Sample records for solid material primarily

  1. Sheared solid materials

    Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami


    We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.

  2. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Ainscow, J.W.H.


    Carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil shale are distilled by being passed in a continuous stream through a retort heated externally and at temperatures increasing from the inlet to the outlet end, the distillates being taken off through openings in the retort wall.

  3. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    Yin, Houping


    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  4. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    Hagenmuller, Paul


    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in


    Dmitrenko D. V.


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the determination of conditions for solid bodies’ fragmentation, providing minimal size of particles by means of their mechanical dispersion through the example of powders of titanium carbide (TiC, cubic boron nitride – borazon (CBN and boron carbide (B4C. The theoretical and practical aspects of the process of mechanical fragmentation of particles of solid powder materials in ball mill for their further utilization in furnace charge for high-speed gas-flame sputtering of wear-resistant composite materials are examined in the article. Methods of preliminary calculation of minimum allowable size of solid particles of powder materials during mechanical fragmentation, based upon Griffiths’ mechanical theory of rapture using experimental data for hardness of material and its yield are proposed and theoretically substantiated. There we have the results of experiments on mechanical fragmentation of titanium carbide in attritor, boron carbide and cubic boron nitride in centrifugal planetary mill, confirming correctness of theoretical propositions and calculations are set out. Recommendations on mechanical fragmentation of solid powder materials in ball mills are formulated as well

  6. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  7. Cellular Automata Model for Elastic Solid Material

    DONG Yin-Feng; ZHANG Guang-Cai; XU Ai-Guo; GAN Yan-Biao


    The Cellular Automaton (CA) modeling and simulation of solid dynamics is a long-standing difficult problem.In this paper we present a new two-dimensional CA model for solid dynamics.In this model the solid body is represented by a set of white and black particles alternatively positioned in the x-and y-directions.The force acting on each particle is represented by the linear summation of relative displacements of the nearest-neighboring particles.The key technique in this new model is the construction of eight coefficient matrices.Theoretical and numerical analyses show that the present model can be mathematically described by a conservative system.So,it works for elastic material.In the continuum limit the CA model recovers the well-known Navier equation.The coefficient matrices are related to the shear module and Poisson ratio of the material body.Compared with previous CA model for solid body,this model realizes the natural coupling of deformations in the x-and y-directions.Consequently,the wave phenomena related to the Poisson ratio effects are successfully recovered.This work advances significantly the CA modeling and simulation in the field of computational solid dynamics.

  8. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter


    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  9. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique


    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  10. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.


    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  11. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter


    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  12. Oxide anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)


    A major advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is their tolerance for the type and purity of fuel. This fuel flexibility is due in large part to the high operating temperature of SOFCs, but also relies on the selection and development of appropriate materials - particularly for the anode where the fuel reaction occurs. This paper reviews the oxide materials being investigated as alternatives to the most commonly used nickel-YSZ cermet anodes for SOFCs. The majority of these oxides form the perovskite structure, which provides good flexibility in doping for control of the transport properties. However, oxides that form other crystal structures, such as the cubic fluorite structure, have also shown promise for use as SOFC anodes. In this paper, oxides are compared primarily in terms of their transport properties, but other properties relative to SOFC anode performance are also discussed. (author)

  13. Comparison of solid highlighter materials for thermography

    Genest, M.; Forsyth, D.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Maldague, X. [Univ. Laval, Electrical and Computing Engienering Dept., Quebec, Quebec (Canada)


    Bare metal surfaces are difficult to inspect with flash thermography due to the high reflectivity and low emissivity of metal surfaces. Often black paint is used to prepare these surfaces for inspection. The additional time required to apply, dry, and then remove paint after inspection can be a significant barrier to using thermographic inspection techniques in these applications. This paper examines the use of solid 'highlighter' materials instead of paint to provide desirable surface characteristics and ease of use. Both positive pressure and vacuum methods were used to apply a variety of materials to metal test specimens, which were then inspected with a commercial pulsed flash thermography system. A vacuum-applied black latex material provided surface performance close to that of black paint without the extra burden of paint application and removal. (author)

  14. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  15. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Larsen, P.H.


    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  16. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  17. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  18. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  19. Metallic materials in solid oxide fuel cells

    Willem Joseph Quadakkers


    Full Text Available Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC. Recently, a new type of FeCrMn(Ti/La based ferritic steels has been developed to be used as construction material for SOFC interconnects. In the present paper, the long term oxidation resistance of this class of steels in both air and simulated anode gas will be discussed and compared with the behaviour of a number of commercial available ferritic steels. Besides, in-situ studies were carried out to characterize the high temperature conductivity of the oxide scales formed under these conditions. Main emphasis will be put on the growth and adherence of the oxide scales formed during exposure, their contact resistance at service temperature as well as their interaction with various perovskite type contact materials. Additionally, parameters and protection methods in respect to the volatilization of chromia based oxide scales will be illustrated.

  20. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Macías, A.


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  1. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  2. Nanophase materials in solid freeform fabrication

    Manthiram, A.; Bourell, D. L.; Marcus, H. L.


    Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a manufacturing technology that produces parts directly from computer-aided design databases. Examples of the SFF approach are selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser reactive sintering (SLRS), both of which have the potential to directly produce structurally sound metallic or ceramic parts. The development of suitable materials systems that can optimize the SLS or SLRS processes are critical to this technology. For instance, nanocomposites, in which the constituents are mixed on a nanometer scale, have the potential to provide important advantages in the SLS and SLRS processes. One strategy is to design and develop nanocomposites in which one nanosize component has a lower melting point than the other nanosize component, either of which can serve as the matrix phase. The nanoscale dispersion of the low-melting component can aid the sintering process during SLS or SLRS. In this article, the philosophical basis for SLS and SLRS of nanocomposites is discussed. Conceptual design of nanocomposite systems and the SLS/SLRS results of a few exploratory systems are presented.

  3. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    Mehrer, Helmut


    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  4. Materials for diode pumped solid state lasers

    Chase, L. L.; Davis, L. E.; Krupke, W. F.; Payne, S. A.


    The advantages of semiconductor diode lasers and laser arrays as pump sources for solid state lasers are reviewed. The properties that are desirable in solid state laser media for various diode pumping applications are discussed, and the characteristics of several promising media are summarized.

  5. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  6. Ultrathin two-dimensional inorganic materials: new opportunities for solid state nanochemistry.

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Lei, Fengcai; Xiao, Chong; Xie, Yi


    CONSPECTUS: The ultimate goal of solid state chemistry is to gain a clear correlation between atomic, defect, and electronic structure and intrinsic properties of solid state materials. Solid materials can generally be classified as amorphous, quasicrystalline, and crystalline based on their atomic arrangement, in which crystalline materials can be further divided into single crystals, microcrystals, and nanocrystals. Conventional solid state chemistry mainly focuses on studying single crystals and microcrystals, while recently nanocrystals have become a hot research topic in the field of solid state chemistry. As more and more nanocrystalline materials have been artificially fabricated, the solid state chemistry for studying those nanosolids has become a new subdiscipline: solid state nanochemistry. However, solid state nanochemistry, usually called "nanochemistry" for short, primarily studies the microstructures and macroscopic properties of a nanomaterial's aggregation states. Due to abundant microstructures in the aggregation states, it is only possible to build a simple but imprecise correlation between the microscopic morphology and the macroscopic properties of the nanostructures. Notably, atomically thin two-dimensional inorganic materials provide an ideal platform to establish clear structure-property relationships in the field of solid state nanochemistry, thanks to their homogeneous dispersion without the assistance of a capping ligand. In addition, their atomic structures including coordination number, bond length, and disorder degree of the examined atoms can be clearly disclosed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Also, their more exposed interior atoms would inevitably induce the formation of various defects, which would have a non-negligible effect on their physicochemical properties. Based on the obtained atomic and defect structural characteristics, density-functional calculations are performed to study their electronic structures

  7. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  8. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Armstrong, T.R.; Pederson, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The phase stability and sintering behavior of materials used in SOFCs has been evaluated. The sintering behavior of Ca and Sr doped lanthanum. manganite (the preferred SOFC cathode material) is highly dependent on the relative proportion of A and B site cations in the material. Ca and Sr doped lanthanum chromite (the preferred interconnect material) have been shown to rapidly expand in reducing atmospheres at temperatures as low as 700{degrees}C. This expansion is due to the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} to Cr{sup 3+} in reducing environments.

  9. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    Suchet, J P


    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  10. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Brinkman, Kyle S


    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  11. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter


    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  12. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  13. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials.

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong


    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    Tilley, Richard J. D.


    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  15. Soft solids a primer to the theoretical mechanics of materials

    Freed, Alan D


    This textbook presents the physical principles pertinent to the mathematical modeling of soft materials used in engineering practice, including both man-made materials and biological tissues. It is intended for seniors and masters-level graduate students in engineering, physics, or applied mathematics. It will also be a valuable resource for researchers working in mechanics, biomechanics, and other fields where the mechanical response of soft solids is relevant.   Soft Solids: A Primer to the Theoretical Mechanics of Materials is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the basic concepts needed to give both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the mechanical response of soft solids. Part II presents two distinct theories of elasticity and their associated theories of viscoelasticity. Seven boundary-value problems are studied over the course of the book, each pertaining to an experiment used to characterize materials. These problems are discussed at the end of each chapter, giving students the opportunit...

  16. Understanding solids the science of materials

    Tilley, Richard J D


    A modern introduction to the subject taking a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Covering a broad spectrum of topics, this book includes numerous up-to-date examples of real materials with relevant applications and a modern treatment of key concepts. The science bias allows this book to be equally accessible to engineers, chemists and physicists. * Carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding * Questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented * Includes coverage of radioactivit

  17. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  18. Homogeneity studies in reference materials with Zeeman solid sampling GFAAS

    Mohl, C.; Stoeppler, M.; Grobecker, K.H.


    The homogeneity of lead and cadmium in reference materials was investigated by solid sampling GFAAS. The following materials were comparatively analyzed: Standard reference materials from NBS, Washington 1567 wheat flour, 1568 rice flour and 1577a bovine liver, certified reference materials from BCR, Brussels, No 63 milk powder, No 184 bovine muscle, No 185 bovine liver, No 186 pig kidney, No 189 wholemeal flour, No 191 brown bread and a whole fish (dab) homogenate from the environmental specimen bank in the FRG. The results are remarkably different for the investigated materials.

  19. SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) propellant and polymer materials structural modeling

    Moore, Carleton J.


    The following investigation reviews and evaluates the use of stress relaxation test data for the structural analysis of Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellants and other polymer materials used for liners, insulators, inhibitors, and seals. The stress relaxation data is examined and a new mathematical structural model is proposed. This model has potentially wide application to structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. A dynamic modulus is derived from the new model for stress relaxation modulus and is compared to the old viscoelastic model and experimental data.

  20. Method of investigation of deformations of solids of incompressible materials

    Abdrakhmanova, A. I.; Garifullin, I. R.; Sultanov, L. U.


    The aim of this work is development mathematical models, algorithm for the investigation stress-strain state of elastic solids, taking into account the incompressibility materials. The constitutive equations are received using a potential energy of deformations. The system of the linear algebraic equations is received by linearization of a resolving equation. The penalty method is applied for a modelling of the incompressibility of the material. The finite element method is used for numerical solution of the problems.

  1. PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices

    Ottermann, Clemens R.; Segner, Johannes G.; Bange, Klaus


    The electrochromic properties of all solid state devices (ASSDs) are strongly defined by thin film materials used as well as the method of deposition. Various thin film materials deposited by evaporation and sputtering are described serving as electrode, reflector, electrolyte, storage medium, or electrochromic film in ASSD. The impact of process parameters upon the device functionality is shown. In addition, the long-term stability of ASSDs for the different thin film systems is reported.

  2. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology i

  3. Introduction of Materials Science Through Solid State Chemistry.

    Mueller, William M.

    Presented is a report of a program of the American Society for Metals, designed to introduce materials science principles via solid state chemistry into high school chemistry courses. At the time of the inception of this program in the mid-sixties, it was felt that high school students were not being adequately exposed to career opportunities in…

  4. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  5. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra


    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  6. Triggerless vacuum shunting plasma by metallic and solid materials

    Yukimura, Ken; Tani, Yuuji; Masamune, Sadao


    Shunting discharge is an alternating capacitor discharge through a rod of solid-state or metallic materials. Optimization of the discharge condition has realized self-ignition of the arc discharge with low input power to the rod, leading to a much longer rod life time than in conventional shunting arc or peripheral arc. The shunting-arc-produced plasma contains mainly the ions of the solid-state material, and ion extraction from the plasma has also been demonstrated. Thus, the shunting arc works as a pulsed ion source for solid-state materials for plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and ion processing. This article describes the characteristics of pulsed shunting arc, using the materials of carbon, niobium and silicon. The capacitor of 10 nF of which charging voltage is 10 to 25 kV using a thyratron as a closing switch. Glow discharge is firstly produced after the heat of the materials and then the plasma changes the style to the arc discharge. A negative high voltage pulse of -5 to -10 kV was applied to a target which was located at 30 cm away from the electrodes. We will discuss the ion species of the shunting plasma and ion extraction from the plasma using the time evolution of target current.

  7. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    Tanigawa, Takayuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)


    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  8. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne


    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    Lima, AG


    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  10. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  11. Review on MIEC Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Burnwal, Suman Kumar; Bharadwaj, S.; Kistaiah, P.


    The cathode is one of the most important components of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reduction of oxygen at the cathode (traditional cathodes like LSM, LSGM, etc.) is the slow step in the cell reaction at intermediate temperature (600-800∘C) which is one of the key obstacles to the development of SOFCs. The mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode (MIEC) like LSCF, BSCF, etc., has recently been proposed as a promising cathode material for SOFC due to the improvement of the kinetic of the cathode reaction. The MIEC materials provide not only the electrons for the reduction of oxygen, but also the ionic conduction required to ensure the transport of the formed oxygen ions and thereby improves the overall electrochemical performance of SOFC system. The characteristics of MIEC cathode materials and its comparison with other traditional cathode materials is studied and presented in the paper.

  12. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  13. Calorimetry study of microwave absorption of some solid materials.

    He, Chun Lin; Ma, Shao Jian; Su, Xiu Juan; Chen, Yan Qing; Liang, Yu Shi


    In practice, the dielectric constant of a material varies the applied frequency the material composition, particle size, purity, temperature, physical state (solid or liquid), and moisture content. All of these parameters might change during processing, therefore, it is difficult to predict how well a material will absorb microwave energy in a given process. When the temperature is measured by a digital thermometer, it could not accurately reflect the true temperature of the bulk materials, especially for mixed materials. Thus, in this paper we measured the microwave absorption characteristics of different materials by calorimetry. The microwave power levels, irradiation times, and masses of the materials were varied. It was difficult to predict the microwave energy absorption characteristics of reagent-grade inorganic compounds based on their color, metallic cation, or water stoichiometry. CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4, and MnSO4 x H2O (Taishan) strongly absorbed microwave energy. Most of the remaining inorganic compounds were poor absorbers, with silica hardly absorbing any microwave energy. Carbon-based materials had significantly different microwave absorption characteristics. Activated carbon and coke were especially sensitive to microwaves, but different types of coal were poor absorbers. The jamesonite concentrate absorbed microwave energy strongly, while the zinc concentrate was a poor absorber.

  14. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D


    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  15. Characteristics of tritium release behavior from solid breeder materials

    Kinjyo, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamashita, N.; Koyama, T.; Suematsu, K.; Fukada, S. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    A tritium release model has been developed by the present authors. The tritium release curves estimated by this tritium model give good agreement with experimental curves for Li {sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} or LiAlO{sub 2} under various purge gas conditions in our out-of-pile bred tritium release. The characteristics of tritium release behavior from various solid breeder materials carried out by us and in EXOTIC experiments at Petten are discussed in this study. (authors)

  16. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  17. Converters and electric machines. Solid insulating materials. Electrical characteristics; Convertisseurs et machines electriques. Materiaux isolants solides. Caracteristiques electriques

    Anton, A. [Institut National Superieur de Chimie Industrielle, 76 - Rouen (France)


    The aim of this article is to allow a preselection of a solid insulating material using the most common electrical characteristics: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity, dielectric rigidity, superficial resistivity, transverse resistivity, resistance to high voltage creeping spark currents, index of creeping resistance. The characteristics of the main solid insulating materials are presented in tables for: thermoplastics, thermosetting materials, natural insulating materials, mineral insulating materials, rubber and synthetic elastomers, stratified insulating materials, thermoplastic films, composite synthetic papers. A comparison is made between the different materials using the three properties: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity and resistance to HV spark creeping currents. (J.S.)

  18. Crystal-Field Engineering of Solid-State Laser Materials

    Henderson, Brian; Bartram, Ralph H.


    This book examines the underlying science and design of laser materials. It emphasizes the principles of crystal-field engineering and discusses the basic physical concepts that determine laser gain and nonlinear frequency conversion in optical crystals. Henderson and Bartram develop the predictive capabilities of crystal-field engineering to show how modification of the symmetry and composition of optical centers can improve laser performance. They also discuss applications of the principles of crystal-field engineering to a variety of optical crystals in relation to the performances of laser devices. This book will be of considerable interest to physical, chemical and material scientists and to engineers involved in the science and technology of solid state lasers.

  19. Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow


    This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

  20. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  1. The solid lubricating material experiment device for Shenzhou-7 Spaceship


    A solid lubricating material exposure experiment in space is one of the missions during the seventh manned spaceflight of China,and the key is to develop a device which can be fixed reliably outside of the orbital module and can be fetched conveniently by an astronaut during space walk.The solid lubricating material experiment device needs to be locked reliably in a vibrating and impacting environment during the launch phase,and should meet the requirement that it can be unlocked and fetched reliably by the astronaut wearing an extravehicular spacesuit via simple operations in orbit in an environment of high and low temperature.As for the device we developed,the environmental characteristic of the mission was analyzed,the mechanical analysis and thermal analysis were carried out,and then a mechanism with functions of mechanical locking,structural self-locking and manual unlocking was designed.The device was verified by a sequence of experiments and was fetched by the astronaut during the flight of the Shenzhou-7 Spaceship.

  2. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  3. Test and Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Ablative Materials

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved measurement of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero-thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  4. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.


    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  5. Novel Materials and Devices for Solid-State Neutron Detection

    Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    There is a need in many fields, such as nuclear medicine, non-proliferation, energy exploration, national security, homeland security, nuclear energy, etc, for miniature, thermal neutron detectors. Until recently, thermal neutron detection has required physically large devices to provide sufficient neutron interaction and transduction signal. Miniaturization would allow broader use in the fields just mentioned and open up other applications potentially. Recent research shows promise in creating smaller neutron detectors through the combination of high-neutron-cross-section converter materials and solid-state devices. Yet, till recently it is difficult to measure low neutron fluxes by solidstate means given the need for optimized converter materials (purity, chemical composition and thickness) and a lack of designs capable of efficient transduction of the neutron conversion products (x-rays, electrons, gamma rays). Gadolinium-based semiconductor heterojunctions have detected electrons produced by Gd-neutron reactions but only at high neutron fluxes. One of the main limitations to this type of approach is the use of thin converter layers and the inability to utilize all the conversion products. In this LDRD we have optimized the converter material thickness and chemical composition to improve capture of conversion electrons and have detected thermal neutrons with high fidelity at low flux. We are also examining different semiconductor materials and converter materials to attempt to capture a greater percentage of the conversion electrons, both low and higher energy varieties. We have studied detector size and bias scaling, and cross-sensitivity to xrays and shown that we can detect low fluxes of thermal neutrons in less than 30 minutes with high selectivity by our approach. We are currently studying improvements in performance with direct placement of the Gd converter on the detector. The advancement of sensitive, miniature neutron detectors will have benefits in

  6. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  7. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.


    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  8. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A


    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  9. Laser (cooling) refrigeration in erbium based solid state materials

    Lynch, Jonathan W.

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration in bulk material. A great deal of work in the field has been focused on the use of ytterbium based ZBLAN glass. Some experiments have also reported cooling in thulium based solid state materials but with considerably less success. We proposed that erbium had many attractive features compared to ytterbium and therefore should be tried for cooling. The low lying energy level structure of erbium provides energy levels that could bring obtainable temperatures two orders of magnitude lower. Erbium transitions of interest for cooling fall in the near IR region (0.87 microns and 1.5 microns). Lasers for one of these transitions, in the 1.5 micron region, are well developed for communication and are in the eye-safe and water and atmosphere transparent region. Theoretical calculations are also presented so as to identify energy levels of the eleven 4f electrons in Er3+ in Cs2NaYCl 6:Er3+ and the transitions between them. The strengths of the optical transitions between them have been calculated. Knowledge of such energy levels and the strength of the laser induced transitions between them is crucial for understanding the refrigeration mechanisms and different energy transfer pathways following the laser irradiation. The crystal host for erbium was a hexa-chloro-elpasolite crystal, Cs 2NaYCl6:Er3+ with an 80% (stoichiometric) concentration of erbium. The best cooling results were obtained using the 0.87 micron transition. We have demonstrated bulk cooling in this crystal with a temperature difference of ~6.2 K below the surrounding temperature. The temperatures of the crystal and its immediate surrounding environment were measured using differential thermometry. Refrigeration experiments using the 1.5 micron transition were performed and the results are presented. The demonstrated temperature difference was orders of magnitude smaller. Only a temperature

  10. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. Solid State NMR Studies of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials

    Jankuru Hennadige, Sohan Roshel De Silva

    NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is utilized to study energy conversion and storage materials. Different types of NMR techniques including Magic Angle Spinning, Cross-polarization and relaxation measurement experiments were employed. Four different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, three types of CFx battery materials were investigated. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated different electrochemical performances by one type, delivering superior performance over the other two. 13C and 19F MAS NMR techniques are employed to identify the atomic/molecular structural factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among different types. Next as the second project, layered polymer dielectrics were investigated by NMR. Previous studies have shown that thin film capacitors are improved by using alternate layers of two polymers with complementary properties: one with a high breakdown strength and one with high dielectric constant as opposed to monolithic layers. 13C to 1H cross-polarization techniques were used to investigate any inter-layer properties that may cause the increase in the dielectric strength. The third project was to study two types of thermoelectric materials. These samples were made of heavily doped phosphorous and boron in silicon by two different methods: ball-milled and annealed. These samples were investigated by NMR to determine the degree of disorder and obtain insight into the doping efficiency. The last ongoing project is on a lithium-ion battery system. The nature of passivating layers or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the electrodes surface is important because of the direct correlation between the SEI and the battery life time/durability. Multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) techniques are employed to identify the composition of the SEI formation of both positive and negative electrodes.

  12. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas


    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  13. Application of solid waste containing lead for gamma ray shielding material



    Abstract. The basic strategies to decrease solid waste disposal problems have focused on the reduction of waste production and recovery of usable materials using waste and making raw materials. Generally, various materials have been used for radiation shielding in different areas and situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead has been analyzed in order to make a shielding material against gamma radiation. The photon total mass...

  14. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Allan J. Jacobson


    the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity

  15. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    Santaoja, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity


    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable `equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material` denoted by {sigma}{sup M}. Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for {sigma}{sup M}. This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor {sigma} and {sigma}M. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression

  16. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...


    ... and steel scrap, other metals, paper fiber) sustainability; C&D materials; and zero waste. Topic 3... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... Report called ``Municipal Solid Waste in the United States'' as part of a broader discussion about...

  17. Potential electrode materials for symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ruiz Morales, J. C.


    Full Text Available Chromites, titanates and Pt-YSZ-CeO2 cermets have been investigated as potential electrode materials for an alternative concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, the symmetrical SOFCs (SFC. In this configuration, the same electrode material is used simultaneously as anode and cathode. Interconnector materials, such as chromites, could be considered as potential SFC electrodes, at least under pure hydrogen-fed at relatively high temperatures, as they do not exhibit significant catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon oxidation. This may be overcome by partially substituting Cr in the perovskite B-sites by other transition metal cations such as Mn. La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM is a good candidate for such SFCs, rendering fuel cell performances in excess of 500 and 300mW/cm2 using pure H2 and CH4 as fuel, at 950 oC. Similarly, typical n-type electronic conductors traditionally regarded as anode materials, such as strontium titanates, may also operate under oxidising conditions as cathodes by substituting some Ti content for Fe to introduce p-type conductivity. Preliminary electrochemical experiments on La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ-based SFCs show that they perform reasonably well under humidified H2, at high temperatures. A third group of materials is the support material of any typical cermet anode, i.e. YSZ, CeO2 plus a current collector. It has been found that this combination could be optimised to operate as SFC electrodes, rendering performances of 400mW/cm2 under humidified pure H2 at 950oC.

    Cromitas, titanatos y cermets de Pt-YSZ-CeO2 han sido investigados como potenciales materiales de electrodo para un concepto alternativo de Pilas de Combustible de Óxidos Sólidos (SOFC, las pilas SOFC simétricas (SFC. En

  18. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...


    ... nonsubstantive changes, however, to correct grammar, internal paragraph references, and a temperature conversion... means the English version of the ``International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code'' published by...

  19. Characterizaticr of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.


    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  20. Jet engine with electromagnetic field excitation of expendable solid-state material

    Tsybin, O. Yu.; Makarov, S. B.; Ostapenko, O. N.


    Electromagnetic field action on a solid-state natural raw material is considered here in the context of producing a mechanical reactive momentum. We suggest the development of a jet engine that possesses fast control and low thrust based on desorption or sputtering of particles flow from a solid surface.

  1. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D)...


    V. A. Okovity


    Full Text Available The paper presents an oxide ceramic material with addition of solid lubricant which has good technological characteristics and which is able to form high wear-resistant plasma coatings with low friction coefficient.

  3. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  4. An Overview of Pickering Emulsions: Solid-Particle Materials, Classification, Morphology, and Applications

    Yunqi Yang


    Full Text Available Pickering emulsion, a kind of emulsion stabilized only by solid particles locating at oil–water interface, has been discovered a century ago, while being extensively studied in recent decades. Substituting solid particles for traditional surfactants, Pickering emulsions are more stable against coalescence and can obtain many useful properties. Besides, they are more biocompatible when solid particles employed are relatively safe in vivo. Pickering emulsions can be applied in a wide range of fields, such as biomedicine, food, fine chemical synthesis, cosmetics, and so on, by properly tuning types and properties of solid emulsifiers. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from Pickering emulsions, morphology of solid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.

  5. Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials

    Tan, D.Z.; Sharafudeen, K.N.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials is a topic that has caused great interest of scientists over the past two decades. It will continue to be a fascinating field in the coming years. This is because many challenging fundamental problems have not been...... solved, especially concerning the interaction of strong, ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with matter, and also because potential advanced technologies will emerge due to the impressive capability of the intense femtosecond laser to create new material structures and hence functionalities. When......–matter interaction, and fabricate various integrated micro-devices. In recent years we have witnessed exciting development in understanding and applying femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent materials. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials relies on non...

  6. Materials corrosion in ammonia/solid heat pump working media

    Wilson, D.F.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H.


    Salt/ammonia complexes will undergo thermal cycles during use as working media for heat pumps. The interaction between container materials and complexes under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed to screen possible containment materials. Aluminum alloys 3003, 1100, and 6063 and carbon steel A214 were tested against possible heat pump working media SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. None of the containment materials showed susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. While all the materials demonstrated excellent general corrosion resistance to SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, only A214 displayed good general corrosion resistance to CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. The complex CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} was found to be subject to thermal cyclic instability and should not be used as a heat pump working medium.


    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan


    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

  8. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))


    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    and experimental conditions were reported. The study was performed using 4 samples: 3 reference substrates (starch, cellulose and gelatine), and 1 raw material (mung bean). The BMP of mung bean was carried out at two inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR), specifically 2 and 1. The methane yields of reference......L CH4/g VSadded and 86±8%, respectively. In addition, the anaerobic digestion of the raw material elected did not show influence on the ISR in the extent of the biotransformation....

  10. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Werner Österle


    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  11. Compatibility tests between Jarytherm DBT synthetic oil and solid materials from wastes

    Fasquelle, Thomas; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Flamant, Gilles; Walker, Jérémie


    Direct thermocline thermal energy storage is the cheapest sensible thermal energy storage configuration. Indeed, a thermocline tank consists in one tank instead of two and reduces costs. Thermocline thermal energy storages are often filled with cheap solid materials which could react with the heat transfer fluid in the case of incompatibility. PROMES laboratory is building a pilot-scale parabolic trough solar loop including a direct thermocline thermal energy storage system. The working fluid will be a synthetic oil, the Jarytherm® DBT, and the thermal energy storage tank will be filled with stabilized solid materials elaborated from vitrified wastes. Compatibility tests have been conducted in order to check on one hand if the thermo-mechanical properties and life time of the energy storage medium are not affected by the contact with oil and, on the other hand, if the thermal oil performances are not degraded by the solid filler. These experiments consisted in putting in contact the oil and the solid materials in small tanks. In order to discriminate the solid materials tested in the shortest time, accelerating aging conditions at 330 °C for 500 hours were used. The measurements consisted in X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy for the solids, and thermo-physical and chemical properties measurements for the oil. Regarding the solid samples, their crystalline structure did not change during the test, but it is difficult to conclude about their elementary composition and they seem to absorb oil. While thermal properties still makes Jarytherm® DBT a good heat transfer fluid after the accelerated aging tests, this study results in differentiating most compatible materials. Thus according to our study, Jarytherm® DBT can be used in direct thermocline thermal energy storage applications when compatibility of the solid material has been demonstrated.

  12. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Atsushi eSakuda


    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  13. Pressure effect on hysteresis in spin-crossover solid materials

    Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Integrated Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Advanced Materials, Nanotechnologies, and Distributed Systems for fabrication and control, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)


    A generalized microscopic Ising-like model is proposed to describe behavior of compressible spin-crossover solids with two states: low-spin and high-spin. The model was solved in mean-field approximation and shows hysteretic behavior at low energy difference between the states. We study the thermal transition between states under external hydrostatic pressure taking into account the changes in the volume of spin-crossover molecules in different states. Depending on the applied pressure, a spin-crossover system can have three types of behavior of molecular fraction in the high-spin state: hysteretic, second-order phase transition and no-phase transition. For the hysteretic regime, it is shown that the transition temperature under pressure is increased while the width of the hysteresis reduced.

  14. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...


    ... Bulk MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NCB National Cargo Bureau NEPA National Environmental Policy Act... material safety data sheet (MSDS) address some portions of proposed Sec. 148.60. We agree with the comment... in the form of an MSDS. e. One comment observed that, as proposed in the 1994 NPRM, Sec. 148.60(d...

  15. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih


    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  16. Molybdate Based Ceramic Negative-Electrode Materials for Solid Oxide Cells

    Graves, Christopher R.; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Novel molybdate materials with varying Mo valence were synthesized as possible negative-electrode materials for solid oxide cells. The phase, stability, microstructure and electrical conductivity were characterized. The electrochemical activity for H2O and CO2 reduction and H2 and CO oxidation wa...

  17. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Lineback, L. D.


    Aspects of the development and characteristics of thermal shock resistant hafnia ceramic material for use in solid propellant rocket nozzles are presented. The investigation of thermal shock resistance factors for hafnia based composites, and the preparation and analysis of a model of elastic materials containing more than one crack are reported.

  18. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  19. A Study of Damage on the Pipe Flow Materials Caused by Solid Particle Erosion

    Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Choi, Duk-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Joon [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Wall thinning can be classified into three types: flow-accelerated corrosion, cavitation erosion and solid particle erosion. This article presents a study of solid particle erosion, which frequently causes damages to power plants' pipe system. Unlike previous studies, this study uses a mechanism to make solid particles in a fluid flow collide with pipe materials in underwater condition. Experiment is conducted in three cases of velocity according to solid-water ratio using the three types of the materials of A106B, SS400, and A6061. The experiments were performed for 30 days, and the surface morphology and hardness of the materials were examined for every 7 days. Based on the velocity change of the solid particles in a fluid flow, the surface changes, the change in the amount of erosion, the erosion rate and the variation in the hardness of carbon steel and aluminum family pipe materials can all be determined. In addition, factor based erosion rates are verified and a wall-thinning relation function is suggested for the pipe materials.

  20. Thermodynamics of water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous pharmaceutical materials.

    Sacchetti, Mark


    Pharmaceutical materials, crystalline and amorphous, sorb water from the atmosphere, which affects critical factors in the development of drugs, such as the selection of drug substance crystal form, compatibility with excipients, dosage form selection, packaging, and product shelf-life. It is common practice to quantify the amount of water that a material sorbs at a given relative humidity (RH), but the results alone provide minimal to no physicochemical insight into water-solid interactions, without which pharmaceutical scientists cannot develop an understanding of their materials, so as to anticipate and circumvent potential problems. This research was conducted to advance the science of pharmaceutical materials by examining the thermodynamics of solids with sorbed water. The compounds studied include nonhygroscopic drugs, a channel hydrate drug, a stoichiometric hydrate excipient, and an amorphous excipient. The water sorption isotherms were measured over a range of temperature to extract the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of sorbed water as well as the same quantities for some of the solids. It was found that water-solid interactions spanned a range of energy and entropy as a function of RH, which was unique to the solid, and which could be valuable in identifying batch-to-batch differences and effects of processing in material performance.

  1. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Jairo F. Pereira


    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  2. Rheorefining process. Semi-solid processing available for reuse of materials; Reorifuain ho. Zairyo saisei no tameno semi solid kako

    Ichikawa, K.; Kato, S.; Asuke, T.; Nakazawa, K. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan). Agency of Industrial Science and Technology


    Rheorefining process is one of methodologies of the rheocasting process produces high-purity material by using the temperature region of solid-liquid coexistence of alloy, but still remains in a stage of basic investigation. The authors have paid attention to the fact that deterioration of metallic products is caused by impurity invading and accumulating mainly in crystal grain boundary or solid crystal gaps from the surrounding environment during the use and have investigated the development of a technique to recover effectively reusable metallic materials from spent products through the rheorefining process. A test piece of Al-50 wt% Sn alloy is evacuated by a vacuum pump followed by heating, maintained isothermally in the temperature region of solid-liquid coexistence, pressurized with a plunger and filtered through a filter. By selecting a proper temperature and plunger speed, Sn can be remover efficiently to afford Al with 98% purity. Rheorefining experiments on Al-2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 wt% Ni alloys show reduction of the Ni contents and reduction of the amount of eutectic crystals is observed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Novel functionalized polymeric fabric and fiber material as solid support for solid-phase synthesis and biomedical applications

    Xiang, Bei

    The aim of the research is to develop novel polymer solid support by modifying or fabricating polymeric fibrous materials for peptide synthesis and biomedical applications. Originally chemical inert isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fabric was utilized and modified to serve as a functional flexible planar solid support for solid phase peptide synthesis. The modification was achieved through thermal initiated radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate as monomers, and benzoyl peroxide as radical initiator. The iPP fabric was successfully functionalized and possessing as high as 0.7mmol/g carboxylic acid groups. Peptide ligand LHPQF was successfully synthesized on the new functional planar support. Specific enzyme immobilization was fulfilled on the functional iPP fabric support. A commercially available ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer was made into ultrafine copolymer fiber bundles which are composed of nanofibers with diameters ranging from 200nm to 800nm. Various mixing ratios of copolymer/matrix materials were utilized to explore the effect on the final nanofiber physical properties including morphology and stability in solvents. The surface carboxylic acid groups were further converted to amino groups before the functional nanofibers can be applied in solid phase peptide synthesis. Two peptide ligands, LHPQF and HWRGWV, were also successfully synthesized on the nanofiber bundles. Streptavidin and human immunoglobulin G specific binding with the corresponding ligand which was anchored on the nanofibers was conducted successfully to illustrate the potential applications of the nanofiber materials in biomedical field. Further study on the dispersion of the ethylene-acrylic acid nanofiber bundles was pursued to take advantage of the super high active surface area of functional nanofibers. To manipulate the polymer nanofibers during synthesis and bio-assays, a technique was developed to controllably assemble and disperse the

  4. Preparation QTi3.5-3.5 Graphite Lubricant Material with Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA


    For the first time, the distribution of graphite particles in QTi3.5-3.5 graphite ingot was studied by using semi-solid casting technology. The results show that: the relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is y=759.4-0.711x (where y is solid fraction, x is stirring temperature). With the increasing of solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles in ingot reduces gradually. The condition to prepare QTi3.5-3.5 graphite lubricant material with even distribution of graphite particles is that the solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is larger than 40%.

  5. Steel silos for particulate solid materials : part 2 - membrane forces at filling and discharge.

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan


    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  6. Steel silos for particulate solid materials. Part 1, Actions at filling and discharge.

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan


    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  7. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    and experimental conditions were reported. The study was performed using 4 samples: 3 reference substrates (starch, cellulose and gelatine), and 1 raw material (mung bean). The BMP of mung bean was carried out at two inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR), specifically 2 and 1. The methane yields of reference...... substrates for starch, cellulose and gelatine were 352±33, 353±29 and 382±42 mL/g VSadded, respectively. The percentages of biotransformation of these substrates into methane were 85±8, 85±7 and 88±10%, respectively. On the other hand, the values of methane yields and biodegradability for MB were 373±35 m...

  8. Numerical simulation of mechanical deformation of semi-solid material using a level-set based finite element method

    Sun, Zhidan; Bernacki, Marc; Logé, Roland; Gu, Guochao


    In this work, a level-set based finite element method was used to numerically evaluate the mechanical behavior in a small deformation range of semi-solid materials with different microstructure configurations. For this purpose, a finite element model of the semi-solid phase was built based on Voronoï diagram. Interfaces between the solid and the liquid phases were implicitly described by level-set functions coupled to an anisotropic meshing technique. The liquid phase was considered as a Newtonian fluid, whereas the behavior of the solid phase was described by a viscoplastic law. Simulations were performed to study the effect of different parameters such as solid phase fraction and solid bridging. Results show that the macroscopic mechanical behavior of semi-solid material strongly depends on the solid fraction and the local microstructure which play important roles in the formation of hot tearing. These results could provide valuable information for the processing of semi-solid materials.

  9. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  10. Characterisation of Materials used in Flex Bearings of Large Solid Rocket Motors

    CH.V. Ram Mohan


    Full Text Available Solid rocket motors are propulsion devices for both satellite launchers and missiles, which require guidance and steering to fly along a programmed trajectory and to compensate for flight disturbances. A typical solid rocket motor consists of motor case, solid propellant grain, motor insulation, igniter and nozzle. In most solid rocket motors, thrust vector control (TVC is required. One of the most efficient methods of TVC is by flex nozzle system. The flex nozzle consists of a flexible bearing made of an elastomeric material alternating with reinforcement rings of metallic or composite material. The material characterisation of AFNOR 15CDV6 steel and the natural rubber-based elastomer developed for use in flex nozzle are discussed. This includes testing, modelling of the material, selection of a material model suitable for analysis, and the validation of material model.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.264-269, DOI:

  11. New Lithium Solid Electrolytes, Thio-Lisicon Materials Design Concept and Application to Solid State Battery

    Kanno, Ryoji; Murayama, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki


    Materials design concept of the new crystalline 'thio-LlSICON' (LIthium Superlonic CONductor) family was discussed. The thio-LISICON was found in the ternary systems, Li2S-MS2-M'xSy (M=Si, Ge, M'=P, Sb, Al, Zn, etc), and showed the highest conductivity of 2.2 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 25°C of any sintered ceramic, together with negligible electronic conductivity, high electrochemical stability, no reaction with lithium metal, and no phase transition up to 300°C. The advantage and disadvantage of the crystalline materials were discussed based on the ionic conduction, chemical stability and electrochemical potential window.

  12. Material growth and characterization for solid state devices

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, A.; Iyer, S.


    During this period InGaAs and InGaAsP were grown on (100)InP by liquid phase electroepitaxy (LPEE). Results of the epitaxial growth of InGaAs on sputtered quartz masked substrates are presented. The resulting surface morphology can be related to the current density distribution near the edges of a masked pattern. The quaternary InGaAs was grown with compositions corresponding to 1.3 micron and 1.5 micron emission wavelengths. Growth rates were found to be linearly dependent upon current density, and a strong dependence upon composition was noted. These compositions lie in the miscibility gap region of the alloy phase diagram at the 645 C growth temperature. Growths were performed at 685 C to avoid the miscibility gap. Epilayers were characterized by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements. Aluminum oxide was deposited on silicon and InGaAs substrates for the characterization of this material as an insulator in a field effect transistor structure. It was determined that the results did not warrant further work with the deposition from an aluminum isopropoxide source. A metallographic vapor phase epitaxy system installation is nearing completion for use in hybrid III-V semiconductor epilayer growths.

  13. Scaling similarities of multiple fracturing of solid materials

    P. G. Kapiris


    Full Text Available It has recently reported that electromagnetic flashes of low-energy -rays emitted during multi-fracturing on a neutron star, and electromagnetic pulses emitted in the laboratory by a disordered material subjected to an increasing external load, share distinctive statistical properties with earthquakes, such as power-law energy distributions (Cheng et al., 1996; Kossobokov et al., 2000; Rabinovitch et al., 2001; Sornette and Helmstetter, 2002. The neutron starquakes may release strain energies up to erg, while, the fractures in laboratory samples release strain energies approximately a fraction of an erg. An earthquake fault region can build up strain energy up to approximately erg for the strongest earthquakes. Clear sequences of kilohertz-megahertz electromagnetic avalanches have been detected from a few days up to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. A question that arises effortlessly is if the pre-seismic electromagnetic fluctuations also share the same statistical properties. Our study justifies a positive answer. Our analysis also reveals 'symptoms' of a transition to the main rupture common with earthquake sequences and acoustic emission pulses observed during laboratory experiments (Maes et al., 1998.

  14. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton;


    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...... to cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies



    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  16. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials.

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir


    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material.

  17. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir


    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material.

  18. Cavity-enhanced laser cooling of solid-state materials in a standing-wave cavity

    Youhua Jia; Biao Zhong; Jianping Yin


    We propose a new method to cool the Yba+-doped ZBLANP glass in a standing-wave cavity. There are two advantages of this cavity-enhanced technique: the pumping power is greatly enhanced and the absorption of the cooling material is greatly increased. We introduce the basic principle of the cavity-enhanced laser cooling and discuss the cooling effect of a solid-state material in a cavity. From the theoretical study, it is found that the laser cooling effect is strongly dependent on the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors, the length of the solid material, the surface scattering of the material, and so on. Some optimal parameters for efficient laser cooling are obtained.

  19. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  20. Material efficient production of complex (hybrid) components using semi solid forming processes

    Riedmüller, Kim Rouven; Liewald, Mathias


    By means of lightweight design and lightweight material structures, weight of single components and of resulting component assemblies should be reduced and, additionally, existing functionalities, reliabilities and material properties should be preserved. Therefore, on the one hand novel materials and hybrid material combinations are investigated and on the other hand weight reduction is realized by material efficient component designs. With regard to the manufacturing of such complex component geometries with high dimensional accuracy and relating to the realization of hybrid material concepts, semi solid forming technology offers promising prospects. This paper deals with two research projects recently conducted at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU, University of Stuttgart) in the field of this forming technology. First project is concerned with the manufacturing of hybrid components with integrated sensor and/or actuator functions and second project is in the field of material efficient manufacturing.

  1. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper;


    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  2. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko


    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  3. Review of Solid State Hydrogen Storage Methods Adopting Different Kinds of Novel Materials

    Renju Zacharia


    Full Text Available Overview of advances in the technology of solid state hydrogen storage methods applying different kinds of novel materials is provided. Metallic and intermetallic hydrides, complex chemical hydride, nanostructured carbon materials, metal-doped carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, metal-doped metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks (COFs, and clathrates solid state hydrogen storage techniques are discussed. The studies on their hydrogen storage properties are in progress towards positive direction. Nevertheless, it is believed that these novel materials will offer far-reaching solutions to the onboard hydrogen storage problems in near future. The review begins with the deficiencies of current energy economy and discusses the various aspects of implementation of hydrogen energy based economy.

  4. Solid-State Thermal Reaction of a Molecular Material and Solventless Synthesis of Iron Oxide

    Roy, Debasis; Roy, Madhusudan; Zubko, Maciej; Kusz, Joachim; Bhattacharjee, Ashis


    Solid-state thermal decomposition reaction of a molecular material {As}({C}6{H}5)4[{Fe}^{II}{Fe}^{III} ({C}2{O}4)3]}n has been studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) in an inert atmosphere. By analyzing the TG data collected at multiple heating rates in 300 K-1300 K range, the kinetic parameters (activation energy, most probable reaction mechanism function and frequency factor) are determined using different multi-heating rate analysis programs. Activation energy and the frequency factor are found to be strongly dependent on the extent of decomposition. The decomposed material has been characterized to be hematite using physical techniques (FT-IR and powder XRD). Particle morphology has been checked by TEM. A solid-state reaction pathway leading the molecular precursor to hematite has been proposed illustrating an example of solventless synthesis of iron oxides utilizing thermal decomposition as a technique using innocuous materials.

  5. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    D. Radhika


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  6. Fluorescent material concentration dependency: Förster resonance energy transfer in quasi-solid state DSSCs

    Kim, Dong Woo; Jo, Hyun-Jun; Thogiti, Suresh; Yang, Weon Ki; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong


    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is critical for wide spectral absorption, an increased dye loading, and photocurrent generation of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This process consists of organic fluorescent materials (as an energy donor), and an organic dye (as an energy acceptor on TiO2 surfaces) with quasi-solid electrolyte. The judicious choice of the energy donor and acceptor facilitates a strong spectral overlap between the emission and absorption regions of the fluorescent materials and dye. This FRET process enhances the light-harvesting characteristics of quasi-solid state DSSCs. In this study, DSSCs containing different concentrations (0, 1, and 1.5 wt%) of a fluorescent material (FM) as the energy donor are investigated using FRET. The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs containing FMs in a quasi-solid electrolyte increased by 33% over a pristine cell. The optimized cell fabricated with the quasi-solid state DSSC containing 1.0 wt% FM shows a maximum efficiency of 3.38%, with a short-circuit current density (J SC ) of 4.32 mA/cm-2, and an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.68 V under illumination of simulated solar light (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm-2). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. High Speed Lapping of SiC Ceramic Material with Solid (Fixed) Abrasives

    ZHANG Wei; YANG Xin-hong; SHANG Chun-min; HU Xiao-yong; HU Zhong-hui


    An experimental investigation is carried out to machine SiC ceramic material through the method of high speed plane lapping with solid(fixed) abrasives after the critical condition of brittle-ductile transition is theoretically analyzed. The results show that the material removal mechanism and the surface roughness are chiefly related to the granularity of abrasives for brittle materials such as SiC ceramic. It is easily realized to machine SiC ceramic in the ductile mode using W3.5 grit and a high efficiency, low cost and smooth surface with a surface roughness of Ra 2.4nm can be achieved.

  8. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  9. Modelling of Physical, Chemical, and Material Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Jakub Kupecki


    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of modelling techniques applicable for system-level studies to account for physical, chemical, and material properties of solid oxide fuel cells. Functionality of 0D to 3D models is discussed and selected examples are given. Author provides information on typical length scales in evaluation of power systems with solid oxide fuel cells. In each section, proper examples of previous studies done in the field of 0D–3D modelling are recalled and discussed.

  10. Electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of organic solid-state materials IV. Materials Research Society, symposium proceedings Volume 488

    Reynolds, J.R.; Jen, A.K.Y.; Rubner, M.F.; Chiang, L.Y.; Dalton, L.R. [eds.


    The symposium, Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid-State Materials IV, was sponsored by the Materials Research Society and held December 1--5, 1997, in Boston, Massachusetts. Early studies of charge transport in conducting polymers have evolved from the elucidation of fundamental structure/function relationships to applications as batteries, simple electrical devices such as diodes, chemical sensors, antistatic coatings, microwave and millimeter wave-absorbing materials, and photochromic devices. A particularly exciting evolution has been the discovery and development of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) which appear to be nearing commercialization in an amazingly short period of time. This application is of particular interest because both electrical and optical properties must be considered, and these have been important parallel themes of the conference. Moreover, nanostructure control is important for OLEDs, and nanoscale architectural engineering has been an increasingly important theme of the conference. Indeed, not only has the study of conjugated (quasidelocalized) electrons in organic solid-state materials resulted in interesting physical properties and device applications, but the desire to exploit these properties has promoted the development of new synthesis and processing methodologies to achieve special nanoscale and microscale structures. One hundred five papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

    Sakri Adel


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  12. Study of Solid-Liquid Ratio of Fly Ash Geopolymer as Water Absorbent Material

    Angga Prasetya Fandi


    Full Text Available Geopolymer has been synthesized from fly ash to be applicated as water absorbent material. This research conducted to determine the ability of geopolymer to abrsop water by variation of solid – liquid ratio at optimum molarity of NaOH; 3 M. In this research, the synthesis of geopolymer was conducted at the variation of solid-liquid ratio; 60:40, 65:35, 70:30, and 75:25. Result of the treatment were characterized by XRD and SEM to compare the geopolymer structure. Water absorption capacity was measured by immersing the geopolymer specimens in water for 24 hours. Based on the result, solid – liquid ratio with maximum water absorbed was 70:30 with 13,04 wt%.

  13. Second sphere coordination of hybrid metal-organic materials: solid state reactivity.

    Guo, Fang; Martí-Rujas, Javier


    When compared to other hybrid metal organic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, hydrogen bonded materials self-assembled by metals and organic molecules using second sphere interactions have been poorly investigated. Consequently, their solid-sate properties are also scarce. In this perspective, earlier research mainly on host-guest chemistry and its evolution towards more extended structures by applying crystal engineering principles using second sphere coordination is described. Crystal-to-crystal guest exchange reactions, permanently porous hybrid metal organic materials, mechanochemical reactivity, thermally induced phase transformations as well as some examples of functional technological applications using second sphere adducts such as gas adsorption, separation and non-linear optical phenomena are also reported. Although some tutorial reviews on second sphere adducts have been conducted mainly in the solution state focusing on metal based anion receptors, to the best of our knowledge, an overview on relevant works that focus on the solid-state properties has not been carried out. The aim of this article is to highlight from some of the early fundamental work to the latest reports on hybrid metal-organic materials self-assembled via second sphere interactions with a focus on solid-state chemistry.

  14. Vertical transportation system of solid material for backfilling coal mining technology

    Ju Feng; Zhang Jixiong; Zhang Qiang


    For transportation of solid backfill material such as waste and fly ash from the surface to the bottom of the shaft in a fully mechanized backfilling coal backfilling coal mining technology,we developed a new vertical transportation system to transport this type of solid backfill material.Given the demands imposed on safely in feeding this material,we also investigated the structure and basic parameter of this system.For a mine in the Xingtai mining area the results show that:(1) a vertical transportation system should include three main parts,i.e.,a feeding borehole,a maintenance chamber and a storage silo; (2) we determined that 486 mm is a suitable diameter for bore holes,the diameter of the storage silo is 6 m and its height 30 m in this vertical transportation system; (3) a conical buffer was developed to absorb the impact during the feeding process.To ensure normal implementation of fully mechanized backfilling coal mining technology and the safety of underground personnel,we propose a series of security technologies for anti-blockage,storage silo cleaning.high pressure air release and aspiration.This vertical transporting system has been applied in one this particular mine,which has fed about 4 million tons solid material with a feeding depth of 350 m and safely exploited 3 million tons of coal.

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Relationship between Refractive Index and Atomic Parameters of Solid Materials

    罗遵度; 黄艺东


    The refractive index is one of the important parameters describing the optical properties of solid materials. However, it is difficult to obtain a quantitative relation between the refractive index and the structure and composition of materials. A qualitative relation between the refractive index and some atomic parameters of materials was proposed and demonstrated by some oxide optical crystals. A parameter P=r-/F=r-/(r+ΔxD) is defined, in which Δx is the difference of the electronegativities between cations and anions in the materials and r+ and r- are the radii of cations and anions respectively. On the other hand, the factor D was introduced to describe the effect of mass difference of the ions. It is demonstrated by both theoretical discussion and experimental data that refractive index is a decreasing function of parameter P. The relation may be useful for the investigation of optical materials.

  16. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas


    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  17. Ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions on the base piezoelectric ceramic materials for components of micromechatronics

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Zachariasz, Radosław; Niemiec, Przemysław; Ilczuk, Jan; Bartkowska, Joanna; Brzezińska, Dagmara


    In the presented work, a ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions based on PZT and ferrite powders have been obtained. The main aim of combination of ferroelectric and magnetic powders was to obtain material showing both electric and magnetic properties. Ferroelectric ceramic powder (in amount of 90%) was based on the doped PZT type solid solution while magnetic component was nickel-zinc ferrite Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (in amount of 10%). The synthesis of components of ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions was performed using the solid phase sintering. Final densification of synthesized powder has been done using free sintering. The aim of the work was to obtain and examine in the first multicomponent PZT type ceramics admixed with chromium with the following chemical composition Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3 and next ferroelectromagnetic solid solution based on a PZT type ferroelectric powder (Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3) and nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4), from the point of view of their mechanical and electric properties, such as: electric permittivity, ε; dielectric loss, tanδ; mechanical losses, Q-1; and Young modulus, E.

  18. Palynological Investigation of Post-Flight Solid Rocket Booster Foreign Material

    Nelson, Linda; Jarzen, David


    Investigations of foreign material in a drain tube, from the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) of a recent Space Shuttle mission, was identified as pollen. The source of the pollen is from deposits made by bees, collecting pollen from plants found at the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The pollen is determined to have been present in the frustum drain tubes before the shuttle flight. During the flight the pollen did not undergo thermal maturation.

  19. Solid-fluid mixture microstructure design of composite materials with application to tissue engineering scaffold design

    Lin, Cheng-Yu

    The ability to design the material microstructure brings the use of composite materials into the next generation. In this paper, we report pioneering research to implement the computational material microstructure design into the internal architecture design for a tissue engineering scaffold. A tissue engineering design postulate is that scaffolds should match specified healthy tissue stiffness, while concurrently providing sufficient porosity for cell migration and tissue regeneration. Employing the inverse homogenization method and the adaptive topology optimization method, a complex 3D microstructure can be designed to perform with the anisotropic elastic stiffness and porosities analogous to a native bone specimen. Besides the elastic stiffness from its solid part, fluid in the porous region also plays an important role in tissue engineering. The flow of fluid through the pores brings nutrients to cells in the tissue matrix and also removes their waste. Fluid permeability of cylinderical trabecular bone grafts was found to predict clinical success. Deriving from Darcy's Law, we developed software to calculate the homogenized fluid permeability of 3D cancellous voxel models, which were directly reconstructed from micro-CT images. Furthermore, an Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) algorithm was utilized to maximize fluid permeability in the microstructure. The fluid optimization scheme was then collaborated with solid phase optimization through Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to create an integrated solid-fluid mixture microstructure design. In addition, to ensure the fabrication feasibility, we also implemented a post-optimization process to enhance design results by improving the dynamic stiffness to eliminate weak connections and checkerboard pattern. The design scaffolds were then built by an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique using various bio-compatible materials and ready for further investment. This computational

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    Busca, Guido


    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  1. Solid-State Lasers for Bathymetry and Communications. Studies of Four Rare-Earth Materials.


    The envelope was cerium -doped quartz, to reduce UV emission. The lamp was operated in simmer mode. The pulse forming network contained a 50-PF...class of solid state lasing materials called rare-earth fluorides . In these materials, the host lattice is LiYF4 (often called YLF), and the active...1971-1973 in which terbium-doped rare-earth fluorides were grown, and spectroscopy and lasing measurements conducted. A sample of Tb:LiGdF4 was lased

  2. General approach of the photothermoelectric technique for thermal characterization of solid thermoelectric materials

    Touati, Karim; Depriester, Michael; Guilmeau, Emmanuel; Sotelo, Andrés; Madre, Maria A.; Gascoin, Franck; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj


    This work focuses on the photothermoelectric (PTE) technique allowing the thermal characterization of solid-state thermoelectric (TE) materials. Previously, this technique was restricted to TE materials having low electrical conductivities. Here, the PTE technique is extended and generalized to all solid-state TE materials with low or high electrical conductivities. This is achieved by taking into account the Gaussian shape of the thermal excitation source. The formalism of this new methodology is developed and the procedure for extracting thermal parameters is proposed. For illustration, two different TE materials are studied: with relatively high electrical conductivity (Bi2Te2.4Se0.6) and relatively low electrical conductivity (Bi2Ca2Co1.7O x ). The thermal properties of these two materials (thermal diffusivity, effusivity and conductivity) are found and compared to those obtained by the photothermal radiometry which is a well established technique. The good concordance between the results obtained by these two techniques demonstrates the relevance of the generalized PTE technique. One of the main advantages of this technique is its non use of an external sensor.

  3. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio


    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  4. A new method to study complex materials in solid state chemistry: application to chalcogenide materials

    Lippens, P. E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J. C.


    We show that a combined application of Mössbauer spectroscopy and other experimental tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance provides a coherent picture of the local electronic structure in chalcogenide materials. In order to develop this idea we propose an analysis of the Sn, Sb and Te local electronic structures for three different systems of materials. The first example concerns the In Sn S system. We show that Li insertion in In16Sn4S32 leads to changes of the Sn oxidation states from Sn(IV) to Sn(II). The second example concerns materials of the Tl Sb S system. We show that variations of the 121Sb Mössbauer isomer shift and surface of the first peak of the X-ray absorption spectra at the Sb LIII edge can be linearly correlated because of the main influence of the Sb 5s electrons. This is explained by changes in the local environment of the Sb atoms. The last example concerns the crystalline phases of the Tl Sn Te system. The formal oxidation numbers of the Te atoms are determined from 125Te Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are related to the different types of bonds involving the Te atoms in the Tl Sn Te compounds.

  5. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems utilising solid state H storage materials

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)


    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of H stores with various solid H storage materials was done. • Volumetric and gravimetric H storage densities and energy consumption were evaluated. • Effects of H storage containment and heat exchanger were estimated. • Pressure–temperature conditions of H storage strongly affect the overall performance. • Material’s packing density influences safety of operation and efficiency of H stores. - Abstract: Evaluation of the performances of hydrogen storage systems accommodating solid H storage materials should include characteristics on their reversible hydrogen storage capacity, operating pressures and temperatures, packing densities, and heat effects of hydrogen uptake and release. We have conducted a performance evaluation of the systems accumulating 5 kg of hydrogen in a containment of cylindrical geometry filled with a solid H storage material including such hydrides and reactive hydride composites as AlH{sub 3}, MgH{sub 2}, “low-temperature” (inter)metallic hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2}, and MOFs. The analysis yielded gravimetric and volumetric H storage capacities, and energy efficiencies of hydrogen stores. We conclude that the weight efficiency of hydrogen stores, apart from the gravimetric H storage capacity of the material, is greatly affected by its packing density, and by the pressure–temperature conditions which determine type and dimensions of the containment. The materials with low heat effects of H exchange, operating close to the ambient conditions, should be targeted in the course of the development of new hydrogen stores as offering the best energy efficiency of their operation.

  6. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov


    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  7. Development of a new solid-state absorber material for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Swapna Lilly Cyriac; B Deepika; Bhaskaran Pillai; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian


    In contrast to the conventional DSSC systems, where the dye molecules are used as light harvesting material, here a solid-state absorber was used as a sensitizer in conjunction with the dye. The materials like ZnO and Al2O3 : C, which will show optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) upon irradiation were used as extremely thin absorber layers. This novel architecture allows broader spectral absorption, an increase in photocurrent, and hence, an improved efficiency because of the mobility of the trapped electrons in the absorber material after irradiation, to the TiO2 conduction band. Nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using these solid-state absorber materials and after irradiation, a few number of samples were co-sensitized with N719 dye. On comparing both the dye loaded photoanodes (ZnO/TiO2 and Al2O3 : C/TiO2), it can be concluded from the present studies that, the Al2O3 : C is superior to ZnO under photon irradiation. Al2O3 : C is more sensitive to photon irradiation than ZnO and hence there can be more trap centres produced in Al2O3 : C.

  8. Arc Jet Test and Analysis of Asbestos Free Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Dome Ablative Materials

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were recently tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Arc Jet Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for solid rocket motor analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Active instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, in-depth thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for in-situ surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved determination of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  9. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y


    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  10. Studies in new materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Skinner, Alex W.

    Ceramic materials have historically been of interest for their thermal and mechanical properties. However, certain ceramic materials can have very interesting electrical, magnetic and optical properties, leading to a new subclass, the electroceramics. Perovskites, in particular, have become the subject of intense research in this field. Specifically, doped barium zirconates have shown high proton conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (600--800°C), making them advantageous for use in solid oxide fuel cells. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electricity using ion-conducting oxide ceramics as electrolytes. The anode component of the cell is also of interest. Cermets or ceramic metals can serve a dual role as substrates for thin film electrolytes and anodes in the cell. Thin films of gadolinium and ytterbium doped barium zirconate were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (KrF; 1--3 J/cm2) on several substrates, including cermets developed in our lab, in a 10--400 mTorr oxygen environment with various substrate temperatures. Crystalline structure and chemical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, respectively. Preliminary electrical measurements of the electrolyte/cermet structure were taken using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), perovskites, proton conductors, electroceramics, gadolinium-doped barium zirconate (BZG).

  11. Study of transport of laser-driven relativistic electrons in solid materials

    Leblanc, Philippe

    With the ultra intense lasers available today, it is possible to generate very hot electron beams in solid density materials. These intense laser-matter interactions result in many applications which include the generation of ultrashort secondary sources of particles and radiation such as ions, neutrons, positrons, x-rays, or even laser-driven hadron therapy. For these applications to become reality, a comprehensive understanding of laser-driven energy transport including hot electron generation through the various mechanisms of ionization, and their subsequent transport in solid density media is required. This study will focus on the characterization of electron transport effects in solid density targets using the state-of- the-art particle-in-cell code PICLS. A number of simulation results will be presented on the topics of ionization propagation in insulator glass targets, non-equilibrium ionization modeling featuring electron impact ionization, and electron beam guiding by the self-generated resistive magnetic field. An empirically derived scaling relation for the resistive magnetic in terms of the laser parameters and material properties is presented and used to derive a guiding condition. This condition may prove useful for the design of future laser-matter interaction experiments.

  12. Assessment of Bacterial Spores in Solid Materials: Curriculum Improvements Partnership Award for the Integration of Research (CIPAIR)

    Lavallee, Richard J.


    This summer, we quantified the release, by cryogenic grinding at liquid nitrogen temperatures, of microbes present in 4 different spacecraft solids: epoxy 9309, epoxy 9394, epoxy 9396, and a silicone coating. Three different samples of each material were prepared: aseptically prepared solid material, powdered material inoculated with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus, and solid material artificially embedded with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus. Samples were cryogenically ground as needed, and the powders were directly cultured to determine the number of microbial survivors per gram of material. Recovery rates were found to be highly material-dependent, varying from 0.2 to 50% for inoculated material surfaces and 0.002 to 0.5% for embedded spores. A study of the spore survival rate versus total grinding time was also performed, with results indicating that longer grinding time decreases recovery rates of viable spores.


    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier


    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  14. Effective utilization of incinerated municipal solid waste incineration ash: zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction.

    Bac, Bui Hoang; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Yonghee; Kim, Myung Hun; Kang, Il Mo


    In this study the effective utilization of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes, namely air-cooled ash (ACS) and water-cooled ash (WCS) samples obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, was examined by applying zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction. The influence of the experimental conditions including the ratio of sample : NaOH solution, the reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of NaOH solution were investigated. The results for the 25 experimental trials can be summarized as: (1) the formation of tobermorite and/or pectolite-1A as a major component in most conditions; (2) the synthesis of hydroxycancrinite as a major phase at 200 degrees C; (3) a dramatic increase in the extracted SiO(2) yield at 1 : 30 value of sample : NaOH ratio and 200 degrees C, even at short reaction times; and (4) relatively high SiO(2) yields for WCS ashes rather than ACS ashes. An increase in the reaction time improved the quantity of synthesized zeolitic materials. The reaction temperature determined the type of zeolite. An increase in the NaOH concentration can be an essential factor to improve zeolitic material synthesis, but it significantly reduced the yield of SiO(2) extraction. In conclusion, suitable conditions for obtaining both SiO(2) extraction and synthesized zeolites from the ashes of the incinerated solid waste materials should be: 200 degrees C reaction temperature; a 1 : 30 (g : mL) value for the sample : NaOH ratio; 2 mol L(-1) NaOH concentration; and a reaction time of more than 24 h.

  15. Solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane and related materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Wang, Ping


    Ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3), AB) is a unique molecular crystal containing an intriguingly high density of hydrogen. In the past several years, AB has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. Several strategies have been successfully developed for promoting H(2) release and for suppressing the evolution of volatile by-products from the solid-state thermolysis of AB. Several potentially cost-effective and energy-efficient routes for regenerating AB from the spent fuels have been experimentally demonstrated. These remarkable technological advances offer a promising prospect of using AB-based materials as viable H(2) carriers for on-board application. In this perspective, the recent progresses in promoting H(2) release from the solid-state thermolysis of AB and in developing regeneration technologies are briefly reviewed.

  16. Thermal stability of the solid DNA as a novel optical material

    Nizioł, Jacek; Makyła-Juzak, Katarzyna; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Ekiert, Robert; Marzec, Monika; Gondek, Ewa


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been extensively exploited for the past decade as the matrix material in organic electronics and nonlinear optics. In this work thermal stability of DNA in solid form was thoroughly studied, mainly by optical methods. Solid samples of low molecular mass DNA were subjected to heating according to different protocols and dissolved. The temperature effect was observed in the evolution of UV absorption and circular dichroism spectra. Thin films of DNA were deposited on polished silicon wafers. They were conditioned at consecutively raised temperature and simultaneously measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Changes in chemical composition of thermally treated films were studied by XPS. Below 100 °C all thermal effects were reversible. Melting occurred at c.a.140 °C. Irreversible chemical changes probably occurred at 170-180 °C.

  17. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    Ibach, Harald


    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  18. [Origin of Lewis acidity in solid materials]. DOE Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-90ER14130

    Fripiat, J. J.


    The aim of the research undertaken within the framework of this DOE grant was to further understanding of the origin of the Lewis acidity in solid materials. The study centered around aluminas and alumino-silicates. The main tools for investigation of this phenomenon were high-resolution solid state {sub 27}Al NMR, complemented by EPR and the chemical determination of catalytic activity.

  19. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin


    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  20. Characterization of pharmaceutically relevant materials at the solid state employing chemometrics methods.

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S


    The understanding of materials and processes is a requirement when it comes to build quality into pharmaceutical products. This can be achieved through the development of rapid, efficient and versatile analytical methods able to perform qualification or quantification tasks along the manufacturing and control process. Process monitoring, capable of providing reliable real-time insights into the processes performance during the manufacturing of solid dosage forms, are the key to improve such understanding. In response to these demands, in recent times multivariate chemometrics algorithms have been increasingly associated to different analytical techniques, mainly vibrational spectroscopies [Raman, mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR)], but also ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and other methodologies. The resulting associations have been applied to the characterization and evaluation of different aspects of pharmaceutical materials at the solid state. This review examines the different scenarios where these methodological marriages have been successful. The list of analytical problems and regulatory demands solved by chemometrics analysis of solid-state multivariate data covers the whole manufacturing and control processes of both, active pharmaceutical ingredients in bulk and in their drug products. Hence, these combinations have found use in monitoring the crystallization processes of drugs and supramolecular drug associations (co-crystals, co-amorphous and salts), to access the correct crystal morphology, particle size, solubility and dissolution properties. In addition, they have been applied to identify and quantitate specific compounds, mainly active pharmaceutical ingredients in complex solid state mixtures. This included drug stability against different stimuli, solid-state transformations, or detection of adulterated or fraudulent medicines. The use of chemometrics-assisted analytical methods as part of the modern

  1. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a new approach to study humic material?

    Knicker, Heike; Lange, Sascha; van Rossum, Barth; Oschkinat, Hartmut


    Compared to solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectra suffer from broad resonance lines and low resolution. This could be overcome by the use of 2-dimenstional solid-state NMR pulse sequences. Until recently, this approach has been unfeasible as a routine tool in soil chemistry, mainly because of the low NMR sensitivity of the respective samples. A possibility to circumvent those sensitivity problems represents high-field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Barnes et al., 2008), allowing considerable signal enhancements (Akbey et al., 2010). This is achieved by a microwave-driven transfer of polarization from a paramagnetic center to nuclear spins. Application of DNP to MAS spectra of biological systems (frozen solutions) showed enhancements of the factor 40 to 50 (Hall et al., 1997). Enhancements of this magnitude, thus may enable the use of at least some of the 2D solid-state NMR techniques that are presently already applied for pure proteins but are difficult to apply to soil peptides in their complex matrix. After adjusting the required acquisition parameters to the system "soil organic matter", lower but still promising enhancement factors were achieved. Additional optimization was performed and allowed the acquisition of 2D 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectra of humified 13C and 15N enriched plant residues. Within the present contribution, the first solid-state DNP NMR spectra of humic material are presented. Those data demonstrate the great potential of this approach which certainly opens new doors for a better understanding of biochemical processes in soils, sediments and water. Akbey, Ü., Franks, W.T., Linden, A., Lange, S., Griffin, R.G., van Rossum, B.-J., Oschkinat, H., 2010. Dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated proteins. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 49, 7803-7806. Barnes, A.B., De Paëpe, G., van der Wel, P.C.A., Hu, K.N., Joo, C.G., Bajaj, V.S., Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L., Sirigiri, J.R., Herzfeld, J

  2. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  3. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  4. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Rajajopal, K.R.


    The design of an orthogonal rheometer for measuring the properties of granular solids is described. A section is presented on the constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.

  5. An investigation of lithium solid electrolyte materials with first principles calculations

    Lepley, Nicholas

    Inorganic solid electrolyte materials have recently become the focus of considerable interest due to the discovery of novel compounds with high ionic conductivities (> 1e-4 S/cm ). Sulfur based solid electrolytes are particularly notable in this regard, as well as for their compatibility for Li-S electrode systems. This work applies compu- tational methods based on density functional theory to the problem of identifying and characterizing novel electrolyte materials, with an emphasis on the Li2S-P2S5 system. In addition to a broad overview of likely materials, two compounds are studied in depth, Li7P3S11 and Li3PS4 . For Li7P3 S11 the results show excellent agreement with respect to migration energetics, and good agreement with the experimentally described structure and observed stability. For Li3PS4 , in addition to structure, stability, and migration energetics, the properties of the interface between the electrolyte and vacuum and the electrolyte and lithium metal are considered.

  6. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    Lee, Jonathan A.


    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  7. Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids

    Shannon, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.

  8. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa


    Full Text Available High temperature proton conductor (HTPC oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures (400–700 °C. The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  9. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko


    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×10(3) tonnes in 2007 to 437×10(3) tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×10(3) and 7×10(3) tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×10(3) to 253×10(6) tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×10(3) to 158×10(3) tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  10. Development of a feeding device for solid material; Kiinteaen materiaalin syoettoelaitteen kehittaeminen

    Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). R and D Section


    Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. A pilot scale fuel feeder meeting the requirements of these processes has been designed and built by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The fuel feeder is capable of feeding both relatively dry and wet solid material into high pressure. The object of this project was to develop the pilot scale fuel feeder to commercial level. The project was financed by IVO and Bioenergia -research programme. The project included testing of the previously built pilot-feeder at real operating conditions using peat and wood biomass as feedstocks. The testing consisted of short term and long term runs, which provided information about the operation and durability of the feeder with different materials. The tests were carried out partly in IVO`s laboratory, and partly in Jyvaeskylae at the pressurized steam drying pilot plant owned by IVO and VTT. The pilot-feeder operated well and reliably during the feeding tests. The feeder was dissembled and the parts were inspected between and after the test periods. No sign of excessive wear of the parts was noticed. Based on the good experiences from the pilot scale testing a commercial feeder with the capacity of 50 m{sup 3}/h was designed

  11. Identification and Mitigation of Generated Solid By-Products during Advanced Electrode Materials Processing.

    Tsai, Candace S J; Dysart, Arthur D; Beltz, Jay H; Pol, Vilas G


    A scalable, solid-state elevated-temperature process was developed to produce high-capacity carbonaceous electrode materials for energy storage devices via decomposition of a starch-based precursor in an inert atmosphere. In a separate study, it is shown that the fabricated carbonaceous architectures are useful as an excellent electrode material for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. This article focuses on the study and analysis of the formed nanometer-sized by-products during the lab-scale synthesis of the carbon material. The material production process was studied in operando (that is, during the entire duration of heat treatment). The unknown downstream particles in the process exhaust were collected and characterized via aerosol and liquid suspensions, and they were quantified using direct-reading instruments for number and mass concentrations. The airborne emissions were collected using the Tsai diffusion sampler (TDS) for characterization and further analysis. Released by-product aerosols collected in a deionized (DI) water trap were analyzed, and the aerosols emitted from the post-water-suspension were collected and characterized. After long-term sampling, individual particles in the nanometer size range were observed in the exhaust aerosol with layer-structured aggregates formed on the sampling substrate. Upon the characterization of the released aerosol by-products, methods were identified to mitigate possible human and environmental exposures upon industrial implementation.

  12. Rational design of novel cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells using first-principles simulations

    Choi, YongMan; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, N.W., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Lin, M.C. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Center for Interdisciplinary Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010 (China)


    The search for clean and renewable sources of energy represents one of the most vital challenges facing us today. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most promising technologies for a clean and secure energy future due to their high energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility (e.g., direct utilization of hydrocarbons or renewable fuels). To make SOFCs economically competitive, however, development of new materials for low-temperature operation is essential. Here we report our results on a computational study to achieve rational design of SOFC cathodes with fast oxygen reduction kinetics and rapid ionic transport. Results suggest that surface catalytic properties are strongly correlated with the bulk transport properties in several material systems with the formula of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}BO{sub 2.75} (where B = Cr, Mn, Fe, or Co). The predictions seem to agree qualitatively with available experimental results on these materials. This computational screening technique may guide us to search for high-efficiency cathode materials for a new generation of SOFCs. (author)

  13. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria


    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  14. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Final report, August 7, 1990--February 6, 1995

    Rajagopal, K.R.


    A great many industrial processes involve interaction between solids and fluids (i.e. gases or liquids). Combustion, gasification of solid fuels, shales or solid wastes, drying of particles, calcining, particle heating, regenerative heat exchangers, oxidation or reduction of ores, metal surface treatments and catalytic and thermal cracking are some of such processes. Solids and fluids serve different roles and several combinations of solids and fluids can arise in a practical situation. Thus, when considering processes or plants it is necessary to be clear as to the particular purpose served by the fluids and the solids. Heating and drying of solids, for example, involve heat and mass transfer only, whereas combustors, gasifiers etc. have the additional complication of chemical reactions which have to be carried out simultaneously with heat and mass transfer. Again, there are many processes where just the flow of granular particles take place, for example, the flow of food grain, coal or sand particles through bin, silo, hoppers, chutes, conveyor belts, inclined planes etc. In most of these cases, a theoretical modeling of the process requires a complete and thorough understanding of the phenomena involved and constitutive modeling of the constituents along with the usual balance laws. In a process, where both a fluid and a solid constituents are involved, it is essential to model both the constituents such that the models accurately describes the characteristics of the constituent concerned. While there are many different models available for fluids, the models for granular materials lack from an understanding of the material parameters.

  15. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae


    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  16. Preparation and characterization of cross-linking PEG/MDI/PE copolymer as solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    Li, Wei-Dong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding, En-Yong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)


    Phase change materials (PCMs) are a series of functional materials with storing and releasing energy properties. PCMs can impact small environment around them through storing and releasing energy during phase change process. Phase change latent heat of PCMs has two main characters: one is high enthalpy and capacity of per unit volume and the other is that the temperature over phase change process keeps constant or changes slightly. PCMs have been widely used in lots of fields such as solar energy storing, smart housing, thermo-regulated fibers and agricultural greenhouse. In this article, a novel solid-solid phase change heat storage material was synthesized via the two-step condensation reaction of high molecule weight polyethylene glycol (PEG10000) with pentaerythritol (PE) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). To characterize the resulting product in comparison with pristine PEG10000, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), polarization optical microscopy (POM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements were employed to investigate their ingredients, thermal properties and crystalline behaviors. The results indicated that the cross-linking PCM showed typical solid-solid phase transition property, and its phase change enthalpy and crystallinity reached 152.97 kJ/kg and 81.76%, respectively. (author)

  17. Analysis of optimization processses for solid state fabrication of olivine cathode materials

    Oladimeji, Charles

    Lithium ion battery discovered since the 1980s has become pivotal to our energy needs. With the need for a shift to renewable energy and increased use of portable devices, energy storage has become a very important aspect of modern day life and technology. In the thesis, optimization techniques for solid state calcination of lithium olivine batteries are characterized and analyzed. A brief introduction into lithium ion battery is discussed, the chemistry and physics of the materials is studied in details. Emphasis is placed on the olivine structure, industrially utilized synthesis method and the performance of olivine lithium ion batteries are also discussed in details. Olivine structure LiFePO4 (LFP) was synthesized via solid state processes, using Li2CO3, NH4H 2PO4 and FeC2O4˙H2O and C12H22O11 as precursor materials. The effects of calendaring in terms of charge/discharge capacity, cycle life performance, surface morphology, and ac impedance was analyzed. The resulting LFP electrode was divided in part, Part A was left as is and Part B was calendared. The calendared electrode exhibited lower impedance under electrochemical impedance test. The calendared electrode also exhibited a higher discharge capacity of about 130 mAh/g at 0.1C compared to the as-is electrode with discharge capacity of about 120mAh/g. Olivine structure LiMnPO4 (LMP) was also synthesized via solid state processes, using Li2CO3, NH4H 2PO4, MnCO3 and C12H22O 11 as precursor materials. Comparison of the carbon addition process was done by adding sucrose to the initial precursor mix and carbon black at the later stages of fabrication. The 3 step carbon addition exhibited the highest specific capacity of about 72mAh/g, 1 step carbon addition possessed the least capacity of about 45mAh/g, while the 2 step process had a capacity of about 65mA/g.

  18. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Palmqvist Benny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  19. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier


    Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...


    Willi Pabst


    Full Text Available Minimum solid area (MSA models are popular models for the calculation of the effective properties of porous materials and are frequently used to justify the use of a simple exponential relation for fitting purposes. In this contribution it is shown that MSA models, and the simple exponentials they support, are misleading and should be avoided. In particular, taking Young modulus and conductivity (thermal or electrical as examples, it is shown that MSA models are based on the unjustified (and unjustifiable hypothesis that the relative Young modulus and relative conductivity are identical, and moreover equal to the MSA fraction itself. This claim is generally false for isotropic materials, both random or periodic. Although indeed a very specific case exists in which this claim is true for the properties in one specific direction (viz., extremely anisotropic materials with translational invariance, in this specific case MSA models are redundant, because the relative properties are given exactly by the volume- or area-weighted arithmetic mean. It is shown that the mere existence of non-trivial cross-property relations is incompatible with the existence of MSA models. Finally, it is shown by numerical (finite-element modeling that MSA models provide incorrect results even in the simplest of the cases for which they were originally designed, i.e. for simple cubic packings of partially sintered isometric (initially spherical grains. Therefore, paraphrasing Box, MSA models are not only wrong, but also useless, and should be abandoned.

  1. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I


    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.




    In the investigation of outbreaks of plague it is frequently more satisfactory to send specimens of suspected material collected in the field to a central laboratory, where usually better facilities for their more detailed examination are available. In the present study the authors have investigated the suitability of solid CO(2) (dry-ice) for the preservation of such material during transit. Three types of preparation were tested: broth suspensions of Pasteurella pestis, the livers and spleens of guinea-pigs dying after being infected with two different strains of P. pestis, and whole carcasses of mice and ground-squirrels infected with the organism. An additional test to ascertain the rate at which animal specimens became frozen and thawed was also carried out.These studies showed that (1) organisms in the various tissues frozen in dry-ice were not adversely affected by such treatment; (2) the survival of P. pestis cells did not depend on the number of organisms present in broth cultures or tissue suspensions, small numbers surviving equally well as large; and (3) plague bacilli contained in whole carcasses, even when present in small numbers, were also successfully preserved. It is concluded from these results, and also from the authors' practical use of the method over several years, that for the transport of plague-suspect materials from the field to the laboratory freezing with dry-ice can be confidently recommended.

  3. Tubular micro- and nanostructures of TCO materials grown by a vapor-solid method

    Carlos Bueno


    Full Text Available Microtubes and rods with nanopipes of transparent conductive oxides (TCO, such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO and In2O3, have been fabricated following a vapor-solid method which avoids the use of catalyst or templates. The morphology of the as-grown tubular structures varies as a function of the precursor powder and the parameters employed during the thermal treatments carried out under a controlled argon flow. These materials have been also doped with different elements of technological interest (Cr, Er, Li, Zn, Sn. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS measurements show that the concentration of the dopants achieved by the vapor-solid method ranges from 0.5 to 3 at.%. Luminescence of the tubes has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the influence of the dopants on their optical properties. In this work, we summarize and discuss some of the processes involved not only in the anisotropic growth of these hollow micro and nanostructures, but also in their doping.


    Pytko-Polończyk, Jolanta; Antosik, Agata; Zajac, Magdalena; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Krywult, Agnieszka; Jachowicz, Renata; Opoka, Włodzimierz


    Caries is the most popular problem affecting teeth and this is the reason why so many temporary dental filling materials are being developed. An example of such filling is zinc oxide paste mixed with eugenol, Thymodentin and Coltosol F®. Zinc-oxide eugenol is used in dentistry because of its multiplied values: it improves heeling of the pulp by dentine bridge formation; has antiseptic properties; is hygroscopic. Because of these advantages compouds of zinc oxide are used as temporary fillings, especially in deep caries lesions when treatment is oriented on support of vital pulp. Temporary dental fillings based on zinc oxide are prepared ex tempone by simple mixing powder (Thymodentin) and eugenol liqiud together or a ready to use paste Coltosol F®. Quantitative composition depends mainly on experience of person who is preparing it, therefore, exact qualitative composition of dental fillings is not replicable. The main goal of the study was to develop appropriate dental fillings in solid form containing set amount of zinc oxide. Within the study, the influence of preparation method on solid dental fillings properties like mechanical properties and zinc ions release were examined.

  5. Method of treating oils derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous materials

    Culbertson, W.J.; Nevens, T.D.; Schnackenberg, W.D.


    A method for treating a heavy fraction separated under substantially non-cracking conditions from a crude oil derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous material in order to produce a heavy fraction and a light fraction consists of heat treating the separated heavy fraction at a temperature above about 600$F. This temperature is below the point of incipient thermal decomposition of the heavy fraction. The heat treatment takes place for a period of time which is inversely proportional to the temperature to produce a product which, when combined with at least part of a light fraction, results in an oil having a pour point lower than that of the original crude oil. The heat treatment produces substantially no non-condensible hydrocarbons and substantially no elemental carbon. (21 claims)

  6. Silica nanoparticles produced by DC arc plasma from a solid raw materials

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.


    Plasma synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles in experimental atmospheric pressure plasma reactor on the basis of DC arc plasma generator was presented in this paper. Solid high-silica raw materials such as diatomite from Kamyshlovskoye deposit in Russia, quartzite from Chupinskoye deposit in Russia and milled window glass were used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized based on their morphology, chemical composition and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, nitrogen absorption (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized products. The obtained silica nanoparticles are agglomerated, have spherical shape and primary diameters between 10-300 nm. All samples of synthesized nanopowders were compared with commercial nanopowders.

  7. Two and three dimensional electron backscattered diffraction analysis of solid oxide cells materials

    Saowadee, Nath

    in solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell. Conductivity of STN is one of the important properties that researchers desire to improve. Grin boundary conductivity contributes to the overall conductivity of the STN. Grain boundary density controlled by mainly grain growth in material processing. Grain...... boundary migration in grain growth involves grain boundary mobility and net pressure on it. Thus grain boundary energy and pressure of STN were calculated in this work. Secondary phase is undesired in STN and YSZ synthesis. The secondary phase in ceramics with the same compounds can have different lattice...... the lattice constant. Both 2D and 3D EBSD were used in acquiring microstructure and crystallographic information of STN and YSZ. Prior to EBSD data collection, effect of FIB milling on STN and YSZ was investigated to optimize EBSD data quality and acquisition time for 3D-EBSD experiments by FIB serial...

  8. Thermodynamic stability of perovskite and lanthanum nickelate-type cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Cetin, Deniz

    The need for cleaner and more efficient alternative energy sources is becoming urgent as concerns mount about climate change wrought by greenhouse gas emissions. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one of the most efficient options if the goal is to reduce emissions while still operating on fossil energy resources. One of the foremost problems in SOFCs that causes efficiency loss is the polarization resistance associated with the oxygen reduction reaction(ORR) at the cathodes. Hence, improving the cathode design will greatly enhance the overall performance of SOFCs. Lanthanum nickelate, La2NiO4+delta (LNO), is a mixed ionic and electronic conductor that has competitive surface oxygen exchange and transport properties and excellent electrical conductivity compared to perovskite-type oxides. This makes it an excellent candidate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. It has been previously shown that composites of LNO with Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (SDC20) as cathode materials lead to higher performance than standalone LNO. However, in contact with lanthanide-doped ceria, LNO decomposes resulting in free NiO and ceria with higher lanthanide dopant concentration. In this study, the aforementioned instability of LNO has been addressed by compositional tailoring of LNO: lanthanide doped ceria (LnxCe 1-xO2,LnDC)composite. By increasing the lanthanide dopant concentration in the ceria phase close to its solubility limit, the LNO phase has been stabilized in the LNO:LnDC composites. Electrical conductivity of the composites as a function of LNO volume fraction and temperature has been measured, and analyzed using a resistive network model which allows the identification of a percolation threshold for the LNO phase. The thermomechanical compatibility of these composites has been investigated with SOFC systems through measurement of the coefficients of thermal expansion. LNO:LDC40 composites containing LNO lower than 50 vol%and higher than 40 vol% were identified as being

  9. Lanthanum chromite materials as potential symmetrical electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ruiz-Morales, J. C.


    Full Text Available A commonly used interconnector material has been tested as electrode for a new concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, where the same material could be used, simultaneously, as interconnector, anode and cathode. We have found that a typical substituted chromite, such as La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC can be considered a good candidate for such configuration, due to its high electronic conductivity in both reducing and oxidising conditions, and moderate catalytic properties for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. The symmetrical design renders performances of 100 mWcm-2 at 950ºC, using O2 and H2 as oxidant and fuel respectively. Performances exceeding 300 mWcm-2 can be predicted for a 100μm-thick YSZ electrolyte.

    Un material comúnmente utilizado como interconector ha sido probado como electrodo para un nuevo concepto de Pila de Combustible de Óxidos Sólido, en el cual el mismo material se utiliza, simultáneamente, como interconector, ánodo y cátodo. Hemos encontrado que una cromita típica como La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC puede ser considerada una buena candidata para dicha configuración, debido a sus altas conductividades eléctricas tanto en condiciones reductoras como oxidantes y una aceptable actividad catalítica para la reducción del oxígeno y la oxidación del hidrógeno. El diseño simétrico permite obtener rendimientos del orden de 100mWcm-2 a 950ºC, utilizando O2 e H2 como oxidante y combustible, respectivamente. Rendimientos que superan los 300mWcm-2 pueden predecirse para pilas con electrolitos de YSZ de 100 μm de grosor.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Sahoo S


    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  11. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Ilić Miloje M.


    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  12. The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries.

    Caruso, A N


    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  13. Using Arrested Solid-Solid Multiphase Reactions in Geological Materials to Deduce the Rate of Crustal Uplift

    Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.


    The history geological terrains experience can be traced as a series of temperature and pressure changes. Each change drives the system toward a new state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The resultant overprinted rock fabrics, textures and chemical heterogeneities can be difficult to interpret. However, if carefully chosen, features from the scale of kilometers to nanometers can be used to reconstruct the history of mountain systems. Uplift of the Sri Lankan Central Highlands was rapid enough to preserve well-developed symplectite textures, some of which represent arrested solid-state diffusion-controlled reactions of garnet + O{sub 2} to form orthopyroxene + plagioclase + magnetite, as the rocks were exhumed from over 30 km in the earth's crust. Our objective has been to determine the reaction mechanisms responsible for symplectite development, and to establish the time interval over which these reactions occurred, to constrain the rate of mountain uplift. Considering that the most rapid mechanism is solid state grain-boundary diffusion of oxygen, the reaction time can be constrained by bounding the rate of oxygen supply to the reaction site. The solid state grain boundary diffusion rate of oxygen has been inferred to be ca. 10{sup -14}m{sup 2}-sec (Farver and Yund, 1991), but is sensitive to inferred grain boundary width. The range of rates thus determined allows the distinction between rapid uplift similar to that of the Himalayan Mountains, and the slow and progressive erosion of a less dramatic terrain. Further constraints on diffusion control and energetic relationships are determined from crystallographic relationships between the reactant and product phases, and submicron scale microstructure.

  14. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier


    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  15. Real-Time Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Imaging of Ultrafast Transient Signals in Solid-State Organic Materials

    Jun Takeda


    Full Text Available In this review, we demonstrate a real-time time-frequency two-dimensional (2D pump-probe imaging spectroscopy implemented on a single shot basis applicable to excited-state dynamics in solid-state organic and biological materials. Using this technique, we could successfully map ultrafast time-frequency 2D transient absorption signals of β-carotene in solid films with wide temporal and spectral ranges having very short accumulation time of 20 ms per unit frame. The results obtained indicate the high potential of this technique as a powerful and unique spectroscopic tool to observe ultrafast excited-state dynamics of organic and biological materials in solid-state, which undergo rapid photodegradation.

  16. Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Framework Materials

    YANG Hong; CHENG Yun-Fei; LI Fu-You; ZHOU Zhi-Guo; YI Tao; HUANG Chun-Hui; JIA Neng-Qin


    @@ We develop a novel and efficient quasi-solid-state electrolyte based on the mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material for a dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell. A solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.34% is achieved under AM 1.5 illumination (100mW/cm2).

  17. Experimental Method Development for Estimating Solid-phase Diffusion Coefficients and Material/Air Partition Coefficients of SVOCs

    The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

  18. 49 CFR 173.211 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.


    ... in Packing Group I. 173.211 Section 173.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group I. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  19. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.


    ... in Packing Group III. 173.213 Section 173.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  20. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.


    ... in Packing Group II. 173.212 Section 173.212 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group II. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I or...

  1. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim


    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.

  2. Nickel and its alloys as perspective materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers operating on proton conducting solid acids as electrolyte

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    to protonconducting solid acids or transition metal phosphates as electrolytes. It was shown that Au is subject to corrosion in molten KH 2PO4 during polarisation. However, Ni and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as a construction material for bipolar...

  3. Metal hydride-based materials towards high performance negative electrodes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Zeng, Liang; Kawahito, Koji; Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu


    Electrode performances of MgH2-LiBH4 composite materials for lithium-ion batteries have been studied using LiBH4 as the solid-state electrolyte, which shows a high reversible capacity of 1650 mA h g(-1) with an extremely low polarization of 0.05 V, durable cyclability and robust rate capability.

  4. Ferrite-based perovskites as cathode materials for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Mai, Andreas; Haanappel, Vincent A.C.; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Tietz, Frank; Stoever, Detlev [Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Juelich, IWV-1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)


    The properties and the applicability of iron- and cobalt-containing perovskites were evaluated as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison to state-of-the-art manganite-based perovskites. The materials examined were La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (x=0.2 and 0.4; y=0-0.05), La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-{delta}}, La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Ce{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}. The main emphasis was placed on the electrochemical properties of the materials, which were investigated on planar anode-supported SOFCs with 8 mol% yttria-stabilised zirconia (8YSZ) electrolytes. An interlayer of the composition Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} was placed between the electrolyte and the cathode to prevent undesired chemical reactions between the materials. The sintering temperatures of the cathodes were adapted for each of the materials to obtain similar microstructures. In comparison to the SOFCs with state-of-the-art manganite-based cathodes, SOFCs with La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes achieved much higher current densities. Small A-site deficiency and high strontium content had a particularly positive effect on cell performance. The measured current densities of cells with these cathodes were as high as 1.76 A/cm{sup 2} at 800 {sup o}C and 0.7 V, which is about twice the current density of cells with LSM/YSZ cathodes. SOFCs with La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes have been operated for more than 5000 h in endurance tests with a degradation of 1.0-1.5% per 1000 h.

  5. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur


    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  6. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers.

  7. A Noncontact Measurement Technique for the Density and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid and Liquid Materials

    Chung, Sang K.; Thiessen, David B.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    A noncontact measurement technique for the density and the thermal expansion refractory materials in their molten as well as solid phases is presented. This technique is based on the video image processing of a levitated sample. Experiments were performed using the high-temperature electrostatic levitator (HTESL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which 2-3 mm diameter samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in a vacuum. Due to the axisymmetric nature of the molten samples when levitated in the HTESL, a rather simple digital image analysis can be employed to accurately measure the volumetric change as a function of temperature. Density and the thermal expansion coefficient measurements were made on a pure nickel sample to test the accuracy of the technique in the temperature range of 1045-1565 C. The result for the liquid phase density can be expressed by p = 8.848 + (6.730 x 10(exp -4)) x T (degC) g/cu cm within 0.8% accuracy, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficient can be expressed by Beta=(9.419 x 10(exp -5)) - (7.165 x 10(exp -9) x T (degC)/K within 0.2% accuracy.

  8. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.


    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  9. Apparatus for Measuring Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Ren, Dengfeng; Tan, Hong; Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Li, Qiang


    Spectral emissivity measurements at high temperature are of great importance for both scientific research and industrial applications. A method to perform spectral emissivity measurements is presented based on two sample heating methods, the flat plate and tubular furnace. An apparatus is developed to measure the normal spectral emissivity of solid material at elevated temperatures from 1073 K to 1873 K and wavelengths from 2 \\upmu hbox {m} to 25 \\upmu hbox {m}. Sample heating is accomplished by a torch flame or a high temperature furnace. Two different variable temperature blackbody sources are used as standard references and the radiance is measured by a FTIR spectrometer. Following calibration of the spectral response and background radiance of the spectrometer, the effect of the blackbody temperature interval on calibration results is discussed. Measurements are performed of the normal spectral emissivity of SiC and graphite over the prescribed temperature and wavelength range. The emissivity of SiC at high temperatures is compared with the emissivity at room temperature, and the influence of an oxide layer formed at the surface of SiC on the emissivity is studied. The effect of temperature on the emissivity of graphite is also investigated. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the uncertainty components of the emissivity measurement is performed.

  10. Selected Application of Electron Beams in Solid State Materials and Devies Technology

    S. C. Jain


    Full Text Available Experimental work on electron beam annealing of implanted or diffused semiconductor layers is reviewed. In the pulsed beam annealing technique, the top layer of the semiconductor melts and regrows epitaxially. All dopant atoms are frozen in electrically active state during this process. The point defects and clusters caused by radiation damage are completely annealed out. The bulk of the material remains unaffected as its temperature does not rise by more than a few degrees. In the CW electron beam annealing, the layer does not melt but due to sharp temperature gradient and high temperature of the layer, the growth of solid phase epitaxial layer is induced. However, a part of the dopant atoms may remain electrically inactive in this process of annealing. The pulsed beam annealing has also been used for growing high quality single crystal layers of germanium on silicon substrate. Recently, a new technology has been developed to grow silicon single crystal layers on amorphous substrates. Recent advances in the method of determination of lifetime using electron beams are also discussed.

  11. Chaotic exchange of solid material between planetary systems: implications for lithopanspermia

    Belbruno, Edward; Malhotra, Renu; Savransky, Dmitry


    We examine a low energy mechanism for the transfer of meteoroids between two planetary systems embedded in a star cluster using quasi-parabolic orbits of minimal energy. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the exchange of meteoroids could have been significantly more efficient than previously estimated. Our study is relevant to astrobiology as it addresses whether life on Earth could have been transferred to other planetary systems in the solar system's birth cluster and whether life on Earth could have been transferred here from beyond the solar system. In the solar system, the timescale over which solid material was delivered to the region from where it could be transferred via this mechanism likely extended to several hundred million years (as indicated by the 3.8-4.0 Ga epoch of the Late Heavy Bombardment). This timescale could have overlapped with the lifetime of the Solar birth cluster (~100-500 Myr). Therefore, we conclude that lithopanspermia is an open possibility if life had an early start. ...

  12. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; von Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M.; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A. R.; Breitling, Frank


    Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a "solid" solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  13. Material synthesis and fabrication method development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Ding, Hanping

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are operated in high temperature conditions (750-1000 °C). The high operating temperature in turn may lead to very complicated material degradation issues, significantly increasing the cost and reducing the durability of SOFC material systems. In order to widen material selections, reduce cost, and increase durability of SOFCs, there is a growing interest to develop intermediate temperature SOFCs (500-750 °C). However, lowering operating temperature will cause substantial increases of ohmic resistance of electrolyte and polarization resistance of electrodes. This dissertation aimed at developing high-performance intermediate-temperature SOFCs through the employment of a series of layered perovskite oxides as novel cathode materials to minimize the potential electrode polarization on oxygen reduction reaction resulting from the unique crystal structure. The high performance of such perovskites under lower temperatures lies in the fact that a simple cubic perovskite with randomly occupied A-sites transforming into a layered compound with ordered lanthanide and alkali-earth cations may reduce the oxygen bonding strength and provide disorder-free channels for oxygen ion migrations. In order to compromise the cell performance and chemical and mechanical stability, the substitution of Fe in B site was comprehensively investigated to explore the effects of Fe doping on the crystal structure, thermal and electrical properties, as well as electrochemical performance. Furthermore, a platinum nanowire network was successfully developed as an ultrathin electrochemically efficient current collector for SOFCs. The unique platinum network on cathode surface can connect the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) sites at the nano-scale to the external circuit while being able to substantially avoid blocking the open pores of the cathode. The superior electrochemical performance was exhibited, including the highly reduced electrode polarization resistance

  14. New directions for high-performance materials via postextrusion solid state polymerization

    Almonacil, Celine

    Solid state polymerization (SSP) usually consists of heating condensation polymers to temperatures below their melting point and holding there for a significant time to raise their molecular weight. The process is common in the polymer industry for the production of high molecular weight polyesters and polyamides for industrial fibers and molded products. Recent research has shown that post-extrusion SSP, where polymerization is performed on extruded products such as thin films or fibers, has the potential to lead to high performance materials. Although literature on SSP is abundant, the mechanisms and possible morphological consequences have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential for generating high performance oriented polymer morphologies by performing a fundamental analysis of the mechanisms and morphological consequences of post-extrusion SSP in oriented polymers. It is based on recent research that has shown that interchange reactions can play a fundamental role during many solid state polymerizations by providing the primary mechanism for migration of functionality. It is also based on the recent recognition that these reactions can cause profound changes in the morphology of the polymer. A coarse-grained model which can be used to explore quantitatively the effect of interchange reactions on the topological distribution of chains in inter-crystalline regions is presented here. It includes a novel thermodynamic scheme, coupled with Monte Carlo Rotational Isomeric State simulations, to determine quantitatively the relative probabilities of morphologically different reaction pathways. The results show the role of intrinsic molecular rigidity on interconversions of bridges and loops during SSP of different polymers. The generalized scheme presented here can serve to identify, via gedanken experiments, appropriate semi-rigid systems to explore through real synthesis and processing of high mechanical performance polymers

  15. Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.

    Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M


    Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion.

  16. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor


    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported

  17. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor


    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported


    Aziz I. Abdullah


    Full Text Available Solid Detergent is one of  the Economic materials and Environmentally friendly method towards enhancing properties of concrete. Lightweight, slow reaction and anti acid concrete can achieving by using this materials, so many test made to validate the advantage and disadvantage ; initial and final hardening time  for cement mortar and compressive strength of concrete, also anti acid test made for cement mortar.The results of tests show this materials are suitable for achieving the purpose to lightweight, slow reaction additional  anti acid concrete.

  19. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Dumont, Philip John [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  20. CO2-Doped Diamond: A Potential Solid-State CO2 Laser Material?

    Tratt, D.


    This paper describes a novel concept for a solid-state CO subscript 2 laser medium which, by eschewing the gas-phase approach, may offer prospects for a compact, robust 9 - 11 (micro)m coherent source, coupled with the potentially superior frequency stability characteristics afforded by monolithic solid-state construction.

  1. Thermodynamic study of semiconducting related materials by use of EMF method with solid electrolyte

    Katayama Iwao


    Full Text Available Electromotive force method with solid electrolyte is briefly explained, and a thermodynamic study of semi conducting compound solid solution ZnTe-CdTe is picked up to show the way how thermodynamic functions of this system are obtained by several experimental methods based on our published papers and recently published data are added for comparison.

  2. Solid Waste Management Available Information Materials. Total Listing 1966-1976.

    Larsen, Julie L.

    This publication is a compiled and indexed bibliography of solid waste management documents produced in the last ten years. This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is compiled from the Office of Solid Waste Management Programs (OSWMP) publications and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) reports. Included are…

  3. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  4. Cluster-Expanded Solids: A Strategy for Assembling Functional Porous Materials

    Long, Jeffrey R.


    This grant provided (partial) support for the research efforts of three graduate students and two undergraduate students. The intention of the program was to explore the use of molecular precursors in generating functional porous materials with precisely tailored structures and properties. Prior work in our laboratory had demonstrated the feasibility of employing face-capped octahedral clusters of the type [Re{sub 6}Q{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} (Q = S, Se, Te) in the expansion of known metal-cyanide frameworks. For example, the use of [Re{sub 6}Se{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} as a reactant in place of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-} resulted in formation of Fe{sub 4}[Re{sub 6}Se{sub 8}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}·36H{sub 2}O, featuring an expanded form of the porous three-dimensional framework of Prussian blue (Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}·14H{sub 2}O). This compound could be dehydrated without loss of integrity, and the increase in void volume significantly enhances its capacity as a molecular sieve, enabling absorption of larger molecules. For this project, we continued with our efforts to devise new routes to microporous coordination solids that function as molecular sieves, sensors, or catalysts. In particular, our focus was on: (i) the synthesis of new molecular precursors of specific utility for such purposes, and (ii) attempts to incorporate these and existing molecular precursors into new coordination solids. Investigations of the terminal ligand substitution chemistry of the carbon-centered, trigonal prismatic cluster [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 18}]{sup 2-} generated the solvated species [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 12}(DMF){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and [W{sub 6}CCl{sub 12}(py){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, as well as the potential framework building units [W{sub 6}C(CN){sub 18}]{sup 3-}, [W6CCl{sub 12}(pyrazine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, [W6CCl{sub 12}(4-cyanopyridine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}, and [W{sub 6}CCl{sub12}(4,4-bipyridine){sub 6}]{sup 2+}. Efforts to produce microporous magnets capable of performing magnetic

  5. Early staphylococcal biofilm formation on solid orthopaedic implant materials: in vitro study.

    Hironobu Koseki

    Full Text Available Biofilms forming on the surface of biomaterials can cause intractable implant-related infections. Bacterial adherence and early biofilm formation are influenced by the type of biomaterial used and the physical characteristics of implant surface. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, the main pathogen in implant-related infections, to form biofilms on the surface of the solid orthopaedic biomaterials, oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (Co-Cr-Mo, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti and stainless steel. A bacterial suspension of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain RP62A (ATCC35984 was added to the surface of specimens and incubated. The stained biofilms were imaged with a digital optical microscope and the biofilm coverage rate (BCR was calculated. The total amount of biofilm was determined with the crystal violet assay and the number of viable cells in the biofilm was counted using the plate count method. The BCR of all the biomaterials rose in proportion to culture duration. After culturing for 2-4 hours, the BCR was similar for all materials. However, after culturing for 6 hours, the BCR for Co-Cr-Mo alloy was significantly lower than for Ti-6Al-4V, cp-Ti and stainless steel (P0.05. These results suggest that surface properties, such as hydrophobicity or the low surface free energy of Co-Cr-Mo, may have some influence in inhibiting or delaying the two-dimensional expansion of biofilm on surfaces with a similar degree of smoothness.

  6. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Lee, Yueh-Lin


    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  7. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  8. Photo-physical Characterisation of Novel Organic Dye-doped Solid-state Laser Materials

    A.Penzkofer; A.Tyagi; T.Susdorf; D.del; Agua; O.García; R.Sastre; A.Costela; I.García-Moreno


    1 Results The development of tuneable solid-state organic dye lasers is a subject of considerable interest and research activity.Compared to conventional liquid dye lasers they have the advantage of being free of solvent handling,having small size,and being easy to operate.For high-performance solid-state dye lasers highly photo-stable dyes with low quantum yield of triplet formation and low triplet-triplet absorption cross-section in the lasing wavelength region are required.For solid state dye lasers ...

  9. Novel restricted access materials combined to molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from honey.

    He, Juan; Song, Lixin; Chen, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Hongliang; Zhao, Dongxin; Gu, Keren; Zhang, Shusheng


    A novel restricted access materials (RAM) combined to molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using malathion as template molecule and glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer, were prepared for the first time. RAM-MIPs with hydrophilic external layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and recognition and selectivity properties were compared with the restricted access materials-non-molecularly imprinted polymers (RAM-NIPs) and unmodified MIPs. RAM-MIPs were used as the adsorbent enclosed in solid phase extraction column and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized to evaluate the extraction performance. Under the optimum extraction conditions, RAM-MIPs exhibited comparable or even higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (including malathion, ethoprophos, phorate, terbufos, dimethoate, and fenamiphos) compared with the MIPs and commercial solid phase extraction columns. The RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneously determine six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides from honey sample. The new established method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1), low limits of detection (0.0005-0.0019 μg mL(-1)), acceptable reproducibility (RSD, 2.26-4.81%, n = 6), and satisfactory relative recoveries (90.9-97.6%). It was demonstrated that RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction with excellent selectivity and restricted access function was a simple, rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment method.

  10. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Bui Thanh-Tuan


    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  11. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    Ding, I-Kang


    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. From waste biomass to solid support: lignosulfonate as a cost-effective and renewable supporting material for catalysis.

    Sun, Shaohuan; Bai, Rongxian; Gu, Yanlong


    Lignosulfonate (LS) is an organic waste generated as a byproduct of the cooking process in sulfite pulping in the manufacture of paper. In this paper, LS was used as an anionic supporting material for immobilizing cationic species, which can then be used as heterogeneous catalysts in some organic transformations. With this strategy, three lignin-supported catalysts were prepared including 1) lignin-SO3 Sc(OTf)2 , 2) lignin-SO3 Cu(OTf), and 3) lignin-IL@NH2 (IL=ionic liquid). These solid materials were then examined in many organic transformations. It was finally found that, compared with its homogeneous counterpart as well as some other solid catalysts that are prepared by using different supports with the same metal or catalytically active species, the lignin-supported catalysts showed better performance in these reactions not only in terms of activity but also with regard to recyclability.

  13. Graphene-Based Materials as Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Trace Metal Ions, Organic Compounds, and Biological Sample Preparation.

    Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Nodeh, Hamid Rashidi; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin


    Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed.

  14. Bulk and surface acoustic waves in solid-fluid Fibonacci layered materials.

    Quotane, I; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Velasco, V R


    We study theoretically the propagation and localization of acoustic waves in quasi-periodic structures made of solid and fluid layers arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. We consider two types of structures: either a given Fibonacci sequence or a periodic repetition of a given sequence called Fibonacci superlattice. Various properties of these systems such as: the scaling law and the self-similarity of the transmission spectra or the power law behavior of the measure of the energy spectrum have been highlighted for waves of sagittal polarization in normal and oblique incidence. In addition to the allowed modes which propagate along the system, we study surface modes induced by the surface of the Fibonacci superlattice. In comparison with solid-solid layered structures, the solid-fluid systems exhibit transmission zeros which can break the self-similarity behavior in the transmission spectra for a given sequence or induce additional gaps other than Bragg gaps in a periodic structure.

  15. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  16. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 (L4ST) to 161 -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦ 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    Martín Esteban, A.


    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  18. Characterization of dielectric constant of solid materials (Leather belt at X-Band

    Ambika Singh


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental measurement technique for dielectric constant (i.e.permittivity of leather belt at X-band. This measurement play selection of dielectric constant for antenna substrate. This leather can be used as flexible substrate of wearable microstrip antenna. This measurement system consist of solid state klystron power supply, isolator, VSWR meter, frequency meter, solid dielectric cell (XC-501. This data may be interested in flexibility wearable microstrip antenna studies.

  19. Study of Mg-based materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir for vehicular applications

    Maddalena, Amedeo; Petris, Milo; Palade, Petru; Sartori, Sabrina; Principi, Giovanni [Settore Materiali and CNISM, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Settimo, Eliseo [Celco-Profil, via dell' Artigianato 4, 30030 Vigonovo (Venezia) (Italy); Molinas, Bernardo [Venezia Tecnologie, via delle Industrie 39, 30175 Marghera (Venezia) (Italy); Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    Powders mixtures of nanosized MgH{sub 2} and suitable additives, obtained by high energy milling, have been studied as materials to be used in a functional solid state hydrogen reservoir. A prototype of a two stages reservoir is under development (patent pending). The hydrogen release from the main stage, with high capacity Mg-based hydrides, is primed by a primer stage containing commercial hydrides able to operate at room temperature. (author)

  20. Ultrafast, In Situ Probing of Shocked Solids at the Mesoscale and Beyond: A New Paradigm for Materials Dynamics

    Lorenzana, H; Belak, J; Campbell, G; King, W; Nikkel, D; Bradley, K; McNaney, J; Kinney, J; Becker, R; Kalantar, D; Yaakobi, B


    Understanding material response under dynamic conditions and extreme pressures at the lattice level is important for being able to generate predictive models of material response. Despite many decades of study, material behavior is primarily inferred from bulk measurements on dynamically loaded samples or the microstructure from recovery experiments and not determined from lattice level measurements made in-situ at the relevant length scale of the governing physics. In the work described here, we report on progress made in advancing this frontier with research conducted under LDRD 04-ERD-071. Specifically, we present advances in, and applications of, dynamic x-ray diffraction, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and dynamic transmission electron microscopy.

  1. An unstructured mathematical model for growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on lignocellulosic material in solid-state fermentation systems

    Sarikaya, A.; Ladisch, M.R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Inedible plant material, generated in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), should be recycled preferably by bioregenerative methods that utilize enzymes or micro-organisms. This material consists of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin with the lignin fraction representing a recalcitrant component that is not readily treated by enzymatic methods. Consequently, the white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, is attractive since it effectively degrades lignin and produces edible mushrooms. This work describes an unstructured model for the growth of P. ostreatus in a solid-state fermentation system using lignocellulosic plant materials from Brassica napus (rapeseed) as a substrate at three different particle sizes. A logistic function model based on area was found to fit the surface growth of the mycelium on the solid substrate with respect to time, whereas a model based on diameter, alone, did not fit the data as well. The difference between the two measures of growth was also evident for mycelial growth in a bioreactor designed to facilitate a slow flowrate of air through the 1.5 cm thick mat of lignocellulosic biomass particles. The result is consistent with the concept of competition of the mycelium for the substrate that surrounds it, rather than just substrate that is immediately available to single cells. This approach provides a quantitative measure of P. ostreatus growth on lignocellulosic biomass in a solid-state fermentation system. The experimental data show that the best growth is obtained for the largest particles (1 cm) of the lignocellulosic substrate. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Material-specific Conversion Factors for Different Solid Phantoms Used in the Dosimetry of Different Brachytherapy Sources

    Sedigheh Sina


    Full Text Available Introduction Based on Task Group No. 43 (TG-43U1 recommendations, water phantom is proposed as a reference phantom for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. The experimental determination of TG-43 parameters is usually performed in water-equivalent solid phantoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the conversion factors for equalizing solid phantoms to water. Materials and Methods TG-43 parameters of low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources (i.e., Pd-103, I-125 and Cs-137 were obtained in different phantoms, using Monte Carlo simulations. The brachytherapy sources were simulated at the center of different phantoms including water, solid water, poly(methyl methacrylate, polystyrene and polyethylene. Dosimetric parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function of each source were compared in different phantoms. Then, conversion factors were obtained to make phantom parameters equivalent to those of water. Results Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water. Conclusion Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water.

  3. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  4. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials.

    Wady, Loay; Bunte, Annicka; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart


    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) was applied to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in water-damaged, mold-infested building materials (gypsum board papers (n=2), mineral wool, and masonite) and in cultivated molds (Aspergillus penicillioides, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Chaetomium globosum). Three SPME fibers (65-microm PDMS-DVB, 75-microm Carboxen-PDMS, and 70-microm Carbowax-stableflex) designed for automated injection were used of which the latter showed best performance. A number of previously reported MVOCs were detected both in the building materials and the cultivated molds. In addition, methyl benzoate was identified both in the S. chartarum and A. penicillioides cultures and in the building materials. SPME combined with GC-MS may be a useful method for the determination of MVOCs emitted from mold-infested building materials.

  5. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K


    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro


    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of Natural Polymeric Materials in Solid Oral Modified-Release Dosage Forms.

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Xin; Gu, Xiangqin; Mao, Shirui


    Solid oral modified-release dosage forms provide numerous advantages for drug delivery compared to dosage forms where the drugs are released and absorbed rapidly following ingestion. Natural polymers are of particular interest as drug carriers due to their good safety profile, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and rich sources. This review described the current applications of important natural polymers, such as chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, and xanthan gum, in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. It was shown that natural polymers have been widely used to fabricate solid oral modified-release dosage forms such as matrix tablets, pellets and beads, and especially oral drug delivery systems such as gastroretentive and colon drug delivery systems. Moreover, chemical modifications could overcome the shortcomings associated with the use of natural polymers, and the combination of two or more polymers presented further advantages compared with that of single polymer. In conclusion, natural polymers and modified natural polymers have promising applications in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. However, commercial products based on them are still limited. To accelerate the application of natural polymers in commercial products, in vivo behavior of natural polymers-based solid oral modified-release dosage forms should be deeply investigated, and meanwhile quality of the natural polymers should be controlled strictly, and the influence of formulation and process parameters need to be understood intensively.


    Pasternak Ia.M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review on the recent advances in the theoretical and experimental studies of functional (smart materials and structures. Particular attention is paid to piezoelectric and magnetoelectroelastic materials, which internally couple mechanical, electric and magnetic fields and can operate as sensors or actuators. Modern smart magnetoelectroelastic materials consisting of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases are widely used due to the effect of electromagnetic coupling, which is hundred or even thousand times larger than that of a single crystal magnetoelectroelastic materials. The highest electromagnetic coupling due to the regular arrangement of phases is possessed by ferrite-piezoelectric nanostructures, in particular self-assembled nanocomposite thin films. Ferroelectric materials are widely used in modern technologies, especially precise devices, due to the highest values of electro-mechanical coupling among other piezoelectric materials. In turn, all ferroelectric materials are pyroelectric ones, thus, polarize when heated or cooled. The presence of different defects (e.g. cracks or inclusions can additionally cause high stress and electric displacement intensity under the applied thermal load, especially, when the pyroelectric material is not homogeneous, or consists of homogeneous parts bonded together. The paper presents a comprehensive review on the methods, especially numeric and analytic ones, used to study the influence of different fields on stress concentration at defects and fibers. The questions on fracture of defective solids with thin inclusions are also examined.

  9. Crystallization and solid-state reaction as a route to asymmetric synthesis from achiral starting materials.

    Green, B S; Lahav, M


    Many molecules which are achiral can crystallize in chiral (enantiomorphic) crystals and, under suitable conditions, crystals of only one chirality may be obtained. The formation of right- or left-handed crystals in excess is equally probable. Lattice-controlled (topochemical) photochemical or thermal solid-state reactions may then afford stable, optically active products. In the presence of the chiral products, achiral reactants may preferentially produce crystals of one chirality, leading to a feedback mechanism for the generation and amplification of optical activity. Amplification of optical activity can also be achieved by solid-state reactions. The optical synthesis of biologically relevant compounds by such routes may be envisaged.

  10. Properties of Copper Doped Neodymium Nickelate Oxide as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Lee Kyoung-Jin; Choe Yeong-Ju; Hwang Hae-Jin


    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting K2NiF4-type oxide, Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ (x=0~1) powders were synthesized by solid state reaction technique and solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ cathode, a Ni-YSZ anode and ScSZ as an electrolyte were fabricated. The effect of copper substitution for nickel on the electrical and electrochemical properties was examined. Small amount of copper doping (x=0.2) resulted in the increased electrical conductivity and decreased polarization resista...

  11. Computation of single solid particle impact on the target of ductile material to study the rebound characteristics of particle

    Yeuan, Jian Jong


    The objective of this research work is to simulate a single solid particle impact on a solid target using elastic-plastic theory. The entire impact process involves the adhesion, deformation and rebound process interacting between the solid particle and the target. The governing equations for two dimensional elastic-plastic flow are formulated in Lagrangian coordinates. The equation of state in the elastic region is the time rate of change of Hooke's law. In the plastic region, the experimental Hugoniot equation of state and the yield condition of R. von Mises are used. The effect of strain rate on the material strength is considered using a semi-empirical formulation. The developed computer program employs a finite volume numerical technique and two step explicit MacCormack scheme, which is second order accurate in time, allowing finer resolution of the transient phenomena of impact. Results are presented for a hard tool steel particle impacting on a mild steel target at impact angles of 20 to 90 degrees. The computational results are compared with experimental data for a range of impacting velocities up to 350 m/sec. The effect of particle in the particle rebound characteristics are also investigated. In the previous research, the particle rebound characteristics obtained from experiments were correlated and used in the calculation of particle trajectories in turbomachinery flows. Here, the computational results are applied to predict solid particle trajectories in a highly loaded axial flow turbine.


    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh


    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  13. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J


    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  14. Chemometrics-assisted solid-state characterization of pharmaceutically relevant materials. Polymorphic substances.

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S


    Current regulations command to properly characterize pharmaceutically relevant solid systems. Chemometrics comprise a range of valuable tools, suitable to process large amounts of data and extract valuable information hidden in their structure. This review aims to detail the results of the fruitful association between analytical techniques and chemometrics methods, focusing on those which help to gain insight into the characteristics of drug polymorphism as an important aspect of the solid state of bulk drugs and drug products. Hence, the combination of Raman, terahertz, mid- and near- infrared spectroscopies, as well as instrumental signals resulting from X-ray powder diffraction, (13)C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermal methods with quali-and quantitative chemometrics methodologies are examined. The main issues reviewed, concerning pharmaceutical drug polymorphism, include the use of chemometrics-based approaches to perform polymorph classification and assignment of polymorphic identity, as well as the determination of given polymorphs in simple mixtures and complex systems. Aspects such as the solvation/desolvation of solids, phase transformation, crystallinity and the recrystallization from the amorphous state are also discussed. A brief perspective of the field for the next future is provided, based on the developments of the last decade and the current state of the art of analytical instrumentation and chemometrics methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas dispersion and immobile gas volume in solid and porous particle biofilter materials at low air flow velocities.

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G


    Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with a wide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmospheric air and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types of materials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates (LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2) gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercial material that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner, and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. These two materials were selected to have approximately the same particle shape. Column gas transport experiments were conducted for both materials using different mean particle diameters, different particle size ranges, and different gas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curves were modeled using the advection-dispersion equation modified for mass transfer between mobile and immobile gas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increased with increasing mean particle diameter for LECA but was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel. Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particle size range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA were generally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas content in both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocity but it did not show any strong dependency on mean particle diameter or particle size range. The relative fraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity was highest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of its high internal porosity.

  16. Single molecule sensing with solid-state nanopores: novel materials, methods, and applications.

    Miles, Benjamin N; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Wilson, Kerry A; Doğan, Fatma; Japrung, Deanpen; Edel, Joshua B


    This tutorial review will introduce and explore the fundamental aspects of nanopore (bio)sensing, fabrication, modification, and the emerging technologies and applications that both intrigue and inspire those working in and around the field. Although nanopores can be classified into two categories, solid-state and biological, they are essentially two sides of the same coin. For instance, both garner popularity due to their ability to confine analytes of interest to a nanoscale volume. Due to the vast diversity of nanopore platforms and applications, no single review can cover the entire landscape of published work in the field. Therefore, in this article focus will be placed on recent advancements and developments taking place in the field of solid-state nanopores. It should be stated that the intention of this tutorial review is not to cite all articles relating to solid-state nanopores, but rather to highlight recent, select developments that will hopefully benefit the new and seasoned scientist alike. Initially we begin with the fundamentals of solid-state nanopore sensing. Then the spotlight is shone on the sophisticated fabrication methods that have their origins in the semiconductor industry. One inherent advantage of solid-state nanopores is in the ease of functionalizing the surface with a range of molecules carrying functional groups. Therefore, an entire section is devoted to highlighting various chemical and bio-molecular modifications and explores how these permit the development of novel sensors with specific targets and functions. The review is completed with a discussion on novel detection strategies using nanopores. Although the most popular mode of nanopore sensing is based upon what has come to be known as ionic-current blockade sensing, there is a vast, growing literature based around exploring alternative detection techniques to further expand on the versatility of the sensors. Such techniques include optical, electronic, and force based methods

  17. End plate for e.g. solid oxide fuel cell stack, sets thermal expansion coefficient of material to predetermined value


    .05-0.3 mm. USE - End plate for solid oxide fuel cell stack (claimed). Can also be used in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack and direct methanol fuel cell stack. ADVANTAGE - The robustness of the end plate is improved. The structure of the end plate is simplified. The risk of delamination of the stack......NOVELTY - The end plate is made of material whose thermal expansion coefficient is corresponding to that of material of a cell (103). The thermal expansion coefficient of material is 9asterisk10-6 K-1 to 14asterisk10-6 K11. The thickness of the end plate is within the range of 0.001-1 mm and 0...


    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh


    This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

  19. The municipal solid waste and the quality of life of collectors of recyclable materials in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.

    de Barros Pimenta, Aline; Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Borges, Marcos Mantins; de Oliveira Marques, Geraldo Luciano; Abdalla, E José Gustavo Francis


    The generation growing and diversified of Municipal Solid Waste is configured as an environmental problem, economic and social deterioration, especially, by application of inappropriate management of them. Faced with this urban context, the research in development presents as specific objective assessment of the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials were active in the city of Juiz de Fora, in the brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the objective is, still, the recognition of the activity of sorting performed by "scavengers" in order to maximize the reduction, reuse and recycling energy and material waste daily. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the questionnaire Word Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100), prepared by the World Health Organization, in order to value the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials, involved, even in educational workshops in order to discuss and organize strategies of health care and scouting to the basement to public policies.

  20. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.


    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  1. Solid-state synthesis and electrochemical properties of SmVO4 cathode materials for low temperature SOFCs

    SUN Xueli; LI Song; SUN Juncai


    A new cathode material fabricated by solid state reaction method was reported. The SmVO4 powder was obtained by firing the mixture of Sm2O3 and V2O5 powders in the temperature range of 700-1200 ℃. Its structure was identified by X-ray diffraction method and the electrochemical properties of SmVO4 as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were investigated in single unit cell at the temperature ranged from 450-550 ℃. The results of the single fuel cell unit show that the maximum current densities are 641, 797, 688 mA·cm-2 and the maximum power output are 165, 268, 303 mW·cm-2 and the open circuit voltage are 1.04,0.96,0.92Vat 450, 500 and 550 ℃, respectively.

  2. An efficient method and device for transfer of semisolid materials into solid-state NMR spectroscopy rotors.

    Hisao, Grant S; Harland, Michael A; Brown, Robert A; Berthold, Deborah A; Wilson, Thomas E; Rienstra, Chad M


    The study of mass-limited biological samples by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy critically relies upon the high-yield transfer of material from a biological preparation into the MAS rotor. This issue is particularly important for maintaining biological activity and hydration of semi-solid samples such as membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, pharmaceutical formulations, microcrystalline proteins and protein fibrils. Here we present protocols and designs for rotor-packing devices specifically suited for packing hydrated samples into Pencil-style 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm standard, and 3.2 mm limited speed MAS rotors. The devices are modular and therefore readily adaptable to other rotor and/or ultracentrifugation tube geometries.

  3. Capacity Titration Technique for Determining the Solid Diffusion Coefficient of Intercalary Species within Insertion-host Materials

    Xin Cun TANG; Tian Duo LI


    In this paper, the capacity titration technique (CT technique) was developed on basis of the RPG (ratio of potentio-charge capacity to galvano-charge capacity) method to continuously determine the solid diffusion coefficient D of the intercalary species within insertion-host materials with a small voltage region. The linear equations of D vs. q (value of ratio of the potentio-charge capacity to the galvano-charge capacity) were given in different range of q. By the CT technique,the Li+ solid diffusion coefficients D within LiMn2O4 at different voltages were determined. The results showed that the values of D varied from 3.447× 10-9 cm2/s to 7.60× 10-11cm2/s in the voltage range of charge from 3.3V to 4.3V as a function of voltage with "W" shape.

  4. Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials

    Ashton, Michael; Paul, Joshua; Sinnott, Susan B.; Hennig, Richard G.


    The Materials Project crystal structure database has been searched for materials possessing layered motifs in their crystal structures using a topology-scaling algorithm. The algorithm identifies and measures the sizes of bonded atomic clusters in a structure's unit cell, and determines their scaling with cell size. The search yielded 826 stable layered materials that are considered as candidates for the formation of two-dimensional monolayers via exfoliation. Density-functional theory was used to calculate the exfoliation energy of each material and 680 monolayers emerge with exfoliation energies below those of already-existent two-dimensional materials. The crystal structures of these two-dimensional materials provide templates for future theoretical searches of stable two-dimensional materials. The optimized structures and other calculated data for all 826 monolayers are provided at our database (

  5. Quantitative Contact Resonance Force Microscopy for Viscoelastic Measurement of Soft Materials at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Churnside, Allison B; Tung, Ryan C; Killgore, Jason P


    Viscoelastic property measurements made at the solid-liquid interface are key to characterizing materials for a variety of biological and industrial applications. Further, nanostructured materials require nanoscale measurements. Here, material loss tangents (tan δ) were extracted from confounding liquid effects in nanoscale contact resonance force microscopy (CR-FM), an atomic force microscope based technique for observing mechanical properties of surfaces. Obtaining reliable CR-FM viscoelastic measurements in liquid is complicated by two effects. First, in liquid, spurious signals arise during cantilever excitation. Second, it is challenging to separate changes to cantilever behavior due to the sample from changes due to environmental damping and added mass effects. We overcame these challenges by applying photothermal cantilever excitation in multiple resonance modes and a predictive model for the hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrated quantitative, nanoscale viscoelastic CR-FM measurements of polymers at the solid-liquid interface. The technique is demonstrated on a point-by-point basis on polymer samples and while imaging in contact mode on a fixed plant cell wall. Values of tan δ for measurements made in water agreed with the values for measurements in air for some experimental conditions on polystyrene and for all examined conditions on polypropylene.

  6. Progress in Solid Tritium Breeder Materials%固态氚增殖剂研究进展

    赵林杰; 肖成建; 陈晓军; 龚宇; 彭述明; 龙兴贵


    增殖包层作为实现可控核聚变燃料“自持”的关键,不仅能实现氚的增殖,而且起着能量转换的作用,氚增殖剂是其中最重要的功能材料。本文从材料体系的制备、性能以及改性总结了固态氚增殖剂的发展趋势。同时,基于当前的研究现状对固态氚增殖剂的发展进行了展望。%The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction.Tritium breeding material is one of the most important functional materials.Herein,we reviewed the trends in solid tritium breeder development,including the fabrication,properties and modification.Meanwhile,the focus of the solid tritium breeder materials were prospected based on the current research situa-tion.

  7. Homogeneous Diffusion Solid Model as a Realistic Approach to Describe Adsorption onto Materials with Different Geometries

    Sabio, E.; Zamora, F.; González-García, C. M.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez-Murillo, A.; Román, S.


    In this work, the adsorption kinetics of p-nitrophenol (PNP) onto several commercial activated carbons (ACs) with different textural and geometrical characteristics was studied. For this aim, a homogeneous diffusion solid model (HDSM) was used, which does take the adsorbent shape into account. The HDSM was solved by means of the finite element method (FEM) using the commercial software COMSOL. The different kinetic patterns observed in the experiments carried out can be described by the developed model, which shows that the sharp drop of adsorption rate observed in some samples is caused by the formation of a concentration wave. The model allows one to visualize the changes in concentration taking place in both liquid and solid phases, which enables us to link the kinetic behaviour with the main features of the carbon samples.

  8. Neutron cross sections of cryogenic materials: a synthetic kernel for molecular solids

    Granada, J.R.; Gillette, V.H.; Petriw, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Inst. Balseiro (Argentina); Cantargi, F.; Pepe, M.E.; Sbaffoni, M.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes (Argentina)


    A new synthetic scattering function aimed at the description of the interaction of thermal neutrons with molecular solids has been developed. At low incident neutron energies, both lattice modes and molecular rotations are specifically accounted for, through an expansion of the scattering law in few phonon terms. Simple representations of the molecular dynamical modes are used, in order to produce a fairly accurate description of neutron scattering kernels and cross sections with a minimum set of input data. As the neutron energies become much larger than that corresponding to the characteristic Debye temperature and to the rotational energies of the molecular solid, the 'phonon formulation' transforms into the traditional description for molecular gases. (orig.)

  9. Dendrimers-modified solid supports: towards nanostructures materials for clinical diagnostic

    Vida, Y.; Collado, D; Najera, F.; Montañe, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E.; Ruiz-Sanchez, A


    The design and synthesis of new materials for biomedical applications is a high-priority research topic in a number of biomedical areas. The rapid development of nanotechnology over the past few decades has created wide prospects for using nano- and micro-scale materials in such areas, where careful control of interactions between particles and biosystems is essential for effective use of these materials in biomedicine. Worth special note in this respect is the use of nanoparticles in diagnos...

  10. Enhanced efficiency of solid-state NMR investigations of energy materials using an external automatic tuning/matching (eATM) robot

    Pecher, Oliver; Halat, David M.; Lee, Jeongjae; Liu, Zigeng; Griffith, Kent J.; Braun, Marco; Grey, Clare P.


    We have developed and explored an external automatic tuning/matching (eATM) robot that can be attached to commercial and/or home-built magic angle spinning (MAS) or static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probeheads. Complete synchronization and automation with Bruker and Tecmag spectrometers is ensured via transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) signals. The eATM robot enables an automated "on-the-fly" re-calibration of the radio frequency (rf) carrier frequency, which is beneficial whenever tuning/matching of the resonance circuit is required, e.g. variable temperature (VT) NMR, spin-echo mapping (variable offset cumulative spectroscopy, VOCS) and/or in situ NMR experiments of batteries. This allows a significant increase in efficiency for NMR experiments outside regular working hours (e.g. overnight) and, furthermore, enables measurements of quadrupolar nuclei which would not be possible in reasonable timeframes due to excessively large spectral widths. Additionally, different tuning/matching capacitor (and/or coil) settings for desired frequencies (e.g.7Li and 31P at 117 and 122 MHz, respectively, at 7.05 T) can be saved and made directly accessible before automatic tuning/matching, thus enabling automated measurements of multiple nuclei for one sample with no manual adjustment required by the user. We have applied this new eATM approach in static and MAS spin-echo mapping NMR experiments in different magnetic fields on four energy storage materials, namely: (1) paramagnetic 7Li and 31P MAS NMR (without manual recalibration) of the Li-ion battery cathode material LiFePO4; (2) paramagnetic 17O VT-NMR of the solid oxide fuel cell cathode material La2NiO4+δ; (3) broadband 93Nb static NMR of the Li-ion battery material BNb2O5; and (4) broadband static 127I NMR of a potential Li-air battery product LiIO3. In each case, insight into local atomic structure and dynamics arises primarily from the highly broadened (1-25 MHz) NMR lineshapes that the eATM robot is uniquely

  11. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul


    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  12. High efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Gu, Yimin; Freyssinier, Jean Paul


    A light emitting apparatus includes a source of light for emitting light; a down conversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and backward transmitted light; and an optic device configured to receive the backward transmitted light and transfer the backward transmitted light outside of the optic device. The source of light is a semiconductor light emitting diode, a laser diode (LD), or a resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED). The down conversion material includes one of phosphor or other material for absorbing light in one spectral region and emitting light in another spectral region. The optic device, or lens, includes light transmissive material.

  13. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN: Active Permitted Solid Waste Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_SOLID_ACTIVE_PERMITTED_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains active permitted solid waste site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  14. Applications of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in studies of Portland cements-based materials

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen


    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents an important research tool in the characterization of a range of structural properties for cement-based materials. Different approaches of the technique can be used to obtain information on hydration kinetics, mobile and bound water, porosity, and local...... atomic structures. After a short introduction to these NMR techniques, it is exemplified how magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR can provide quantitative and structural information about specific phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements with main emphasis on the incorporation of Al3+ ions...

  15. Solid Warehouse Material Management System Based on ERP and Bar Code Technology

    ZHANG Cheng; WANG Jie; YUAN Bing; WU Chao; HU Qiao-dan


    This paper presents a manufacturing material management system based on ERP, which is combined with industrial bar code information collection and material management, and carries out extensive research on the system structure and function model, as well as a detailed application scheme.

  16. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste


    ... avoided extraction and processing emissions 0.006 MTCO 2 E/ MMBtu for coal, the total avoided GHG is 0.019.../MMBtu of PM associated with extraction and processing of the coal. Please see the Materials... (fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag); foundry sand; silica fume; and secondary glass material....

  17. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.


    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  18. On Henselian valuations and Brauer groups of primarily quasilocal fields

    Chipchakov, Ivan


    This paper finds a classification, up-to an isomorphism, of abelian torsion groups realizable as Brauer groups of major types of Henselian valued primarily quasilocal fields with totally indivisible value groups. When $E$ is a quasilocal field with such a valuation, it shows that the Brauer group of $E$ is divisible and embeddable in the quotient group of the additive group of rational numbers by the subgroup of integers.

  19. Surface oxygen exchange properties of bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes and electrode materials

    Boukamp, B.A.; Vinke, I.C.; Vries, de K.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The surface oxygen exchange coefficient, ks, has been measured for the solid solution (Bi2O3)0.75(Er2O3)0.25 and (Bi2O3)0.6(Tb2O3)0.4 (abbreviated BE25 and BT40), using gas-phase 18O exchange techniques. The activation enth alpy of ks amounts to ΔE=110 kJ/molforBT40 andΔE=130 kJ/molforBE25. The magn

  20. Mass spectrometric methods for the direct elemental and isotopic analysis of solid material

    Ganeev, A. A.; Gubal, A. R.; Potapov, S. V.; Agafonova, N. N.; Nemets, V. M.


    Methods for the direct analysis of solids have a number of undeniable advantages over the methods that require preliminary dissolution of samples. High sensitivity and selectivity make the direct mass spectrometric techniques the most in-demand. The review concerns spark source mass spectrometry, laser ionization mass spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, secondary neutral mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry. Basic principles, analytical characteristics and trends in the development of these techniques are discussed. Particular attention is given to applications of the techniques as well as to their competitive advantages and drawbacks. The bibliography includes 123 references.

  1. Solid State Raman Materials Characterization for High Average Power 1.3 micrometer Laser Frequency Shift


    reflectivity at 1067 rim wavelength. Solid state phototrop filter based on gallium -scandium- gadolinium garnet doped with chromium was used as a passive Q-switch... gadolinium tungstate, KGd(W0 4)2 exhibited efficient Raman properties . In spite of the fact that its Raman gain coefficient at 1064 nm (6 cm/GW) is twice less...studied by high- temperature Raman scattering (HTRS) technique. According to [1], the lattice cell of KGd(W04) 2 low - temperature modification is a base

  2. Directory of crystal growth and solid state materials production and research

    Connolly, T.F.; Battle, G.C.; Keesee, A.M. (comps.)


    This directory lists only those who returned questionnaires distributed by the Research Materials Information Center during 1978. The directory includes, in addition to crystal growers, those preparing starting materials for crystal growth and ultrapure noncrystalline research specimens. It also includes responses from those characterizing, or otherwise studying, the properties of materials provided by others. The international coverage of the directory is limited to the United States, Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Finland, East Germany, Hungary, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, and Zaire.

  3. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia


    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  4. Surfactant assisted solid-state synthesis and gas sensor application of a SWCNT/SnO2 nanocomposite material.

    Lu, Jun; Ma, Anson; Yang, Shihe; Ng, Ka Ming


    Although tin oxide has been the most widely investigated metal oxide material for gas detection, it suffers from the large resistance and high operating temperature. This could be overcome by hybridization with nanostructured carbon. In this work, tin oxide nanoparticles with ultrasmall sizes of 1-3 nm have been uniformly coated onto bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a surfactant assisted solid state synthesis approach for the first time. Gas sensor properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposite material toward NO2 (from 5 to 60 ppm) are measured at 150 degrees C. Compared to the pure carbon tubes gas sensors, the nanocomposite gas sensor responds to NO2 in low concentrations with good linearity, high sensitivity, and fast recovery, while working at a relatively low temperature.

  5. Simulation of ceramic materials relevant for nuclear waste management: Case of La1-xEuxPO4 solid solution

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Ji, Yaqi; Li, Yan; Arinicheva, Yulia; Beridze, George; Neumeier, Stefan; Bukaemskiy, Andrey; Bosbach, Dirk


    Using powerful computational resources and state-of-the-art methods of computational chemistry we contribute to the research on novel nuclear waste forms by providing atomic scale description of processes that govern the structural incorporation and the interactions of radionuclides in host materials. Here we present various results of combined computational and experimental studies on La1-xEuxPO4 monazite-type solid solution. We discuss the performance of DFT + U method with the Hubbard U parameter value derived ab initio, and the derivation of various structural, thermodynamic and radiation-damage related properties. We show a correlation between the cation displacement probabilities and the solubility data, indicating that the binding of cations is the driving factor behind both processes. The combined atomistic modeling and experimental studies result in a superior characterization of the investigated material.

  6. Recent Progress on Advanced Materials for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Below 500 °C.

    Zhang, Yuan; Knibbe, Ruth; Sunarso, Jaka; Zhong, Yijun; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Zhu, Zhonghua


    Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electricity generators that can convert the chemical energy in various fuels directly to the electric power with high efficiency. Recent advances in materials and related key components for SOFCs operating at ≈500 °C are summarized here, with a focus on the materials, structures, and techniques development for low-temperature SOFCs, including the analysis of most of the critical parameters affecting the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte, anode, and cathode. New strategies, such as thin-film deposition, exsolution of nanoparticles from perovskites, microwave plasma heating, and finger-like channeled electrodes, are discussed. These recent developments highlight the need for electrodes with higher activity and electrolytes with greater conductivity to generate a high electrochemical performance at lower temperatures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nanomechanical analysis of high performance materials (solid mechanics and its applications)


    This book is intended for researchers who are interested in investigating the nanomechanical properties of materials using advanced instrumentation techniques. The chapters of the book are written in an easy-to-follow format, just like solved examples. The book comprehensively covers a broad range of materials such as polymers, ceramics, hybrids, biomaterials, metal oxides, nanoparticles, minerals, carbon nanotubes and welded joints. Each chapter describes the application of techniques on the selected material and also mentions the methodology adopted for the extraction of information from the raw data. This is a unique book in which both equipment manufacturers and equipment users have contributed chapters. Novices will learn the techniques directly from the inventors and senior researchers will gain in-depth information on the new technologies that are suitable for advanced analysis. On one hand, fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the nanomechanical behavior of materials is included in the i...

  8. Solid-State Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II we will develop transparent Nd:Yttria ceramic laser materials that can operate at 914 nm and 946 nm suitable for applications in ozone LIDAR systems. We...

  9. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Kong, Zueqian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  10. Improving the sensitivity of J coupling measurements in solids with application to disordered materials

    Paul Guerry


    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that for magic angle spinning (MAS solid state NMR the refocused INADEQUATE spin-echo (REINE experiment can usefully quantify scalar (J couplings in disordered solids. This paper focuses on the two z filter components in the original REINE pulse sequence, and investigates by means of a product operator analysis and fits to density matrix simulations the effects that their removal has on the sensitivity of the experiment and on the accuracy of the extracted J couplings. The first z filter proves unnecessary in all the cases investigated here and removing it increases the sensitivity of the experiment by a factor ∼1.1–2.0. Furthermore, for systems with broad isotropic chemical shift distributions (namely whose full widths at half maximum are greater than 30 times the mean J coupling strength, the second z filter can also be removed, thus allowing whole-echo acquisition and providing an additional √2 gain in sensitivity. Considering both random and systematic errors in the values obtained, J couplings determined by fitting the intensity modulations of REINE experiments carry an uncertainty of 0.2–1.0 Hz (∼1−10 %.

  11. Improving the sensitivity of J coupling measurements in solids with application to disordered materials

    Guerry, Paul; Brown, Steven P.; Smith, Mark E.


    It has been shown previously that for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR the refocused INADEQUATE spin-echo (REINE) experiment can usefully quantify scalar (J) couplings in disordered solids. This paper focuses on the two z filter components in the original REINE pulse sequence, and investigates by means of a product operator analysis and fits to density matrix simulations the effects that their removal has on the sensitivity of the experiment and on the accuracy of the extracted J couplings. The first z filter proves unnecessary in all the cases investigated here and removing it increases the sensitivity of the experiment by a factor ˜1.1-2.0. Furthermore, for systems with broad isotropic chemical shift distributions (namely whose full widths at half maximum are greater than 30 times the mean J coupling strength), the second z filter can also be removed, thus allowing whole-echo acquisition and providing an additional √2 gain in sensitivity. Considering both random and systematic errors in the values obtained, J couplings determined by fitting the intensity modulations of REINE experiments carry an uncertainty of 0.2-1.0 Hz (˜1-10 %).

  12. Thin film solid-state reactions forming carbides as contact materials for carbon-containing semiconductors

    Leroy, W. P.; Detavernier, C.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; Lavoie, C.


    Metal carbides are good candidates to contact carbon-based semiconductors (SiC, diamond, and carbon nanotubes). Here, we report on an in situ study of carbide formation during the solid-state reaction between thin films. The solid-state reaction was examined between 11 transition metals (W, Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Mn, Ti, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and an amorphous carbon layer. Capping layers (C or TiN) of different thicknesses were applied to prevent oxidation. Carbide formation is evidenced for nine metals and the phases formed have been identified (for a temperature ranging from 100to1100°C). W first forms W2C and then WC; Mo forms Mo2C; Fe forms Fe3C; Cr first forms metastable phases Cr2C and Cr3C2-x, and finally forms Cr3C2; V forms VCx; Nb transforms into Nb2C followed by NbC; Ti forms TiC; Ta first forms Ta2C and then TaC; and Hf transforms into HfC. The activation energy for the formation of the various carbide phases has been obtained by in situ x-ray diffraction.

  13. A novel approach to engineer the microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P.; Dominguez-Gonzalez, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C. S. I. C.) Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Canales-Vazquez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain)


    A novel and cost-effective process to accurately control the design of 3D structures of SOFC materials is proposed. A master mould is fabricated from a rubber-based material. Metallic meshes are used to transfer any type of patterns to the rubber-based material. The reusable master mould can then be filled with a slurry of inorganic materials made of single or complex oxides and other organic components commonly used in tape-casting technology. After drying at room temperature, the master-mould can be easily peeled-off and then a slow thermal process allows obtaining a sintered material with precisely controlled features such as the size and distribution of the pore holes in the structure, the thickness of the electrode and electrolyte layers, type of patterning, etc. The potential advantages of micro- and nanoengineering of materials for energy applications are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee


    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  15. Novel Mg-Doped SrMoO3 Perovskites Designed as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Vanessa Cascos


    Full Text Available SrMo1−xMxO3−δ (M = Fe and Cr, x = 0.1 and 0.2 oxides have been recently described as excellent anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC with LSGM as the electrolyte. In this work, we have improved their properties by doping with aliovalent Mg ions at the B-site of the parent SrMoO3 perovskite. SrMo1−xMgxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.2 oxides have been prepared, characterized and tested as anode materials in single solid-oxide fuel cells, yielding output powers near 900 mW/cm−2 at 850 °C using pure H2 as fuel. We have studied its crystal structure with an “in situ” neutron power diffraction (NPD experiment at temperatures as high as 800 °C, emulating the working conditions of an SOFC. Adequately high oxygen deficiencies, observed by NPD, together with elevated disk-shaped anisotropic displacement factors suggest a high ionic conductivity at the working temperatures. Furthermore, thermal expansion measurements, chemical compatibility with the LSGM electrolyte, electronic conductivity and reversibility upon cycling in oxidizing-reducing atmospheres have been carried out to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as an anode and the structural features.

  16. Development of materials for solid state electrochemical sensors and fuel cell applications. Final report, September 30, 1995--December 30, 1995

    Bobba, R.; Hormes, J.; Young, V.; Baker, J.A.


    The intent of this project was two fold: (1) to develop new ionically conducting materials for solid state gas phase sensors and fuel cells and (2) to train students and create an environment conducive to Solid State Ionics research at Southern University. The authors have investigated the electrode-electrolyte interfacial reactions, defect structure and defect stability in some perovoskite type solid electrolyte materials and the effect of electrocatalyst and electrolyte on direct hydrocarbon and methanol/air fuel cell performance using synchrotron radiation based Extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS), surface analytical and Impedance Spectroscopic techniques. They have measured the AC impedance and K edge EXAFS of the entire family of rare earth dopants in Cerium Oxide to understand the effect of dopants on the conductivity and its impact on the structural properties of Cerium Oxide. All of the systems showed an increase in the conductivity over undoped ceria with ceria doped Gd, Sm and Y showing the highest values. The conductivity increased with increasing ionic radius of the dopant cation. The authors have measured the K edge of the EXAFS of these dopants to determine the local structural environment and also to understand the nature of the defect clustering between oxygen vacancies and trivalent ions. The analysis and the data reduction of these complex EXAFS spectra is in progress. Where as in the DOWCs, the authors have attempted to explore the impact of catalyst loadings on the performance of direct oxidation of methanol fuel cells. Their initial measurements on fuel cell performance characteristics and EXAFS are made on commercial membranes Pt/Ru/Nafion 115, 117 and 112.

  17. Investigations of the structure and "interfacial" surface chemistry of Bioglass (RTM) materials by solid-state multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Sarkar, Gautam

    Bioactive materials such as BioglassRTM 45S5 (45% SiO 2, 24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na2O, and 6% P2O5 by weight) are sodium-phosphosilicate glasses containing independent three-dimensional silicate and phosphate networks and Na+ and Ca2+ ions as modifying cations. Due to their bioactivity, these materials are currently used as implants and for other surgical and clinical applications. The bioactivity of BioglassesRTM is due to their unique capability to form chemical bonds to tissues through an octacalciumphosphate (OCP)- and/or hydroxyapatite-like (HA) "interfacial" matrix. The formation of OCP and/or HA is preceded by the formation of a silica-rich surface layer and the subsequent growth of an amorphous calcium phosphate (a-CP) layer. Structural characterization of a series of commercial and synthesized Bioglass materials 45S5 52S, 55S, 60S, and synthesized 17O-labelled "Bioglass materials 45S, 52S, 55S and 60S" have been obtained using solid-state single-pulse magic-angle spinning (SP/MAS) 17O, 23Na, 29Si and 31P NMR. The 17O NMR isotropic chemical shifts and estimates of the quadrupole coupling constants (Cq) [at fixed asymmetry parameter ( hQ ) values of zero] have been obtained from solid-state spin-echo 17O SP/MAS NMR spectra of 17O-labelled "Bioglasses". The simulation results of these spectra reveal the presence of both bridging-oxygens (BO, i.e. ≡ Si-17OSi ≡ ) and non-bridging oxygens (NBO, i.e. ≡ Si-17O-Na+/Ca2+ ) in the silicate networks in these materials. 17O NMR spectra of these Bioglass materials do not show any direct evidence for the presence of BO and NBO atoms in the phosphate units; however, they are expected to be present in small amounts. In vitro reactions of BioglassRTM 45S5, 60S and 77S powders have been used to study the "interfacial" surface chemistry of these materials in simulated body-fluid (SBF, Kyoto or K9 solution) and/or 17O-enriched tris-buffer solution. 29Si and 31P SP/MAS NMR have been used to identify and quantify the extent of

  18. Advanced functional materials in solid phase extraction for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species - A review.

    He, Man; Huang, Lijin; Zhao, Bingshan; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin


    For the determination of trace elements and their species in various real samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), solid phase extraction (SPE) is a commonly used sample pretreatment technique to remove complex matrix, pre-concentrate target analytes and make the samples suitable for subsequent sample introduction and measurements. The sensitivity, selectivity/anti-interference ability, sample throughput and application potential of the methodology of SPE-ICP-MS are greatly dependent on SPE adsorbents. This article presents a general overview of the use of advanced functional materials (AFMs) in SPE for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species in the past decade. Herein the AFMs refer to the materials featuring with high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, fast adsorption/desorption dynamics and satisfying special requirements in real sample analysis, including nanometer-sized materials, porous materials, ion imprinting polymers, restricted access materials and magnetic materials. Carbon/silica/metal/metal oxide nanometer-sized adsorbents with high surface area and plenty of adsorption sites exhibit high adsorption capacity, and porous adsorbents would provide more adsorption sites and faster adsorption dynamics. The selectivity of the materials for target elements/species can be improved by using physical/chemical modification, ion imprinting and restricted accessed technique. Magnetic adsorbents in conventional batch operation offer unique magnetic response and high surface area-volume ratio which provide a very easy phase separation, greater extraction capacity and efficiency over conventional adsorbents, and chip-based magnetic SPE provides a versatile platform for special requirement (e.g. cell analysis). The performance of these adsorbents for the determination of trace elements and their species in different matrices by ICP-MS is discussed in detail, along with perspectives and possible challenges in the future

  19. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  20. Optical characterization and crystal field calculations for some erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration

    Hasan, Z.; Qiu, Z.; Johnson, Jackie; Homerick, Uwe


    The potential of three erbium based solids hosts has been investigated for laser cooling. Absorption and emission spectra have been studied for the low lying IR transitions of erbium that are relevant to recent reports of cooling using the 4I15/2-4I9/2 and4I15/2 -4I13/2 transitions. Experimental studies have been performed for erbium in three hosts; ZBLAN glass and KPb2Cl5 and Cs2NaYCl6 crystals. In order to estimate the efficiencies of cooling, theoretical calculations have been performed for the cubic Elpasolite (Cs2NaYCl6 ) crystal. These calculations also provide a first principle insight into the cooling efficiency for non-cubic and glassy hosts where such calculations are not possible.

  1. III-nitride nanowires: novel materials for solid-state lighting

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Huang, Jianyu; Talin, A. Alec; Armstrong, Andrew; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.


    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  2. III-nitride nanowires : novel materials for solid-state lighting.

    Wang, George T.; Upadhya, Prashanth C. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Prasankumar, Rohit P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Armstrong, Andrew M.; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Qiming; Talin, Albert Alec (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD)


    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  3. Effect of materials mixture on the higher heating value: Case of biomass, biochar and municipal solid waste.

    Boumanchar, Imane; Chhiti, Younes; M'hamdi Alaoui, Fatima Ezzahrae; El Ouinani, Amal; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Bentiss, Fouad; Jama, Charafeddine; Bensitel, Mohammed


    The heating value describes the energy content of any fuel. In this study, this parameter was evaluated for different abundant materials in Morocco (two types of biochar, plastic, synthetic rubber, and cardboard as municipal solid waste (MSW), and various types of biomass). Before the evaluation of their higher heating value (HHV) by a calorimeter device, the thermal behavior of these materials was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The focus of this work is to evaluate the calorific value of each material alone in a first time, then to compare the experimental and theoretical HHV of their mixtures in a second time. The heating value of lignocellulosic materials was between 12.16 and 20.53MJ/kg, 27.39 for biochar 1, 32.60MJ/kg for biochar 2, 37.81 and 38.00MJ/kg for plastic and synthetic rubber respectively and 13.81MJ/kg for cardboard. A significant difference was observed between the measured and estimated HHVs of mixtures. Experimentally, results for a large variety of mixture between biomass/biochar and biomass/MSW have shown that the interaction between biomass and other compounds expressed a synergy of 2.37% for biochar 1 and 6.11% for biochar 2, 1.09% for cardboard, 5.09% for plastic and 5.01% for synthetic rubber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Careers in virology: teaching at a primarily undergraduate institution.

    Kushner, David B


    A faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution requires working with undergraduates in both the classroom and the research lab. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are interested in such a career should understand that faculty at these institutions need to teach broadly and devise research questions that can be addressed safely and with limited resources compared to a research I university. Aspects of, and ways to prepare for, this career will be reviewed herein. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Experimental study on composite solid propellant material burning rate using algorithm MATLAB

    Thunaipragasam Selvakumaran


    Full Text Available In rocketry application, now-a-days instead of monopropellants slowly composite propellants are introduced. Burning rate of a solid state composite propellant depends on many factors like oxidizer-binder ratio, oxidizer particle size and distribution, particle size and its distribution, pressure, temperature, etc. Several researchers had taken the mass varied composite propellant. In that, the ammonium perchlorate mainly varied from 85 to 90%. This paper deals with the oxidizer rich propellant by allowing small variation of fuel cum binder ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by mass. Since the percent of the binder is very less compared to the oxidizer, the mixture remains in a powder form. The powder samples are used to make a pressed pellet. Experiments were conducted in closed window bomb set-up at pressures of 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2. The burning rates are calculated from the combustion photography (images taken by a high-speed camera. These images were processed frame by frame in MATLAB, detecting the edges in the images of the frames. The burning rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit from MATLAB and observed that the burn rate increases with the mass variation of constituents present in solid state composite propellant. The result indicates a remarkable increase in burn rate of 26.66%, 20%, 16.66%, and 3.33% for Mix 1, 2, 3, 4 compared with Mix 5 at 7 MN/m2. The percentage variations in burn rate between Mix 1 and Mix 5 at 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2 are 25.833%, 32.322%, and 26.185%, respectively.

  6. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Freeze, Ronald [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 μl injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few μl of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  7. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura


    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  8. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo


    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  9. Solid state photochemistry. Subpanel A-2(a): Design of molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Wells, R.L. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    Recent achievements of synthetic chemistry in the field of electronic materials are presented in three categories; viz, precursor design for improved processing, new chemistry for selective growth, and new growth techniques. This is followed by a discussion of challenges and opportunities in two general areas designated as composition and structure, and growth and processing.

  10. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia


    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  11. Novel family of solid acid catalysts: substantially amorphous or partially crystalline zeolitic materials

    Nicolaides, CP


    Full Text Available of the samples obtained at the various temperatures showed that for synthesis temperatures of up to 70 degrees C, X-ray amorphous aluminosilicates were obtained, whereas treatment at 90 degrees C produced a material exhibiting a 2% XRD crystallinity. Higher...

  12. Glass-containing composite cathode contact materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cheng, Lei; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.


    The feasibility of adding glass to conventional SOFC cathode contact materials in order to improve bonding to adjacent materials in the cell stack is assessed. A variety of candidate glass compositions are added to LSM and SSC. The important properties of the resulting composites, including conductivity, sintering behavior, coefficient of thermal expansion, and adhesion to LSCF and Mn1.5Co1.5O4-coated 441 stainless steel are used as screening parameters. Adhesion of LSM to LSCF improved from 3.9 to 5.3 MPa upon addition of SCZ-8 glass. Adhesion of LSM to coated stainless steel improved from 1.8 to 3.9 MPa upon addition of Schott GM31107 glass. The most promising cathode contact material/glass composites are coated onto Mn1.5Co1.5O4-coated 441 stainless steel substrates and subjected to area-specific resistance testing at 800 °C. In all cases, area-specific resistance is found to be in the range 2.5-7.5 mOhm cm2 and therefore acceptable. Indeed, addition of glass is found to improve bonding of the cathode contact material layer without sacrificing acceptable conductivity.

  13. Dynamic experimentation on the confocal laser scanning microscope : application to soft-solid, composite food materials

    Plucknett, K.P.; Pomfret, S.J.; Normand, V.; Ferdinando, D.; Veerman, C.; Frith, W.J.; Norton, I.T.


    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is used to follow the dynamic structural evolution of several phase-separated mixed biopolymer gel composites. Two protein/polysaccharide mixed gel systems were examined: gelatin/maltodextrin and gelatin/agarose. These materials exhibit 'emulsion-like' struc

  14. Numerical Derivation of Strain Rate Effects on Material Properties of Masonry with Solid Clay Bricks

    WEI Xueying; HAO Hong


    In this paper,numerical method is used to study the strain rate effect on masonry materials.A typical unit of masonry is selected to serve as a representative volume element (RVE).Numerical model of RVE is established with detailed distinctive modeling of brick and mortar with their respective dynamic material properties obtained from laboratory tests.The behavior of brick and mortar are characterized by a dynamic damage model that accounts for rate-sensitive and pressuredependent properties of masonry materials.Dynamic loads of different loading rates are applied to RVE.The equivalent homogenized uniaxial compressive strength,threshold strain and elastic modulus in three directions of the masonry are derived from the simulated responses of the RVE.The strain rate effect on the masonry material with clay brick and mortar,such as the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of the ultimate strength and elastic modulus as a function of strain rate are derived from the numerical results.

  15. Solid state laser employing diamond having color centers as a laser active material

    Rand, S.C.; De Shazer, L.G.


    A laser is described comprising: resonant cavity means for supporting coherent radiation; a diamond containing color centers as a laser active material; means for exciting the color centers to emit coherent radiation; and optical path means for providing an exit path for the radiation from the resonant cavity means.

  16. Laser Spectroscopy Characterization of Materials for Frequency Agile Solid State Laser Systems


    decreases for LS5 to CS5 as seen in Fig. I, A parameters since a simple model is being used to describe must decrease from LS5 to CSS . Therefore, the...materials such as quire incorporation of multiple trapping levels in describ- Bi12SiO𔃺 , 2’ BaTiO 3,𔄀’ 7 GaAs, 22 and CdTe . 23 In the pi- ing the

  17. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices


    conductive polyarylene ethynylene polymers for photovoltaic applications. The structure at the molecular scale was characterized using X-ray scattering...Processing of Thin Film Flexible Solar Cells” who exchanged knowledge about device-level questions and capabilities of simulations. The Ohio Department of...Indianapolis, IN, May, 2011. (2) “Hybrid Photovoltaic Materials: Characterization of Polymer -Nanoparticle composites” Lama, B.; Espe, M. P.; Central Regional

  18. Plutonium and americium monazite materials: Solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction study

    Bregiroux, D. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS-Universite no. 6638, Batiment Chimie, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); E-mail:; Belin, R. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Valenza, P. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Audubert, F. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bernache-Assollant, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)


    High-temperature solid state syntheses of monazite powders containing plutonium (III), plutonium (IV) and americium (III) were performed. Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Pu{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was readily obtained as a single phase by heating a Pu{sup 4+}O{sub 2}-NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} mixture under argon atmosphere. Traces of tetravalent plutonium phosphate Pu{sup 4+}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} were detected when synthesized under air atmosphere. The incorporation of (Pu{sup 4+},Ca{sup 2+}) in the monazite structure was investigated under air and argon atmosphere. We showed that Pu{sup 4+} is fully reduced in Pu{sup 3+} under argon atmosphere whereas, under air, the compound with the formula Pu{sub 0.4}{sup 3+}Pu{sub 0.3}{sup 4+}Ca{sub 0.3}{sup 2+}PO{sub 4} was obtained. Pure Am{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was also synthesized under argon atmosphere. X-ray patterns revealed a complete amorphisation of the monazite structure at a relatively low cumulative alpha dose for {sup 241}AmPO{sub 4}.

  19. Prediction and measurement of thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic solids and graphitic materials.

    Norris, Pamela M.; Smoyer, Justin L.; Duda, John Charles.; Hopkins, Patrick E.


    Due to the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of carbon allotropes, there have been many attempts to incorporate such structures into existing thermal abatement technologies. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic materials (i.e., graphite and graphene flakes or stacks) have garnered much interest due to the combination of both their thermal and mechanical properties. However, the introduction of these carbon-based nanostructures into thermal abatement technologies greatly increases the number of interfaces per unit length within the resulting composite systems. Consequently, thermal transport in these systems is governed as much by the interfaces between the constituent materials as it is by the materials themselves. This paper reports the behavior of phononic thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic thin films and graphite substrates. Elastic and inelastic diffusive transport models are formulated to aid in the prediction of conductance at a metal-graphite interface. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductance at Au-graphite interfaces is measured via transient thermoreflectance from 78 to 400 K. It is found that different substrate surface preparations prior to thin film deposition have a significant effect on the conductance of the interface between film and substrate.

  20. Organic proton-conducting molecules as solid-state separator materials for fuel cell applications

    Jimenez-Garcia, Lucia; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Enkelmann, Volker; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Klapper, Markus; Muellen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)


    Organic proton-conducting molecules are presented as alternative materials to state-of-the-art polymers used as electrolytes in proton-exchanging membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Instead of influencing proton conductivity via the mobility offered by polymeric materials, the goal is to create organic molecules that control the proton-transport mechanism through supramolecular order. Therefore, a series of phosphonic acid-containing molecules possessing a carbon-rich hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic periphery was synthesized and characterized. Proton conductivity measurements as well as water uptake and crystallinity studies (powder and single-crystal X-ray analysis) were performed under various conditions. These experiments reveal that proton mobility is closely connected to crystallinity and strongly dependent on the supramolecular ordering of the compound. This study provides insights into the proton-conducting properties of this novel class of materials and the mechanisms responsible for proton transport. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Del Angel S, A.


    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  2. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material.

    Loeffler, Felix F; Foertsch, Tobias C; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A R; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander


    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm(2).

  3. Niobium doped lanthanum calcium ferrite perovskite as a novel electrode material for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells

    Kong, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xiaoliang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei


    Development of cost-effective and efficient electrochemical catalysts for the fuel cells electrode is of prime importance to emerging renewable energy technologies. Here, we report for the first time the novel La0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (LCFNb) perovskite with good potentiality for the electrode material of the symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFC). The Sc0.2Zr0.8O2-δ (SSZ) electrolyte supported symmetrical cells with impregnated LCFNb and LCFNb/SDC (Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ) electrodes achieve relatively high power outputs with maximum power densities (MPDs) reaching up to 392 and 528.6 mW cm-2 at 850 °C in dry H2, respectively, indicating the excellent electro-catalytic activity of LCFNb towards both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. Besides, the MPDs of the symmetrical cells with LCFNb/SDC composite electrodes in CO and syngas (CO: H2 = 1:1) are almost identical to those in H2, implying that LCFNb material has similar catalytic activities to carbon monoxide compared with hydrogen. High durability in both H2, CO and syngas during the short term stability tests for 50 h are also obtained, showing desirable structure stability, and carbon deposition resistance of LCFNb based electrodes. The present results indicate that the LCFNb perovskite with remarkable cell performance is a promising electrode material for symmetrical SOFCs.

  4. A Brief Description of High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s Operation, Materials, Design, Fabrication Technologies and Performance

    Muneeb Irshad


    Full Text Available Today’s world needs highly efficient systems that can fulfill the growing demand for energy. One of the promising solutions is the fuel cell. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is considered by many developed countries as an alternative solution of energy in near future. A lot of efforts have been made during last decade to make it commercial by reducing its cost and increasing its durability. Different materials, designs and fabrication technologies have been developed and tested to make it more cost effective and stable. This article is focused on the advancements made in the field of high temperature SOFC. High temperature SOFC does not need any precious catalyst for its operation, unlike in other types of fuel cell. Different conventional and innovative materials have been discussed along with properties and effects on the performance of SOFC’s components (electrolyte anode, cathode, interconnect and sealing materials. Advancements made in the field of cell and stack design are also explored along with hurdles coming in their fabrication and performance. This article also gives an overview of methods required for the fabrication of different components of SOFC. The flexibility of SOFC in terms fuel has also been discussed. Performance of the SOFC with varying combination of electrolyte, anode, cathode and fuel is also described in this article.

  5. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue


    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  6. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material

    Loeffler, Felix F.; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S.; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K.; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A. R.; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K.; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander


    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm2.

  7. Application of direct solid sample analysis for the determination of chlorine in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Santos de Gois, Jefferson; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil)


    This work describes a methodology developed to carry out Cl determination in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The solid samples were directly weighed into graphite ‘cups’ and inserted into the graphite furnace. The RF power and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized at 1300 W and 0.7 L min{sup −1}, respectively. Calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions with pre-dried modifiers (Pd + Nd or Pd + Ca) or using solid certified reference materials with the same pre-dried modifiers or without the use of modifiers. The limit of quantification was determined as 5 μg g{sup −1} under optimized conditions and the Cl concentration was determined in five certified reference materials with certified concentrations for Cl, in addition to three certified reference materials, for which certified values for Cl were unavailable; in the latter case, the results were compared with those obtained using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. Good agreement at a 95% statistical confidence level was achieved between determined and certified or reference values. - Highlights: • Direct determination of chlorine in solid biological materials is described for the first time using ICP-MS. • Calibration against aqueous standards is feasible. • The method is accurate and sensitive, regardless of the composition of the solid sample.

  8. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Marczyk, Jesse


    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  9. Al-MoSi2 Composite Materials: Analysis of Microstructure, Sliding Wear, Solid Particle Erosion, and Aqueous Corrosion

    Gousia, V.; Tsioukis, A.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.


    In this effort, AMCs reinforced with new intermetallic phases, were produced through casting and compared as far as their microstructure, sliding wear, solid particle erosion, and aqueous corrosion response. Casting was selected as a production method based on the concept: (a) ease-to-handle and low cost production route and (b) optimum homogeneity of the reinforcing phase distribution. The MoSi2 phase was produced through vacuum arc melting and the resulting drops were milled for 30 h to produce fine powder, the characteristics of which were ascertained through SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. MoSi2 was used as precursor source for the final reinforcing phase. The powder material was incorporated in molten Al1050 alloy to additions of 2, 5 and 10 vol.% respectively. Extensive reactivity between the molten Al and the MoSi2 particles was observed, leading to the formation of new reinforcing phases mainly of the Al-Mo system. In all cases, a uniform particle distribution was observed, mainly characterized by isolated intermetallic phases and few intermetallic phase clusters. Sliding wear showed a beneficial action of the reinforcing phase on the wear of the composites. Surface oxidation, plastic deformation, crack formation, and debris abrasive action were the main degradation features. The results of solid particle erosion showed that the mechanism is different as the impact angle and the vol.% change. Regarding the corrosion, the analysis revealed localized corrosion effects. The composite behavior was not altered significantly compared to that of the monolithic matrix.

  10. Dissolution improvement of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of fenofi brate using an inorganic high surface adsorption material

    Shazly Gamal


    Full Text Available Solidification of lipid formulations using adsorbents is a recent technique attracting great interest due to its favourable properties including flexibility in dose division, reduction of intra-subject and inter-subject variability, improvement in efficacy/safety profile and enhancement of physical/ chemical stability. The current study aims to convert liquid self-emulsifying/nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS/SNEDDS into solid SEDDS/SNEDDS and to assess how adsorption of the drug onto an inorganic high surface area material, NeusilinR grade US2 (NUS2, affects its in vitro dissolution performance. Lipid formulation classification systems (LFCS Type III formulations were designed for the model anti-cholesterol drug fenofibrate. NUS2 was used to solidify the SEDDS/SNEDDS. Particle size and SEM analyses of solid SEDDS/SNEDDS powder were carried out to investigate the adsorption efficiency. In vitro dissolution studies were conducted to compare the developed formulations with the marketed product. The results of characterization studies showed that the use of 50 % (m/m adsorbent resulted in superior flowability and kept the drug stable is amorphous state. Dissolution studies allow the conclusion that the formulation containing a surfactant of higher water solubility (particularly, Type IIIB SNEDDS has comparably faster and higher release profiles than Type IIIA (SEDDS and marketed product


    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh


    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  12. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Gogina Elena


    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  13. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Raffaele Cioffi


    Full Text Available In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  14. Use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to investigate the distribution of trace elements among subsamples of solid materials

    DAgostino, Giancarlo; Giordani, Laura; Oddone, Massimo; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke


    The results of analytical measurements performed with solid-sampling techniques are affected by the distribution of the analytes within the matrix. The effect becomes significant in case of determination of trace elements in small subsamples. In this framework we propose a measurement model based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to determine the relative variability of the amount of an analyte among subsamples of a material. The measurement uncertainty is evaluated and includes the counting statistics, the full-energy gamma peak efficiency and the spatial gradient of the neutron flux at the irradiation position. The data we obtained in a neutron activation experiment and showing the relative variability of As, Au, Ir, Sb and W among subsamples of a highly pure Rh foil are also presented.

  15. Nanostructured materials for solid-state hydrogen storage: A review of the achievement of COST Action MP1103

    Callini, Elsa; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois; Ahuja, Rajeev


    In the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action MP1103 Nanostructured Materials for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage were synthesized, characterized and modeled. This Action dealt with the state of the art of energy storage and set up a competitive and coordinated...... the structure from bulk to thin film, nanoparticles and nanoconfined composites improved the hydrogen sorption properties and opened the perspective to new technological applications. Direct imaging of the hydrogenation reactions and in situ measurements under operando conditions have been carried out...... in these studies. Computational screening methods allowed the prediction of suitable compounds for hydrogen storage and the modeling of the hydrogen sorption reactions on mono-, bi-, and three-dimensional systems.This manuscript presents a review of the main achievements of this Action. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy...

  16. Calcium-doped ceria materials for anode of solid oxide fuel cells running on methane fuel

    Zhao, Kai; Du, Yanhai


    A calcium-doped ceria with nominal compositions of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) has been developed as an anode component for solid oxide fuel cells running on methane fuel. Crystal phases of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ are investigated with respect to the amount of calcium dopant. The Ce1-xCaxO2-δ shows single fluorite phase when the calcium is within 15 mol.%, and higher calcium doping levels lead to the appearance of a secondary phase (CaO). Conductivities of Ce1-xCaxO2-δ ceramics are studied by a four-probe method in air and the composition of Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ (x = 0.10) is found exhibiting the highest conductivity among the samples investigated in this work. Electrocatalytic properties of Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ are evaluated based on Ni-Ce1-xCaxO2-δ anode supported single cell running on methane fuel. At 800 °C, the single cell with Ni-Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ (x = 0.10) anode exhibits an optimum maximum powder density (618 mW cm-2) and good performance stability during 30 h operation in methane fuel. The promising findings substantiate the good performance of Ni-Ce0.9Ca0.1O2-δ anode for electrochemical oxidation of methane fuel.

  17. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    Ma, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.


    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  18. Quasiparticle GW calculations for solids, molecules, and two-dimensional materials

    Hüser, Falco; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    We present a plane-wave implementation of the GW approximation within the projector augmented wave method code GPAW. The computed band gaps of ten bulk semiconductors and insulators deviate on average by 0.2eV (~5%) from the experimental values, the only exception being ZnO where the calculated...... band gap is around 1eV too low. Similar relative deviations are found for the ionization potentials of a test set of 32 small molecules. The importance of substrate screening for a correct description of quasiparticle energies and Fermi velocities in supported two-dimensional (2D) materials...

  19. Copper-containing ceramic precursor synthesis: Solid-state transformations and materials technology

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Eckles, William E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Andras, Maria T.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Richman, Robert M.; Sabat, Michael L.; Power, Michael B.; Gordon, Edward M.; Barron, Andrew


    Three copper systems with relevance to materials technology are discussed. In the first, a CuS precursor, Cu4S1O (4-methylpyridine)(sub 4)- (4-MePy), was prepared by three routes: reaction of Cu2S, reaction of CuBr-SMe2, and oxidation of copper powder with excess sulfur in 4-methylpyridine by sulfur. In the second, copper powder was found to react with excess thiourea (H2NC(S)NH2) in 4-methylpyridine to produce thiocyanate (NCS(-)) complexes. Three isolated and characterized compounds are: Cu(NCS)(4-MePy)(sub 2), a polymer, (4-MePy-H)(Cu(NCS)(sub 3)(4-MePy)(sub 2)), a salt, and t-Cu(NCS)(sub 2)(4-MePy)(sub 4). Finally, an attempt to produce a mixed-metal sulfide precursor of Cu and Ga in N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) resulted in the synthesis of a Cu-containing polymer, Cu(SO4)(N-MeIm). The structures are presented; the chemistry will be briefly discussed in the context of preparation and processing of copper-containing materials for aerospace applications.

  20. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña


    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  1. Solid state 1H NMR studies of cell wall materials of potatoes

    Tang, Huiru; Belton, Peter S.; Ng, Annie; Waldron, Keith W.; Ryden, Peter


    Cell wall materials from potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum) prepared by two different methods have been studied using NMR proton relaxation times. Spin lattice relaxation in both the rotating and laboratory frames as well as transverse relaxation have been measured over a range of temperatures and hydration levels. It was observed that the sample prepared using a DMSO extraction showed anomalous behaviour of spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame probably due to residual solvent in the sample. Spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame is the result of hydroxymethyl rotation and another unidentified high frequency motion. In the rotating frame relaxation is adequately explained by hydroxymethyl rotation alone. In neither experiment is methyl group rotation observed, calculation suggests that this is due to the low density of methyl groups in the sample. Non-freezing water in potato cell walls, α-cellulose and pectin was found about 0.2, 0.04 and 0.18 g per gram dry matter, indicating preferable hydration of pectin compared to cellulose. The effects of hydration are most noticeable in the measurements that reflect low frequency motions, particularly transverse relaxation, where both second moments and the relative intensity of signals arising from immobile material are reduced by hydration.

  2. Ionic liquids and their solid-state analogues as materials for energy generation and storage

    Macfarlane, Douglas R.; Forsyth, Maria; Howlett, Patrick C.; Kar, Mega; Passerini, Stefano; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yan, Feng; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Jie


    Salts that are liquid at room temperature, now commonly called ionic liquids, have been known for more than 100 years; however, their unique properties have only come to light in the past two decades. In this Review, we examine recent work in which the properties of ionic liquids have enabled important advances to be made in sustainable energy generation and storage. We discuss the use of ionic liquids as media for synthesis of electromaterials, for example, in the preparation of doped carbons, conducting polymers and intercalation electrode materials. Focusing on their intrinsic ionic conductivity, we examine recent reports of ionic liquids used as electrolytes in emerging high-energy-density and low-cost batteries, including Li-ion, Li-O2, Li-S, Na-ion and Al-ion batteries. Similar developments in electrolyte applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, thermo-electrochemical cells, double-layer capacitors and CO2 reduction are also discussed.

  3. Computational analysis of gas-solid interactions in materials for energy storage and conversion

    Lysgaard, Steen

    The extensive use of fossil fuels are harmful to the climate and the general standard of living due to global warming effects and pollution. Thus the rising energy needs in the World caused by an increase in both population and wealth especially in developing countries will have to be met...... by a renewable energy production. Sustainable energy sources such as solar or wind power are not constant and efficient methods firstly to convert electricity into chemical energy and secondly to store the high energy materials are needed. In this thesis both issues of conversion and storage are treated...... exchange and diffusion processes of water and ammonia in magnesium chloride hexammine and hexahydrate as a method for non-thermal release of ammonia. A mixed phase containing both water and ammonia have been shown to be stable in a small region around room temperature. It is possible to shift the release...

  4. A new solid particle erosion model for oriented fiber composite materials

    Valeriu DRAGAN


    Full Text Available The work describes a new model of erosion estimation equation which factors in both the impingement angle α and the fiber orientation angle β. Two examples of particular erosion equations are presented, for carbon fiber as well as for glass fiber in epoxidic matrix. Our methods are semi-empirical meaning that the general shape of the erosion equation is maintained while specific material coefficients must be determined for each of the matrix-fiber combination. As showed in the paper, the proposed model correlates well with the experimental data available in the literature. The work is significant since it provides a generalized method for estimating erosion rates for oriented fiber composites which can be further implemented in simulation software in a simple manner.

  5. Solid Silicone Elastomer Material(DC745U)-Historical Overview and New Experimental Results

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapon systems. DC745U is manufactured by Dow Corning and its formulation is proprietary. Risk changes without notification to the customer. {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR have previously determined that DC745U contains {approx} 98.5% dimethyl siloxane, {approx}1.5% methyl-phenyl siloxane, and a small amount (<1%) of vinyl siloxane repeat units that are converted to crosslinking sites. The polymer is filled with {approx} 38 wt.% of a mixture of fumed silica and quartz. Some conclusions are: (1) DMA shows that crystallization does have an effect on the mechanical properties of DC745U; (2) DMA shows that the crystallization is time and temperature dependent; (3) Mechanical tests show that DC745U undergo a crystalline transition at temperatures below -50 C; (4) Rate and temperature does not have an effect above crystalline transition; (5) Crystalline transition occurs faster at colder temperatures; (6) The material remains responsive and recovers after warming it to temperature above -40 C; (7) We were able to review all previous historical data on DC745U; (8) Identified specific gaps in materials understanding; (9) Developed design of experiments and testing methods to address gaps associated with post-curing and low temperature mechanical behavior; (10) Resolved questions of post-cure and alleviated concerns associated with low temperature mechanical behavior with soak time and temperature; and (11) This work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

  6. Solid phase immobilization of optically responsive liposomes insol-gel materials for chemical and biological sensing

    Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Charych, Deborah H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.


    Liposomes enhanced with surface recognition groups have previously been found to have high affinity for heavy metal ions and virus particles with unique fluorescent and colorimetric responses, respectively. These lipid aggregate systems have now been successfully immobilized in a silica matrix via the sol-gel method, affording sensor materials that are robust, are easily handled, and offer optical clarity. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of preformed liposomes without modification of the aggregate structure. Lipid extraction studies of immobilized nonpolymerized liposomes showed no lipid leakage in aqueous solution over a period of 3 months. Heavy metal fluorescent sensor materials prepared with 5 percent N-[8-[1-octadecyl-2-(9-(1-pyrenyl)nonyl)-rac-glyceroyl]-3,6-dioxaoctyl]imino acid/distearylphosphatidylcholineliposomes exhibited a 4-50-fold enhancement in sensitivity to various metal ions compared to that of the liposomes in free solution. Through ionic attraction the anionic silicate surface, at the experimental pH of 7.4, may act as a preconcentrator of divalent metal ions, boosting the gel's internal metal concentration. Entrapped sialic acid-coated polydiacetylene liposomes responded with colorimetric signaling to influenza virus X31, although slower than the free liposomes in solution. The successful transport of the virus (50-100 nm diameter) reveals a large pore diameter of the gel connecting the liposome to the bulk solution. The porous and durable silica matrix additionally provides a protective barrier to biological attack (bacterial, fungal) and allows facile recycling of the liposome heavy metal sensor.

  7. Contact resistance of ceramic interfaces between materials used for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Koch, S.


    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may be smaller or larger than the constriction resistance. The contact resistance between pairs of three different materials were analysed (strontium doped lanthanum manganite, yttria stabilised zirconia and strontium and nickel doped lanthanum cobaltite), and the effects of temperature, atmosphere, polarisation and mechanical load on the contact resistance were investigated. The investigations revealed that the mechanical load of a ceramic contact has a high influence on the contact resistance, and generally power law dependence between the contact resistance and the mechanical load was found. The influence of the mechanical load on the contact resistance was ascribed to an area effect. The contact resistance of the investigated materials was dominated by current constriction at high temperatures. The measured contact resistance was comparable to the resistance calculated on basis of the contact areas found by optical and electron microscopy. At low temperatures, the interface contribution to the contact resistance was dominating. The cobaltite interface could be described by one potential barrier at the contact interface, whereas the manganite interfaces required several consecutive potential barriers to model the observed behaviour. The current-voltage behaviour of the YSZ contact interfaces was only weakly non-linear, and could be described by 22{+-}1 barriers in series. Contact interfaces with sinterable contact layers were also investigated, and the measured contact resistance for these interfaces were more than 10 times less than for the other interfaces. (au)

  8. Application and future of solid foams

    Bienvenu, Yves


    To conclude this series of chapters on solid foam materials, a review of industrial current applications and of mid-term market perspectives centred on manmade foams is given, making reference to natural cellular materials. Although the polymeric foam industrial development overwhelms the rest and finds applications on many market segments, more attention will be paid to the emerging market of inorganic-especially metallic-foams (and cellular materials) and their applications, present or upcoming. It is shown that the final applications of solid foams are primarily linked to transport and the present-day development of the different classes of solid foams is contrasted between functional applications and structural applications. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.


    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .


    Bruce R. Lanning; James Arps; Ronghua Wei; Goeff Dearnaley


    Interconnects are a critical element of an SOFC assembly and although much work has focused on chromium and chromium-iron alloys containing an oxide that is both oxidation resistant and electrically conductive, the thermal instability of typical native metal oxides allow interdiffusion of cations across the interconnect-electrode boundary that ultimately leads to degradation of SOFC performance. Phase I of the SECA Core Technology Program has been a one-year effort to investigate and evaluate the feasibility of: (1) Ion implanting an alumina-scale forming ferritic steel, such as FeCrAlY, to form an interconnect material with low resistance (< 0.1 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) in oxidizing/reducing environments up to 800 C, and (2) Maintaining the above low resistance metric for an extended time (> 1000 hours at 800 C) in contact with an LSF cathode material. We confirmed, as part of our oxidation kinetics evaluation of FeCrAlY and 430 ferritic steel, the parabolic growth of a mixed chromia/alumina scale on FeCrAlY and a single chromia layer in the case of the 430 stainless steel; the outer contiguous layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the case of FeCrAlY, forming a stable, self-limiting, protective scale with no detectable cation interdiffusion between FeCrAlY and an LSF electrode even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. To render the alumina scale conductive, we implanted either titanium or niobium ions into FeCrAlY scales to a fixed depth (0.12 {micro}m), varying only the thickness of the oxide. ASR for an un-doped FeCrAlY oxide scale (i.e., alumina) was more than an order of magnitude greater than the 430 control sample whereas, the ASR for the doped FeCrAlY oxide scale sample was comparable to the 430 control sample; hence, the resistance of a doped alumina scale on FeCrAlY was equal to the resistance of a chromia-scale forming alloy, such as 430 (chromia scales of which are typically < 0.1 {Omega}-cm). Along with the ASR measurements, AC impedance measurements were conducted

  11. Characterization of material properties of soft solid thin layers with acoustic radiation force and wave propagation.

    Urban, Matthew W; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Bernal, Miguel; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F


    Evaluation of tissue engineering constructs is performed by a series of different tests. In many cases it is important to match the mechanical properties of these constructs to those of native tissues. However, many mechanical testing methods are destructive in nature which increases cost for evaluation because of the need for additional samples reserved for these assessments. A wave propagation method is proposed for characterizing the shear elasticity of thin layers bounded by a rigid substrate and fluid-loading, similar to the configuration for many tissue engineering applications. An analytic wave propagation model was derived for this configuration and compared against finite element model simulations and numerical solutions from the software package Disperse. The results from the different models found very good agreement. Experiments were performed in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms with thicknesses of 1 and 4 mm and found that the wave propagation method could resolve the shear modulus with very good accuracy, no more than 4.10% error. This method could be used in tissue engineering applications to monitor tissue engineering construct maturation with a nondestructive wave propagation method to evaluate the shear modulus of a material.

  12. Inelastic electron-solid interactions for the processing and characterization of soft materials

    Faney, Thibault

    Magnetic confinement fusion is a promising technology for electricity production due to available fuel and low waste products. However, the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor remains a scientific challenge. One of the main issues is the resistance of the plasma facing materials exposed to very harsh operating conditions. Tungsten is the leading candidate for the divertor, a crucial plasma facing component. This dissertation focuses on modeling the behavior of tungsten under irradiation conditions relevant to the divertor operations using a multi-scale modeling approach. In particular, high fluxes of helium ions at low energy impact the divertor and are responsible for changes in the tungsten microstructure such as the formation of helium blisters and ''fuzz"-like structures which can ultimately lead to erosion, degradation of materials performance and materials failure. A spatially dependent cluster dynamics model is introduced in order to model the evolution of the tungsten microstructure under irradiation. This continuum model is based on kinetic rate theory and handles each material defect type independently. Under the assumptions of a low dilute limit and no spatial correlation between defects, this leads to a large system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. Hence, the results addressed in this thesis consist in the determination of the kinetic parameters for the cluster dynamics model, the construction of a solver which efficiently deals with the large non-linear system of partial differential equations, the determination of the applicability of the model to fusion relevant conditions, and the model results for a variety of irradiation conditions. The input kinetic parameters to the cluster dynamics model are the defects' diffusion coefficients, binding energies and capture radii. These can be determined using a molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations as well as empirical data. The challenge lies in obtaining a consistent set

  13. Material growth and characterization for solid state devices. Report, 1 June 1985-31 December 1986

    Collis, W.J.; Abul-Fadl, A.; Iyer, S.


    During this period InGaAs and InGaAsP were grown on (100)InP by liquid phase electroepitaxy (LPEE). Results of the epitaxial growth of InGaAs on sputtered quartz masked substrates are presented. The resulting surface morphology can be related to the current density distribution near the edges of a masked pattern. The quaternary InGaAs was grown with compositions corresponding to 1.3 micron and 1.5 micron emission wavelengths. Growth rates were found to be linearly dependent upon current density, and a strong dependence upon composition was noted. These compositions lie in the miscibility gap region of the alloy phase diagram at the 645 C growth temperature. Growths were performed at 685 C to avoid the miscibility gap. Epilayers were characterized by photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements. Aluminum oxide was deposited on silicon and InGaAs substrates for the characterization of this material as an insulator in a field effect transistor structure. It was determined that the results did not warrant further work with the deposition from an aluminum isopropoxide source. A metallographic vapor phase epitaxy system installation is nearing completion for use in hybrid III-V semiconductor epilayer growths.

  14. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.


    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  15. Dual Functional TiO2-Au Nanocomposite Material for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Pandikumar, A; Suresh, S; Murugesan, S; Ramaraj, R


    Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite ((TiO2-Au)(nps)) materials dispersed in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer electrolyte are employed as solid-state electrolytes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing nanocrystalline TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) or (P25-Au)(nps) thin film photoanode adsorbed with a near-IR dye sensitizer, nickel-phthalocyanine (NiPcTs). The photocurrent-photovoltage characteristics of the DSSCs are evaluated under standard AM 1.5 G simulated solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The (TiO2-Au)(nps) nanocomposite material incorporated into the PDDA polymer electrolyte promotes interfacial charge transfer process, reduces crystallinity of the polymer electrolyte and enhances mobility of the /-/I3- redox couple, which are resulted in -6-fold increase in the overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency when compared to the unmodified polymer electrolyte based DSSC. When the P25 photoanode is replaced with the (P25-Au)(nps) photoanode, a further 8-fold increase in the overall energy conversion efficiency is achieved, owing to the increas in the charge transport through the photoanode. The photovoltaic performance of the present DSSC configuration is also compared with that of a cell sensitized by using standard N719 dye.

  16. Synthesis strategies for improving the performance of doped-BaZrO 3 materials in solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Bi, Lei


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer an efficient energy conversion technology for alleviating current energy problems. High temperature proton-conducting (HTPC) oxides are promising electrolytes for this technology, since their activation energy is lower than that of conventional oxygen-ion conductors, enabling the operating temperature reduction at 600 °C. Among HTPC oxides, doped BaZrO3 materials possess high chemical stability, needed for practical applications. Though, poor sinterability and the resulting large volume of highly resistive grain boundaries hindered their deployment for many years. Nonetheless, the recently demonstrated high proton conductivity of the bulk revived the attention on doped BaZrO3, stimulating research on solving the sintering issues. The proper selection of dopants and sintering aids was demonstrated to be successful for improving the BaZrO3 electrolyte sinterability. We here briefly review the synthesis strategies proposed for preparing BaZrO3-based nanostructured powders for electrolyte and electrodes, with the aim to improve the SOFC performance. © Materials Research Society 2013.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations in Solid Mechanics for Quantifying the Macroscale Effects of Microstructure and Material Model-Form Error

    Bishop, Joseph E.; Emery, John M.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Littlewood, David J.; Baines, Andrew J.


    Two fundamental approximations in macroscale solid-mechanics modeling are (1) the assumption of scale separation in homogenization theory and (2) the use of a macroscopic plasticity material model that represents, in a mean sense, the multitude of inelastic processes occurring at the microscale. With the goal of quantifying the errors induced by these approximations on engineering quantities of interest, we perform a set of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in which polycrystalline microstructures are embedded throughout a macroscale structure. The largest simulations model over 50,000 grains. The microstructure is idealized using a randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellation in which each polyhedral Voronoi cell represents a grain. An face centered cubic crystal-plasticity model is used to model the mechanical response of each grain. The overall grain structure is equiaxed, and each grain is randomly oriented with no overall texture. The detailed results from the DNS simulations are compared to results obtained from conventional macroscale simulations that use homogeneous isotropic plasticity models. The macroscale plasticity models are calibrated using a representative volume element of the idealized microstructure. Ultimately, we envision that DNS modeling will be used to gain new insights into the mechanics of material deformation and failure.

  18. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas


    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  19. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F


    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pmaterials (T1, T4 and T5) had higher N (16,100-21,300mg/kg), P (1500-2300mg/kg), K (19,800-28,200mg/kg), neutral pH, and lower C/N ratios (13:1-10:1), which were also comparable with commercially produced composts. Filter materials therefore, appears to be a vital ingredient for composting of winery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. BACE0.85Y0.15O3-DELTA Based Materials for Inovative Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Krezhov, Kiril; Vladikova, Daria


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO _{3} were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400-800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y ^{3+} is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe _{1-x}Y _{x}O _{3-δ} increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe _{0.85}Y _{0.15}O _{3-δ} (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BCY15 were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.

  1. Discovery and application of peptides that bind to proteins and solid state inorganic materials

    Stearns, Linda A.

    A series of three projects was undertaken on the theme of peptide-based molecular recognition. In the first project, a messenger RNA (mRNA) display selection was carried out against the II-VI semiconductors zinc sulfide (ZnS), zinc selenide (ZnSe), and cadmium sulfide (CdS). Sequence analysis of 18-mer semiconductor-binding peptides (SBPs) following four rounds of selection indicated that the amino acid sequences were enriched in polar residues compared to the naive library, suggesting that hydrogen-bonding interactions are a dominant mode of interaction between the SBPs and their cognate inorganic surfaces. Select peptides were expressed as fusions of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize their recognition of semiconductor crystals. Interpretation of the results was complicated by a high fluorescence background that was observed with certain control GFP fusions. Additional experiments, including cross-specificity binding assays, are needed to characterize the peptides that were isolated in this selection. A second project described the practical application of a known inorganic-binding and nucleating peptide. Peptide A3, which was previously isolated by phage display, was chemically conjugated to a short DNA strand using the heterobifunctional linker succinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC). The resulting peptide-DNA conjugate was hybridized to ten complementary single-stranded capture probes extending outward from the surface of an origami DNA nanotube. A gold precursor solution was added to initiate nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles at the site of the peptide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to visualize the gold nanoparticle-decorated nanostructures. This approach holds immense promise for organizing compositionally-diverse materials at the nanoscale. In a third project, a novel non-iterative approach to mRNA display called covalent capture was demonstrated. Using human transferrin as a target

  2. Coupled fluid and solid mechanics study for improved permeability estimation of fines' invaded porous materials

    Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.


    destruction of particle bridges. Finally, depending on the material and fluids that penetrate into the porous medium, the ionic forces might play a significant role in the filtration process. We thus also report on influence of particle attachment (and detachment) on the type of clogging mechanisms. Pore scale simulations allow for visualization and understanding of fundamental processes, and, further, the velocity fields are integrated into a distinctly non-monotonic permeability-porosity/(depth of penetration) relationship.

  3. Organotin materials and their solid state properties, and, The utility of NADA in the synthesis of a new metallate synthon

    Munguia, Teresita

    A series of novel bioactive organometallic materials of the type (o-EMeC 6H4)CH2MR3-nCln were synthesized to form: (1) M = Si, (2) M = Ge, (3) M = Sn, (4) M = Pb [E = S, R = Ph, n = 0], (5) n = 1, (6) n = 2 [M = Sn, R = Ph], (7) n = 0, (8) n = 1 [M = Sn, R = p-(t-BuPh)], (9) n = 0, (10) n = 1, (11) n = 2 [E = O, R = Ph]. Their crystal and molecular structures have been determined and characterized by solution NMR and X-ray crystallography. To further illustrate intramolecular interactions and to understand molecular motions in the solid state of these materials, solid-state 119Sn CPMAS NMR was performed on compounds 3-11 and compared to 119Sn solution state chemical shifts. Analysis shows that the tin atom approaches a pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal pentacoordination as a consequence of intramolecular Sn-S (3, 5-8) and Sn-O (9-11) interactions. The intramolecular Sn-S distances range from 3.699 A and 3.829 A in 3 (88% and 91.2% vdW radii), 3.062 A in 5 (73% vdW radii) and 2.994 A in 6 (71% vdW radii) whereas the Sn-O distances in 9, 10 and 11 are 3.07 A (82.9% the sum of the van der Waal radii), 2.76 A (74.5% vdW radii) and 2.92 A (78.9% vdW radii), respectively. The geometry of compound 11 is additionally complicated by an intermolecular interaction of 3.488 A between Sn in one molecule and Cl in a neighboring molecule creating a distorted octahedral geometry. Furthermore, the utility of CPMAS 119Sn NMR is again illustrated as a second crystal form of 3, 3', which is monoclinic, with one molecule in the unit cell, and a Sn-S distance of 3.973 A (94.6% vdW radii) was discovered.

  4. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S


    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  5. On the Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties and Electrochemical Performances As Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials of New La-(Sr/Vac)-Co-Ti-O Perovskites

    García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Gómez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos


    Perovskite-type oxides are well known materials that have been proposed as electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The structure, which is referred to the ABO3 stoichiometry, can accommodate many different transition metal ions in the B-site; its electronic conductivity wi...

  6. The materials and elements production practice of counter-erosional and thermal protection system of the SPR-solid-propellant sustainer nozzle

    Shkurenko, V. M.


    This paper presents the production scheme for heat- and erosion-protective carbon plastic materials for heat shield elements of solid-propellant nozzles. Attention is also given the method of manufacturing adhesive joint assemblies, and the production scheme is included.

  7. Synthesis and characterization by solid-state impedance spectroscopy of semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 material for photovoltaic technologies

    Muñoz, M.; Vera-López, E.; Gómez-Cuaspud, J. A.; Pineda-Triana, Y.


    Current work is focused on the synthesis and characterization of a Cu2ZnSnS4 material (Abbreviated CZTS), identified as a potential candidate for the manufacture of photovoltaic cells. The material was obtained by means of a hydrothermal route which permits a simple and economical alternative to synthesize advanced materials for photovoltaic applications. The synthesis of a solid started from corresponding metal nitrates of Cu(NO3)2.6H2O, Zn(NO3)2, Sn(NO3)4.6H2O and thiourea as S source, which were dissolved in deionized water until complete a 1.0mol L-1 concentration. The solution was kept in a Teflon lined steel vessel with magnetic stirring (150 rpm) and treated at 300°C for 12 hours to form the crystalline phase. The initial characterization of solid was done using UV spectroscopy to validate the chemical process and identify the corresponding Band-gap around (1.43eV). The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction, confirmed the presence of nanometric solids (140-260nm). The morphological characterization by SEM analysis evidenced a homogeneous material in the form of micrometric aggregates, by a related synthesis method. Finally, the electrical characterization by means of solid state impedance spectroscopy demonstrated a semiconductor behaviour which evidenced the transport phenomena associated with a Warburg resistance.

  8. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. In dosimetry, solid phantoms are often used for convenience. These materials should ideally be equivalent to water. In this study, the authors evaluated dosimetric water equivalence of four common plastics, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Methods: Using the Bethe formula for energy loss, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, the authors calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. The authors experimentally measured variation of the Bragg peak of carbon-ion beams by insertion of HDPE, PMMA, and POM, which were compared with analytical model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculation resulted in slightly reduced multiple scattering and severely increased nuclear interactions for HDPE, compared to water and the other plastics. The increase in attenuation of carbon ions for 20-cm range shift was experimentally measured to be 8.9% for HDPE, 2.5% for PMMA, and 0.0% for POM while PET was theoretically estimated to be in between PMMA and POM. The agreement between the measurements and the calculations was about 1% or better. Conclusions: For carbon-ion beams, POM was dosimetrically indistinguishable from water and the best of the plastics examined in this study. The poorest was HDPE, which would reduce the Bragg peak by 0.45% per cm range shift, although with marginal superiority for reduced multiple scattering. Between the two clear plastics, PET would be superior to PMMA in dosimetric water equivalence.

  9. Pr4Ni3O10+δ: A new promising oxygen electrode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Vibhu, Vaibhav; Rougier, Aline; Nicollet, Clément; Flura, Aurélien; Fourcade, Sébastien; Penin, Nicolas; Grenier, Jean-Claude; Bassat, Jean-Marc


    The present work is focused on the study of Pr4Ni3O10+δ as a new cathode material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). The structural study leads to an indexation in orthorhombic structure with Fmmm space group, this structure being thermally stable throughout the temperature range up to 1000 °C under air and oxygen. The variation of oxygen content (10+δ) as a function of temperature under different atmospheres show that Pr4Ni3O10+δ is always oxygen over-stoichiometric, which further suggests its MIEC properties. The polarization resistance (Rp) of Pr4Ni3O10+δ electrode is measured for GDC/co-sintered and two-step sintered half cells. The Rp for co-sintered sample is found to be 0.16 Ω cm2 at 600 °C under air, which is as low as the one of highest performing Pr2NiO4+δ nickelate (Rp = 0.15 Ω cm2 at 600 °C). Moreover, an anode supported (Ni-YSZ//YSZ) single cell including GDC//Pr4Ni3O10+δ co-sintered electrode shows a maximum power density of 1.60 W cm-2 at 800 °C and 0.68 W cm-2 at 700 °C. Here, the work is emphasized on the very close electrochemical performance of Pr4Ni3O10+δ compared to the one of Pr2NiO4+δ with higher chemical stability, which gives great interests to consider this material as a very interesting oxygen-electrode for SOFCs.

  10. On the theory for the arrest of an advancing molten contact line on a cold solid of the same material

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Sonin, Ain A.


    We show that a conventional continuum formulation of the equations and boundary conditions for the spreading of a pure molten material over a cold, solid substrate of its own kind has no meaningful solution for the angle of attack θs of the fusion front at the contact line, which is the quantity that determines contact-line arrest. θs is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux in the mathematical model is singular at the contact line. The scale of the physical mechanism which limits the heat flux at the contact line and removes the singularity is estimated by computing the point where the continuum model must be cut off in order to bring it into agreement with the experimental data for a microcrystalline wax. The cutoff scale is in the range 0.1-1 μm, that is, much larger than molecular dimensions, but of order 10-2-10-1 times the convective thermal length scale α/U.

  11. Photothermal Mirror Method for the Study of Thermal Diffusivity and Thermo-Elastic Properties of Opaque Solid Materials

    Marcano, Aristides; Gwanmesia, Gabriel; Workie, Bizenuh


    We have carried out the theoretical and experimental time evolution and amplitude study of the photothermal mirror signal generated by focusing a laser beam on the surface of a suite of solid samples. Based on a theoretical model that resolves the thermal diffusivity equation and the equation for thermo-elastic deformations simultaneously, we have calculated the transient time evolution and amplitude of the signal. We observe the same time evolution pattern for samples as diverse as glass, quartz, metals, and synthetic ceramic oxides. The data have yielded a linear dependence between the time build-up of the thermal mirror and the inverse of the thermal diffusivity for all the samples. For moderate power levels, we also observe a linear behavior between the stationary value of the signal and the thermally induced phase shift value. From the calibration curves, we have determined the thermally induced phase and the thermal diffusivity coefficients of two prospective nuclear reactor control rod materials, dysprosium titanate (Dy2TiO5) and dysprosium dititanate (Dy2Ti2O7) to be D = (7.0 ± 0.4) × 10^{-7} m^{2\\cdot s^{-1}}.

  12. Cobalt based layered perovskites as cathode material for intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A brief review

    Pelosato, Renato; Cordaro, Giulio; Stucchi, Davide; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni


    Nowadays, the cathode is the most studied component in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). Decreasing SOFCs operating temperature implies slow oxygen reduction kinetics and large polarization losses. Double perovskites with general formula REBaCo2O5+δ are promising mixed ionic-electronic conductors, offering a remarkable enhancement of the oxygen diffusivity and surface exchange respect to disordered perovskites. In this review, more than 250 compositions investigated in the literature were analyzed. The evaluation was performed in terms of electrical conductivity, Area Specific Resistance (ASR), chemical compatibility with electrolytes and Thermal Expansion Coefficient (TEC). The most promising materials have been identified as those bearing the mid-sized rare earths (Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd). Doping strategies have been analyzed: Sr doping on A site promotes higher electrical conductivity, but worsen ASR and TECs; B-site doping (Fe, Ni, Mn) helps lowering TECs, but is detrimental for the electrochemical properties. A promising boost of the electrochemical activity is obtained by simply introducing a slight Ba under-stoichiometry. Still, the high sensitivity of the electrochemical properties against slight changes in the stoichiometry hamper a conclusive comparison of all the investigated compounds. Opportunities for an improvement of double perovskite cathodes performance is tentatively foreseen in combining together the diverse effective doping strategies.

  13. Co- and Ce/Co-coated ferritic stainless steel as interconnect material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Claquesin, Julien; Sattari, Mohammad; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan


    Chromium species volatilization, oxide scale growth, and electrical scale resistance were studied at 650 and 750 °C for thin metallic Co- and Ce/Co-coated steels intended to be utilized as the interconnect material in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC). Mass gain was recorded to follow oxidation kinetics, chromium evaporation was measured using the denuder technique and Area Specific Resistance (ASR) measurements were carried out on 500 h pre-exposed samples. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). The findings of this study show that a decrease in temperature not only leads to thinner oxide scales and less Cr vaporization but also to a significant change in the chemical composition of the oxide scale. Very low ASR values (below 10 mΩ cm2) were measured for both Co- and Ce/Co-coated steel at 650 and 750 °C, indicating that the observed change in the chemical composition of the Co spinel does not have any noticeable influence on the ASR. Instead it is suggested that the Cr2O3 scale is expected to be the main contributor to the ASR, even at temperatures as low as 650 °C.

  14. Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials.

    Cyr, M; Idir, R; Escadeillas, G


    The landfilling of municipal incineration residues is an expensive option for municipalities. This work evaluates an alternative way to render waste inert in cement-based materials by combining the reduction of waste content with the immobilization properties of metakaolin (MK). The functional and environmental properties of ternary and quaternary binders using cement, metakaolin, and two industrial by-products from combustion processes (MSWIFA - Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash and SSA - Sewage Sludge Ash) were evaluated. The binders were composed of 75% cement, 22.5% metakaolin and 2.5% residue. Results on the impact of residues on the functional and environmental behavior of mortars showed that the mechanical, dimensional and leaching properties were not affected by the residues. In particular, the use of metakaolin led to a significant decrease in soluble fractions and heavy metals released from the binder matrix. The results are discussed in terms of classification of the leaching behavior, efficiency and role of metakaolin in the immobilization of heavy metals in of MSWIFA and SSA, and the pertinence of the dilution process.

  15. Rational development of solid dispersions via hot-melt extrusion using screening, material characterization, and numeric simulation tools.

    Zecevic, Damir E; Wagner, Karl G


    Effective and predictive small-scale selection tools are inevitable during the development of a solubility enhanced drug product. For hot-melt extrusion, this selection process can start with a microscale performance evaluation on a hot-stage microscope (HSM). A batch size of 400 mg can provide sufficient materials to assess the drug product attributes such as solid-state properties, solubility enhancement, and physical stability as well as process related attributes such as processing temperature in a twin-screw extruder (TSE). Prototype formulations will then be fed into a 5 mm TSE (~1-2 g) to confirm performance from the HSM under additional shear stress. Small stress stability testing might be performed with these samples or a larger batch (20-40 g) made by 9 or 12 mm TSE. Simultaneously, numeric process simulations are performed using process data as well as rheological and thermal properties of the formulations. Further scale up work to 16 and 18 mm TSE confirmed and refined the simulation model. Thus, at the end of the laboratory-scale development, not only the clinical trial supply could be manufactured, but also one can form a sound risk assessment to support further scale up even without decades of process experience.

  16. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Melas-Kyriazi, John


    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9\\'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 特种功能材料中的固态相变及应用%Solid-State Phase Transformations and Their Applications in Special Functional Materials

    徐惠彬; 宫声凯; 蒋成保; 赵新青; 李岩; 郭洪波


    固态相变已经从传统结构材料的增强增韧延伸到新型功能材料研究领域,引发多种奇特的物理效应。目前已经形成一批基于固态相变的新型功能材料。这些新型功能材料蕴含着丰富的固态相变理论。固态相变现已成为新型功能材料设计与功能特性实现的重要手段之一。文章结合作者在固态相变及特种功能材料方面的研究工作,重点介绍高温形状记忆合金、高阻尼形状记忆合金、磁致伸缩材料和热障涂层材料中的固态相变特征及其在这些特种功能材料设计与功能实现和调控中应用的研究进展。%Solid-state phase transformations have been extended from toughening and strengthening of traditional structural materials to advanced functional materials, inducing many interesting physical phenomena. Varieties of functional materials have been developed based on the solid-state phase transformations. Studies on these functional materials have effectively enriches the theories of solid-state materials. The solid-state transformation have become one of the important approaches of functional materials designing and functionalities output. This paper briefly introduces the advances in solidstate phase transformations and their applications in high-temperature shape memory alloys, high damping shape memory alloys, magnetostrictive materials, and thermal barrier coatings.

  18. New in situ solid-state NMR strategies for exploring materials formation and adsorption processes: prospects in heterogenous catalysis

    Harris, Kenneth David Maclean


    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying structural and dynamic properties of solids and has considerable potential to be exploited for in situ studies of chemical processes. However, adapting solid-state NMR techniques and instrumentation for in situ applications are often associated with technical challenges, and for this reason, the opportunities remain underexploited. This paper highlights two experimental strategies that we have developed in recent years for in s...

  19. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  20. Symmetric supercapacitors using urea-modified lignin derived N-doped porous carbon as electrode materials in liquid and solid electrolytes

    Wang, Keliang; Xu, Ming; Gu, Yan; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua


    N-doped porous carbon materials derived from urea-modified lignin were prepared via efficient KOH activation under carbonization. The synthesized N-doped carbon materials, which displayed a well-developed porous morphology with high specific surface area of 3130 m2 g-1, were used as electrode materials in symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous and solid electrolytes. In consistent with the observed physical structures and properties, the supercapacitors exhibited specific capacitances of 273 and 306 F g-1, small resistances of 2.6 and 7.7 Ω, stable charge/discharge at different current densities for over 5000 cycles and comparable energy and power density in 6 mol L-1 KOH liquid and KOH-PVA solid electrolytes, respectively.

  1. Application of Deep Eutectic Solvents in Hybrid Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Mesoporous Siliceous Material for Solid-Phase Extraction of Levofloxacin from Green Bean Extract.

    Li, Xiaoxia; Row, Kyung Ho


    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are potential ecofriendly surfactants for the preparation of materials. In this study, both molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and mesoporous siliceous materials (MSMs) were modified by betaine-based DES. Six materials were employed as solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbents for the rapid purification of levofloxacin. The DES-based materials showed better selective adsorption than the conventional materials. The adsorption curves of DES-MIP showed superior molecular recognition ability and binding capability for levofloxacin compared to the other materials. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL for levofloxacin, respectively. The method recoveries at three spiked levels were 97.2 - 100.2% for DES-MIP, with an RSD <1.8%. DES-MIP showed the highest selective recovery (95.2%) for levofloxacin from the green bean extract, and could remove the interferent effectively.

  2. Characterizing Dust from Cutting Corian®, a Solid-Surface Composite Material, in a Laboratory Testing System.

    Qi, Chaolong; Echt, Alan; Murata, Taichi K


    We conducted a laboratory test to characterize dust from cutting Corian(®), a solid-surface composite material, with a circular saw. Air samples were collected using filters and direct-reading instruments in an automatic laboratory testing system. The average mass concentrations of the total and respirable dusts from the filter samples were 4.78±0.01 and 1.52±0.01mg cm(-3), respectively, suggesting about 31.8% mass of the airborne dust from cutting Corian(®) is respirable. Analysis of the metal elements on the filter samples reveals that aluminum hydroxide is likely the dominant component of the airborne dust from cutting Corian(®), with the total airborne and respirable dusts containing 86.0±6.6 and 82.2±4.1% aluminum hydroxide, respectively. The results from the direct-reading instruments confirm that the airborne dust generated from cutting Corian(®) were mainly from the cutting process with very few particles released from the running circular saw alone. The number-based size distribution of the dusts from cutting Corian(®) had a peak for fine particles at 1.05 µm with an average total concentration of 871.9 particles cm(-3), and another peak for ultrafine particles at 11.8nm with an average total concentration of 1.19×10(6) particles cm(-3) The small size and high concentration of the ultrafine particles suggest additional investigation is needed to study their chemical composition and possible contribution to pulmonary effect.

  3. Adsorption and desorption of DNA tuned by hydroxyl groups in graphite oxides-based solid extraction material.

    Akceoglu, Garbis Atam; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro


    The extraction of DNA is the most crucial method used in molecular biology. Up to date silica matrices has been widely applied as solid support for selective DNA adsorption and extraction. However, since adsorption force of SiOH functional groups is much greater than that of desorption force, the DNA extraction efficiency of silica surfaces is limited. In order to increase the DNA extraction yield, a new surface with different functional groups which possess of greater desorption property is required. In this study, we proposed cellulose/graphite oxide (GO) composite as an alternative material for DNA adsorption and extraction. GO/Cellulose composite provides the major adsorption and desorption of DNA by COH, which belongs to alkyl or phenol type of OH functional group. Compared to SiOH, COH is less polarized and reactive, therefore the composite might provide a higher desorption of DNA during the elution process. The GO/cellulose composite were prepared in spherical structure by mixing urea, cellulose, NaOH, Graphite oxide and water. The concentration of GO within the composites were controlled to be 0-4.15 wt.%. The extraction yield of DNA increased with increasing weight percentage of GO. The highest yield was achieved at 4.15 wt.% GO, where the extraction efficiency was reported as 660.4 ng/μl when applying 2M GuHCl as the binding buffer. The absorbance ratios between 260 nm and 280 nm (A260/A280) of the DNA elution was demonstrated as 1.86, indicating the extracted DNA consisted of high purity. The results proved that GO/cellulose composite provides a simple method for selective DNA extraction with high extraction efficiency of pure DNA.


    S. N. Osipov


    Full Text Available The methods of undulatory transillumination found extensive application in engineering and mining practice. They are based on utilization of the parameters of reflected and transmitted waves produced by way of affecting solid materials and formations with diverse sources. In recent years a simplistic technique of the productive-process robust designing enjoys widespread occurrence. It uses notions of ‘signal’ and ‘noise’ and a tenth part of the logarithm value of the reciprocal magnitude of the dispersion squared value corresponds the ratio of the signal and the noise. The article utilizes the confidence boundaries evaluation techniques for dispersion in robust design on chi-square criterion at small sample specified by K. A. Brownly under editorial of academician А. N. Kholmogorov, which essentially increases reliability of the stochastic estimations.Exemplarily of quantitative assessment in the reliability determination of anomalous zones in mining conditions, the author shows the tracing of a map of the formation graph of regular components of the elastic wave field at seismal transillumination along the layerage of the soliferous rocks of lower industrial pad III of potash horizon of the Starobinski minefield. The article claims the feasibility of the offered technique for stochastic estimation of the measurement results of any process where it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the signal extraction against the noise background. A simple conditional scale built on basis of time and noise level values taken as a unit is convenient to use. The presented alignment chart and graphical dependencies allow quickly appraise the realization probability of the signalto-noise relation and possibility of its rise. Thereat the obtained evaluations depend little on the probable magnitudes distribution form of the employed value.

  5. Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach.

    Chen, Ying-Chu


    Energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastes are getting noticed in recent years. This study evaluated the potential for energy recovery and GHG mitigation from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a waste-to-material (WTM) approach. Waste generated in Taiwan contains a large amount of paper, food waste, and plastics, which previously were mostly sent to waste-to-energy (WTE) plants for incineration. However, the mitigation of GHGs by the WTM approach has been especially successful in the recycling of metals (averaging 1.83×10(6)kgCO2-eq/year) and paper (averaging 7.38×10(5)kgCO2-eq/year). In addition, the recycling of paper (1.33×10(10)kWh) and plastics (1.26×10(10)kWh) has contributed greatly to energy saving. Both metal and glass are not suitable for incineration due to their low energy content. The volumes of paper and food waste contained in the MSW are positively related to the carbon concentration, which may contribute to increased GHGs during incineration. Therefore, the recycling of paper, metals, and food waste is beneficial for GHG mitigation. Measures to reduce GHGs were also suggested in this study. The development of the WTM approach may be helpful for the proper management of MSW with regards to GHG mitigation. The results of this study can be a successful example for other nations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of polymeric solid materials for electrical insulation system in superconducting apparatuses; Chodendo kiki no denki zetsuen kosei ni okeru kobunshi kotai zetsuen no tekiyo

    Nagao, M. [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Aichi (Japan); Minoda, A. [Matsue National College of Tech., Shimane (Japan); Kosaki, M. [Gifu National College of Tech., Gifu (Japan)


    We send the electric insulation to one of the technological problem to be solved in order to realize high reliability of the superconductive electric power equipment. This paper must also sufficiently consider not only dielectric characteristic and insulation characteristic but also material mechanical property in which they are excellent at very low temperature in the selection of insulating material. The representative insulating material of XLPE, LDPE mainly used in the region over room temperature the crack may arise by causing mechanical stress by cooling contracture of giant molecule, and the problem occurs as cryogenic insulating material in mechanical property. We propose the ethylene propylene rubber as cryogenic insulating material, and we carry out research and development of superconducting cable of the solid insulation system. We examined dielectric breakdown property and mechanical property of EPR at very low temperature this time. (NEDO)

  7. Solid State Division

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  8. The role of material strength in collisions -- Comparing solid body and hydrodynamic physics for simulating collisions of planetesimals with icy shells

    Maindl, Thomas I; Speith, Roland; Schäfer, Christoph


    Context. We investigate the effects of including material strength in multi-material planetesimal collisions. Aims. The differences between strengthless material models and including the full elasto-plastic model for solid bodies with brittle failure and fragmentation when treating collisions of asteroid-sized bodies as they occur frequently in early planetary systems are demonstrated. Methods. We study impacts of bodies of Ceres-mass with a solid rock target and an impactor with 30 wt% water content. The initial impact velocities and impact parameters are varied between the escape velocity $v_\\mbox{esc}$ to about 6 $v_\\mbox{esc}$ and from head-on collisions to close fly-bys, respectively. We simulate the collisions using our own SPH code using both strengthless material and the full elasto-plastic material model including brittle failure. Results. The qualitative analysis results in significant differences depending on whether material strength is included or not. This may be an effect of the relatively low-...

  9. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E


    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  10. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Claudio Ferone; Francesco Colangelo; Francesco Messina; Luciano Santoro; Raffaele Cioffi


      In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA) have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction...

  11. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Zhao, Long, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Hong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O{sub 8}CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  12. Structure-Property Relationships of Solids in Pharmaceutical Processing

    Chattoraj, Sayantan

    Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of solid dosage forms is witnessing a seismic shift in the recent years. In contrast to the earlier days when drug development was empirical, now there is a significant emphasis on a more scientific and structured development process, primarily driven by the Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives of US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). Central to such an approach is the enhanced understanding of solid materials using the concept of Materials Science Tetrahedron (MST) that probes the interplay between four elements, viz., the structure, properties, processing, and performance of materials. In this thesis work, we have investigated the relationships between the structure and those properties of pharmaceutical solids that influence their processing behavior. In all cases, we have used material-sparing approaches to facilitate property assessment using very small sample size of materials, which is a pre-requisite in the early stages of drug development when the availability of materials, drugs in particular, is limited. The influence of solid structure, either at the molecular or bulk powder levels, on crystal plasticity and powder compaction, powder flow, and solid-state amorphization during milling, has been investigated in this study. Through such a systematic evaluation, we have captured the involvement of structure-property correlations within a wide spectrum of relevant processing behaviors of pharmaceutical solids. Such a holistic analysis will be beneficial for addressing both regulatory and scientific issues in drug development.

  13. Efficient use of sugar cane bagasse by means of the separation of its component fractions in a new type of pneumatic classifier for polydisperse solid materials

    Roca Alarcon, Guillermo A.; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola


    This paper highlights the importance of pneumatic classification to improve the performance of any process using solid polydisperse materials. It is presented a physical model, based on which, it is proposed an installation with new characteristics for the separation of solid materials into three fractions, whose main part is a classification column. The fractions classified will be designated as: coarse, medium and fine. The classification column of the pneumatic installation allows establishing the appropriate flow regimes during the classification process. To evaluate the process there were defined the following indicators: the purity index, the classification efficiency and the degree of separation. These magnitudes are experimentally determined and serve as a measure of the percentage of separation and homogeneity of any of the three fractions mentioned before. The bagasse fractions can be obtained with definite particles size ranges that can improve the practical applications of bagasse in processes such as acid or enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol's obtaining, for combustion purposes and in general for classification of any solid polydisperse material of different size, shape and density. (author)

  14. Study on the crystallization behaviour and thermal stability of glass-ceramics used as solid oxide fuel cell-sealing materials

    Gödeke, Dieter; Dahlmann, Ulf

    Glass ceramics are commonly used as sealing materials for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The major requirements of stack and module builders for these materials are the stability of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excellent bonding (sticking) behaviour and the absence of volatile ingredients, which can lead to changes of the material properties and the sealing ability. SCHOTT Electronic Packaging has developed special glasses and glass-ceramics for various solid oxide fuel cell designs and operating temperatures. The glass compositions are based on the system MgO-Al 2O 3-BaO-SiO 2-B 2O 3. In this study the evaluation of the developed materials was done by high temperature aging tests for up to 1000 h, high temperature XRD-studies and Rietveld calculations, combined with scanning-electron microscope analysis. Samples of these aged samples were chemically analysed by XRD and wet chemical methods. Results show that after thermal aging of the glasses barium silicates accompanied by barium-magnesium silicates are the major crystalline phases of the glasses. The crystal phases remain stable during high temperature aging tests, indicating a low driving force of material change. The experimental results are compared to phase diagrams by phenomenological and thermochemical considerations.

  15. Role of site-disorder in energy materials: case of LixNb2O5 pseudocapacitor and β-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte

    Ganesh, P.; Lubimtsev, Andrew A.; Dathar, Gopi K. P.; Anchell, Jonathan; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Sumpter, Bobby G.


    In this study, we will present computational studies to elucidate the importance of site-disorder in energy materials. We will specifically focus on two recently discovered materials: a Li-ion intercalation pseudocapacitor LixNb2O5 (Nature Materials, 12 518 (2013)) and a Li-ion solid-electrolyte.(JACS, 135 975 (2013)). A combination of theoretical methods, such as density functional theory (DFT) based cluster-expansion, basin hopping, ab initio molecular dynamics, and nudged-elastic-bands calculations were employed to understand the origin of intercalation pseudocapacitance in the niobate-system.(J. Materials Chem. 114951 (2013)). It was found that having multiple sites with similar energies for ion-adsorption, lead to a site-occupancy disorder that eventually lead to a capacitative slope in the voltage profile over the entire range of ion intercalation, as seen in experiments. A similar site-occupancy induced sublattice melting in the β-Li3PS4 solid-electrolyte, which when ``frozen'' to RT, lead to high Li-ion conductivity.(G.K.P.Dathar et al, submitted (2014)). Further, we will elucidate how to take advantage of this control over site-disorder to better engineer improved energy materials for batteries and fuel-cells. (PG, GKPD, PRCK, AJR, BGS) were supported by the CNMS at ORNL, (AAL and JA) were supported by the DOE-HERE program. Computations were performed at NERSC.

  16. The adsorptive properties of powdered carbon materials with a strongly differentiated porosity and their applications in electroanalysis and solid phase microextraction.

    Kuśmierek, K; Sankowska, M; Skrzypczyńska, K; Świątkowski, A


    The adsorption of 4-chlorophenol from an aqueous solution on carbonaceous materials (one carbon black and two powdered activated carbons) with a strongly differentiated porosity was investigated. The kinetic data were fitted well to the pseudo-second order model. The amount of 4-chlorophenol adsorbed at equilibrium was increased with an increase in the specific surface area of the tested materials. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir isotherm was slightly favorable (R(2)>0.99) rather than the Freundlich isotherm (R(2)>0.98). Carbon materials were also used for the modification of carbon paste electrodes as well as for the preparation of novel solid phase microextraction fibers. The peak current of the differential pulse voltammetry curves was increased along with the amount of added carbon paste electrode modifier. The signal response was closely related to the porosity of the materials used, and increased with the increase in the specific surface area. The amount of 4-chlorophenol extracted from the samples by the solid phase microextraction fiber's surface was also correlated with the specific surface area of the tested materials. All the novel fibers were better than the commercially available fibers prepared from polidimethylosiloxane.

  17. Noble Metal-Free Ceria-Zirconia Solid Solutions Templated by Tobacco Materials for Catalytic Oxidation of CO

    Donglai Zhu


    Full Text Available A series of ceria-zirconia solid solutions were synthesized using tobacco leaves, stems and stem-silks as biotemplates. A combination of physicochemical techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the as-synthesized samples. The results show that the morphologies of the templates were well replicated in the obtained ceria-zirconia solid solutions. Catalytic oxidation activities of CO over the ceria-zirconia solid solutions were then investigated. The catalyst templated by tobacco stem-silk exhibited higher conversion of CO at lower temperature than that of ceria-zirconia solid solutions templated by tobacco leaves and stems or without templates due to its special morphology. The catalyst even showed similar CO conversion when compared to ceria-zirconia solid solutions doped with 1.0 wt % noble metals such as Pt, Ag and Au. The results highlighted the advantages of using tobacco as biotemplate.

  18. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan


    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion.

  19. The materials physics companion

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C


    Introduction to Materials Physics: Structure of matter. Solid state physics. Dynamic properties of solids. Dielectric Properties of Materials: Dielectric properties. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Dielectric breakdown. Applications of dielectrics. Magnetic Properties of Materials: Magnetic properties. Magnetic moment. Spontaneous magnetization. Superconductivity.

  20. The Synthesis of LiMnxFe1−xPO4/C Cathode Material through Solvothermal Jointed with Solid-State Reaction

    Xiangming He


    Full Text Available LiMnxFe1−xPO4/C material has been synthesized through a facile solid-state reaction under the condition of carbon coating, using solvothermal-prepared LiMnPO4 and LiFePO4 as precursors and sucrose as a carbon resource. XRD and element distribution analysis reveal completed solid-state reaction of precursors. LiMnxFe1−xPO4/C composites inherit the morphology of precursors after heat treatment without obvious agglomeration and size increase. LiMnxFe1−xPO4 solid solution forms at low temperature around 350 °C, and Mn2+/Fe2+ diffuse completely within 1 h at 650 °C. The LiMnxFe1−xPO4/C (x < 0.8 composite exhibits a high-discharge capacity of over 120 mAh·g−1 (500 Wh·kg−1 at low C-rates. This paves a way to synthesize the crystal-optimized LiMnxFe1−xPO4/C materials for high performance Li-ion batteries.

  1. A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Quarterly progress report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Rajagopal, K.R.


    This report describes the design of an orthogonal rheometer for the measuring of properties of granular materials such as coal. A section is presented on constitutive modeling of granular materials based on continuum theory.

  2. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  3. Electrochemical Performance of LiV3O8-xCIxCathode Materials Synthesized by a Low-Temperature Solid State Method

    LIU Li; JIAO Lifang; SUN Junli; LIU Sichen; YUAN Huatang; WANG Yongmei


    A series of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries with the formula LiV3O8-xC1x (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) were synthesized by a low-temperature solid-state method. The effects of CI substitution on the structure,morphology and electrochemical properties of the cathode materials were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. The results show that an enhanced cycle performance is on the C1 doped cathode materials. LiV3O7.90C10.10 shows the best electrochemical performances with the discharge capacity remaining 198.6 mAh/g after 100 cycles, which results from a greater reversibility during cycling and decrease of particle-to-particle impedance.

  4. Synthesis and Electrical Properties of New Solid State Electrolyte Materials Ce6-xHoxMoO15-δ(0.0≤x≤1.2)

    ZHOU De-feng; XIA Yan-jie; MENG Jian


    Ce6-xHoxMoO15-δ(0.0≤x≤1.2) was synthesized by modified sol-gel method and characterized by diffe-rential X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) methods. The oxide ionic con-ductivity of the samples was investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. It shows that all the samples are single phase with a cubic fluorite structure. The solid solution Ce6-xHoxMoO15-δ(x=0.6) was detected to be the best con-ducting phase with the highest conductivity(σt=1.05×10-2 S/cm) at 800 ℃ and the lowest activation energy(Ea=1.09eV). These properties suggest that this kind of material has a potential application in intermediate-low temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Thermal properties and structural characterizations of new types of phase change material: Anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions

    Lee, Tu, E-mail:; Chiu, Yu Hsiu; Lee, Yun; Lee, Hung Lin


    Highlights: • Solid dispersion is implemented on phase change materials. • Water is added as a tertiary component. • Specific heat of solid is increased by partially amorphous camphene. • Microstructures are characterized by LTDSC, PXRD and SAXS. • Thermal properties are linked to microstructures. - Abstract: Two new types of phase change material anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions (PA1CA1) are prepared and characterized by low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and temperature–history method. Their microstructures contain nanometer-sized palmitic acid (PA) crystallites with lamellar periodicity dispersed in a partially amorphous plastic crystalline camphene (CA) matrix. The PA phase apparently possesses a relatively high latent heat value inherited from the pristine crystalline PA of 229.7 ± 0.1 kJ kg{sup −1}. The relatively high specific heat of solid, C{sub ps}, for anhydrous PA1CA1 of 2.17 ± 0.06 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} is originated from the presence of disordered CA matrix. Hydration of PA1CA1 can further increase the C{sub ps} to 2.61 ± 0.01 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}. The mixing of partially amorphous CA, some PA and the small amount of water may have turned the matrix into more disorder due to their different bonding natures, molecular weights, and various molecular shapes and sizes.

  6. Tropical peat as a versatile material for solid-phase extraction of pesticides from medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia

    Carvalho,Pedro H. V. de; Amanda M. D. de Jesus; Prata,Vanessa M.; Bezerra,Débora S. S.; Romão, Luciane P. C.; Navickiene, Sandro


    Natural peat was tested for solid-phase extraction of acephate, chlorpropham, pirimicarb, bifenthrin, tetradifon and phosalone from the medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC/MS, SIM). Considering that there are no Brazilian regulations concerning maximum permissible pesticide residue concentrations in medicinal herbs, recovery experiments were carried out (three replicates) at two arbitrary fortification levels (0.5 and...


    Pasternak Ia.M.; Sulym H.T.; Pasternak R.M.


    The paper presents a review on the recent advances in the theoretical and experimental studies of functional (smart) materials and structures. Particular attention is paid to piezoelectric and magnetoelectroelastic materials, which internally couple mechanical, electric and magnetic fields and can operate as sensors or actuators. Modern smart magnetoelectroelastic materials consisting of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases are widely used due to the effect of electromagnetic coupling, whic...

  8. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  9. Irradiated ignition of solid materials in reduced pressure atmosphere with various oxygen concentrations for fire safety in space habitats

    Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, A.

    Effects of sub-atmospheric ambient pressure and oxygen content on irradiated ignition characteristics of solid combustibles were examined experimentally in order to elucidate the flammability and chance of fire in depressurized systems and give ideas for the fire safety and fire fighting strategies for such environments. Thin cellulosic paper was used as the solid combustible since cellulose is one of major organic compounds and flammables in the nature. Applied atmospheres consisted of inert gases (either CO 2 or N 2) and oxygen at various mixture ratios. Total ambient pressure ( P) was varied from 101 kPa (standard atmospheric pressure, P0) to 20 kPa. Ignition was initiated by external thermal radiation with CO 2 laser (10 W total; 21.3 W/cm 2 of the corresponding peak flux) onto the solid surface. Thermal degradation of the solid produced combustible gaseous products (e.g. CO, H 2, or other low weight of HCs) and these products mixed with ambient oxygen to form the combustible mixture over the solid. Heat transfer from the irradiated surface into the mixture accelerated the exothermic reaction in the gas phase and finally thermal runaway (ignition) was achieved. A digital video camera was used to analyze the ignition characteristics. Flammability maps in partial pressure of oxygen (ppO 2) and normalized ambient pressure ( P/ P0) plane were made to reveal the fire hazard in depressurized environments. Results showed that a wider flammable range was obtained in sub-atmospherics conditions. In middle pressure range (101-40 kPa), the required ppO 2 for ignition decreased almost linearly as the total pressure decreased, indicating that higher fire risk is expected. In lower pressure range (plant growth in depressurized environments. Our results imply that there is an optimum pressure level to achieve less fire chance with acceptable plant growth. An increase of the flammable range in middle pressure level might be explained by following two effects: one is a physical

  10. Synthesis of zeolitic-type adsorbent material from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and its application in heavy metal adsorption

    Chiang, Yi Wai; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Santos, Rafael; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Martens, Johan


    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) was converted to zeolitic-type adsorbent materials by hydrothermal conversion under strongly alkaline conditions. The conversion product was determined to be a mixture of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate (SASH) (Na2O·Al2O3·1.68SiO2·1.73H2O) and tobermorite (Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O). The BET specific surface area was 22.1 m2/g, which represented a significant gain compared to the BA (4.6 m2/g) due to the formation of micropores and mesopores...

  11. Novel Quasi-solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Monolayer Capped TiO2 Nanoparticles Framework Materials

    XIA,Jiang-Bin(夏江滨); LI,Fu-You(李富友); HUANG,Chun-Hui(黄春辉)


    Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-capped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized and employed in dye-sensitized solar cells to form a quasi-solid state electrolyte. Owing to the long alkyl-chain capping around the TiO2nanoparticles interacting with the liquid solvent, the dye sensitized solar cell based on such DBS-capped TiO2nanoparticle framework material gel electrolyte shows higher stability compared with the non-capped one in the long-term application and gives a comparable overall efficiency of 6.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  12. A rare case of primary solid intrarectal dermoid

    Onkar Singh


    Full Text Available Primary rectal teratomas are rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature worldwide. These usually occur in females. These are usually cystic but very rarely solid variants may occur. We present a case of a solid intra-rectal dermoid arising primarily in rectum from postero-lateral wall. Excision biopsy was done per rectally. Histology revealed the presence of squamous epithelium, fat cells, hair follicles, cartilaginous material and columnar lining of glandular structures suggestive of mature teratoma. It is usually benign but may become malignant, therefore complete resection is advised.

  13. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali


    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  14. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali


    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  15. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz


    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Microstructures of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials fabricated by centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in situ method

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Zhou, Qi; Sato, Hisashi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Inamura, Tomonari


    Methods of fabrication by centrifugal casting for functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be classified into two categories on the basis of the relationship between the process temperature and the liquidus temperature of a master alloy. They are the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in situ method, which could be carried out at process temperatures lower and higher than the liquidus temperature of the master alloy, respectively. In a previous study, it was found that the microstructures of Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal in situ method processed at 1600 °C were different from those fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method processed at 800 °C. Although it is expected that the FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal in situ method processed at approximately the liquidus temperature should show extraordinary microstructures, those microstructures have not been observed. In this study, the microstructures of Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated at 1000 °C (centrifugal solid-particle method) and 1200 °C (centrifugal in situ method) were investigated.

  17. Development of indirect heat recovery equipment for solid materials%间壁式固体散料余热回收器的开发

    夏德宏; 肖琳姝; 李一帆; 薛根山


    A waste heat recovery equipment for solid material was designed after analyzing the necessity of waste heat recovery from solid products and solid residue. The structure characteristics and industrial application of the heat recovery exchanger were introduced. With the Fluent software, the comparison of the heat exchange processes was made for the recovery equipment with and without heat transfer enhancing plug-in in the heat exchange tube. The result validates that setting plug-ins in the tubes helps to enhance the heat transfer effectively.%分析了固体产品及废渣等余热回收的必要性,设计开发了固体散料余热回收装置.介绍了该热回收器的结构特点及其应用.同时,应用Fluent软件模拟对比了热回收器管内放置强化传热插件前后的换热过程,验证了插件的强化换热效果.

  18. Assessing the presence of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in piggery wastewater and their adsorption behaviour onto solid materials, with a newly developed chromatographic method.

    Parpounas, Andreas; Litskas, Vassilis; Hapeshi, Evroula; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo


    Veterinary antibiotics could enter the environment after the application of manure or farm wastewater on soil as fertilizer. In this study, a UPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at environmental relevant concentrations in piggery wastewater, piggery wastewater solids, agricultural soil and ground water with good performance characteristics. The method recovery for ENR and CIP was 94.2 and 89.9% in the filtered piggery wastewater, 81.3 and 82% in the wastewater solid material, 78.1 and 76.8% in the soil and 95.6 and 97.3% in the ground water. The Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) for ENR were 21 and 64 ng L(-1) and for CIP was 18 and 54 ng L(-1), respectively. The method was implemented to monitor ENR and CIP in the wastewater of a piggery facility in Cyprus which applied anaerobic treatment before the final disposal of the reclaimed water. The highest antibiotic concentrations were measured in the wastewater samples collected from the nursery, where ENR is continuously used, with average concentration 31.4 μg L(-1) for ENR and 16.0 μg L(-1) for CIP. After the anaerobic digester, the two antibiotics were found only on the solid matter of the treated wastewater with an average concentration of 1.7 μg kg(-1) for ENR and 1.0 μg kg(-1) for CIP. The antibiotics adsorption at pH = 7 on clay soil, quartz sand and on solid matter isolated from the piggery wastewater was found to be higher than 95% for all solid materials. The concentration of the antibiotics in soil samples taken from a field where reclaimed piggery wastewater was applied for 10 years and in samples of groundwater from a nearby well was found for all samples below the LOD.

  19. Effective scintillation materials based on solid solutions ZnS1–xTex and perspectives of their application

    Katrunov K. A.


    Full Text Available The optimal technological regime of formation ZnS1–xTex solid solution at spacing 0,0≤х≤0,1 has been determined, and has been shown that fritting in hydrogen atmosphere results in more rapid reaction in comparison to argon due to chemical-thermal etching the ZnO layer out. Further annealing in the inert Ar atmosphere leads to the increase of the light output, to the intensive emission band formation and causes afterglow level reduction and the crystalline lattice rearrangement.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of some Pb(B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 type materials by two-stage solid-state route

    Mukul Pastor; P K Bajpai; R N P Choudhary


    Two-stage columbite solid state reaction route has been used for the preparation of Pb (B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 materials (B′ = Mg, Ni and Cd). The columbite precursor phase was structurally characterized using diffraction data. MgNb2O6, NiNb2O6 and CdNb2O6 show orthorhombic structures i.e. pure columbite phase. Final phase materials get stabilized in mixed phase. The diffraction pattern shows that it is a mixture of cubic pyrochlore and perovskite phase. Percentage of perovskite phase was calculated using the band intensities of (110) perovskite and (222) pyrochlore peaks. The calculated percentages show the dominant perovskite phase. Possible reasons for mixed phase are discussed.

  1. Laser cooling of solids

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  2. Summary of Rheological Properties of Solid Raw Materials for Anaerobic Digestion%固体厌氧消化原料流变特性研究综述

    倪哲; 董琳琳; 牛冬杰


    Rheologieal properties of raw materials are important parameters for design and operation of anaerobic digestion process. The paper summarizes the researches of solid raw materials for anaerobic digestion in the respects of studying objects, experimental operation, studying content, affecting factors and future developing direction, especially rheological properties of sludge. It shows that sludge have complicated composition and wide sources, belonging to non-Newton fluid. Their rheological properties depend on many factors such as total suspended solid (TSS) or mixed liquor suspended solids (MISS) and temperature. Mostly laminar shear experiments are used to evaluate the rheological properties, which need more materials as studying objects. More researches should be conducted in some respects such as improving fluid constitutive equations, effects of co-digestion on rheological properties, the correlations between the solid-liquid index in the mixture and theological parameters, to provide a theoretical basic for process control and scaling up of projects.%厌氧消化原料的流变特性是厌氧消化工艺设计和运行的重要参数。本文从研究对象、实验操作、研究内容和结果、影响因素以及发展方向等方面对固体厌氧消化原料,特别是污泥的流变特性研究现状进行了概述。研究表明,污泥来源广泛,成分复杂,属于非牛顿流体的范畴,其流变特性受多种因素影响,其中污泥的总悬浮固体(TSS)(或混合液悬浮固体(MLSS))和温度是最主要的影响因素。大部分研究采用层流剪切实验对物料的流变特性进行表征,研究对象范围有待于扩大。尚需针对流体本构方程的改进,共消化对于原料流变特性的影响,混合液固、液相指标与流变参数的关系等方面开展研究,为利用流变参数作为工艺控制参数提供理论依据,并解决工程放大等问题。

  3. Reaction mechanism of lanthanum nitrate-doped Mo-La material during solid-liquid spray doping processing

    Peng-Fa Feng; Qin-Li Yang; Xiao-Ming Dang; Sha Xi; Ya-Qi Wang


    At three critical temperatures which were obtained by thermo-gravimetry-differential thermal analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DTG/DSC)curves of lanthanum nitrate crystal,the air thermal decomposition experiments and solid-liquid spray doping simulation procedures of lanthanum nitrate crystal were carried out,and their products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).Meanwhile,the spray doping processing of MoO2-50 wt% La(NO3)3 composite powder was undergone with lanthanum nitrate solution as the dopant,and doped MoO2 powder was analyzed by XRD.The results demonstrate that during the traditional solid-liquid spray doping processing,lanthanum nitrate,in the form of either crystal or aqueous solution,would be converted into La(NO3)3·4H2O by the dehydration reaction,rather than be decomposed to La2O3 and NO or NO2.Therefore,it is inferred that the oxynitride gas produced from the process is attributed to the decomposition of residual HNO3 in lanthanum nitrate crystal.The source of HNO3 is supported by the chemical composition of lanthanum nitrate crystal.

  4. Simulation study of a chaotic cavity transducer based virtual phased array used for focusing in the bulk of a solid material.

    Delrue, Steven; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Matar, Olivier Bou


    In acoustic and ultrasonic non-destructive testing techniques, it is sometimes beneficial to concentrate sound energy at a chosen location in space and at a specific instance in time, for example to improve the signal-to-noise ratio or activate the nonlinearity of damage features. Time Reversal (TR) techniques, taking advantage of the reversible character of the wave equation, are particularly suited to focus ultrasonic waves in time and space. The characteristics of the energy focusing in solid media using principles of time reversed acoustics are highly influenced by the nature and dimensions of the medium, the number of transducers and the length of the received signals. Usually, a large number of transducers enclosing the domain of interest is needed to improve the quality of the focusing. However, in the case of highly reverberant media, the number of transducers can be reduced to only one (single-channel TR). For focusing in a non-reverberant medium, which is impossible when using only one source, an adaptation of the single-channel reciprocal TR procedure has been recently suggested by means of a Chaotic Cavity Transducer (CCT), a single element transducer glued on a cavity of chaotic shape. In this paper, a CCT is used to focus elastic energy, at different times, in different points along a predefined line on the upper surface of a thick solid sample. Doing so, all focusing points can act as a virtual phased array transducer, allowing to focus in any point along the depth direction of the sample. This is impossible using conventional reciprocal TR, as you need to have access to all points in the bulk of the material for detecting signals to be used in the TR process. To asses and provide a better understanding of this concept, a numerical study has been developed, allowing to verify the basic concepts of the virtual phased array and to illustrate multi-component time reversal focusing in the bulk of a solid material.

  5. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina, E-mail: [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz, E-mail: [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  6. Strength of materials and theory of elasticity in 19th century Italy a brief account of the history of mechanics of solids and structures

    Capecchi, Danilo


    This book examines the theoretical foundations underpinning the field of strength of materials/theory of elasticity, beginning from the origins of the modern theory of elasticity. While the focus is on the advances made within Italy during the nineteenth century, these achievements are framed within the overall European context. The vital contributions of Italian mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and engineers in respect of the theory of elasticity, continuum mechanics, structural mechanics, the principle of least work, and graphical methods in engineering are carefully explained and discussed. The book represents a work of historical research that primarily comprises original contributions and summaries of work published in journals. It is directed at those graduates in engineering, but also in architecture, who wish to achieve a more global and critical view of the discipline and will also be invaluable for all scholars of the history of mechanics.

  7. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.


    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  8. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.


    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  9. A Scrutiny of Feasibility of Recycling Materials from Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

    Jahangir Jafari


    Full Text Available This study presents the amount of daily production of waste material, its physical analysis in four divided districts of Hamedan city by municipality along the four seasons of the year as well as contribution of citizens in recycling programs. For the purpose of determining the daily average amount of waste material, a weight-volume method was carried out as well as randomized quota method to determine physical analysis. During the four seasons of the year and one week a season, 5 samples, totally 20 samples of 0.5 m3 volume, were chosen. Besides, density and humidity weight percentage were calculated to be prepared for analyzing by SAS software. In order to determine contribution of citizens in recycling programs, 500 questionnaires were distributed in the four districts and were completed using personal interview. Results showed an average production of 482.93 tons/day waste material having a density of 268.96 kg/m3, a density of 46.76% and 0.96 kg per capita of w aste material in Hamedan city. The results of municipal waste physical analysis also revealed that approximately 72.76 tons/year (15.07% of total daily production of waste material included recyclable materials like plastic, metal, glass, paper and etc., while 379.93 tons/year (78.97% were compostable organic materials. Results of the carried out survey also show ed that 84% of Hamedan citizens had acquaintance with the issue of recycling, 89% tended the program to operate and 90% were ready to cooperate with the recycling program.

  10. Synthesis of spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material by a modified solid state reaction

    Zhang, Jiawei; Lin, Shudong; Li, Keyan; Shua, Fenfen; Chen, Kunfeng; Wang, Liqiu; Xue, Dongfeng


    Spinel LiMn2O4 was synthesized by a modified solid state reaction. We pretreated the reactants using tartaric acid as complexing agent through a grinding process to obtain uniform distribution of metal ions at atomic level. The structures, morphologies and electrochemical properties of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and galvanostatic charge-discharge test. The results show that adding tartaric acid during the chemical pretreatment plays an important role in the formation of regular and uniform particles, which is beneficial to the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4. At the current density of 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity is 118 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the capacity retention of 97%.

  11. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S


    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  12. Recycling solid residues recovered from glass fibre-reinforced composites – A review applied to wind turbine blade materials

    Beauson, Justine; Lilholt, Hans; Brøndsted, Povl


    to face large amount of future wind turbine (WT) blades coming to EoL. Among the EoL solutions available for WT blades, i.e. reuse, remanufacturing, recycling, incineration or disposal, this literature review focuses on recycling and particularly the recycling of shredded composite (SC) materials...... and recovered glass fibre (GF) into new polymer composite. WT blades are mainly made of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) using thermosetting resins. Shredding this material and recovering GF are possible recycling solutions for WT blade. Based on a detailed literature review, the formulations of new...

  13. Further Applications of a Crystal Lattice Disintegration Criterion to Predict Shock-Induced Reactive Conditions in Solid Materials.


    Table B-3 and plotted in Figure B-I, it appears that Cb 2 is a good measure of the heat of detonation (AHDEr) of energetic materials. That is, this...information indicates that: C2 - A HDET = AbDET mAv (B-13) where: AHDET = Heat of Detonation , Mega Joules/Kilogram or (km/sec) 2. The values of Cb and...Comparison of Elastic Wave Velocities and Heat of Detonation for Selected Energetic Materials. Substance AHDET AHDET VAHDET Cb Cs MJ/KG (km/sec) 2 km

  14. Slags from solid wastes combustion new source of materials; Escorias de incineracion de RSU: Una nueva fuente de materiales

    Chimenos, J. M.; Fernandez, A. I.; Segarra, M.; Fernandez, M. A.; Espiell [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, R.


    This work pretends to determinate and quantify the materials that composes the scum gotten in a plant of incineration of MSW, as well as the distribution that they present in function of the size of particle. This way it's obtain a new parameters that permit the evaluation for the reutilization of the scum in function of the size of the granule that presents. The study pretends also get the first values of composition of materials of the scums in order to know the effectiveness of the separate collection plans. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Milling of organic solids in a jet mill. Part 1 : Determination of the selection function and related mechanical material properties

    de Vegt, O; Vromans, H; Faassen, F; Maarschalk, KV


    The particle size distribution of pharmaceutically active materials and other fine chemicals determines the performance of the final product to a large extent. Often milling of these particles is necessary. It is not possible to determine the milling conditions solely on the basis of the particle si

  16. Design and characterization of hybrid peptide sol-gel materials for the solid state induction of neuronal differentiation

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S.


    Cell-based therapeutics are a rapidly growing area of research, with considerable promise in the treatment of neurological diseases. One of the primary limitations to neuronal cell-based devices is the necessity to maintain cells in an immature or undifferentiated state in culture prior to transplantation. In many cases, the undifferentiated cell does not express the desired characteristics for implantation. Biologically functional nanomaterials provide the ability to manipulate the direct extracellular environment surrounding cells; influencing their fate and differentiation path. The ability to engineer the interface between the cells and culture materials provides a repeatable, stable means of directing cells down a specific growth path determined by endogenous signaling pathways. This materials approach to cellular engineering can limit the need for added exogenous growth factors, "feeder" layers, or animal sera, in addition to creating a homogenous cell population for transplantation. In this work, hybrid peptide ormosil materials were developed; designed to mimic the developing mammalian brain during corticogenesis. These materials have been developed to enhance the GABAergic phenotype of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and immature immortalized neurons. The ability to develop a homogenous, directed cell population has implications in stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cell-based devices and biosensing technology.

  17. Characterization of solid and liquid sorbent materials for biogas purification by using a new volumetric screening instrument

    Rother, J.; Fieback, T.; Seif, R.; Dreisbach, F.


    With the increasing utilization of biogas as an energy source the need for new materials and methods to purify and clean the corresponding gas mixtures is rising. In this regard, the application of ad- or absorptive gas purification methods has increased significantly over the last years. For fast and economic evaluation of the potential of different sorbent materials, a new volumetric screening instrument has been developed. First the measuring method and the new instrument design will be described. This instrument allows ad- and absorption, as well as desorption measurements in a technically relevant, wide pressure, and temperature range. It was used for the characterization of common sorbent materials such as activated carbons and zeolite molecular sieves. Additionally, new substances like metal-organic frameworks and ionic liquids were analyzed. Thereby the sorption of CO2, CH4, N2, and H2 was measured. The obtained data allow the direct comparison of the sorption properties of the different materials, the results of which will be presented in the second part of the paper.

  18. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in corporations or projects designed... equity and debt investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare... not intended to limit projects under § 225.25(b)(6) to that area. Other investments primarily designed...

  19. Behaviors of a MGPM/Opal Solid-Solid Phase-Change Storage Material%一种MGPM/Opal固-固相变储能材料的相变及结晶行为

    顾晓华; 西鹏; 段玉情; 高芬; 刘剑虹


    A solid-solid phase change energy storage composite material with polyethylene glycol single methyl ether(MPEG) chain structure,which chould be abbreviated as MGPM/opal,was synthesized by the way of monomer polycondensation with phase change.Wide-angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD),differential thermal scanning calorimeter(DSC) and hot stage polarizing microscope(POM),thermogravimetry(TG) and other testing methods were performed to investigate the crystal structure,crystallization behaviors,crystalline morphology and thermal stability of the composite materials.The results indicate that the addition of natural nano-phase materials opal improves the crystallization behavior and increases the crystallization speed of MPEG.When the mass fraction of opal is 0.7%,the crystallinity of the copolymer is the highest,when the phase change enthalpy comes to 109.07 kJ/g.Compared to the pure MPEG,the melting enthalpy and the crystallization enthalpy of the copolymer increase by 10.578 J/g and 8 J/g,respectively.The thermal stability of the copolymer is good,and it increases with the increase of opal.%采用含有相变单元的单体缩聚法合成了侧链含有聚乙二醇单甲醚(MPEG)的新型固-固相变储能复合材料(相变共聚物缩写名称为(MGPM)/蛋白石(opal)),通过广角X射线衍射(WAXD)、差热扫描量热仪(DSC)和热台偏光显微镜(POM)、热重(TG)等测试手段对其结晶结构、结晶行为、结晶形态和热稳定性进行了研究,结果表明,天然纳米材料蛋白石的加入改善了MPEG的结晶行为,提高了聚合物的结晶速率。蛋白石的添加量为0.7%时可以最大程度提高聚合物的结晶度,相变焓值最高达到109.07 kJ/g,比纯MPEG的熔融焓值提高了10.578 J/g,结晶焓值提高了8 J/g,热稳定性良好。

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Polymer Solid-Solid Phase Change Material Used for Fibers%一种纤维用高分子型固-固相变材料的合成及性能

    费鹏飞; 西鹏; 付鹏; 程博闻


    利用设计合成的八羟基化合物为支化单元,通过两步法合成出了一种相变储能材料.通过红外光谱(FT-IR)、偏光显微镜(POM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、差示扫描量热分析(DSC)对所制备的样品进行了测试表征.POM测试结果表明,所制备的相变材料的相变类型为固-固相变,具有与聚乙二醇(PEG)类似的球晶结构;DSC测试结果表明,该相变材料的相变焓值较高,吸放热焓值均达到了100J/g以上.而且由于八羟基化合物的特殊分子结构使得所制备的高分子相变材料的调温区间从PEG的65.90℃~34.20℃调整到55.20℃~25.10℃,更趋近相变纤维及其服饰面料的最佳使用温度区间.%In this paper,using the designed and synthesized eight hydroxyl compound as branched units,a phase change material was synthesized through the two-step method.The as-sample was characterized through FT-IR,POM,XRD,and DSC.The results of POM imply that the as-sample and polyethylene glycol (PEG) own similar micro-morphologies,their crystal structures are both spherulites.The results of DSC show that,this material has high phase transition enthalpy value,and its endothermic and exothermic enthalpy value both reach more than 100J/ g.Furthermore,owing to the special molecular structure of eight hydroxyl compound,the temperature adjusting zone of the polymer solid-solid phase change material is changed from 65.90 ℃ ~34.20 ℃ of PEG to 55.20 ℃ ~ 25.10 ℃,which is more close to the applied temperature of phase change energy storage fibers and its clothing fabrics.

  1. 新型反硝化固体碳源释碳性能研究%Performance of New Solid Carbon Source Materials for Denitrification

    邵留; 徐祖信; 王晟; 金伟; 尹海龙


    碳源在生物硝酸盐去除过程中起着重要的提供电子供体的作用,因此是生物反硝化的核心物质之一.选出玉米芯、稻壳、稻草、木屑4种农业废弃物做为反硝化碳源和生物膜载体,研究了4种碳源物质的释碳规律及外界因子对其释碳能力的影响.结果表明,4种碳源材料的释碳过程均满足二级动力学方程;比较而言,稻草的有机物释放量最大,释放速率也最快,24 h内溶液COD浓度就超过了30 mg/(g.L);木屑的有机物释放量最少,木屑的释碳能力是4种材料中最差的,整个研究过程中溶液COD浓度始终未超过17 mg/(g.L).综合比较而言,%Organic carbon is needed as the electron donor in the process of reduction of nitrate transformation to nitrogen gas,which is essential for biological denitrification.Based on previous research,agriculture wastes including corncob,rice hull,rice straw and sawdust were selected as potential carbon source for denitrification.Using the static organic material of carbon source leaching kinetics test and orthogonal experiments of external factors on carbon emission process,carbon release and its mechanism of a variety of carbon materials were studied.Study showed that release process of various types of carbon source materials follows the second dynamics formula,the release curve displayed a better double-reciprocal relationship.It revealed that release amount of rice straw was the highest and sawdust was the lowest.Results showed that corncob could better be used as carbon source for denitrification.Orthogonal test indicated that the increasing of solid-liquid ratio and water temperature would lead to an enhanced release capacity of carbon,however,the change of pH had no significant effect on release capacity of carbon;according to significant degree of water temperature,pH,solid-liquid ratio impacted on the carbon release,it was sorted by solid-liquid ratio temperature pH.

  2. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry for carbon-ion beams

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Risa


    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. Ideally, such material should be water equivalent as well as that for dosimetry. In this study, we evaluated dosimetric water equivalency of four common plastics, HDPE, PMMA, PET, and POM, by uniformity of effective densities for carbon-ion-beam interactions. Methods: Using the Bethe formula for stopping, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, we calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. We tested HDPE, PMMA, and POM in carbon-ion-beam experiment and measured attenuations of carbon ions, which were compared with empirical linear-attenuation-model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculations resulted in reduced multiple scattering and increased nuclear interactions for HDPE compared to water, which ...

  3. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles using PVA-boric acid reaction for solid breeding materials

    Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young


    Lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) is a candidate breeding material of the Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM). The breeding material is used in pebble-bed form to reduce the uncertainty of the interface thermal conductance. In this study, Li2TiO3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by the slurry droplet wetting method using the cross-linking reaction between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and boric acid. The effects of fabrication parameters on the shaping of Li2TiO3 green body were investigated. In addition, the basic characteristics of the sintered pebble were also evaluated. The shape of Li2TiO3 green bodies was affected by slurry viscosity, PVA content and boric acid content. The grain size and average crush load of sintered Li2TiO3 pebble were controlled by the sintering time. The boron was completely removed during the final sintering process.

  4. The Evaluation of Illite/Kaolinite Clay Submicrometer Particulate Materials for the Development of Geopolymer Type Solids

    Mežinskis, G; Grase, L; Buiķe, I; Plūdons, A; Lindiņa, L; Vītiņa, I; Šutka, A


    Geopolimers or alkali-activated binders could be defined in accordance with the chemical composition of raw materials used for preparation: alkali-activated binder on the fly ashes basis (blast furnance slag, rice rusk), alkali-activated binder on the metakaolin basis. Alternative procedure of geopolymer synthesis which does not require activation by alkaline silicate solution is based on preparation active geopolymer precursor by direct calcinations of low quality kaolin with Na/K hydroxides...

  5. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T


    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emerging Materiality

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren


    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  7. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung


    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  8. Flexible relaxor materials: Ba(2)Pr(x)Nd(1-x)FeNb(4)O(15) tetragonal tungsten bronze solid solution.

    Castel, Elias; Josse, Michaël; Michau, Dominique; Maglione, Mario


    Relaxors are very interesting materials but most of the time they are restricted to perovskite materials and thus their flexibility is limited. We have previously shown that tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) niobate Ba(2)PrFeNb(4)O(15) was a relaxor below 170 K and that Ba(2)NdFeNb(4)O(15) displays a ferroelectric behavior with a T(C) = 323 K. On scanning the whole solid solution Ba(2)Pr(x)Nd(1-x)FeNb(4)O(15) (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), we demonstrate here a continuous crossover between these end member behaviors with a coexistence of ferroelectricity and relaxor in the intermediate range. This tunability is ascribed to the peculiar structure of the TTB networks which is more open than the classical perovskites. This allows for the coexistence of long range and short range orders and thus opens up the range of relaxor materials.

  9. An efficient electrocatalyst as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells: BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ

    Dong, Feifei; Ni, Meng; He, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Yang, Guangming; Chen, Dengjie; Shao, Zongping


    The B-site substitution with the minor amount of tin in BaFeO3-δ parent oxide is expected to stabilize a single perovskite lattice structure. In this study, a composition of BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ (BFS) as a new cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is synthesized and characterized. Special attention is paid to the exploration of some basic properties including phase structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, electrical conductivity, oxygen bulk diffusion coefficient, and surface exchange coefficient, which are of significant importance to the electrochemical activity of cathode materials. BFS holds a single cubic perovskite structure over temperature range of cell operation, determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope. A high oxygen vacancy concentration at cell operating temperatures is observed by combining thermo-gravimetric data and iodometric titration result. Furthermore, electrical conductivity relaxation measurement illustrates the fast oxygen bulk diffusion and surface exchange kinetics. Accordingly, testing cells based on BFS cathode material demonstrate the low polarization resistance of 0.033 Ω cm2 and high peak power density of 1033 mW cm-2 at 700 °C, as well as a relatively stable long-term operation for ∼300 h. The results obtained suggest that BFS perovskite oxide holds a great promise as an oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for IT-SOFCs.

  10. A novel benzimidazole-functionalized 2-D COF material: synthesis and application as a selective solid-phase extractant for separation of uranium.

    Li, Juan; Yang, Xiaodan; Bai, Chiyao; Tian, Yin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Xiaoyu; Ding, Songdong; Xia, Chuanqin; Tan, Xinyu; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian


    A novel COF-based material (COF-COOH) containing large amounts of carboxylic groups was prepared for the first time by using a simple and effective one-step synthetic method, in which the cheap and commercially available raw materials, trimesoyl chloride and p-phenylenediamine, were used. The as-synthesized COF-COOH was modified with previously synthesized 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole (HBI) by "grafting to" method, and a new solid-phase extractant (COF-HBI) with highly efficient sorption performance for uranium(VI) was consequently obtained. A series of characterizations demonstrated that COF-COOH and COF-HBI exhibited great thermostabilities and irradiation stabilities. Sorption behavior of the COF-based materials toward U(VI) was compared in simulated nuclear industrial effluent containing UO2(2+) and 11 undesired ions, and the UO2(2+) sorption amount of COF-HBI was 81 mg g(-1), accounting for approximately 58% of the total sorption amount, which was much higher than the sorption selectivity of COF-COOH to UO2(2+) (39%). Batch sorption experiment results indicated that the uranium(VI) sorption on COF-HBI was a pH dependent, rapid (sorption equilibrium was reached in 30 min), endothermic and spontaneous process. In the most favorable conditions, the equilibrium sorption capacity of the adsorbent for uranium could reach 211 mg g(-1).

  11. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  12. Bamboo charcoal as a novel solid-phase microextraction coating material for enrichment and determination of eleven phthalate esters in environmental water samples.

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia


    This study demonstrates the potential of bamboo charcoal as a novel and inexpensive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating material for enrichment and determination of organic pollutants in water samples. Bamboo charcoal was prepared and used as a SPME coating material. Eleven phthalate esters (PAEs) were used as model analytes, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for separation and detection. Important extraction conditions (ionic strength, stirring rate, and extraction time) and desorption conditions (desorption temperature and time) were systematically investigated and optimized. Linearity of 0.1-100 μg L(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9992-0.9998 were obtained under optimum conditions. Inter-day and intra-day repeatability were 2.15-9.93 % and 1.89-9.85 %, respectively, and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was 5.42-9.66 %. On the basis of a chromatographic signal-to-baseline noise ratio of three, the limits of detection reached 0.004-0.023 μg L(-1). Satisfactory results were achieved when the bamboo coating was used for determination of 11 PAEs in real water samples. The experimental results indicate that bamboo charcoal has significant potential as a SPME coating material for rapid enrichment and sensitive determination of organic pollutants in environmental samples.

  13. Solid State Reaction Synthesis of Si-HA as Potential Biomedical Material: An Endeavor to Enhance the Added Value of Indonesian Mineral Resources

    Hartatiek; Yudyanto; Ratnasari, S. D.; Windari, R. Y.; Hidayat, N.


    In recent years, one of the most prominently investigated materials is hydroxyapatite (HA). It is because of its excellent properties for medical applications, essentially related to orthopedic. Also, the introduction of other materials to HA becomes another research focus of many leading scientists. In this present study, silicon with various concentrations was introduced, by means of solid state reaction route, to HA forming Si-HA. The crystal structure properties of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy data collection and analysis were done to investigate the functional groups within the samples. The microstructural characteristics as well as elemental mapping of the samples were captured by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Vickers hardness test was also conducted to investigate the hardness properties of the samples. Furthermore, in vitro characterization-based bio resorbability of the samples in a simulated body fluid were also described. This study revealed that Indonesian limestone can be utilized as the raw material for synthesizing HA. The silicon has been successfully incorporated into phosphate site of the HA crystal. Conclusively, the Si-HA reported in this study shows good bioresorbability characteristic.

  14. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.


    additional details are provided below as recommendations. From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system; Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid; The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future; Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing; Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  15. Mechanism for formation of NaBH4 proposed as low-pressure process for storing hydrogen in borosilicate glass–sodium solid system: a hydrogen storage material

    Aysel Kantürk Figen; Sabriye Pişkin


    The mechanism for the formation of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was investigated for its ability to store hydrogen in the borosilicate glass–sodium (BSG–Na) solid system under low hydrogen pressure. BSG, which was prepared by melting borax with silica, was used as the starting material in the BSG–Na system that would be prepared to store hydrogen. It was observed that the mechanism for storing hydrogen in the BSG–Na solid system consisted of six steps and when the BSG–Na system was heated under a pressure of 4 atm, which was created through the use of hydrogen atmosphere, the storage of hydrogen occurred at nearly 480°C for approximate duration of 200 min, with the excellent yield (97%). In addition, the hydrogen storage capacity of the NaBH4 sample was measured using the Au–PS structure, which was designed as a mini-hydrogen cell. It was determined that the minimum amount of NaBH4 to generate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas was 12 mg/ml at 270 mV.

  16. Cyclodextrin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide as a fiber coating material for the solid-phase microextraction of some volatile aromatic compounds.

    Zhang, Shuaihua; Li, Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi


    A novel solid phase microextraction fiber was prepared for the first time by using a sol-gel technique with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide as the fiber coating material. The results verified that the β-cyclodextrin was successfully grafted onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide and the coating possessed a uniform folded and wrinkled structure. The performance of the solid phase microextraction fiber was evaluated by using it to extract nine volatile aromatic compounds from water samples before determination with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. Some important experimental parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency such as the extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, the volume of water sample solution, stirring rate, as well as ionic strength were optimized. The new method was validated to be effective for the trace analysis of some volatile aromatic compounds, with the limits of detection ranging from 2.0 to 8.0 ng/L. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were in the range of 2.5-9.4 and 5.4-12.9%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of three different water samples, and the recoveries of the method were in the range from 77.9 to 113.6% at spiking levels of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L, respectively.

  17. Facile synthesis of amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composites as screen-printed electrode materials for all-printed solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Lu, Qiang; Liu, Li; Yang, Shuanglei; Liu, Jun; Tian, Qingyong; Yao, Weijing; Xue, Qingwen; Li, Mengxiao; Wu, Wei


    More convenience and intelligence life lead by flexible/wearable electronics requires innovation and hommization of power sources. Here, amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composite as screen-printed electrode materials for supercapacitors (SCs) is synthesized by a facile method, and solid-state flexible SCs with aesthetic design are fabricated by fully screen-printed process on different substrates, including PET, paper and textile. The amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composite shows a high specific capacitance and a good rate capability (350.2 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and 159.5 F g-1 at 20 A g-1). It also possesses 95.6% capacitance retention even after 10 000 cycles. Moreover, the all-printed solid-state flexible SC device exhibits a high area specific capacitance of 5.7 mF cm-2 and 80% capacitance retention even after 2000 cycles. It also shows high mechanical flexibility. Simultaneously, these printed SCs on different substrates in series are capable to light up a 1.9 V yellow light emitting diode (LED), even after bending and stretching.

  18. Fluorine segregation in crystalline materials: structural control and solid-state [2+2] cycloaddition in CF(3)-substituted tetrathiafulvalene derivatives.

    Jeannin, Olivier; Fourmigué, Marc


    The well-known influence of long perfluorinated chains on the structures and stability of amphiphilic molecules in liquid crystalline mesophases or mesoscopic micellar arrangements is evaluated here in the realm of crystalline materials based on rigid aromatic molecules bearing only a limited number of CF(3) moieties. Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives bearing one or two CF(3) groups, that is, (Z)- and (E)-(CF(3))(2)TTF ((Z)-1, (E)-1), EDT-TTF-CF(3) (2), and EDT-TTF(CF(3))(2) (3) (EDT=ethylenedithio) are prepared from the 1,3-dipolar reaction of methyl 4,4,4-trifluorotetrolate with ethylenetrithiocarbonate. The structures of neutral (Z)-1, (E)-1, 2, and 3 as indicated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements reveal the recurrent formation of layered structures with a strong segregation of the fluorinated moieties and formation of fluorous bilayers, attributed to the amphiphilic character of those TTF derivatives upon CF(3) functionalization, and without need for longer C(n)F(2n+1) (n>1) perfluorinated chains. The short intermolecular distance between outer C==C double bonds observed in the layered structure of (E)-1 allows a solid-state [2+2] photocyclization with formation of chiral dyads incorporating the characteristic cyclobutane ring. These dyads containing two dihydrotetrathiafulvalene moieties facing each other exhibit reversible oxidation to the mixed-valence radical cation state and organize in the solid-state into the same layered structures with fluorous bilayers.

  19. Lipophilic extractives and the loss of solid material in mechanical pulp washing; Rasvaliukoiset uuteaineet ja kiintoainetappiot mekaanisen massan katkaisupesussa - EKT 02

    Manner, H.; Kaeyhkoe, J.; Keskinen, K. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Paper Technology


    In this project the aim is to produce basic information for the optimization of mechanical pulp washing. In the first stage, the main emphasis is put on the behavior of lipophilic extractives and on the solid material which is lost during washing. The first task was to make the simulation of mill scale washing processes on a laboratory scale possible. This has been achieved by building two laboratory scale presses and comparing them to mill scale presses. The experimental information obtained there from verified that similar conditions could be obtained on a laboratory scale as from mill scale presses. The main research areas and results obtained in this project are: Washing studies: A considerable deresination efficiency can be obtained in a single washing stage with reasonable water usage. Dissolution and dispersion of wood components in the mixing: Temperature, time and power in the mixing of mechanical pulp has a significant effect on the dispersion of the lipophilic extractives. Also, the dissolution and dispersion of wood components in the mixing may form quite a complex issue to study. Form of the lipophilic extractives in the filtrates: The amount of lipophilic extractives in the solid phase of the filtrates obtained from the presses was so low that it had no effect on the deresination efficiency. The effect of the dispersing agents on the deresination efficiency: The deresination efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimum usage of dispersing agents. Research work in these areas will be continued. (orig.)

  20. Sintering and Electrical Characterization of La and Nb Co‐doped SrTiO3 Electrode Materials for Solid Oxide Cell Applications

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Agersted, Karsten


    Single‐phase lanthanum and niobium co‐doped strontium titanate (Sr1–3x/2LaxTi0.9Nb0.1O3; x = 0–0.02) ceramics were prepared. Dilatometry in reducing atmosphere showed an increase in the sintering rate and sintered density with an increase in La amount. Microscopy of fractured surfaces of sintered...... observed at lower temperatures. These observations demonstrate the flexibility in tailoring the microstructure and electronic transport properties by doping small amounts of La into the Nb‐doped SrTiO3 and show that Sr1–3x/2LaxTi0.9Nb0.1O3 is a potential electrode material for solid oxide cells....

  1. β-Cyclodextrin cross-linked polymer as solid-phase extraction material coupled with the spectrophotometric method for the analysis of serum albumin

    Wu, Min; Zhu, Xiashi


    The β-cyclodextrin cross-linked polymer (β-CDCP) was synthesized and used as solid-phase extraction material to preconcentrate/analysis bovine serum albumin (BSA) coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy. The method based on the complex (BSA-phenylfluorone (PF)) adsorbed on β-CDCP. Adsorption kinetics and various factors of the formation procedure of BSA-PF and its retention on β-CDCP were investigated. The linear range and detection limit (DL) was 20.0-200.0 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the β-CDCP could be used repeatedly. The proposed method has been applied to analysis serum albumin with satisfactory results.

  2. Zr doping effect with low-cost solid-state reaction method to synthesize submicron Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Seo, Inseok; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Kim, Jae-Kwang


    To improve the electrochemical properties, fine Zr-doping Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries with a uniform particle size distribution were synthesized by a modified solid-state reaction using fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors with a Li:Ti molar ratio of 4:5. The use of fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors prevented the formation of ZrO2 at 0.1 mol Zr-doping. XRD analysis revealed that the substitution of Zr for Ti leads to the increase of lattice parameters, allowing improved Li diffusion. The discharge capacity retention increased slightly with Zr-doping and the 0.1 mol Zr-doped Li4Ti5O12 electrode achieved 99% retention of discharge capacity.

  3. Qualitative dynamic models for materials development of solid oxide fuel cells; Qualitative dynamische Modelle fuer die Werkstoffentwicklung von Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen

    Schmid, K.; Krebs, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Inst. fuer Regelungs- und Steuerungssysteme (IRS); Ivers-Tiffee, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Forschungszentrum Umwelt (FZU), Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik


    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are high-temperature all-ceramic devices for electrochemical energy conversion at high electrical efficiency and almost zero emissions. However, high production coast and immature development states are hindering a soon market launch of fuel cell systems. This paper shows that systems and control theory methods not only are necessary for controlling fuel cell systems, but also can support materials development. (orig.) [German] Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit keramischen Festelektrolyt stellen als elektrochemische Energiewandler eine zukunftsweisende Technologie zur wirtschaftlichen und umweltfreundlichen Erzeugung elektrischer Energie dar. Einer schnellen Markteinfuehrung stehen jedoch derzeit die hohen Kosten sowie der noch nicht ausgereifte technische Entwicklungsstand der Zellen im Wege. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass der Einsatz moderner Methoden der Regelungs- und Systemtheorie nicht nur beim spaeteren Betrieb von Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen notwendig, sondern bereits bei der Werkstoffentwicklung fuer die Zellen selbst von substantiellem Nutzen ist. (orig.)

  4. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    Solak, Murat [Duezce University, Kaynasli Vocational School, Environmental Protection and Control Department, 81900 Duezce (Turkey); Kilic, Mehmet, E-mail: [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)


    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m{sup 2}, and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m{sup 2}, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  5. Solid state phenomena

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  6. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications. [tantalum carbides-tungsten fiber composites

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Honeycutt, L., III


    Evaluation of tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites has been completed as far as weight percent carbon additions and weight percent additions of tungsten fiber. Extensive studies were undertaken concerning Young's Modulus and fracture strength of this material. Also, in-depth analysis of the embrittling effects of the extra carbon additions on the tungsten fibers has been completed. The complete fabrication procedure for the tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites with extra carbon additions is given. Microprobe and metallographic studies showed the effect of extra carbon on the tungsten fibers, and evaluation of the thermal shock parameter fracture strength/Young's Modulus is included.

  7. Predictors of nephrectomy in high grade blunt renal trauma patients treated primarily with conservative intent

    Narla Hari Prasad


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no consensus on the optimal management of high grade renal trauma. Delayed surgery increases the likelihood of secondary hemorrhage and persistent urinary extravasation, whereas immediate surgery results in high renal loss. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the predictors of nephrectomy and outcome of high Grade (III-V renal injury, treated primarily with conservative intent. Materials and Methods: The records of 55 patients who were admitted to our institute with varying degrees of blunt renal trauma from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Grade III-V renal injury was defined as high grade blunt renal trauma and was present in 44 patients. The factors analyzed to predict emergency intervention were demographic profile, grade of injury, degree of hemodynamic instability, requirement of blood transfusion, need for intervention, mode of intervention, and duration of intensive care unit stay. Results: Rest of the 40 patients with high grade injury (grade 3 and 4 did not require emergency intervention and underwent a trail of conservative management. 7 of the 40 patients with high grade renal injury (grade 3 and 4, who were managed conservatively experienced complications requiring procedural intervention and three required a delayed nephrectomy. Presence of grade V injuries with hemodynamic instability and requirement of more than 10 packed cell units for resuscitation were predictors of nephrectomy. Predictors of complications were urinary extravasation and hemodynamic instability at presentation. Conclusion: Majority of the high grade renal injuries can be successfully managed conservatively. Grade V injuries and the need for more packed cell transfusions during resuscitation predict the need for emergency intervention.

  8. PEG encapsulated by porous triamide-linked polymers as support for solid-liquid phase change materials for energy storage

    Andriamitantsoa, Radoelizo S.; Dong, Wenjun; Gao, Hongyi; Wang, Ge


    A series of porous triamide-linked polymers labeled as PTP were prepared by condensation of 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride with benzene-1,4-diamine (A), 4,4‧-methylenediamine (B) and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (C) respectively. The as-synthesized polymers exhibit permanent porosity and high surface areas which guarantee to hold polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules in their network for shape-stabilized phase change materials. They possess different effects on the phase change properties of the composite due to their different porosities. PTP-A have intrinsic well-ordered morphology, microstructure and good enough pores to keep the PCMs compared to PTP-B and PTP-C. PEG 2000 used as PCMs could be retained up to 85 wt% in PTP-A polymer materials and these composites were defined as form-stable composite PCMs without the leakage of melted PCM. The thermal study revealed a good storage effect of encapsulated polymer and the enthalpy of melting increases in the order PTP-C storage capacity. The latent heats for melting and freezing was found to be 155 and 141.7 kJ/kg with a peak appearing at around 53.13 and 29.67 °C respectively. The study suggests that pore size is important for the preparation of shape-stabilized PCMs.

  9. Site-resolved 2H relaxation experiments in solid materials by global line-shape analysis of MAS NMR spectra

    Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.


    We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.

  10. Effect of raw material properties and die geometry on the density of biomass pellets from composted municipal solid waste

    Abedin Zafari


    Full Text Available Densification of biomass feedstocks, such as pelletizing, can increase bulk density, improve storability, reduce transportation costs, and ease the handling of biomass using existing handling and storage equipment for grains. In order to study the pelletizing process, compost pellets were produced under controlled conditions. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of raw material properties and the die geometry on the true density of formed pellets and also find the optimal conditions of the densification process for producing pellets with high density. Compost was extruded into cylindrical pellets utilizing open-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables, including the raw material moisture content (35 to 45% (wet basis, hammer mill screen size (0.3 to 1.5 mm, speed of piston (2 to 10 mm/s, and die length (8 to 12 mm on pellet density, were determined using response surface methodology. A quadratic model was proposed to predict the pellet density, which had high F and R2 values along with a low p value, indicating the predictability of the model. Moisture content, speed of piston, and particle size significantly affected (P 0.05.

  11. Synthesis Of Fe Doped LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials For Li Battery By Solid State Reaction

    Horata N.


    Full Text Available LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 is expected as a cathode material for the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. LiMn2O4 has been received attention because this has advantages such as low cost and low toxicity compared with other cathode materials of LiCoO2 and LiNiO2. However, LiMn2O4 has some problems such as small capacity and no long life. LiMn2O4 is phase transformation at around human life temperature. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to stabilize the spinel structure by substituting Mn site ion in LiMn2O4 with transition metals (Al, Mg, Ti, Ni, Fe, etc.. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 spinel was synthesized from Li2CO3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 powder. The purpose of this study is to report the optimal condition of Fe doped LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4. Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and MnO2 mixture powder was heated up to 1173 K by TG-DTA. Li2CO3 was thermal decomposed, and CO2 gas evolved, and formed Li2O at about 800 K. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 was synthesized from a consecutive reaction Li2O, Fe2O3 and MnO2 at 723 ~ 1023 K. Active energy is calculated to 178 kJmol−1 at 723 ~ 1023 K. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 heated mixture powder at 1023 K for 32 h in air flow was observed.

  12. Hierarchical composites of polyaniline-graphene nanoribbons-carbon nanotubes as electrode materials in all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Liu, Mingkai; Miao, Yue-E; Zhang, Chao; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng; Liu, Tianxi


    A three dimensional (3D) polyaniline (PANI)-graphene nanoribbon (GNR)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite, PANI-GNR-CNT, has been prepared via in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer on the surface of a GNR-CNT hybrid. Here, the 3D GNR-CNT hybrid has been conveniently prepared by partially unzipping the pristine multi-walled CNTs, while the residual CNTs act as "bridges" connecting different GNRs. The morphology and structure of the resulting hybrid materials have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests reveal that the hierarchical PANI-GNR-CNT composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses much higher specific capacitance (890 F g(-1)) than the GNR-CNT hybrid (195 F g(-1)) and neat PANI (283 F g(-1)) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1). At the same time, the PANI-GNR-CNT composite displays good cycling stability with a retention ratio of 89% after 1000 cycles, suggesting that this novel PANI-GNR-CNT composite is a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

  13. Using microwave and macroscopic samples of dielectric solids to study the photonic properties of disordered photonic bandgap materials.

    Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Tsitrin, Sam; Yadak, Polin; He, Yingquan; Cuneo, Daniel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Liner, Devin; Man, Weining


    Recently, disordered photonic materials have been suggested as an alternative to periodic crystals for the formation of a complete photonic bandgap (PBG). In this article we will describe the methods for constructing and characterizing macroscopic disordered photonic structures using microwaves. The microwave regime offers the most convenient experimental sample size to build and test PBG media. Easily manipulated dielectric lattice components extend flexibility in building various 2D structures on top of pre-printed plastic templates. Once built, the structures could be quickly modified with point and line defects to make freeform waveguides and filters. Testing is done using a widely available Vector Network Analyzer and pairs of microwave horn antennas. Due to the scale invariance property of electromagnetic fields, the results we obtained in the microwave region can be directly applied to infrared and optical regions. Our approach is simple but delivers exciting new insight into the nature of light and disordered matter interaction. Our representative results include the first experimental demonstration of the existence of a complete and isotropic PBG in a two-dimensional (2D) hyperuniform disordered dielectric structure. Additionally we demonstrate experimentally the ability of this novel photonic structure to guide electromagnetic waves (EM) through freeform waveguides of arbitrary shape.

  14. Dielectric and magnetic studies of BaTi0.5Fe0.5O3 ceramic materials, synthesized by solid state sintering

    Samuvel, K.; Ramachandran, K.


    A comparative study of the surface morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of the BaTi0.5Fe0.5O3 (BTFO) ceramics materials. This has been carried out by synthesizing the samples in different routes. BTFO samples have shown single phased 12R type hexagonal structure with R 3m ‾ , P4mm space group. Interfacial effects on the dielectric properties of the samples have been understood by Cole-Cole plots in complex impedance and modulus formalism. It has been identified that huge dielectric constant (103-106) at lower frequencies is largely contributed by the heterogeneous electronic microstructure at the interfaces of grains. Modulus formalism has identified the effects of both grain and grain boundary microstructure on the dielectric properties, particularly in chemical routed samples. The order of grain boundary resistivity suggests the semiconductor/insulator class of the material. The grain boundary resistivity of the mechanical alloyed samples is remarkably lower than the solid state and chemical routed samples. Few samples have of the samples have exhibited signature of ferromagnetism at the room temperature.

  15. 固体氧化物燃料电池--材料与前瞻%Solid Oxide Fuel Cells-Materials and Prospects

    Janina Molenda; Jacek Marzec


    本文依据固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)于运作条件下的基本性能,诸如化学稳定性、电迁移、催化和热机械性能等评述SOFC组成部分(电极材料和电解质)的基本性质.示明由氧偏离化学计量比引起的电极材料结构缺陷与其电子性质及催化活性之间的相互关系,提出单室燃料电池概念.%The paper summarizes and discusses the basic properties of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components ( electrode materials and electrolyte) from the point of view of their essential functional parameters suck as chemical stability, transport, catalytic and thermomechanical properties under oporational conditions in a SOFC. An interrelation between the defect structure of these materials related to oxygen nonstoichiometry and their electronic properties and catalytic activity was shown. Single-chamber fuel cell concept was also presented.

  16. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos


    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes.

  17. Multi-walled carbon nanotube modified dummy-template magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres as solid-phase extraction material for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish.

    Du, Xiaowen; Lin, Saichai; Gan, Ning; Chen, Xidong; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Zhan, Pan


    Novel multi-walled carbon nanotube modified dummy-template molecularly imprinted microspheres (MWCNTs@DMMIPs) were successfully synthesized as adsorbents for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). MWCNTs@DMMIPs were prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique. Core-shell Fe3 O4 @SiO2 nanoparticles were employed as magnetic support. 3,4-Dichlorobenzene acetic acid was used as a dummy template instead of PCBs, methacrylic acid was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was used as the cross-linker. The resulting absorbent was characterized by various methods. The adsorbent was employed for extracting PCBs and exhibited good selectivity and high adsorption efficiency. Furthermore, it was reusable and capable of magnetic separation. Adsorption kinetics fit well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and also exhibited a three-stage intra-particle diffusion model. The Freundlich model was used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The materials were successfully applied to the magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction of six kinds of PCBs followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry determination in fish samples, the limit of detection of six kinds of PCBs were 0.0028-0.0068 μg/L and spiked recoveries ranged between 73.41 and 114.21%. The prepared adsorbent was expected to be a new material for the removal and recovery of PCBs from contaminated foods.

  18. Dielectric and magnetic studies of BaTi0.5Fe0.5O3 ceramic materials, synthesized by solid state sintering.

    Samuvel, K; Ramachandran, K


    A comparative study of the surface morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of the BaTi0.5Fe0.5O3 (BTFO) ceramics materials. This has been carried out by synthesizing the samples in different routes. BTFO samples have shown single phased 12R type hexagonal structure with R3m, P4mm space group. Interfacial effects on the dielectric properties of the samples have been understood by Cole-Cole plots in complex impedance and modulus formalism. It has been identified that huge dielectric constant (10(3)-10(6)) at lower frequencies is largely contributed by the heterogeneous electronic microstructure at the interfaces of grains. Modulus formalism has identified the effects of both grain and grain boundary microstructure on the dielectric properties, particularly in chemical routed samples. The order of grain boundary resistivity suggests the semiconductor/insulator class of the material. The grain boundary resistivity of the mechanical alloyed samples is remarkably lower than the solid state and chemical routed samples. Few samples have of the samples have exhibited signature of ferromagnetism at the room temperature.

  19. Rational design of mixed ionic and electronic conducting perovskite oxides for solid oxide fuel cell anode materials: A case study for doped SrTiO3

    Suthirakun, Suwit; Xiao, Guoliang; Ammal, Salai Cheettu; Chen, Fanglin; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Heyden, Andreas


    The effect of p- and n-type dopants on ionic and electronic conductivity of SrTiO3 based perovskites were investigated both computationally and experimentally. Specifically, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 systems. Constrained ab initio thermodynamic calculations were used to evaluate the phase stability and reducibility of doped SrTiO3 under both oxidizing and reducing synthesis conditions, as well as under anodic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) conditions. The density of states (DOS) of these materials was analyzed to study the effects of p- and n-doping on the electronic conductivity. Furthermore, Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 samples were experimentally prepared and the conductivity was measured to confirm our computational predictions. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions that doping n-doped SrTiO3 with small amounts of p-type dopants promotes both the ionic and electronic conductivity of the material. This doping strategy is valid independent of p- and n-doping site and permits the synthesis of perovskite based mixed ionic/electronic conductors.

  20. Solid phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis determination of sulphonamide residues in milk samples by use of C18-carbon nanotubes as hybrid sorbent materials.

    Polo-Luque, M L; Simonet, B M; Valcárcel, M


    The exceptional sorption capabilities of carbon nanotubes were used to preconcentrate trace sulphonamides from milk samples. To this end, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) dispersed in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were retained on a C18 stationary phase to obtain a hybrid material in a simple manner. In this approach ionic liquids are an excellent alternative to improve the dispersion of CNTs, without chemical modification or the use of solid substances or organic solvents. MWNTs provided better results than SWNTs. Carbon nanotubes retained in the C18 sorbent matrix were found to confer aromatic character, increasing its preconcentration capacity as a result. The conventional C18 stationary phase played a two-fold role: as a support to retain carbon nanotubes in the cartridge and as a medium to prevent their aggregation. The modified MWNT/C18 and SWNT/C18 materials were used to preconcentrate residual sulphonamides (SAs) in milk samples for their determination at concentrations as low as 0.03-0.069 mg L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 103.2 to 98.8% and precision, as RSD, from 8.2 to 5.4%.

  1. PROPULSION AND POWER RAPID RESPONSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) SUPPORT. Deliver Order 0002: Power-Dense, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems: High-Performance, High-Power-Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Materials and Load Control


    fuel cell . This controller could be readily adapted to current fuel cell powered vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS solid oxide fuel cell , SOFC , solid...oxide fuel cell electrodes, SOFC systems, hybrid power systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF...which is exasperated by excessive coarsening at the high temperatures of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) operation. While ceramic

  2. Solid Base Catalysis

    Ono, Yoshio


    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  3. Effect of graphene layer thickness and mechanical compliance on interfacial heat flow and thermal conduction in solid-liquid phase change materials.

    Warzoha, Ronald J; Fleischer, Amy S


    Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage and electronics cooling applications but have limited applicability in state-of-the-art technologies due to their low intrinsic thermal conductivities. Recent efforts to incorporate graphene and multilayer graphene into PCMs have led to the development of thermal energy storage materials with remarkable values of bulk thermal conductivity. However, the full potential of graphene as a filler material for the thermal enhancement of PCMs remains unrealized, largely due to an incomplete understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern thermal transport within graphene-based nanocomposites. In this work, we show that the number of graphene layers (n) within an individual graphene nanoparticle has a significant effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of an organic PCM. Results indicate that the bulk thermal conductivity of PCMs can be tuned by over an order of magnitude simply by adjusting the number of graphene layers (n) from n = 3 to 44. Using scanning electron microscopy in tandem with nanoscale analytical techniques, the physical mechanisms that govern heat flow within a graphene nanocomposite PCM are found to be nearly independent of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the graphene nanoparticle itself and are instead found to be dependent on the mechanical compliance of the graphene nanoparticles. These findings are critical for the design and development of PCMs that are capable of cooling next-generation electronics and storing heat effectively in medium-to-large-scale energy systems, including solar-thermal power plants and building heating and cooling systems.

  4. Comparison of different solid-phase extraction materials for the determination of fluoroquinolones in chicken plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    Janusch, Franziska; Scherz, Gesine; Mohring, Siegrun A I; Stahl, Jessica; Hamscher, Gerd


    Fluoroquinolones are synthetic antibiotics which are frequently used in veterinary medicine e.g. for the treatment of poultry. Their specific importance is based on the fact that they are regarded as antibiotics of last resort because of their broad spectrum of action against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Here, a new and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of four fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin) in chicken plasma by LC-MS/MS was developed. Solid-phase extraction was chosen for sample preparation because a selective sample clean-up is combined with an effective extraction. Various solid-phase extraction materials including polymer-based reversed-phase, silica-based reversed-phase and mixed-mode sorbents were compared. Selection criteria were analyte recovery, sample extract purity and economical aspects (analysis time and elution solvent volume). Best recoveries and minimized elution solvent volumes were achieved using polymeric reversed-phase cartridges. However, post-column infusion experiments revealed that the analysis is influenced by co-eluting matrix components. Hence, a combination of a mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridge and a mixed-mode cation-exchange cartridge was used as final extraction method. This method yield slightly lower analyte recoveries compared to polymeric-reversed-phase cartridges but exhibit no matrix effects. Recoveries of spiked chicken plasma ranged from 61.9% to 84.8% with an inter-day precision of generally less than 12%. LODs are between 0.03 and 0.05μg/L; LOQs are between 0.08 and 0.16μg/L. Maximum plasma concentrations of chickens medicated with an enrofloxacin dosage of 3mg/kg bodyweight were 38.9μg/L for enrofloxacin and 3.3μg/L for its main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero, E-mail:


    The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption–elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 μg Pb L{sup −1}, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64–22.9 μg Pb L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • Lead determination in urine using a solid phase extraction procedure followed by ETAAS • Carbon nanotubes as SPE adsorbent for Pb in urine • Matrix elimination for the Pb determination in urine by using SPE based on carbon nanotubes • The detection limit was 0.08 μg Pb L{sup −1}.

  6. Rapid and Energy-Saving Microwave-Assisted Solid-State Synthesis of Pr(3+)-, Eu(3+)-, or Tb(3+)-Doped Lu2O3 Persistent Luminescence Materials.

    Pedroso, Cássio C S; Carvalho, José M; Rodrigues, Lucas C V; Hölsä, Jorma; Brito, Hermi F


    Persistent luminescence materials Lu2O3:R(3+),M (Pr,Hf(IV); Eu; or Tb,Ca(2+)) were successfully and rapidly (22 min) prepared by microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis (MASS) using a carbon microwave susceptor and H3BO3 as flux. Reaction times are reduced by up to 93% over previous synthetic methods, without special gases application and using a domestic microwave oven. All materials prepared with H3BO3 flux exhibit LuBO3 impurities that were quantified by Rietveld refinement from synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction patterns. The flux does not considerably affect the crystalline structure of the C-Lu2O3, however. Scanning electron micrographs suggest low surface area when H3BO3 flux is used in the materials' synthesis, decreasing the amount of surface hydroxyl groups in Lu2O3 and improving the luminescence intensity of the phosphors. The carbon used as the susceptor generates CO gas, leading to complete reduction of Tb(IV) to Tb(3+) and partial conversion of Pr(IV) to Pr(3+) present in the Tb4O7 and Pr6O11 precursors, as indicated by X-ray absorption near-edge structure data. Persistent luminescence spectra of the materials show the red/near-IR, reddish orange, and green emission colors assigned to the 4f(n) → 4f(n) transitions characteristics of Pr(3+), Eu(3+), and Tb(3+) ions, respectively. Differences between the UV-excited and persistent luminescence spectra can be explained by the preferential persistent luminescence emission of R(3+) ion in the S6 site rather than R(3+) in the C2 site. In addition, inclusion of Hf(IV) and Ca(2+) codopants in the Lu2O3 host increases the emission intensity and duration of persistent luminescence due to generation of traps caused by charge compensation in the lattice. Photonic materials prepared by MASS with H3BO3 flux show higher persistent luminescence performance than those prepared by the ceramic method or MASS without flux. Color tuning of persistent luminescence in Lu2O3:R(3+),M provides potential

  7. Materials

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.


    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  8. Gases, liquids and solids

    Tabor, David


    It has been tradional to treat gases, liquids and solids as if they were completely unrelated material. However, this book shows that many of their bulk properties can been explained in terms of intermolecular forces.

  9. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)


    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  10. Understanding solid state physics

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  11. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980


    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  12. Ca and In co-doped BaFeO3-δ as a cobalt-free cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Wang, Jian; Lam, Kwun Yu; Saccoccio, Mattia; Gao, Yang; Chen, Dengjie; Ciucci, Francesco


    We report Ba0·95Ca0·05Fe0·95In0·05O3-δ (BCFI), a novel cobalt-free perovskite, as a promising cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). We synthesize this new material, and systematically characterize its lattice structure, thermal stability, chemical composition, electrical conductivity, and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. The cubic phase of BaFeO3-δ is stabilized by light isovalent and lower-valence substitution, i.e., 5% Ca2+ in the Ba2+ site and 5% In3+ in the Fe3+/Fe4+ site, in contrast with the typical approach of substituting elements of higher valence. Without resorting to co-doping strategy, the phase of BaFe0·95In0·05O3-δ (BFI) is rhombohedral, while Ba0·95Ca0·05FeO3-δ (BCF) is a mixture of the cubic phase together with BaFe2O4 impurities. The structure of BCFI is cubic from room temperature up to 900 °C with a moderate thermal expansion coefficient of 23.2 × 10-6 K-1. Thanks to the large oxygen vacancy concentration and fast oxygen mobility, BCFI exhibits a favorable ORR activity, i.e., we observe a polarization resistance as small as 0.038 Ω cm2 at 700 °C. The significantly enhanced performance, compared with BFI and BCF, is attributed to the presence of the cubic phase and the large oxygen vacancies brought by the isovalent substitution in the A-site and lower-valence doping in the B-site.

  13. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.


    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  14. Identity-Related Influences on the Success of Minority Workers in Primarily Nonminority Organizations.

    James, Keith; Khoo, Gillian


    Reviews literature at the micro- (individual, interpersonal, and small group) and macro- (organizational, societal, and cultural) levels relating to the experiences and outcomes of minorities in work settings populated primarily by members of the majority. Uses Tajfel and Turner's Social Identity Theory as an organizational and integrative…

  15. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  16. Propulsion and control propellers with thruster nozzles primarily for aircraft applications

    Pabst, W.


    A propulsion and control propeller with thruster nozzles, primarily for aircraft application is described. Adjustability of rotor blades at the hub and pressurized gas expulsion combined with an air propeller increase power. Both characteristics are combined in one simple device, and, furthermore, incorporate overall aircraft control so that mechanisms which govern lateral and horizontal movement become superfluous.

  17. Examining the Effects of Introducing Online Access to ACS Journals at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions

    Landolt, R. G.


    In collaboration with the Publications Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS), students and faculty at 24 primarily undergraduate institutions were provided online access to ACS primary research journals for a period of 18 months, and a group of eight schools were granted access to use the archives of ACS journals for a year. Resources…

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials and their application as solid acid catalysts in some esterification reactions

    Tarun F Parangi; Rajesh M Patel; Uma V Chudasama


    Mesoporous MCM-41 has been synthesized by sol–gel method at room temperature possessing good thermal stability, high surface area as well as retention of surface area at high temperature. The MCM-41 neutral framework has been modified and put to practical use by incorporating Al3+ in the siliceous MCM-41 framework and supporting 12-TPA (12-tungstophosphoric acid) onto MCM-41 by process of anchoring and calcination to induce Brønsted acidity in MCM-41 to yield Al-MCM-41 and 12TPA-MCM-41, respectively. The synthesized materials have been characterized for elemental analysis by ICP-AES, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, FT–IR and TGA. Surface area has been determined by BET method and pore size and pore size distribution determined by BJH method. Surface acidity has been evaluated by NH3-TPD method. The potential use of Al-MCM-41 and 12TPA-MCM-41 as solid acid catalysts has been explored and compared by studying esterification as a model reaction wherein monoesters such as ethyl acetate (EA), propyl acetate (PA), butyl acetate (BA) and benzyl acetate (BzA) have been synthesized, optimizing several parameters such as catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of reagents.

  19. Identification of wood-boring beetles (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) intercepted in trade-associated solid wood packaging material using DNA barcoding and morphology

    Wu, Yunke; Trepanowski, Nevada F.; Molongoski, John J.; Reagel, Peter F.; Lingafelter, Steven W.; Nadel, Hannah; Myers, Scott W.; Ray, Ann M.


    Global trade facilitates the inadvertent movement of insect pests and subsequent establishment of populations outside their native ranges. Despite phytosanitary measures, nonnative insects arrive at United States (U.S.) ports of entry as larvae in solid wood packaging material (SWPM). Identification of wood-boring larval insects is important for pest risk analysis and management, but is difficult beyond family level due to highly conserved morphology. Therefore, we integrated DNA barcoding and rearing of larvae to identify wood-boring insects in SWPM. From 2012 to 2015, we obtained larvae of 338 longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) and 38 metallic wood boring beetles (Buprestidae) intercepted in SWPM associated with imported products at six U.S. ports. We identified 265 specimens to species or genus using DNA barcodes. Ninety-three larvae were reared to adults and identified morphologically. No conflict was found between the two approaches, which together identified 275 cerambycids (23 genera) and 16 buprestids (4 genera). Our integrated approach confirmed novel DNA barcodes for seven species (10 specimens) of woodborers not in public databases. This study demonstrates the utility of DNA barcoding as a tool for regulatory agencies. We provide important documentation of potential beetle pests that may cross country borders through the SWPM pathway. PMID:28091577

  20. Effects of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant.

    Liu, Leili; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyao; Tian, Siyu


    MgH2, Mg2NiH4, and Mg2CuH3 were prepared, and their structure and hydrogen storage properties were determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analyzer. The effects of MgH2, Mg2NiH4, and Mg2CuH3 on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant were subsequently studied. Results indicated that MgH2, Mg2NiH4, and Mg2CuH3 can decrease the thermal decomposition peak temperature and increase the total released heat of decomposition. These compounds can improve the effect of thermal decomposition of the propellant. The burning rates of the propellant increased using Mg-based hydrogen storage materials as promoter. The burning rates of the propellant also increased using MgH2 instead of Al in the propellant, but its explosive heat was not enlarged. Nonetheless, the combustion heat of MgH2 was higher than that of Al. A possible mechanism was thus proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.