption spectra of the matrix compounds α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), para-nitroaniline (PNA), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP). The desorption/ionization characteristics of these matrix compounds with respect to laser fluence was investigated using mixed systems of matrix with either angiotensin II, PC(34:1) lipid standard, or haloperidol, acting as representatives for typical classes of analyte encountered in UV-MALDI MS. The first absolute solid phase spectra for PNA, MBT, and THAP are reported; additionally, inconsistencies between previously published spectra for CHCA are resolved. In light of these findings, suggestions are made for experimental optimization with regards to matrix and laser wavelength selection. The relationship between matrix optical cross-section and wavelength-dependant threshold fluence, fluence of maximum ion yield, and R, a new descriptor for the change in ion intensity with fluence, are described. A matrix cross-section of 1.3 × 10 -17 cm -2 was identified as a potential minimum for desorption/ionization of analytes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Composing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  17. Composing compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoodt, M. F. L. P.; Verdonck, O. F.

    1985-01-22

    A process is disclosed for producing compost and composting compositions having a high nitrogen content and being particularly advantageous for use as fertilizers, said process utilizing petroleum sludge and an organic biomass which preferably contains wood industry residue and organic waste products.

  18. Composable Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling and Power Management for Dataflow Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; She, Dongrui; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca; Lopez, S.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we de﬿ne composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  19. What Reader-Oriented Literary and Cognitive Theories Have to Give to Composing Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman-Kleine, JoAnne

    In developing an interactive model of composing, this paper discusses three groups of reader-oriented theories, each of which provides composing theorists with some research and theory to use in developing such a model. First the paper discusses the main principle of the literary reader-response theorists--that the meaning and value of texts do…

  20. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  1. Composable local memory organisation for streaming applications on embedded MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrose, J.; Molnos, A.; Nelson, A.; Cotofana, S.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Juurlink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Processor Systems on a Chip (MPSoCs) are suitable platforms for the implementation of complex embedded applications. An MPSoC is composable if the functional and temporal behaviour of each application is independent of the absence or presence of other applications. Composability is required

  2. Composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling and power management for dataflow applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.G.W.; She, D.; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we define composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  3. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  4. Impact of War on Individual Life-cycle Creativity: Tentative Evidence in Relation to Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; O'Hagan, John

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between conflict and individual artistic output is ambiguous, both a priori and in terms of the evidence. To address this question in relation to composers, we employ a sample of 115 prominent classical composers born after 1800 and attempt to link their annual productivity with ...

  5. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Technological Improvement of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pizzol, Carine; O'Reilly, Andre; Winter, Evelyn; Sonaglio, Diva; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal particles consisting of a matrix composed of solid (at room and body temperatures) lipids dispersed in aqueous emulsifier solution. During manufacture, their physicochemical properties may be affected by several formulation parameters, such as type and concentration of lipid, proportion of emulsifiers and amount of solvent. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these variables on the preparation of SLN. A D-optimal Response Surface Methodology design was used to establish a mathematical model for the optimization of SLN. A total of 30 SLN formulations were prepared using the ultrasound method, and then characterized on the basis of their physicochemical properties, including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and Zeta Potential (s). Particle sizes ranged between 107 and 240 nm. All SLN formulations showed negative sigma and PI values below 0.28. Prediction of the optimal conditions was performed using the desirability function targeting the reduction of all responses. The optimized SLN formulation showed similar theoretical and experimental values, confirming the sturdiness and predictive ability of the mathematical model for SLN optimization.

  6. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  7. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  8. A solid state actuator based on polypyrrole (PPy) and a solid electrolyte NBR working in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Misuk; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan

    2005-05-01

    The solid polymer electrolyte based conducting polymer actuator was presented. In the preparation of acutuator module, an ionic liquid impregnated a synthetic rubber (NBR) and PPy were used as a solid polymer electrolyte and conducting polymer, respectively. An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) is gradually dispersed into the NBR film and the conducting polymer, PPy was synthesized on the surface of NBR. The ionic conductivity of new type solid polymer electrolyte as a function of the immersion time was investigated. The cyclic voltammetry responsed and the redox switching dynamics of PEDOT in NBR matrix were studied. The displacement of the actuator was measured by laser beam.

  9. Exactly soluble matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju Viswanathan, R.

    1991-09-01

    We study examples of one dimensional matrix models whose potentials possess an energy spectrum that can be explicitly determined. This allows for an exact solution in the continuum limit. Specifically, step-like potentials and the Morse potential are considered. The step-like potentials show no scaling behaviour and the Morse potential (which corresponds to a γ = -1 model) has the interesting feature that there are no quantum corrections to the scaling behaviour in the continuum limit. (author). 5 refs

  10. Inside the NIKE matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Barbara; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    This case describes how Nike, a consumer goods company with an ever expanding portfolio and a tremendous brand value, manages the tradeoff between local responsiveness and global integration. In particular, the case highlights Nike's organizational structure that consists of a global matrix organization that is replicated at a regional level for the European market. While this organizational structure allows Nike to respond to local consumer tastes it also ensures that the company benefits f...

  11. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  12. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  13. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  14. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  15. Accelerated stability testing of a transdermal patch composed of eserine and pralidoxime chloride for prophylaxis against (±-anatoxin A poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subham Banerjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the stability potential of a transdermal patch composed of eserine and pralidoxime chloride for prophylaxis against (±-anatoxin A poisoning. The drug combinations were fabricated in an adhesive matrix system supported by a backing membrane and attached to a temporary release liner. Stability testing of the optimized formulation was established for 6 months under accelerated study conditions as per International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Results obtained after 6 months showed that the optimized patch formulation was stable with respect to drugs content, pH, diffusion, visual inspection, and other analytical parameters.

  16. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  17. Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    induced by bonding to the ceramics that only show elastic deformation. In an MMC the stress state in the metal matrix is highly non-uniform, varying between regions where shear stresses are dominant and regions where hydrostatic tension is strong. An Al–SiC whisker composite with a periodic pattern......Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...

  18. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  19. Development of Sustained Release Capsules Containing “Coated Matrix Granules of Metoprolol Tartrate”

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet gr...

  20. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  1. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2009-01-01

    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  2. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  3. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  4. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  5. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  6. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  7. The composition of precarity: 'emerging' composers' experiences of opportunity culture in contemporary classical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil Thomas; Thwaites, Rachel

    2018-02-28

    This paper examines the precarious working lives of 'emerging' composers attempting to build a career in the world of new classical music in the UK. This topic is approached by considering the 'composition opportunity', success in which is seen as an important element in 'making it' in this sphere. We argue that such schemes in fact manifest a crucial tension in the nature of artistic labour, and are, at the very least, problematic in their function as conduits towards full professional identity. They may instead act to maintain the precarious working situation of composers in a neoliberal age. The working lives of artists are all too rarely illuminated, and new music composers are no exception; this survey of 47 emerging composers is the largest study of such individuals in the UK. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  8. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  9. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  10. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  11. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF) a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  12. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel; Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  13. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  14. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Monzer Al, E-mail: Monzer.Al.Sakka@vub.ac.b [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); FEMTO-ST Institute, ENISYS Department, FCLAB, UFC-UTBM, bat.F, 90010 Belfort (France); Gualous, Hamid, E-mail: Hamid.Gualous@unicaen.f [Laboratoire LUSAC, Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Rue Louis Aragon - BP 78, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Van Mierlo, Joeri [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-30

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  15. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Monzer Al; Gualous, Hamid; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  16. Vibrational properties of complex solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagas, G.

    1999-11-01

    Following a brief outline of the statistical analysis of spectra with respect to random matrix theory predictions and of numerical methods for calculating the elastic scattering matrix, statistical studies of vibrational spectra in disordered and complex solids, as well as studies of phonon transport across imperfect structures, are presented. The analysis of spectral statistics of lattice modes in a disordered crystal, confirmed GOE Wigner-Dyson statistical correlations of the eigenmode frequencies of a block of a disordered solid. Spectral correlations in the optic phonon spectrum of a solid with a polyatomic unit cell are also analysed using the Wigner-Dyson statistical approach. Despite the fact that all force constants are real, it is demonstrated that the statistics are predominantly of the GUE type depending on the location within the Brillouin zone of a crystal and the unit cell symmetry. Analytic and numerical results for the crossover from GOE to GUE statistics are presented. A method originally developed to probe electron transport on a mesoscopic scale is used to study generic properties of elastic phonon transport at a disordered interface. The results show that phonon transmittance is a strong function of frequency and the disorder correlation length. At low frequencies the transmittance at a given frequency increases as the correlation length decreases. This is also reflected by different power-laws for phonon conductance across correlated and uncorrelated disordered interfaces which are in approximate agreement with perturbation theory of an elastic continuum. Finally we present an analysis of acoustic-phonon propagation across long, free-standing, insulating wires with rough surfaces. We find that owing to a crossover from ballistic propagation of the lowest-frequency phonon mode at ω 1 πc/W to a diffusive (or even localized) behavior upon the increase of phonon frequency, followed by reentrance into the quasiballistic regime, the heat

  17. High performance passive matrix electrochromic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    A matrix addressable electrochromic display (ECD) based on solid polymer electrolyte screen-printed on the surface of nano structured WO 3 +0.1TiO 2 electrodes, in which all pixels were insulted by negative photoresist material has been developed. Five types of nano structured films produced by a sol-gel method were investigated to enhance the electrochemical, optical, and mechanical properties of electrochromic tungsten oxide films. The film based on WO 3-x +0.1TiO 2-y sol-gel solution mixed with 32 mol.% oxalic acid was found to be stable and has excellent characteristics in coloring/bleaching kinetics. The ECD used nano structured electrochromic tungsten trioxide layer protected by SiO 2 -CeO 2 -Li 2 O thin film solid electrolyte, screen-printed solid polymer electrolyte mixed with white TiO 2 pigment (P25), and metallic counter electrode covered with carbon layer, has exhibited fast switching, excellent memory effect and substantially free from image diffusion and cross talk effects. (author)

  18. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  19. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic lithium garnets particulate reinforced PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Samson Ho-Sum; He, Kang-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zha, Jun-Wei; Kamruzzaman, Md; Ma, Robin Lok-Wang; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K.Y.; Chung, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries are proposed to have ultimate safety and higher power and energy densities over conventional lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolytes. The Li ion conductivity and interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes are the major bottleneck of the development of all-solid-state batteries for practical uses. Here, we reported a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of uniform distributed Li ion conducting Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO) fillers in PEO/LiClO 4 matrix. The EO:Li + ratio of 15:1 is being used to achieve lower interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes through the melting process. The composite electrolyte is fabricated by simple solution casting method, which is more advantageous comparing with high temperature sintering or sol-gel method used in the fabrication of ceramic electrolytes. The composite electrolyte exhibits good Li ion conductivity of 4.8 × 10 −4 Scm −1 at 60 °C and excellent interfacial stability against Li metal. The all-solid-state lithium battery using this composite electrolyte shows a specific capacity of 140mAhg −1 and an unprecedentedly high capacity retention of 83% after 500 cycles at 60 °C and the rate of 1C. It is concluded that good electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability and contact as well as fast Li ion conductivity obtained by the addition of active garnet particulates to PEO/LiClO 4 matrix are essential criteria for good charge/discharge performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  20. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. VisComposer: A Visual Programmable Composition Environment for Information Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of data being collected has increased, the need for tools that can enable the visual exploration of data has also grown. This has led to the development of a variety of widely used programming frameworks for information visualization. Unfortunately, such frameworks demand comprehensive visualization and coding skills and require users to develop visualization from scratch. An alternative is to create interactive visualization design environments that require little to no programming. However, these tools only supports a small portion of visual forms.We present a programmable integrated development environment (IDE, VisComposer, that supports the development of expressive visualization using a drag-and-drop visual interface. VisComposer exposes the programmability by customizing desired components within a modularized visualization composition pipeline, effectively balancing the capability gap between expert coders and visualization artists. The implemented system empowers users to compose comprehensive visualizations with real-time preview and optimization features, and supports prototyping, sharing and reuse of the effects by means of an intuitive visual composer. Visual programming and textual programming integrated in our system allow users to compose more complex visual effects while retaining the simplicity of use. We demonstrate the performance of VisComposer with a variety of examples and an informal user evaluation. Keywords: Information Visualization, Visualization authoring, Interactive development environment

  2. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  3. The Particle-Matrix model: limitations and further improvements needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Jacobsen, Stefan; Spangenberg, Jon

    According to the Particle-Matrix Model (PMM) philosophy, the workability of concrete dependson the properties of two phases and the volumetric ratio between them: the fluid matrix phase (≤0.125 mm) and the solid particle phase (> 0.125 mm). The model has been successfully appliedto predict concrete...... workability for different types of concrete, but has also indicated that somepotential cases exist when its application is limited. The paper presents recent studies onimproving the method by analysing how the PMM one-point flow parameter λQ can beexpressed by rheological models (Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley)....

  4. Laser cladding of wear resistant metal matrix composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, A.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    A number of coatings with wear-resistant properties as well as with a low friction coefficient are produced by laser cladding. The structure of these coatings is determined by required performance and realized as metal matrix composite (MMC), where solid lubricant serves as a ductile matrix (e.g. CuSn), reinforced by appropriate ceramic phase (e.g. WC/Co). One of the engineered coating with functionally graded material (FGM) structure has a dry friction coefficient 0.12. Coatings were produced by coaxial injection of powder blend into the zone of laser beam action. Metallographic and tribological examinations were carried out confirming the advanced performance of engineered coatings

  5. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  6. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  7. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  8. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  9. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  10. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  11. The extracellular matrix - the under-recognized element in lung disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Mauad, Thais; Tjin, Gavin; Karlsson, Jenny C.; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    The lung is composed of airways and lung parenchyma, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) contains the main building blocks of both components. The ECM provides physical support and stability to the lung, and as such it has in the past been regarded as an inert structure. More recent research has

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extension of the mixed dual finite element method to the solution of the SPN transport equation in 2D unstructured geometries composed by arbitrary quadrilaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautard, J.J.; Flumiani, T.

    2003-01-01

    The mixed dual finite element method is usually used for the resolution of the SPN transport equations (simplified PN equations) in 3D homogenized geometries (composed by homogenized rectangles or hexagons). This method produces fast results with little memory requirements. We have extended the previous method to the treatment of unstructured geometries composed by quadrilaterals (for the moment limited to 2D), allowing us to treat geometries where fuel pins are exactly represented. The iterative resolution of the resulting matrix system is a generalization of the one already developed for the cartesian and the hexagonal geometries. In order to illustrate and to show the efficiency of this method, results on the NEA-C5G7-MOX benchmark are given. The previous benchmark has been extended for the hexagonal geometry and we provide here some results. This method is a first step towards the treatment of pin by pin core calculations without homogenization. The present solver is a prototype. It shows the efficiency of the method and it has to be extended to 3D calculations as well as to exact transport calculations. We also intend to extend the method to the treatment of unstructured geometries composed by quadrilaterals with curved edges (sectors of a circle).The iterative algorithm has yet to be accelerated using multigrid techniques through a coupling with the present homogenized solver (MINOS). In the future, it will be included in the next generation neutronic toolbox DESCARTES currently under development

  14. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  15. Analysis of an ideal amorphous solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, L.T.; Stachurski, Z.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In geometrical terms, amorphous solids are fundamentally different from crystalline solids in that they can not be constructed by the crystallographic method of translation of the basis along a lattice. Therefore, to study amorphous structures we must invoke concepts and use measures different to those used for ordered structures. Nevertheless, an ideal amorphous solid must share together with the ideal crystalline solid in the same definition of the term 'ideal'. In both cases it must be a perfect body, in which perfection is carried through in every detail to an unlimited (infinite) size without fault or defect. The latest results on this research will be presented. To qualify for a solid, rigid body, close packing of the spheres is required. For an ideal amorphous solids composed of hard spheres of identical size, we impose a stricter condition for the packing, namely, to be such that all spheres are in fixed positions (no loose spheres). To define the ideal solid, we must define what we mean by a perfect amorphous structure. Here, perfection is defined by, first the definition of imperfections, and next by the requirement of absence of imperfections of any kind. We envisage two types of defects: (i) geometrical, and (ii) statistical. Geometrical defects are: a sphere of different size, a loose sphere, and a vacancy. A statistical defect is defined with respect to two statistical functions: Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ). The former describes the probability of a given sphere having nc number of touching contacts, and the latter describes the disposition of the contacts on the surface of the sphere. Defects relating to the two functions will be described. The results for the functions, Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ), for the corresponding radial distribution function, and so called blocking number will be presented from simulations of an ideal amorphous solid

  16. Phenomenology of the CKM matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The way in which an exact determination of the CKM matrix elements tests the standard Model is demonstrated by a two-generation example. The determination of matrix elements from meson semileptonic decays is explained, with an emphasis on the respective reliability of quark level and meson level calculations. The assumptions involved in the use of loop processes are described. Finally, the state of the art of the knowledge of the CKM matrix is presented. 19 refs., 2 figs

  17. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  18. Sensing dissolved sediment porewater concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative poolutants using disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, P.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Wijnker, F.; Legierse, K.C.H.M.; Kraaij, R.H.; Tolls, J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer coated glass fibers were applied as disposable samplers to measure dissolved concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants (PBPs) in sediment porewater. The method is called matrix solid-phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), because it utilizes the entire sediment matrix as a

  19. 进化作曲研究%Research on evolutionary music composer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪镭; 郑晓妹; 申林

    2014-01-01

    Algorithmic composition is the most attractive research area in computer music and genetic algorithm-based evolution-ary music composer system has become a hot spot in the algorithmic composition.This paper gives a structure of evolutionary mu-sic composer system,analyzes different goals of music composer systems,and then discusses two types of evolutionary music com-poser system from the aspect of fitness function design.Finally,several instances of evolutionary music composer system are ana-lyzed.%算法作曲是计算机音乐中最具吸引力的研究领域,而基于遗传算法的进化作曲系统已成为算法作曲中的热点。给出了进化作曲系统的结构,分析了系统不同的作曲目标,从适应度函数的设计讨论了两类作曲系统。最后给出了几个作曲系统实例分析。

  20. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walchli John

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38α, viral polymerase (HCV NS5B, and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  1. Matrix transformations and sequence spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, S.

    1983-06-01

    In most cases the most general linear operator from one sequence space into another is actually given by an infinite matrix and therefore the theory of matrix transformations has always been of great interest in the study of sequence spaces. The study of general theory of matrix transformations was motivated by the special results in summability theory. This paper is a review article which gives almost all known results on matrix transformations. This also suggests a number of open problems for further study and will be very useful for research workers. (author)

  2. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  3. A matrix model for WZW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2016-01-01

    We study a U(N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.

  4. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  5. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  6. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, N F A; Ng, H M; Mahipal, Y K; Numan, Arshid; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2016-06-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl) imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO) was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP)-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g -1 , which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  7. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  8. Clay matrix voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdicakis, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II

  9. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  10. Self-consistent T-matrix theory of superconductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šopík, B.; Lipavský, Pavel; Männel, M.; Morawetz, K.; Matlock, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 9 (2011), 094529/1-094529/13 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0212; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * T-matrix * superconducting gap * restricted self-consistency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  11. Historical Patterns Based on Automatically Extracted Data: the Case of Classical Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O'Hagan, John

    2012-01-01

    application that automatically extracts and processes information was developed to generate data on the birth location, occupations and importance (using word count methods) of over 12,000 composers over six centuries. Quantitative measures of the relative importance of different types of music......The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential for generating interesting aggregate data on certain aspect of the lives of thousands of composers, and indeed other creative groups, from large on-line dictionaries and to be able to do so relatively quickly. A purpose-built java...... and of the different music instruments over the centuries were also generated. Finally quantitative indicators of the importance of different cities over the different centuries in the lives of these composers are constructed. A range of interesting findings emerge in relation to all of these aspects of the lives...

  12. Can You Feel It?: Evaluation of Affective Expression in Music Generated by MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Eklund, Peter; Togelius, Julian

    2017-01-01

    -piece. Music clips including transitions and with static affective states were produced by MetaCompose and a quantitative user study was performed. Participants were tasked with annotating the perceived mood and moreover were asked to annotate in real-time changes in valence. The data collected confirms......This paper describes an evaluation conducted on the MetaCompose music generator, which is based on evolutionary computation and uses a hybrid evolutionary technique that combines FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. The main objective of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...... express different mood-states. The experiment presented here aims to evaluate: (i) if the perceived mood experienced by the participants of a music score matches intended mood the system is trying to express and (ii) if participants can identify transitions in the mood expression that occur mid...

  13. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policianova, Olivia; Brus, Jiri; Hruby, Martin; Urbanova, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusova, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-02-03

    Solid dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients are of increasing interest due to their versatile use. In the present study polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-metacrylamide] (pHPMA), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), each in three Mw, were used to demonstrate structural diversity of solid dispersions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as a model drug. Four distinct types of the solid dispersions of ASA were created using a freeze-drying method: (i) crystalline solid dispersions containing nanocrystalline ASA in a crystalline PEG matrix; (ii) amorphous glass suspensions with large ASA crystallites embedded in amorphous pHPMA; (iii) solid solutions with molecularly dispersed ASA in rigid amorphous PVP; and (iv) nanoheterogeneous solid solutions/suspensions containing nanosized ASA clusters dispersed in a semiflexible matrix of PEOx. The obtained structural data confirmed that the type of solid dispersion can be primarily controlled by the chemical constitutions of the applied polymers, while the molecular weight of the polymers had no detectable impact. The molecular structure of the prepared dispersions was characterized using solid-state NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By applying various (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H correlation experiments combined with T1((1)H) and T1ρ((1)H) relaxation data, the extent of the molecular mixing was determined over a wide range of distances, from intimate intermolecular contacts (0.1-0.5 nm) up to the phase-separated nanodomains reaching ca. 500 nm. Hydrogen-bond interactions between ASA and polymers were probed by the analysis of (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra combined with the measurements of (1)H-(15)N dipolar profiles. Overall potentialities and limitations of individual experimental techniques were thoroughly evaluated.

  14. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  15. A new insight into high-strength Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloys with bimodal microstructure fabricated by semi-solid sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Yang, C; Kang, L M; Qu, S G; Li, X Q; Zhang, W W; Chen, W P; Li, Y Y; Li, P J; Zhang, L C

    2016-03-31

    It is well known that semi-solid forming could only obtain coarse-grained microstructure in a few alloy systems with a low melting point, such as aluminum and magnesium alloys. This work presents that semi-solid forming could also produce novel bimodal microstructure composed of nanostructured matrix and micro-sized (CoFe)Ti2 twins in a titanium alloy, Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8. The semi-solid sintering induced by eutectic transformation to form a bimodal microstructure in Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloy is a fundamentally different approach from other known methods. The fabricated alloy exhibits high yield strength of 1790 MPa and plastic strain of 15.5%. The novel idea provides a new insight into obtaining nano-grain or bimodal microstructure in alloy systems with high melting point by semi-solid forming and into fabricating high-performance metallic alloys in structural applications.

  16. Conflict-induced Migration of Composers: An Individual-level Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2013-01-01

    Research on the causes of conflict-induced migration is hindered by the lack of adequately disaggregated data. The underlying study overcomes this problem by employment of historical data on 164 prominent classical composers born after 1800. We analyze the impact of war on the probability to emig...... responses to war based on individual’s quality. While the better composers are more likely to emigrate in times of peace, it is not so anymore if a war breaks out. In times of war, all artists are affected by war and are prone to emigrate....

  17. Western classical music development: a statistical analysis of composers similarity, differentiation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical analysis that captures similarities and differences between classical music composers with the eventual aim to understand why particular composers 'sound' different even if their 'lineages' (influences network) are similar or why they 'sound' alike if their 'lineages' are different. In order to do this we use statistical methods and measures of association or similarity (based on presence/absence of traits such as specific 'ecological' characteristics and personal musical influences) that have been developed in biosystematics, scientometrics, and bibliographic coupling. This paper also represents a first step towards a more ambitious goal of developing an evolutionary model of Western classical music.

  18. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  19. Mitigation of environmental impacts: a study of the companies that compose the Camaçari Industrial Center (PIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria da Silva Gomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to map the environmental impacts of mitigation actions demonstrated in the sustainability reporting and financial statements of companies that compose the Camaçari Industrial Center (PIC from 2007 to 2013. Data from the Industrial Development Committee of Camaçari was used to survey the companies. The final sample consisted of 14 companies. Content analysis was used to identify the information contained in these reports, based on the model proposed by Nossa (2002 for measuring environmental impacts. The results showed that the subcategory most mentioned in the sustainability reports was wastefulness. It was found in 430 instances, followed by Recycling (157, CO² (129, Contamination and Land Restoration (122, and Conservation of Natural Resources (108. The wastefulness subcategory was also more present in the financial statements, with 77 instances, followed by Contamination and Land Restoration (49 and Recycling (29. There was also a growing trend of disclosure of environmental liabilities. The evidence indicates that the companies are concerned primarily with the treatment and disposal of their waste (solid, liquid and gaseous. The results are restricted to the period and sample investigated. Further research is suggested to broaden the sample and investigate the relationship between disclosure of environmental mitigation actions related to environmental impacts and the financial performance of companies. Additionally, studies could investigate which factors influence the adoption and dissemination of these actions, in the perception of managers of Brazilian companies.

  20. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model st...

  1. Atomic and molecular effects in the VUV spectra of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, B.

    1977-10-01

    The VUV spectra of solids are often dominated by atomic or molecular effects, which clearly manifest themselves in the gross features of the spectra and the fine structure at inner shell excitation thresholds. Evidence for the influence of atomic and molecular matrix elements, multiplet-splitting and correlation is presented. Special emphasis is given to the direct experimental verification based on the comparison of atomic and solid state spectra. (orig.) [de

  2. Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian

    2017-04-26

    Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.

  3. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  5. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  6. How to Study a Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  7. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  8. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  9. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  10. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  12. Quantum mechanics in matrix form

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter

    2018-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to quantum mechanics with the matrix method. Heisenberg's matrix mechanics is described in detail. The fundamental equations are derived by algebraic methods using matrix calculus. Only a brief description of Schrödinger's wave mechanics is given (in most books exclusively treated), to show their equivalence to Heisenberg's matrix  method. In the first part the historical development of Quantum theory by Planck, Bohr and Sommerfeld is sketched, followed by the ideas and methods of Heisenberg, Born and Jordan. Then Pauli's spin and exclusion principles are treated. Pauli's exclusion principle leads to the structure of atoms. Finally, Dirac´s relativistic quantum mechanics is shortly presented. Matrices and matrix equations are today easy to handle when implementing numerical algorithms using standard software as MAPLE and Mathematica.

  13. Theory of the particle matrix elements for Helium atom scattering in surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.; Toennies, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.A brief review is presented for the recent development of the theory of the particle transition matrix elements, basic to the cross section for Helium and inert particle scattering at thermal energies in solid surfaces. the Jackson and Mott matrix elements are presented and discussed for surface scattering processes, habitually classified as elastic and inelastic. Modified transition matrix elements, introduced originally to account for the cut-off effects, are presented in a direct and simple manner. the Debye-Waller factor is introduced and discussed. A recent calculation for the particle transition matrix elements is presented for the specular and inelastic transition matrix elements and the corresponding inelastic scattering cross section is compared in detail to experimental data. the specular and inelastic transition matrix elements are found to be intrinsically similar owing to the intermediate role of a proposed virtual particle squeezed state near the surface

  14. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  15. Endocytosis of collagen by hepatic stellate cells regulates extracellular matrix dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Mukhopadhyay, Dhriti; Drinane, Mary; Ji, Baoan; Li, Xing; Cao, Sheng; Shah, Vijay H

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) generate matrix, which in turn may also regulate HSCs function during liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that HSCs may endocytose matrix proteins to sense and respond to changes in microenvironment. Primary human HSCs, LX2, or mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) [wild-type; c-abl(-/-); or Yes, Src, and Fyn knockout mice (YSF(-/-))] were incubated with fluorescent-labeled collagen or gelatin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and confocal microscopy were used for measuring cellular internalization of matrix proteins. Targeted PCR array and quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate gene expression changes. HSCs and LX2 cells endocytose collagens in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Endocytosed collagen colocalized with Dextran 10K, a marker of macropinocytosis, and 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis, reduced collagen internalization by 46%. Cytochalasin D and ML7 blocked collagen internalization by 47% and 45%, respectively, indicating that actin and myosin are critical for collagen endocytosis. Wortmannin and AKT inhibitor blocked collagen internalization by 70% and 89%, respectively, indicating that matrix macropinocytosis requires phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Overexpression of dominant-negative dynamin-2 K44A blocked matrix internalization by 77%, indicating a role for dynamin-2 in matrix macropinocytosis. Whereas c-abl(-/-) MEF showed impaired matrix endocytosis, YSF(-/-) MEF surprisingly showed increased matrix endocytosis. It was also associated with complex gene regulations that related with matrix dynamics, including increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) mRNA levels and zymographic activity. HSCs endocytose matrix proteins through macropinocytosis that requires a signaling network composed of PI3K/AKT, dynamin-2, and c-abl. Interaction with extracellular matrix regulates matrix dynamics through modulating multiple gene expressions including MMP-9

  16. Magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles in zirconia matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia del Muro, M.; Konstantinovic, Z.; Varela, M.; Batlle, X.; Labarta, A.

    2007-01-01

    Granular films composed of nanometric Co particles embedded in an insulating ZrO 2 matrix were prepared by pulsed laser deposition in a wide range of Co volume concentrations (0.06 v <0.42). High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) shows very sharp interfaces between the crystalline particles and the amorphous matrix, with no evidence of intermixing. The mean particles size and width of the distribution determined by fitting the low-field magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves in the paramagnetic regime to a distribution of Langevin functions are in agreement with the parameters extracted from direct TEM observations. Ferromagnetic correlations between Co particles are evident in the field-cooled state when increasing Co concentration. The effective anisotropy constant estimated from magnetic measurements is about two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk value, and decreases as particle size increases

  17. Connective matrix organization in chronic granulomas of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, I B; de Oliveira, P C; Lenzi, H L

    1988-07-01

    The histological and ultrastructural aspects of chronic granulomas from rats infected intraperitoneally with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described with special emphasis on the composition of the extracellular matrix. The granulomas were structurally arranged in two zones, one central containing fungi, and the other peripheral. The extracellular matrix was composed of collagen types I and III, proteoglycans, glycoprotein, and an undefined amorphous substance. The main cellular population was represented by macrophages, epithelioid cells, and giant cells in the central zone, and fibroblasts in the peripheral zone. The fibrotic process was a critical event in this stage of the infection, and showed a centrifugal direction. This might be provoked by direct stimulus from the fungi or by macrophage-fibroblastic interaction.

  18. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  19. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Genova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18 × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17 × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21 ´ 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  20. Envisioning Collaborative Composing in Music Education: Learning and Negotiation of Meaning in "operabyyou.com"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partti, Heidi; Westerlund, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental case study examines collaborative composing in the "operabyyou.com" online music community from the perspective of learning by utilising the concept of a "community of practice" as a heuristic frame. The article suggests that although informal music practices offer important opportunities for…

  1. Composer Recognition based on 2D-Filtered Piano-Rolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Cancino Chacón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for music classification based on the use of convolutional models on symbolic pitch-time representations (i.e. piano-rolls) which we apply to composer recognition. An excerpt of a piece to be classified is first sampled to a 2D pitch-time representation which is then subjected...

  2. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  3. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  4. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  5. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole–mirror bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole–mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, rmstat, which supports stationary (marginally-stable field configurations. This critical (‘stationary’ mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole–mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region rmrmstat are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time. In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable boundary between stable and explosive black-hole–mirror-field configurations. It is shown that the innermost (smallest radius of the confining mirror which allows the extraction of rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole approaches the black-hole horizon radius in the extremal limit of rapidly-rotating black holes. We find, in particular, that this critical mirror radius (which marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed system scales linearly with the black-hole temperature.

  6. Persistence length of wormlike micelles composed of ionic surfactants: self-consistent-field predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, Y.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The persistence length of a wormlike micelle composed of ionic surfactants CnEmXk in an aqueous solvent is predicted by means of the self-consistent-field theory where CnEm is the conventional nonionic surfactant and X-k is an additional sequence of k weakly charged (pH-dependent) segments. By

  7. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P J; Slaets, Joris P J; van Bodegom, David

    2017-05-30

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 ( p = 0.02) and 0.18 ( p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity.

  8. A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the ...

  9. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  10. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  11. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  12. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  13. Universally composable zero-knowledge arguments and commitments from signature cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); J. Müller-Quade; D. Unruh

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the Universal Composability framework many cryptographic tasks cannot be built from scratch. Additional \\helping" functionalities are needed to realise zero-knowledge or bit commitment. However, all the additional functionalities presented in the literature so far have to be

  14. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  15. Sounds unheard of evolutionary algorithms as creative tools for the contemporary composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are studied as tools for generating novel musical material in the form of musical scores and synthesized sounds. The choice of genetic representation defines a space of potential music. This space is explored using evolutionary algorithms, in search of useful musical mater...... composed with the tools described in the thesis are presented....

  16. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... chiefly woolen fibers with the balance of undetermined mixtures of cotton, rayon or other non-woolen...

  17. Prefabricated floor panels composed of fiber reinforced concrete and a steel substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus H.; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during...

  18. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  19. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  20. Efficiency of a concentric matrix track detector surface scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Nikezic, D.; Kostic, D.; Krstic, D.; Cuknic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy particle ionizing radiation track counting on the surface of a solid state round surface detector is made using the microscope and scanning step by step by a round field of vision. The whole solid state detector surface could not be fully or completely covered by round fields of visions. Therefore detector surface could be divided on the two parts, the larger surface, being under fields of vision, really scanned and no scanned missed or omitted surface. The ratio between omitted and scanned surfaces is so called track scanning efficiency. The knowledge of really counted, or scanned surface is a important value for evaluating the real surface track density an exposed solid state track detector. In the paper a matrix of a concentric field of vision made around the first microscope field of vision placed in center of the round disc of the scanned track detector is proposed. In a such scanning matrix the real scanned surface could be easy calculated and by the microscope scanning made as well. By this way scanned surface is very precisely obtained as well. Precise knowledge of scanned and omitted surface allows to obtain more precise scanning efficiency factor as well as real surface track density, the main parameter in solid state track detection measurements. (author)

  1. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  2. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole–mirror bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2014-09-07

    It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole–mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, r{sub m}{sup stat}, which supports stationary (marginally-stable) field configurations. This critical (‘stationary’) mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole–mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region r{sub m}composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region r{sub m}>r{sub m}{sup stat} are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time). In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable) boundary between stable and explosive black-hole–mirror-field configurations. It is shown that the innermost (smallest) radius of the confining mirror which allows the extraction of rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole approaches the black-hole horizon radius in the extremal limit of rapidly-rotating black holes. We find, in particular, that this critical mirror radius (which marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed system) scales linearly with the black-hole temperature.

  3. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  4. A method to compute the inverse of a complex n-block tridiagonal quasi-hermitian matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrin, Elena

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a method to compute the inverse of a complex n-block tridiagonal quasi-hermitian matrix using adequate partitions of the complete matrix. This type of matrix is very usual in quantum mechanics and, more specifically, in solid state physics (e.g., interfaces and superlattices), when the tight-binding approximation is used. The efficiency of the method is analyzed comparing the required CPU time and work-area for different usual techniques. (Author)

  5. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  6. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  7. The matrix of inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

    2005-04-01

    perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

  8. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  10. Measuring methods of matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Valkiainen, M.

    1988-03-01

    In Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of at large depths in crystalline bedrock. The radionuclides which are dissolved in the groundwater may be able to diffuse into the micropores of the porous rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the flowing water in the fractures. This phenomenon is called matrix diffusion. A review over matrix diffusion is presented in the study. The main interest is directed to the diffusion of non-sorbing species. The review covers diffusion experiments and measurements of porosity, pore size, specific surface area and water permeability

  11. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  12. Magnetic response from a composite of metal-dielectric particles in the visible range: T-matrix simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhuromskyy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical response of a particle composed of a dielectric core surrounded by a densely packed shell of small metal spheres is simulated with the superposition Tmatrix method for realistic material parameters. In order to compute the electric and magnetic particle polarizabilities a single expansion T-matrix is derived from a particle centered T-matrix. Finally the permeability of a medium comprising such particles is found to deviate considerable from unity resulting in a noticeable optical response.

  13. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  14. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  15. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  16. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  17. The R-matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, P; Baye, D

    2010-01-01

    The different facets of the R-matrix method are presented pedagogically in a general framework. Two variants have been developed over the years: (i) The 'calculable' R-matrix method is a calculational tool to derive scattering properties from the Schroedinger equation in a large variety of physical problems. It was developed rather independently in atomic and nuclear physics with too little mutual influence. (ii) The 'phenomenological' R-matrix method is a technique to parametrize various types of cross sections. It was mainly (or uniquely) used in nuclear physics. Both directions are explained by starting from the simple problem of scattering by a potential. They are illustrated by simple examples in nuclear and atomic physics. In addition to elastic scattering, the R-matrix formalism is applied to inelastic and radiative-capture reactions. We also present more recent and more ambitious applications of the theory in nuclear physics.

  18. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain; Kammoun, Abla

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show

  19. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  20. Matrix Effects in XRF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Gabr, N.A.; El-Aryan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research treats the matrix effect on XRF measurements. The problem is treated by preparing general oxide program, which contains many samples that represent all materials in cement factories, then by using T rail Lachance m ethod to correct errors of matrix effect. This work compares the effect of using lithium tetraborate or sodium tetraborate as a fluxing agent in terms of accuracy and economic cost