WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid hydrometeors contents

  1. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosol and hydrometeor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, K.O.; Hofmann, D.; Georgii, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and hydrometeor particles act decisively on our weather, climate and thereby on all living conditions on Earth. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been demonstrated to be an extremely valuable tool for quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis of aerosol particles and hydrometeors. Reliability and detection limits of PIXE are determined, including comparison with other techniques. Aerosol particles are collected on a global scale in ground stations, or by ships and by planes. Correlation between wind direction and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols, elemental particle size distributions of the tropospheric aerosol, aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions in the case of long range transport, transport pathways of pollution aerosol, and trace element content precipitation are discussed. Hydrometeors were studied in the form of rain, snow, fog, dew and frost. The time dependence of the melting process of snow was studied in detail, in particular the washout phenomena of impurity ions. (orig.)

  2. Determination of solid fat content by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Tsukasa; Kato, Chihiro; Suzuki, Kazuaki

    1984-01-01

    To establish a standard method for determing solid fat content, the NMR method was tested at six laboratories and the results were examined for collaboration. Two types of instruments, pulse NMR and wide-line NMR were used. Standard deviation in results at six laboratories was less than 1.5 for the step wise method, but more than 1.5 for the rapid method. The standard deviation in results at a single laboratory was much less than either of these cases. No significant difference could be observed in the values obtained using both instruments. Solid fat content values measured for a mixture of fully hydrogenated rapeseed and rapeseed oil agreed well with the percentage of solid by weight. (author)

  3. Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix Method for Axial Symmetric Hydrometeors with Extreme Aspect Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, C.; Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Munchak, S. J.; Adams, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    The single-scattering properties (SSPs) of hydrometeors are the fundamental quantities for physics-based precipitation retrievals. Thus, efficient computation of their electromagnetic scattering is of great value. Whereas the semi-analytical T-Matrix methods are likely the most efficient for nonspherical hydrometeors with axial symmetry, they are not suitable for arbitrarily shaped hydrometeors absent of any significant symmetry, for which volume integral methods such as those based on Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) are required. Currently the two leading T-matrix methods are the Extended Boundary Condition Method (EBCM) and the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix Method incorporating Lorentz-Mie Separation of Variables (IITM+SOV). EBCM is known to outperform IITM+SOV for hydrometeors with modest aspect ratios. However, in cases when aspect ratios become extreme, such as needle-like particles with large height to diameter values, EBCM fails to converge. Such hydrometeors with extreme aspect ratios are known to be present in solid precipitation and their SSPs are required to model the radiative responses accurately. In these cases, IITM+SOV is shown to converge. An efficient, parallelized C++ implementation for both EBCM and IITM+SOV has been developed to conduct a performance comparison between EBCM, IITM+SOV, and DDSCAT (a popular implementation of DDA). We present the comparison results and discuss details. Our intent is to release the combined ECBM & IITM+SOV software to the community under an open source license.

  4. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  5. Solid-soluted content of cerium in solid solution of sphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Teng Yuancheng; Li Yuxiang; Ren Xuetan; Huang Junjun

    2010-01-01

    The sphene solid solution was synthesized by solid-state method,with calcium carbonate, silica, titanium dioxide, cerium oxalate and alumina as raw materials. The solid-soluted content of cerium in sphene was researched by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), backscattering scanning electron microscopy (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and so on. The influence of A l3+ ion introduction to sphene on the solid-soluted content of cerium in sphene solid solution was studied. The results indicate that when introducing Al 3+ to sphene as electrovalence compensation, Ce 4+ could be well solidified to Ca 1-x Ce x Ti 1-2x A l2x SiO 5 , and the solid-soluted content is approximately 12.61%. With no electrovalence compensation, Ce 4+ could be solidified to Ca 1-2x Ce x TiSiO 5 , and the solid-soluted content is approximately 10.98%. The appropriate synthesis temperature of sphene solid solution is 1 260 degree C.(authors)

  6. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  7. Evaluation of simulated tropical convective updraft hydrometeor properties using aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, McKenna W.

    The High Altitude Ice Crystals - High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) field campaign produced aircraft retrievals of total condensed water content (TWC), hydrometeor particle size distributions, and vertical velocity (w) in high ice water content regions of tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). These observations are used to evaluate deep convective updraft properties in high-resolution nested Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations of observed MCSs. Because simulated hydrometeor properties are highly sensitive to the parameterization of microphysics, three commonly used microphysical parameterizations are tested, including two bulk schemes (Thompson and Morrison) and one bin scheme (Fast Spectral Bin Microphysics). A commonly documented bias in cloud-resolving simulations is the exaggeration of simulated radar reflectivities aloft in tropical MCSs. This may result from overly strong convective updrafts that loft excessive condensate mass and from simplified approximations of hydrometeor size distributions, properties, species separation, and microphysical processes. The degree to which the reflectivity bias is a separate function of convective dynamics, condensate mass, and hydrometeor size has yet to be addressed. This research untangles these components by comparing simulated and observed relationships between w, TWC, and hydrometer size as a function of temperature. All microphysics schemes produce median mass diameters that are generally larger than observed for temperatures between -10 °C and -40 °C and TWC > 1 g m-3. Observations produce a prominent mode in the composite mass size distribution around 300 microm, but under most conditions, all schemes shift the distribution mode to larger sizes. Despite a much greater number of samples, all simulations fail to reproduce observed high TWC or high w conditions between -20 °C and -40 °C in which only a small fraction of condensate mass is found in relatively large particle sizes. Increasing

  8. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  9. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  10. Microwave single-scattering properties of randomly oriented soft-ice hydrometeors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Casella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Large ice hydrometeors are usually present in intense convective clouds and may significantly affect the upwelling radiances that are measured by satellite-borne microwave radiometers – especially, at millimeter-wavelength frequencies. Thus, interpretation of these measurements (e.g., for precipitation retrieval requires knowledge of the single scattering properties of ice particles. On the other hand, shape and internal structure of these particles (especially, the larger ones is very complex and variable, and therefore it is necessary to resort to simplifying assumptions in order to compute their single-scattering parameters.

    In this study, we use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA to compute the absorption and scattering efficiencies and the asymmetry factor of two kinds of quasi-spherical and non-homogeneous soft-ice particles in the frequency range 50–183 GHz. Particles of the first kind are modeled as quasi-spherical ice particles having randomly distributed spherical air inclusions. Particles of the second kind are modeled as random aggregates of ice spheres having random radii. In both cases, particle densities and dimensions are coherent with the snow hydrometeor category that is utilized by the University of Wisconsin – Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS cloud-mesoscale model. Then, we compare our single-scattering results for randomly-oriented soft-ice hydrometeors with corresponding ones that make use of: a effective-medium equivalent spheres, b solid-ice equivalent spheres, and c randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders. Finally, we extend to our particles the scattering formulas that have been developed by other authors for randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders.

  11. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  12. The role of charged ice hydrometeors in lightning initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    and conductivity, and determine the external field intensity, at which stable streamer development is possible for different hydrometeor sizes and charge magnitudes. We find that the required charge is within the range of measured precipitation charges while the required external field is higher than observed...

  13. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  14. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  15. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and asp...

  16. Fallspeed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in freefall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in freefall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fallspeed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fallspeed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a sel...

  17. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during the...

  19. Hydrometeor discrimination in melting layer using multiparameter airborne radar measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Meneghini, R.; Kozu, T.

    1992-01-01

    Results from a multiparameter airborne radar/radiometer experiment (the Typhoon experiment) are presented. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific with the NASA DC-8 aircraft, in which a dual-wavelength at X-band and Ka-band and dual-polarization at X-band radar was installed. The signatures of dBZ(X), dBZ(Ka), LDR (linear depolarization ratio) at X-band and DZ=dBZ(X)-dBZ(Ka) are discussed for the data obtained in the penetration of the typhoon Flo. With emphasis on discrimination of hydrometeor particles, some statistical features of the brightband in stratiform rain are discussed.

  20. Examination of Effective Dielectric Constants Derived from Non-Spherical Melting Hydrometeor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.

    2009-04-01

    The bright band, a layer of enhanced radar echo associated with melting hydrometeors, is often observed in stratiform rain. Understanding the microphysical properties of melting hydrometeors and their scattering and propagation effects is of great importance in accurately estimating parameters of the precipitation from spaceborne radar and radiometers. However, one of the impediments in the study of the radar signature of the melting layer is the determination of effective dielectric constants of melting hydrometeors. Although a number of mixing formulas are available to compute the effective dielectric constants, their results vary to a great extent when water is a component of the mixture, such as in the case of melting snow. It is also physically unclear as to how to select among these various formulas. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether these mixing formulas can be applied to computations of radar polarimetric parameters from non-spherical melting particles. Recently, several approaches using numerical methods have been developed to derive the effective dielectric constants of melting hydrometeors, i.e., mixtures consisting of air, ice and water, based on more realistic melting models of particles, in which the composition of the melting hydrometeor is divided into a number of identical cells. Each of these cells is then assigned in a probabilistic way to be water, ice or air according to the distribution of fractional water contents for a particular particle. While the derived effective dielectric constants have been extensively tested at various wavelengths over a range of particle sizes, these numerical experiments have been restricted to the co-polarized scattering parameters from spherical particles. As polarimetric radar has been increasingly used in the study of microphysical properties of hydrometeors, an extension of the theory to polarimetric variables should provide additional information on melting processes. To account for polarimetric

  1. Identification of hydrometeor mixtures in polarimetric radar measurements and their linear de-mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The issue of hydrometeor mixtures affects radar sampling volumes without a clear dominant hydrometeor type. Containing a number of different hydrometeor types which significantly contribute to the polarimetric variables, these volumes are likely to occur in the vicinity of the melting layer and mainly, at large distance from a given radar. Motivated by potential benefits for both quantitative and qualitative applications of dual-pol radar, we propose a method for the identification of hydrometeor mixtures and their subsequent linear de-mixing. This method is intrinsically related to our recently proposed semi-supervised approach for hydrometeor classification. The mentioned classification approach [1] performs labeling of radar sampling volumes by using as a criterion the Euclidean distance with respect to five-dimensional centroids, depicting nine hydrometeor classes. The positions of the centroids in the space formed by four radar moments and one external parameter (phase indicator), are derived through a technique of k-medoids clustering, applied on a selected representative set of radar observations, and coupled with statistical testing which introduces the assumed microphysical properties of the different hydrometeor types. Aside from a hydrometeor type label, each radar sampling volume is characterized by an entropy estimate, indicating the uncertainty of the classification. Here, we revisit the concept of entropy presented in [1], in order to emphasize its presumed potential for the identification of hydrometeor mixtures. The calculation of entropy is based on the estimate of the probability (pi ) that the observation corresponds to the hydrometeor type i (i = 1,ṡṡṡ9) . The probability is derived from the Euclidean distance (di ) of the observation to the centroid characterizing the hydrometeor type i . The parametrization of the d → p transform is conducted in a controlled environment, using synthetic polarimetric radar datasets. It ensures balanced

  2. Nuclear physical express analysis of solid fuel sulphur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Yu.; Ponomaryova, M

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sulphur content is an important qualitative coal parameter. The problem of coal sulphur content determining remains one of the most important both in Kazakhstan and in other coal-mining countries. The traditional method of sampling, the final stage of which is chemical analysis of coal for sulphur, is characterized by high labour intensity and low productivity. That's why it is ineffective for mass express analytical quality control and technological schemes of coal processing control. In this connection it is very urgent to develop a method of coal sulphur content on the base of a series nuclear-geophysical equipment with an isotope source of primary radiation, allowing to increase analysis representativity and maximally take into account coal real composition inconstancy. To solve the problem set it is necessary to study the main laws of X-ray-radiometric method applied to the coal quality analysis for working out instrumental methods of speed determining of coal sulphur content with satisfactory accuracy for technological tasks, to determine laws of changing the flows of characteristic X-ray and scattered radiation from coal sulphur content of various real composition and to optimize methodical and hardware parameters, providing minimal error of sulphur content control. On the base of studying laws of real composition coal components and their interconnections with sulphur content there has been substantiated the expediency of using hardware functions of calcium and iron to control coal sulphur contents; there has been suggested a model to estimate the methodical error of coal sulphur content determining on the base of the data about sensitivity to sulphur and effecting factors using ultimate methods of coal components substitution methods allowing to optimize sulphur control parameters; there has been worked out an algorithm of X-ray-radiometric control of sulphur content based on the sequential radiating the analyzed coal with gamma-radiation of

  3. Water and chemical input via hydrometeors in central European mountains with Szrenica as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaś, M.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric pollutants are transferred to the ground by the contribution of various types of hydrometeors. These are atmospheric precipitation and non-precipitation components belonging to the atmospheric deposits (dew and hoarfrost as well as rime and liquid fog). Due to the different techniques concerning sampling and measurements, comparative analyses between them are often neglected. Hence, the main goal is to compare chemistry of different types of hydrometeors and their role in both: water balance and pollutants deposition. Precipitation, dew, hoarfrost, liquid fog and rime samples were collected daily all through the 2009 year at the Szrenica Mt. [1330 m a.s.l.]. It is situated in the western part of the main ridge of the Karkonosze Mts. which falls steeply northward on the Polish side and forms a distinct slope about 1000 m high. During typical westerly wind conditions the Karkonosze Mts. are exposed to highly polluted air from heavy industry densely situated at the distance of tens to hundreds kilometers on the windward side of the mountains. Precipitation is the main source of water flux at the Szrenica Mt. reaching 1430 mm annually, with the highest molar concentrations of ammonia, nitrates and sulphates (33%, 21% and 14% respectively). However the average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content) of precipitation (273 µMoles•l-1) was the lowest when compared with other non-precipitation hydrometeors, discussed below. This results from relatively clean air in middle and/or upper parts of troposphere where atmospheric processes responsible for precipitation formation take place. This is in contrast with much more polluted atmospheric boundary layer being continuously polluted by various emission sources. Fog deposit tends to be the second important component of water flux at the Szrenica Mt., which forms even 50% of water delivered by atmospheric precipitation. Cloud water concentration of dissolved pollutants expressed by TIC was 3 times higher than in case

  4. Kinethical Aspects of High Solid Contents Copoly(Styrene/Butylacrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High solid content poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate latex ( with 20% and 40% solid content including high amounts of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt% were kinetically investigated. Gravimetric method via measuring the rate of polymerization, number of particles and average number of radicals per particle was used. Results showed that by increasing the solid content; the average diameter of polymer particles decreased. Studies on the polymerization rate depict that the increase in polymer particle size provides more average reactive radicals per polymer particle, which increased from 0.48 to 0.88 for the sample containing 7 wt% clay and 20 wt% solid content. Observed armored particles with honeycomb morphology is the most novelty of this research work, which is suitable for making barrier packaging films.

  5. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  6. Microphysical Parameterizations for NWP: It's All About the Sizes and Production Pathways of Hydrometeors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Sara A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn D.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk microphysical parameterization schemes are popularly used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to simulate clouds and precpitation. These schemes are based on assumed number distribution functions for individual hydrometeor species, which are integratable over size distributions of diameters from zero to infinity. Typically, hydrometeor mass and number mixing ratios are predicted in these schemes. Some schemes also predict a third parameter of hydrometeor distribution characteristics. In this study, four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity that are available in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) are investigated and compared using numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line and microphysics budget analysis. Diagnoses of the parameterized pathways for hydrometeor production reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes. It is concluded that the major differences between the schemes investigated here are in the assumed hydrometeor size distributions and pathways for their production.

  7. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium) Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  8. Dynamic effect of total solid content, low substrate/inoculum ratio and particle size on solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Steyer, J-P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Among all the process parameters of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), total solid content (TS), inoculation (S/X ratio) and size of the organic solid particles can be optimized to improve methane yield and process stability. To evaluate the effects of each parameter and their interactions on methane production, a three level Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented in SS-AD batch tests degrading wheat straw by adjusting: TS content from 15% to 25%, S/X ratio (in volatile solids) between 28 and 47 and particle size with a mean diameter ranging from 0.1 to 1.4mm. A dynamic analysis of the methane production indicates that the S/X ratio has only an effect during the start-up phase of the SS-AD. During the growing phase, TS content becomes the main parameter governing the methane production and its strong interaction with the particle size suggests the important role of water compartmentation on SS-AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  10. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  11. Mechanical behavior and microstructure during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Weiwei; Luo Shoujing

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical behavior during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content is researched in this paper. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and rare earth elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains globular before the compression. Here, several groups of true strain-true stress curves with different variables during compression are given to make comparisons of their mechanical behaviors. Liquid paths were the most essential to deformation, and its variation during compression depends on the strain rate. Here, thixotropic strength is defined as the true stress at the first peak in the true stress-true strain curve

  12. Hydrometeor Trajectories and Distributions in a Simulation of TC Rapid Intensification (RI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, P.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been recognized that the microphysics scheme used in a numerical simulation of tropical cyclones (TC) can greatly affect the precipitation distribution, intensity and thermodynamic structure of the simulated TC. This suggests that the mixing ratios, concentrations and size distributions of hydrometeor(snow, graupel,rain,cloud ice) are important factors in the evolution of TC . The transport of hydrometeor may have a strong influence on these factors through its interactions with the growth and the latent heat forcing of hydrometeor and the wind filed, hence is a key to understanding TC microphysics. Schematic hydrometeor trajectories were first constructed using 3-D wind field and particle fallspeeds derived from airborne radar observations in a steady-state mature hurricane,Alicia(1983). Since then, little effort has been put in understanding hydrometeor transport in TC, especially the potential link between its evolution and the intensity and structure changes in a non-steady-state TC. This study is focused on investigating such a link by means of numerical simulations of TC Rapid Intensification(RI) using WRF model. We use the tracer utility in WRF to construct hydrometeor trajectories. Most of the popular microphysics schemes are tested, and the most reasonable test( which is determined by comparing the simulated TC intensity and structure with airborne radar observations) and the ensemble mean of all the tests are picked for detailed examinations.

  13. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  14. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  15. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  16. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  17. A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

  18. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  20. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  1. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  2. Synthesis and properties of hydroxy acrylic resin with high solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Hu, Mingguang; Cui, Han; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    Manufacturers of automotive repair finishes are tending to reduce more and more the level of volatile organic compounds in their paints in order to comply with increasingly strict environmental legislation. A high solid hydroxy acrylic resin was synthesised using CARDURA E10 and a type of hydroxyacrylic acid resin, its' acid value, hydroxylvalue, viscosity, structure, morphology was measured and film-forming properties after curing were characterised. The results show that the addition of CARDURA E10 in the copolymer composition significantly reduced the viscosity of the polymer system, improved the solid content of the resin and the physical properties of the coating. The hydroxyl acrylate resin with solid content of 90% and excellent comprehensive performance were successfully prepared by controlling the initiator dosage, polymerization temperature and monomer ratio.

  3. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 % nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt % were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 30B content on the barrier properties presents excellent and wide use of these films for packaging and nanocoatings industries.

  4. Solid state fermentation of Trichoderma viride for enhancement phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2018-05-04

    The phenolic content of methanolic and water extracts of ginger fermented by Trichoderma spp. during solid state fermentation (SSF) was detected as compared with unfermented ginger. The total phenolic content of fermented ginger increased several times. The highest phenolic content of ginger was detected after SSF by T. viride. The optimal physiological conditions for the maximum production of the phenolic content and β-glucosidase activity of fermented ginger by T. viride were detected at day 7 incubation, pH 6.0, 30°C and 30% moisture. There are consistent between the maximum production of β-glucosidase and phenolic content. The SSF of ginger by T. viride greatly enhanced the antioxidant potency of phenolic compounds by using DPPH and ABTS assays. Potent antibacterial activity was appeared by phenolic compounds of fermented ginger against all the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, E.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Delanoë, J.; Wobrock, W.; Leroy, D.; Dupuy, R.; Gourbeyre, C.; Protat, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the density of ice hydrometeors in tropical clouds is derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2-D-array probes and associated reflectivities measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, the mass-diameter m(D) relationship is formulated as a power law with two unknown coefficients (pre-factor, exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors, where absolute ice density measurement methods do not apply. Here, at first an extended theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3-D and arbitrarily projected on a 2-D plan allowed to constrain the exponent βof the m(D) relationship from the exponent σ of the surface-diameterS(D)relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2-D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivities matching the measured reflectivities along the aircraft trajectory. The study was performed as part of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, where two types of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were investigated: (i) above the African continent and (ii) above the Indian Ocean. For the two data sets, two parameterizations are derived to calculate the vertical variability of m(D) coefficients α and β as a function of the temperature. Originally calculated (with T-matrix) and also subsequently parameterized m(D) relationships from this study are compared to other methods (from literature) of calculating m(D) in tropical convection. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC (Condensed Water Content) and Z-CWC-T-fitted parameterizations.

  6. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  7. Remote operation of microwave systems for solids content analysis and chemical dissolution in highly radioactive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.; Floyd, T.S.; Manchester, D.P.

    1986-10-01

    Microwave systems provide quick and easy determination of solids content of samples in high-level radioactive cells. In addition, dissolution of samples is much faster when employing microwave techniques. These are great advantages because work in cells,using master-slave manipulators through leaded glass walls, is normally slower by an order of magnitude than direct contact methods. This paper describes the modifiction of a moisture/solids analyzer microwave system and a drying/digestion microwave system for remote operation in radiation environments. The moisture/solids analyzer has operated satisfactorily for over a year in a gamma radiation field of 1000 roentgens per hour and the drying/digestion system is ready for installation in a cell

  8. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  9. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyz...

  10. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of the Energy Content of Municipal Solid Wastes in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an application of the artificial neural network model using the back propagation learning algorithm to predict the actual calorific value of the municipal solid waste in major cities of the northern part of Nigeria, with high population densities and intense industrial activities. These cities are: Kano, Damaturu, Dutse, Bauchi, Birnin Kebbi, Gusau, Maiduguri, Katsina and Sokoto. Experimental data of the energy content and the physical characterization of the municipal solid waste serve as the input parameter in nature of wood, grass, metal, plastic, food remnants, leaves, glass and paper. Comparative studies were made by using the developed model, the experimental results and a correlation which was earlier developed by the authors to predict the energy content. While predicting the actual calorific value, the maximum error was 0.94% for the artificial neural network model and 5.20% by the statistical correlation. The network with eight neurons and an R2 = 0.96881 in the hidden layer results in a stable and optimum network. This study showed that the artificial neural network approach could successfully be used for energy content predictions from the municipal solid wastes in Northern Nigeria and other areas of similar waste stream and composition.

  11. A sensitivity study of diffusional mass transfer of gases in tropical storm hydrometeors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Satyajit; Gumber, Siddharth; Varotsos, C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper quantifies mass transfer and diffusional uptake rates of gases in liquid and solid hydrometeors within a cyclonic system. The non-availability of transfer rates for trace gases diffusing into storm hydrometeors, particularly over polluted urban conurbations, often constrain modellers the world over; however, this is an essential requirement to quantify the scavenging rates over the region concerned. The present paper seeks to provide modellers with such rates. Further, all of the earlier studies apply only to temperate regimes, and surprisingly identical formulations are assumed even for tropical conditions. The present analysis fills this research gap and couples cloud morphology with the associated thermodynamics through Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) runs for cyclone Chapala (27 October 2015-04 November 2015) which battered the coasts of Yemen (Skamarock et al. 2008). It was a good example for undertaking this sensitivity study because the vertical extent spanned from around 0.75 to 16 km—enabling uptake rate calculations over both droplet and ice phases. Many of the diffusing gases were polar; the dipole moment of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and water vapour (H2O) was also included using a full Lennard-Jones model to compute the binary diffusivities of these gases as they diffused into the droplets mixed with water vapour. The first-order uptake rate constants ranged from 2.08 × 10-07 to 3.44 × 10-06 (s-1) and 1.97 × 10-07 to 7.81 × 10-07 (s-1) for H2O and SO2 respectively. The rates are of the order of 10-09 (s-1) for diffusion of water vapour into ice crystals further aloft. Closely linked with the gas uptake rates is another crucial parameter—the mass accommodation coefficient, α. The most widely used values are 1 and 0.036 (Pruppacher and Klett 1998)—the chosen values are restrictive and warrants a closer look. In storm systems, the vertical extents are in the kilometre range. Chapala with a large vertical extent warrants a full

  12. Investigation of hydrometeor classification uncertainties through the POLARRIS polarimetric radar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, B.; Rutledge, S. A.; Barnum, J. I.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W. K.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-12-01

    POLarimetric Radar Retrieval and Instrument Simulator (POLARRIS) is a framework that has been developed to simulate radar observations from cloud resolving model (CRM) output and subject model data and observations to the same retrievals, analysis and visualization. This framework not only enables validation of bulk microphysical model simulated properties, but also offers an opportunity to study the uncertainties associated with retrievals such as hydrometeor classification (HID). For the CSU HID, membership beta functions (MBFs) are built using a set of simulations with realistic microphysical assumptions about axis ratio, density, canting angles, size distributions for each of ten hydrometeor species. These assumptions are tested using POLARRIS to understand their influence on the resulting simulated polarimetric data and final HID classification. Several of these parameters (density, size distributions) are set by the model microphysics, and therefore the specific assumptions of axis ratio and canting angle are carefully studied. Through these sensitivity studies, we hope to be able to provide uncertainties in retrieved polarimetric variables and HID as applied to CRM output. HID retrievals assign a classification to each point by determining the highest score, thereby identifying the dominant hydrometeor type within a volume. However, in nature, there is rarely just one a single hydrometeor type at a particular point. Models allow for mixing ratios of different hydrometeors within a grid point. We use the mixing ratios from CRM output in concert with the HID scores and classifications to understand how the HID algorithm can provide information about mixtures within a volume, as well as calculate a confidence in the classifications. We leverage the POLARRIS framework to additionally probe radar wavelength differences toward the possibility of a multi-wavelength HID which could utilize the strengths of different wavelengths to improve HID classifications. With

  13. The hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical processes over the Pacific Warm Pool in numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Wang, Pao K.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modeling is conducted to study the hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical source and sink processes during a quasi-steady state of thunderstorms over the Pacific Warm Pool by utilizing the microphysical model WISCDYMM to simulate selected storm cases. The results show that liquid-phase hydrometeors dominate thunderstorm evolution over the Pacific Warm Pool. The ratio of ice-phase mass to liquid-phase mass is about 41%: 59%, indicating that ice-phase water is not as significant over the Pacific Warm Pool as the liquid water compared to the larger than 50% in the subtropics and 80% in the US High Plains in a previous study. Sensitivity tests support the dominance of liquid-phase hydrometeors over the Pacific Warm Pool. The major rain sources are the key hail sinks: melting of hail and shedding from hail; whereas the crucial rain sinks are evaporation and accretion by hail. The major snow sources are Bergeron-Findeisen process, transfer of cloud ice to snow and accretion of cloud water; whereas the foremost sink of snow is accretion by hail. The essential hail sources are accretions of rain, cloud water, and snow; whereas the critical hail sinks are melting of hail and shedding from hail. The contribution and ranking of sources and sinks of these precipitates are compared with the previous study. Hydrometeors have their own special microphysical processes in the development and depletion over the Pacific Warm Pool. Microphysical budgets depend on atmospheric dynamical and thermodynamical conditions which determine the partitioning of hydrometeors. This knowledge would benefit the microphysics parameterization in cloud models and cumulus parameterization in global circulation models.

  14. Assessment of the content of arsenic in solid by-products from coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierońska Faustyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal combustion processes constitute one of the major sources of heavy metals emission into the atmosphere. From the point of view of the reduction of the emission of heavy metals and the selection of the correct exhaust gas treatment system, it is important to monitor the amount of trace elements in the solid fuels and in the solid by-products from coal combustion. One of these highly toxic elements is arsenic. The average content of arsenic in Polish hard coals and lignites is 0 ÷ 40 mg/kg [1] and 5 ÷ 15 mg/kg [2], respectively. The world average content of arsenic in hard coals and lignites, is equal to 9.0 ± 0.8 and 7.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg [3], respectively. During coal combustion processes, a significant amount of arsenic enters the atmosphere through gases and fly ashes. The proportions in which those two forms of arsenic occur in exhaust gases depend on the conditions of combustion processes [4]. The aim of the research was to determine the content of arsenic in coal blends and by-products of their combustion (slag, fly ash, gypsum, filter cakes. The determination of the arsenic quantity was performed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with the electrothermal atomization.

  15. Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg; Morsing, Merete [Department of Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, Michael; Rabier, Fabienne [Departement Genie Rural, Chee de Namur 146, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    One near infrared (NIR) reflectance and five dielectric moisture meters were tested for their capability of measuring moisture content (MC) in solid biofuels. Ninety-eight samples were tested at up to eight moisture levels covering the MC range from fresh fuel to approximately 10% MC (w.b.). The fuel types ranged from typical solid biofuels such as coniferous and deciduous wood chips over short rotation coppice (SRC) to sunflower seed and olive stones. The most promising calibrations were obtained with the NIR reflection method and two dielectric devices where the sample is placed in a container integrated in the device. The calibration equations developed show that there is a profound influence from both laboratory and fuel type. It is suggested that individual calibrations that are based on the specific fuel types used at the individual heating plant could be applied. (author)

  16. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 2.5∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 7.2∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 99mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 3.2∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 8.6∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 83mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  18. Near infrared spectral linearisation in quantifying soluble solids content of intact carambola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-04-12

    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  19. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  20. Initiation of Positive Streamers near Uncharged Ice Hydrometeors in the Thundercloud Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.

    2018-05-01

    Since the threshold electric field required for breakdown of air is much higher than the maximum field strength measured in thunderstorm clouds, the problem of lightning initiation still remains unsolved. According to the popular hypothesis, lightning can be initiated by a streamer discharge in the field enhanced near a hydrometeor. To verify the adequacy of this hypothesis, the development of a positive streamer propagating along the thunderstorm electric field in the vicinity of an ice needle at an air pressure corresponding to an altitude of 5 km (which is typical of the lightning initiation conditions) was simulated numerically. The hydrometeor dimensions are determined at which streamers can be initiated at different strengths of the thunderstorm electric field.

  1. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-07

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w(d) deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery.

  2. Influence of Ice-phase of Hydrometeors on Moist-Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    2003-01-01

    Climate models often ignore the influence of ice-phase physics (IPP) of hydrometeors as a second order effect. This has also been true for McRAS (Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa Schubert Scheme) developed by the authors. Recognizing that the temperature sounding is critical for moist-convection, and, that IPP would modify it, we investigated the influence of introducing IPP into McRAS coupled to FvGCM (finite volume General Circulation Model with NCAR physics). We analyzed three 3-yr long simulations; the first called Control Case, CC and had no IPP; the other two called Experiments El and E2 had IPP introduced with two different in-cloud freezing assumptions. Simulation El assumed that all hydrometeors remain liquid in the updraft and freeze upon detrainment. Simulation E2 invoked the in-cloud freezing of new condensate generated at subfreezing temperatures in the updraft while old cloud water continued to ascend as liquid. Upon detrainment, this cloud water also froze like in E1. With these assumptions, about 50% of hydrometeors froze in the tower and the rest froze in the anvil. However, in both El and E2, the frozen hydrometeors melted during fall at the first encounter of above freezing ambient temperature. Comparative analysis revealed that El simulated far more mid-level and far less deep clouds while E2 had modified deep and more mid-level clouds as compared to CC along with some major changes around the melt-level. We infer that IPP produced a more realistic response in E2. At the basic level, the results show that ice-phase processes influence convective detrainment at mid- and deep levels in accord with TOGAGOARE observations. The results suggest that IPP can help to mitigate less-than-observed mid-level and over-abundance of deep convective clouds in McRAS.

  3. An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A modified method with a new noise reduction scheme that can reduce the noise distribution to a narrow range is proposed to distinguish clouds and other hydrometeors from noise and recognize more features with weak signal in cloud radar observations. A spatial filter with central weighting, which is widely used in cloud radar hydrometeor detection algorithms, is also applied in our method to examine radar return for significant levels of signals. Square clouds were constructed to test our algorithm and the method used for the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program millimeter-wavelength cloud radar. We also applied both the methods to 6 months of cloud radar observations at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University and compared the results. It was found that our method has significant advantages in reducing the rates of both failed negative and false positive hydrometeor identifications in simulated clouds and recognizing clouds with weak signal from our cloud radar observations.

  4. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  5. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo, E-mail: jxliuyd@163.com [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Changbei Open and Developing District, Nanchang, 330013 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62{sup 0}Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  6. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62 0 Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  7. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  8. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of 60 Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  9. Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system. Calibration of a hail monitoring system is a difficult process. In the past, it has required comparison to another means of measuring hydrometeor size and density. Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through hail (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the second moment of the particle cloud, and hydrometeor size distribution in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rain and hail fall make indirect measurements of the drop-size distribution. Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler), vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the sixth moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain and hail yield a measurement of the DSD's second moment by way of the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required. Depending on the intensity of the hail fall rate for moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in

  10. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  11. Modeling C-band single scattering properties of hydrometeors using discrete-dipole approximation and T-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyynelae, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Goeke, Sabine; Muinonen, Karri

    2009-01-01

    We study the applicability of the discrete-dipole approximation by modeling centimeter (C-band) radar echoes for hydrometeors, and compare the results to exact theories. We use ice and water particles of various shapes with varying water-content to investigate how the backscattering, extinction, and absorption cross sections change as a function of particle radius. We also compute radar parameters, such as the differential reflectivity, the linear depolarization ratio, and the copolarized correlation coefficient. We find that using discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) to model pure ice and pure water particles at the C-band, is a lot more accurate than particles containing both ice and water. For coated particles, a large grid-size is recommended so that the coating is modeled adequately. We also find that the absorption cross section is significantly less accurate than the scattering and backscattering cross sections. The accuracy of DDA can be increased by increasing the number of dipoles, but also by using the filtered coupled dipole-option for the polarizability. This halved the relative errors in cross sections.

  12. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  13. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling multispecies processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense. Existing lower and upper bounds on linear correlation coefficients are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are populated here using a "cSigma" parameterization that we introduce based on the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: (1) the computational expense is tolerable; (2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and (3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested noninteractively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  15. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  16. Polonium content in sediments and other solid tailings generated by mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 40-166 Katowice, Pl. Gwarkow 1 (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    All legal limits or recommendations concerning NORM include only primordial radionuclides and secular equilibrium state among all decay products is assumed. This is not valid for a majority of residues from NORM industry where activity concentration of progenies can substantially differ each other. Upper Silesia Coal Basin is a unique region where mining activity is continuously done over longer period of time and this include discharging of radium-bearing water to environment and creating huge amount of solid wastes where at the beginning radium is the most dominant radionuclide. With time other daughter products start to build up and actual exposure to radiation is changing. One of them is polonium that with regard to its chemical properties can be easily accumulated in non-human biota resulting in the increase of radiation exposure. In our work we focused attention on sediments where content of {sup 210}Po was determined by chemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Chemical preparation involves organic matter destruction and dissolution of the sample itself (if possible). In our research we employed wet digestion by means of mixture of concentrated acids: HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, HCl. Later on polonium was spontaneously deposited onto silver disc and measured with use of alpha spectrometry. In this article we want to show results of our study and as well to present some conclusions concerning changes in radiation risk assessment when actual concentration of polonium is taken into consideration. (authors)

  17. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  18. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  19. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 10 BF 3 neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (α,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables

  20. STUDIES ON HIGH SOLID CONTENT AND STABLE EMULSIFIER—FREE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等

    1998-01-01

    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  1. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fall Velocities of Hydrometeors in the Atmosphere: Refinements to a Continuous Analytical Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper extends the previous research of the authors on the unified representation of fall velocities for both liquid and crystalline particles as a power law over the entire size range of hydrometeors observed in the atmosphere. The power-law coefficients are determined as continuous analytical functions of the Best or Reynolds number or of the particle size. Here, analytical expressions are formulated for the turbulent corrections to the Reynolds number and to the power-law coefficients that describe the continuous transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow around a falling particle. A simple analytical expression is found for the correction of fall velocities for temperature and pressure. These expressions and the resulting fall velocities are compared with observations and other calculations for a range of ice crystal habits and sizes. This approach provides a continuous analytical power-law description of the terminal velocities of liquid and crystalline hydrometeors with sufficiently high accuracy and can be directly used in bin-resolving models or incorporated into parameterizations for cloud- and large-scale models and remote sensing techniques.

  3. A Support Vector Machine Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm for Dual-Polarization Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Roberto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a support vector machine (SVM is proposed for hydrometeor classification. The training phase is driven by the output of a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm, i.e., the most popular approach for hydrometer classification algorithms used for ground-based weather radar. The performance of SVM is evaluated by resorting to a weather scenario, generated by a weather model; the corresponding radar measurements are obtained by simulation and by comparing results of SVM classification with those obtained by a fuzzy logic classifier. Results based on the weather model and simulations show a higher accuracy of the SVM classification. Objective comparison of the two classifiers applied to real radar data shows that SVM classification maps are spatially more homogenous (textural indices, energy, and homogeneity increases by 21% and 12% respectively and do not present non-classified data. The improvements found by SVM classifier, even though it is applied pixel-by-pixel, can be attributed to its ability to learn from the entire hyperspace of radar measurements and to the accurate training. The reliability of results and higher computing performance make SVM attractive for some challenging tasks such as its implementation in Decision Support Systems for helping pilots to make optimal decisions about changes inthe flight route caused by unexpected adverse weather.

  4. Role of updraft velocity in temporal variability of global cloud hydrometeor number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Lee, Dongmin; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how dynamical and aerosol inputs affect the temporal variability of hydrometeor formation in climate models will help to explain sources of model diversity in cloud forcing, to provide robust comparisons with data, and, ultimately, to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect. This variability attribution can be done at various spatial and temporal resolutions with metrics derived from online adjoint sensitivities of droplet and crystal number to relevant inputs. Such metrics are defined and calculated from simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1 (CAM5.1). Input updraft velocity fluctuations can explain as much as 48% of temporal variability in output ice crystal number and 61% in droplet number in GEOS-5 and up to 89% of temporal variability in output ice crystal number in CAM5.1. In both models, this vertical velocity attribution depends strongly on altitude. Despite its importance for hydrometeor formation, simulated vertical velocity distributions are rarely evaluated against observations due to the sparsity of relevant data. Coordinated effort by the atmospheric community to develop more consistent, observationally based updraft treatments will help to close this knowledge gap.

  5. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-02-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 degrees Brix (QL); 0.58 degrees Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 degrees Brix (QL); 0.34 degrees Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a

  6. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  7. Co-digestion of ruminal content and blood from slaughterhouse industries: influence of solid concentration and ammonium generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Passeggi, M; Borzacconi, L

    2006-01-01

    At the present time, organic solid wastes from industries and agricultural activities are considered to be promising substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Moreover solids stabilisation is required before reutilization or disposal. Slaughterhouses are among the most important industries in Uruguay and produce 150,000 tons of ruminal content (RC) and 30,000 tons of blood per year. In order to determine the influence of the solids and blood contents, the ammonia inhibition and the inoculum adaptation co-digestion batch tests were performed. A set of experiences with TS concentration of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% and different ratios of RC/blood were carried out using an inoculum from an UASB reactor. In all experiences fast blood hydrolisation was observed. A higher methane production was detected in the experiences with higher TS content. However, the fraction of solids degradation was lower in these experiences. A plateau in the biogas production was found. The free ammonia level, which was above the reported inhibitory levels, could explain this behaviour. After the inhibition period the biogas production restarted probably due to the biomass acclimatisation to the ammonia. In order to determine the inoculum adaptation a new experiment was performed. The inoculum used was the sludge coming from the first set of experiences. Based upon batch tests a 3.5 m3 pilot reactor was designed and started up. Ammonia inhibition was avoided by the start-up strategy and in two weeks the biogas production was 3.5 m3/d. The VS stabilisation with a solid retention time of 20 days was of 43%. The pilot reactor working at steady state had a TS concentration of 3-4% with a ratio of RC/blood of 10:1 at the entrance.

  8. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  9. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  10. Analysis of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Atmospheric Hydrometeors on Low-Elevation Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter wave bands is analyzed by means of experimental measurement of received signal fluctuations on terrestrial radio links operating in frequency bands 58, 94 and 122 GHz. Long-term time series of the received signal are processed to obtain annual and two-year cumulative distributions of attenuation due to hydrometeors. The measured statistics give the attenuation higher than predicted by the model of the Recommendation ITU-R P.530. Rain intensity measured simultaneously with rain attenuation is used to obtain fitted parameters of an attenuation/intensity power-law relationship. The empirical data extracted from the experiment are compared with the results of numerical simulations of attenuation due to rain and hailstones.

  11. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  12. Thermomagnetic method to determine cobalt content in solid WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanov, V.I.; Loshakov, A.L.; Korchakova, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermomagnetic method of cobalt amount determination in tungsten solid alloys is suggested. The method consists in the following: a sample of solid alloy is placed in a magnetic field sufficient to achieve technical saturation (not less than 10 kOe), and specific magnetization of saturation of the alloy σ is determined, then the sample is heated and according to the curves of magnetic permeability dependence on the temperature the Curie point of the alloy THETA is determined and cobalt amount is calculated by the formula qsub(Co)=σ100/(kTHETA+b). The analysis duration is approximately 30 min. Comparative data of cobalt amount determination in solid alloys WC-Co using thermonagnetic and potentiometric methods are presented. Results obtained by thermomagnetic and chemical method are in good agreement. Efficiency of the thermomagnetic method is much higher

  13. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  15. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  16. Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2010-02-15

    Phenolic compounds, extractable from grape skins and seeds, have a notable influence on the quality of red wines. Many studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between the phenolic composition of the grape at harvest time and its influence on the phenolic composition of the red wine produced. In many previous works the evolution of phenolic composition and relative extractability was normally studied on grapes sampled at different times during ripening, but at the same date the physiological characteristics of grape berries in a vineyard are often very heterogeneous. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to investigate the differences among mechanical properties, phenolic composition and relative extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv Barbera grape berries, harvested at the same date from several vineyards, and calibrated according to their density at three levels of soluble solids (A=235+/-8, B=252+/-8 and C=269+/-8 g L(-1) sugar) with the aim of studying the influence of ripeness stages and growing locations on these parameters. Results on mechanical properties showed that the thickness of the berry skin (Sp(sk)) was the parameter most affected by the different level of sugars in the pulp, while different skin hardnesses, evaluated by the break skin force (F(sk)), were related to the cultivation sites. The latter were also observed to influence the mechanical characteristics of seeds. Generally, the anthocyanin content increased with the level of soluble solids, while the increase in the tannin content of the berry skin and seeds was less marked. However, significant changes in flavanols reactive to vanillin in the seeds were found. The cellular maturity index (EA%) was little influenced by the soluble solids content of grapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  18. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  19. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was

  20. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  1. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  2. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horttanainen, M.; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose

  3. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  4. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  5. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer.

  7. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  8. Kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic impacts of hook-echo hydrometeors, including explorations into the utilization of polarimetric radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Mark Anthony

    Recent studies have revealed that the thermodynamic properties of the rear flank downdraft (RFD) may dictate whether or not a supercell becomes tornadic. Since hydrometeors are thought to be an important driving force for the RFD, it is postulated that they may be important to its thermodynamic properties and, possibly, to tornadogenesis. The role hook-echo hydrometeors play in driving RFDs is investigated by estimating hook-echo hydrometeor types and amounts from polarimetric radar data and by using that information to drive a relatively simple downdraft model. Soundings for the individual cases are used to initialize the downdraft model in order to replicate the environments of the storms as closely as possible. Since this effort and others like it require the quantitative utilization of radar data, issues pertaining to this are explored. In addition to analyses of coordinate transformation equations and an innovative objective analysis technique for weather radar data, the difficult problem of response functions for arbitrary weight functions and data distributions was considered. A novel approach to this problem revealed that the local response function for distance dependent weighted averaging schemes is the complex conjugate of the normalized Fourier transform of the effective weight function. This facilitates new research avenues, especially regarding analyses of irregularly spaced data. Simulations of hydrometeor driven RFDs show that hydrometeor fields inferred from radar data are able to drive significant downdrafts without the influence of vertical perturbation pressure gradients. Moreover, they reveal that above the boundary layer supercell environments are relatively resistant to downdrafts whereas within the boundary layer they are generally supportive of downdrafts. It appears that in many supercell environments relatively large hail (≥1 cm in diameter) or vertical perturbation pressure gradients may be needed to drive deep midlevel downdrafts that

  9. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications.

  10. Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with high water content for improving energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Ming; Ma, Zhong-He; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing; He, Pin-Jing

    2010-07-01

    Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential were investigated. The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size bio-drying, they were still below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy metal pollution potential was observed. Different incineration strategies could be adopted for different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their combustibility and pollution property. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of total solids content and initial pH on batch biohydrogen production by solid substrate fermentation of agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ortega-Clemente, L Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Salazar-Montoya, J Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Hydrogen is a valuable clean energy source, and its production by biological processes is attractive and environmentally sound and friendly. In México 5 million tons/yr of agroindustrial wastes are generated; these residues are rich in fermentable organic matter that can be used for hydrogen production. On the other hand, batch, intermittently vented, solid substrate fermentation of organic waste has attracted interest in the last 10 years. Thus the objective of our work was to determine the effect of initial total solids content and initial pH on H2 production in batch fermentation of a substrate that consisted of a mixture of sugarcane bagasse, pineapple peelings, and waste activated sludge. The experiment was a response surface based on 2(2) factorial with central and axial points with initial TS (15-35%) and initial pH (6.5-7.5) as factors. Fermentation was carried out at 35 °C, with intermittent venting of minireactors and periodic flushing with inert N2 gas. Up to 5 cycles of H2 production were observed; the best treatment in our work showed cumulative H2 productions (ca. 3 mmol H2/gds) with 18% and 6.65 initial TS and pH, respectively. There was a significant effect of TS on production of hydrogen, the latter decreased with initial TS increase from 18% onwards. Cumulative H2 productions achieved in this work were higher than those reported for organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and mixtures of OFMSW and fruit peels waste from fruit juice industry, using the same process. Specific energetic potential due to H2 in our work was attractive and fell in the high side of the range of reported results in the open literature. Batch dark fermentation of agrowastes as practiced in our work could be useful for future biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could influence the management of this type of agricultural wastes in México and other countries and regions as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing beryllium content in mixed bed solid-type breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimwell, J., E-mail: mail@jshimwell.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Lilley, S.; Morgan, L.; Packer, L.; Kovari, M.; Zheng, S. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McMillan, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The ratio of breeder ceramic to neutron multiplier of breeder blankets was varied linearly with depth. • Blankets with varying composition were found to perform better than uniform composition breeder blankets. • It was also possible to reduce the amount of beryllium required by the blanket. - Abstract: Beryllium (Be) is a precious resource with many high value uses, the low energy threshold (n,2n) reaction makes Be an excellent neutron multiplier for use in fusion breeder blankets. Estimates of Be requirements and available resources suggest that this could represent a major supply difficulty for solid-type blanket concepts. Reducing the quantity of Be required by breeder blankets would help to alleviate the problem to some extent. In addition, it is important that the reduction in the Be quantity does not diminish the blanket's performance in key aspects such as the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), energy multiplication and peak nuclear heating. Mixed pebble bed designs allow for the multiplier fraction to be varied throughout the blanket. This neutronics study used MCNP 6 to investigate linear variations of the multiplier fraction in relation to blanket depth, in order to better utilise the important multiplying Be(n,2n) and breeding reactions. Blankets with a uniform multiplier fraction showed little scope for reduction in Be mass. Blankets with varying multiplier fractions were able to simultaneously use 10% less Be, increase the energy amplification by 1%, reduce the peak heating by 7% and maintaining a sufficient TBR when compared to the performance achievable using a uniform composition.

  13. The effect of gadolinium content on the thermal conductivity of near-stoichiometric (U,Gd)O2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, S.; Ohmichi, T.; Maeda, A.; Watanabe, H.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of near-stoichiometric (U, Gd)O 2 solid solutions containing CdOsub(1.5) up to 15 mol% were determined in the temperature range 700 to 2000 K from thermal diffusivities measured by the laser flash method. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivities up to around 1600 K could be expressed by the phonon conduction equation K = (A + BT) -1 . The thermal conductivity decreased gradually with an increase of gadolinium content. Thermal resistivities caused by lattice defects were calculated from a theoretical model considering U 4+ , U 5+ and Gd 3+ ions as phonon scattering centers. It was found that this model was in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculation based on this model indicates that the lattice strain effect on the lattice defect thermal resistivity is much larger than the mass effect. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA 9 ) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg -1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg -1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  16. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  17. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  18. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  19. New explicit equations for the accurate calculation of the growth and evaporation of hydrometeors by the diffusion of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. C.; Coen, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional explicit growth equation has been widely used to calculate the growth and evaporation of hydrometeors by the diffusion of water vapor. This paper reexamines the assumptions underlying the traditional equation and shows that large errors (10-30 percent in some cases) result if it is used carelessly. More accurate explicit equations are derived by approximating the saturation vapor-density difference as a quadratic rather than a linear function of the temperature difference between the particle and ambient air. These new equations, which reduce the error to less than a few percent, merit inclusion in a broad range of atmospheric models.

  20. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  1. Enhanced treatment efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for cassava stillage with high solids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2009-06-01

    Cassava stillage is a high strength organic wastewater with high suspended solids (SS) content. The efficiency of cassava stillage treatment using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was significantly enhanced by discharging settled sludge to maintain a lower sludge concentration (about 30 g/L) in the reactor. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs), namely 10 d, 7.5 d, 5 d, were evaluated at this condition. The study demonstrated that at an HRT of 5 d and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.3 kg COD/(m(3) d), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency can still be maintained at above 80%. The settleability of digested cassava stillage was improved significantly, and thus only a small amount of settled sludge needed to be discharged to maintain the sludge concentration in the reactor. Furthermore, the performance of ASBR operated at low and high sludge concentration (about 79.5 g/L without sludge discharged) was evaluated at an HRT of 5 d. The TCOD removal efficiency and SS in the effluent were 61% and 21.9 g/L respectively at high sludge concentration, while the values were 85.1% and 2.4 g/L at low sludge concentration. Therefore, low sludge concentration is recommended for ASBR treating cassava stillage at an HRT 5 d due to lower TCOD and SS in the effluent, which could facilitate post-treatment.

  2. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  3. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  5. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  6. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  7. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  8. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  9. A case study of microphysical structures and hydrometeor phase in convection using radar Doppler spectra at Darwin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Luke, Edward; Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang

    2017-07-28

    To understand the microphysical processes that impact diabatic heating and cloud lifetimes in convection, we need to characterize the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water. To address this observational challenge, vertically pointing active sensors at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site are used to classify cloud phase within a deep convective cloud in a shallow to deep convection transitional case. The cloud cannot be fully observed by a lidar due to signal attenuation. Thus we develop an objective method for identifying hydrometeor classes, including mixed-phase conditions, using k-means clustering on parameters that describe the shape of the Doppler spectra from vertically pointing Ka band cloud radar. This approach shows that multiple, overlapping mixed-phase layers exist within the cloud, rather than a single region of supercooled liquid, indicating complexity to how ice growth and diabatic heating occurs in the vertical structure of the cloud.

  10. A case study of microphysical structures and hydrometeor phase in convection using radar Doppler spectra at Darwin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, J. M.; Luke, E.; Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2017-01-01

    To understand the microphysical processes that impact diabatic heating and cloud lifetimes in convection, we need to characterize the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water. To address this observational challenge, ground-based vertically pointing active sensors at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site are used to classify cloud phase within a deep convective cloud. The cloud cannot be fully observed by a lidar due to signal attenuation. Therefore, we developed an objective method for identifying hydrometeor classes, including mixed-phase conditions, using k-means clustering on parameters that describe the shape of the Doppler spectra from vertically pointing Ka-band cloud radar. Furthermore, this approach shows that multiple, overlapping mixed-phase layers exist within the cloud, rather than a single region of supercooled liquid. Diffusional growth calculations show that the conditions for the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process exist within one of these mixed-phase microstructures.

  11. A case study of microphysical structures and hydrometeor phase in convection using radar Doppler spectra at Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimaki, L. D.; Comstock, J. M.; Luke, E.; Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2017-07-01

    To understand the microphysical processes that impact diabatic heating and cloud lifetimes in convection, we need to characterize the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water. To address this observational challenge, ground-based vertically pointing active sensors at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site are used to classify cloud phase within a deep convective cloud. The cloud cannot be fully observed by a lidar due to signal attenuation. Therefore, we developed an objective method for identifying hydrometeor classes, including mixed-phase conditions, using k-means clustering on parameters that describe the shape of the Doppler spectra from vertically pointing Ka-band cloud radar. This approach shows that multiple, overlapping mixed-phase layers exist within the cloud, rather than a single region of supercooled liquid. Diffusional growth calculations show that the conditions for the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process exist within one of these mixed-phase microstructures.

  12. The effect of solid content on silylated-γ-AI2O3/PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Su; Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Several PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 -coated PE (polyethylene) separators with various solidities (various compositions of PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 ) were prepared by a dip-coating of PE separators in PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 /acetone mixtures. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the chemical reactions between silane coupling agent and γ-AI 2 O 3 . The SEM images of the coated separators showed that various morphologies could be produced by changing the composition of total contents of binder and solid contents. The effects of composition in inorganic material (silane coupling agent-treated γ-AI 2 O 3 ) and binder (PVDF-HFP) on the physio-chemical properties of the prepared separators such as liquid electrolyte uptake, and ion conductivity were investigated and reported in this paper

  13. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... °C with increasing conversion degree. Increased conversion degree from the blend to products, measured by X-ray with addition of 50% of rapeseed oil for dilution, caused the content of â to decrease from 100% to 33%, and 30% and eventually to pure ⢠crystal. However, double chain packing...

  14. Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin-the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannow, J; Benjamins, J-W; Wohlert, J

    2017-01-01

    to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled...... into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading....

  15. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  16. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Effect of W content in solid solution on properties and microstructure of (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bin; Xiong, Weihao, E-mail: whxiong@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Man; Jing, Yong; Li, Baolong; Luo, Haifeng; Wang, Shengqing

    2016-08-15

    (Ti{sub 1-x}W{sub x})C solid solutions (x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35) were synthesized by carbothermal reduction and then were used as hard phases to prepare (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets by vacuum sintering. (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets showed weak core-rim structure carbide particles embedded in Ni{sub 3}Al binder. As W content in (Ti,W)C increased, core-rim structure of carbide particles got weaker and the contrast of particles lowered down in SEM-BSE morphologies. Furthermore, the densification of cermets was promoted with W content in solid solution increasing, meanwhile TRS and toughness of cermets were improved obviously. In this paper, the wettability of molten metal on different group transition metal carbides was discussed in detail based on valence-electron configurations (VECs) of carbides. - Highlights: • (Ti{sub 1-x}W{sub x})C solid solutions were synthesized by carbothermal reduction. • (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets were prepared through powder metallurgy route. • The increase of W can improve wetting and densification significantly. • (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets showed a weak core-rim structure particles embedded in binder. • Wetting behavior were discussed from valence-electron configurations of carbides.

  19. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  1. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  2. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Precipitating Ice Hydrometeors on Longwave Radiative Effect Estimated by a Global Cloud-System Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Wen; Seiki, Tatsuya; Kodama, Chihiro; Satoh, Masaki; Noda, Akira T.

    2018-02-01

    Satellite observation and general circulation model (GCM) studies suggest that precipitating ice makes nonnegligible contributions to the radiation balance of the Earth. However, in most GCMs, precipitating ice is diagnosed and its radiative effects are not taken into account. Here we examine the longwave radiative impact of precipitating ice using a global nonhydrostatic atmospheric model with a double-moment cloud microphysics scheme. An off-line radiation model is employed to determine cloud radiative effects according to the amount and altitude of each type of ice hydrometeor. Results show that the snow radiative effect reaches 2 W m-2 in the tropics, which is about half the value estimated by previous studies. This effect is strongly dependent on the vertical separation of ice categories and is partially generated by differences in terminal velocities, which are not represented in GCMs with diagnostic precipitating ice. Results from sensitivity experiments that artificially change the categories and altitudes of precipitating ice show that the simulated longwave heating profile and longwave radiation field are sensitive to the treatment of precipitating ice in models. This study emphasizes the importance of incorporating appropriate treatments for the radiative effects of precipitating ice in cloud and radiation schemes in GCMs in order to capture the cloud radiative effects of upper level clouds.

  4. On levels unconditional declassification of solid materials with very low radioactive content and downloads liquids and gases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide aims to establish radiological criteria for declassification (waiver) of the radioactive material of radiological regulatory control and levels unconditional clearance for solid materials and the authorized discharge limits for liquids and gases to the environment that meet these criteria for exposure scenarios acceptably conservative. This Guide to radioactive waste from the apply industrial, medical and research, which they will be managed as waste conventional. This guidance excludes from its scope the option of recycling and reuse of materials that have been declassified and wastes arising from activities and practices which naturally occurring radionuclides present are.

  5. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Determination of aromatic fragment content in phenol-containing fractions of solid fuel conversion products using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    Optimum conditions are determined for obtaining quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C spectra of fragments in phenol-containing fraction of coal products. Causes are analyzed of residual signals in spectra of un-protonized carbon atoms. The tests were carried out on: low-temperature carbonization tar and phenol fraction obtained during medium-temperature coking of Cherenkhovskii coal (which contains 84.13% C; 9.68% H; 1.23% S; 4.96% O); products of tar hydrogenation with various phenol content; standard phenol mixture. It was found that quantitative determination of aromatic fraction content in coal conversion products and other phenol- and amine-containing complex mixtures, using NMR spectroscopy requires the addition of dimethylsulfide or acetone in order to suppress specific interactions of phenols (amines) with relaxants and obtain quantitative subspectra of Tertiary and Quaternary aromatic carbon atoms. 16 references.

  7. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  8. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  9. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  10. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  11. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  12. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  13. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande; Tao, Yang

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

  14. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r 2 ) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r 2 of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples

  15. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, Naeem, E-mail: naeem.saqib@oru.se; Bäckström, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.backstrom@oru.se

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  16. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  17. Novel Insight for Organic Matter Sourcing: Interest of Time Resolved Fluorescence to Qualify and Quantify PAH Content of Solid Matrix at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Perrette, Y.; Jacq, K.; Pousset, E.; Plassart, G.

    2017-12-01

    OM fluorescence is today a well-developed tool used to characterize and quantify organic matter (OM), but also to evaluate and discriminate OM fate and changes related to climate and environmental modifications. While fluorescence measurements on water and soils extracts provide information about organic fluxes today, solid phase fluorescence using natural archives allows to obtain high resolution records of OM evolution during time. These evolutions can be discussed in regards of climate and environmental perturbations detected in archives using different proxies, and thus provide keys for understanding factors driving carbon fluxes mechanisms. Among fluorescent organic species, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) have been used as probe molecules for organic contamination tracking. Moreover, monitoring studies have shown that PAH could also be used as markers to discriminates atmospheric and erosion factors leading to PAH and organic matter fluxes to the aquifer. PAH records in soils and natural archives appear as a promising proxy to follow both past atmospheric contamination and soil erosion. But, PAH fluorescence is difficult to discriminate from bulk OM fluorescence using steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technics as their fluorescence domains recover. Time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) increases the information provided by SSF technic, adding a time dimension to measurements and allowing to discriminate PAH fluorescence. We report here a first application of this technic on natural archives. The challenge is to obtain TRES signature along the sample, including for low PAH concentrations. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of high resolution TRES measurement as PAH carbon fluxes sources. Method is based on LIF instrument for solid phase fluorescence measurement. An instrument coupling an excitation system constituting by 2 pulsed lasers (266 and 355 nm) and a detection system was developed. This measurement provides high resolution record of

  18. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  20. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A bi-layer model for nondestructive prediction of soluble solids content in apple based on reflectance spectra and peel pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Li, Jiangbo; Wang, Qingyan; Fan, Shuxiang; Huang, Wenqian

    2018-01-15

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was used to investigate the effect of various peel colors on soluble solids content (SSC) prediction model and build a SSC model insensitive to the color distribution of apple peel. The SSC and peel pigments were measured, effective wavelengths (EWs) of SSC and pigments were selected from the acquired hyperspectral images of the intact and peeled apple samples, respectively. The effect of pigments on the SSC prediction was studied and optimal SSC EWs were selected from the peel-flesh layers spectra after removing the chlorophyll and anthocyanin EWs. Then, the optimal bi-layer model for SSC prediction was built based on the finally selected optimal SSC EWs. Results showed that the correlation coefficient of prediction, root mean square error of prediction and selected bands of the bi-layer model were 0.9560, 0.2528 and 41, respectively, which will be more acceptable for future online SSC prediction of various colors of apple. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Extraction and Determination of Ellagic Acid Content in the Peels of Six Iranian Pomegranates Cultivars Using a New Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Nazari Serenjeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:The peels of six Iranian pomegranates (Punica granatum L. cultivars, as a traditional medicine, were treated with a new miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD method for the HPLC determination of ellagic acid (EA. Materials and Methods:In the proposed method, only 10mg of the sample powder was ground and blended with an equal amount of C18 sorbent in an agate mortar. The use of the agate mortar with smooth surface facilitated the sample transfer into a cartridge and reduced the required amount of sample and sorbent. Micro volumes of dichloromethane, n-hexane and methanol were used as modifier, washing and elution solvents, respectively. The eluate was injected into an HPLC-UV system for the analysis. Results:Several factors such as the type and amount of dispersing sorbent, modifier, washing solvent and eluent were carefully studied and optimized. Six replicated analyses at the optimized conditions resulted in a recovery of 96.7% and a relative standard deviation of 5.87%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of EA in the peels samples. Conclusion:According to the ultimate results, the MSPD method is an efficient technique for the quantitative extraction of EA from the peels of pomegranate. Malas cultivar has the highest amount (18.1 g kg-1 of ellagic acid content compared to the other studied pomegranate cultivars.

  3. A Ground-Based Doppler Radar and Micropulse Lidar Forward Simulator for GCM Evaluation of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Moving Forward Towards an Apples-to-apples Comparison of Hydrometeor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect of evaluating Artic cloud representation in a general circulation model (GCM) consists of using observational benchmarks which are as equivalent as possible to model output in order to avoid methodological bias and focus on correctly diagnosing model dynamical and microphysical misrepresentations. However, current cloud observing systems are known to suffer from biases such as limited sensitivity, and stronger response to large or small hydrometeors. Fortunately, while these observational biases cannot be corrected, they are often well understood and can be reproduced in forward simulations. Here a ground-based millimeter wavelength Doppler radar and micropulse lidar forward simulator able to interface with output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE GCM is presented. ModelE stratiform hydrometeor fraction, mixing ratio, mass-weighted fall speed and effective radius are forward simulated to vertically-resolved profiles of radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectrum width as well as lidar backscatter and depolarization ratio. These forward simulated fields are then compared to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ground-based observations to assess cloud vertical structure (CVS). Model evalution of Arctic mixed-phase cloud would also benefit from hydrometeor phase evaluation. While phase retrieval from synergetic observations often generates large uncertainties, the same retrieval algorithm can be applied to observed and forward-simulated radar-lidar fields, thereby producing retrieved hydrometeor properties with potentially the same uncertainties. Comparing hydrometeor properties retrieved in exactly the same way aims to produce the best apples-to-apples comparisons between GCM ouputs and observations. The use of a comprenhensive ground-based forward simulator coupled with a hydrometeor classification retrieval algorithm provides a new perspective for GCM evaluation of Arctic mixed

  4. Statistics-based optimization of the polarimetric radar hydrometeor classification algorithm and its application for a squall line in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chong; Liu, Liping; Wei, Ming; Xi, Baozhu; Yu, Minghui

    2018-03-01

    A modified hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA) is developed in this study for Chinese polarimetric radars. This algorithm is based on the U.S. operational HCA. Meanwhile, the methodology of statistics-based optimization is proposed including calibration checking, datasets selection, membership functions modification, computation thresholds modification, and effect verification. Zhuhai radar, the first operational polarimetric radar in South China, applies these procedures. The systematic bias of calibration is corrected, the reliability of radar measurements deteriorates when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, and correlation coefficient within the melting layer is usually lower than that of the U.S. WSR-88D radar. Through modification based on statistical analysis of polarimetric variables, the localized HCA especially for Zhuhai is obtained, and it performs well over a one-month test through comparison with sounding and surface observations. The algorithm is then utilized for analysis of a squall line process on 11 May 2014 and is found to provide reasonable details with respect to horizontal and vertical structures, and the HCA results—especially in the mixed rain-hail region—can reflect the life cycle of the squall line. In addition, the kinematic and microphysical processes of cloud evolution and the differences between radar-detected hail and surface observations are also analyzed. The results of this study provide evidence for the improvement of this HCA developed specifically for China.

  5. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  6. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  7. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  8. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Copolimerização em emulsão de acetato de vinila e acrilato de butila com alto teor de sólidos High solid contents semi-batch emulsion copolymerization of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Palma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a influência da concentração de uma mistura dos emulsificantes nonilfenol etoxilado e sulfato sódico de nonilfenol etoxilado (não iônico e iônico, respectivamente e concentração de protetor coloidal, poli (álcool vinílico na estabilidade coloidal de látices do copolímero acetato de vinila (AV/acrilato de butila (AB com alto teor de sólidos. Foram determinados o teor de sólidos e o tamanho médio das partículas ao longo da reação e foram obtidas as viscosidades das emulsões finais. Os ensaios foram realizados de acordo com um projeto fatorial com 3 níveis de concentração de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal. Foi verificado que são necessárias maiores quantidades relativas de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal pela massa total de monômeros para se obter látices estáveis com teores de sólidos de 70 e 73% (m/m. Os tamanhos médios das partículas no final de cada ensaio foram relativamente elevados (800 a 1000 nm e as viscosidades a 20°C relativamente baixas (500 mPa.s para teor de sólidos de 67% (m/m; para teor de sólidos de 70% (m/m as viscosidades variaram de 5.000 a 10.000 mPa.s e para teor de sólidos de 73% (m/m a viscosidade foi de 365.000 mPa.s.In this work the influence of the concentration of ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether sodium sulfate, and non-ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, surfactants mixture and of protective colloid (polyvinyl alcohol on the colloidal stability of high solid contents butyl acrylate/vinyl acetate copolymers latexes was investigated. Solid contents and particle diameter were determined along the reaction and, at the end of each run, also the emulsion viscosity. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial design with three levels of surfactant and protective colloid concentrations. Higher amounts of surfactant and protective colloid per total monomers were required for the colloidal stability of emulsions with total solid

  10. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  11. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition.

  13. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C–S–H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 °C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C–S–H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO) 0.99 –SiO 2 –(Al 2 O 3 ) 0.06 –(H 2 O) 0.97 , d = (2.73 ± 0.02) g/cm 3 ) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 ± 1.5) cm 3 of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  14. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Nande, Marta; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae) is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain) and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD), and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition. PMID:29039745

  15. Effects of carbon source and carbon content on electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C prepared by one-step solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xuebu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066 (China); Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Lin Ziji [China National Quality Supervision and Inspection Center for Alcoholic Beverage Products and Processed Food, Luzhou, Sichuan 646100 (China); Yang Kerun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hua, Yongjian [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang, Henan 471009 (China); Deng Zhenghua, E-mail: zhdeng@cioc.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A simple route to prepare the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C by one-step solid-state reaction. > Carbon source and carbon content are two important factors on the electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. > As-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C under optimized conditions shows excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were synthesized by one-step solid-state reaction method using four commonly used organic compounds or organic polymers as carbon source, i.e., polyacrylate acid (PAA), citric acid (CA), maleic acid (MA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The physical characteristics of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, particle size distribution and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry techniques. Their electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectra, constant current charge-discharge and rate charge-discharge. These analyses indicated that the carbon source and carbon content have a great effect on the physical and electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. An ideal carbon source and appropriate carbon content effectively improved the electrical contact between the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles, which enhanced the discharge capacity and rate capability of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. PAA was the best carbon source for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. When the carbon content was 3.49 wt.% (LiOH.H{sub 2}O/PAA molar ratio of 1), as-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C showed the maximum discharge capacity. At 0.2 C, initial capacity of the optimized sample was 168.6 mAh g{sup -1} with capacity loss of 2.8% after 50 cycles. At 8 and 10 C, it showed discharge capacities of 143.5 and 132.7 mAh g{sup -1}, with capacity loss of 8.7 and 9.9% after 50 cycles

  16. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Gui Zhou University, Guiyang 550000 (China); Zhang, Weiwen, E-mail: mewzhang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  17. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and needle-like Al 3 (FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al 7 Cu 2 (FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and Al 3 (FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve

  18. Beyond rain: Advances in measurements of solid or mixed phase precipitation using a 2D-Video-Distrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinzerl, Martin; Schönhuber, Michael; Lammer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    The requirement to estimate for each individual hydrometeor precipitation parameters such as shape, equi-voluminous diameter, fall velocity, height to width ratio, and canting angle gave rise to the development of the family of 2D-Video-Distrometer (2DVD) measurement devices. The measurement principle of the 2DVD is based upon the ability to acquire a side- and front view onto each particle by virtue of two orthogonally arranged high-speed line-scan cameras. The cameras are displaced vertically towards each other by a precisely determined distance in the ballpark of 6 mm, thus allowing the estimation of the vertical fall velocity in-situ on a per-particle basis. The geometrical and velocity information, sampled over a measurement surface of approx. 100 x 100 mm in this way, is then used to derive observables like rain rate and the accumulated equivalent amount of precipitation with a high degree of statistical relevance. One of the biggest assets of this measurement principle is the ability to perform measurements without relying on any externally provided model or phenomenological relationship between observables like particle shape and velocity. For liquid precipitation in the form of natural rain, this allows for example to verify whether established relationships - like, for example, the tabulated values for diameter vs. vertical velocity provided by Gunn & Kinzer - can be reproduced in sampled datasets. For mixed-phase and solid precipitation, different types of hydrometeors like for example different snow flake families, hail and graupel yield - depending on parameters like for example the water content and therefor, in turn, the density of the particle - very diverse results with respect to expected fall velocity, oblateness, or general shape for a given diameter class. The ability of the 2DVD to capture these parameters directly and without reliance on externally provided relationships, has contributed to the attractiveness of this measurement device for in

  19. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-09

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  20. Produtividade e teor de sólidos solúveis de frutos de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Yield and soluble solids contents of fruits of strawberry cultivars in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo protegido é uma alternativa para controlar variações climáticas em diferentes locais e épocas de plantio, entretanto, seus efeitos e interações com a cultura do morangueiro ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de três sistemas de cultivo (túnel alto, túnel baixo e a campo na produtividade, massa média de frutos e no teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos das cultivares de morango Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande em Guarapuava-PR. Quanto à produtividade e massa média de frutos, a cultivar Camarosa foi a melhor nos cultivos em túnel, tanto alto quanto baixo, pelo seu excelente desempenho. Os frutos da cultivar Sweet Charlie apresentaram o maior teor de sólidos solúveis nos três ambientes de cultivo. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos foram significativamente superiores nos cultivos em túneis, alto e baixo, quando comparados ao cultivo a campo. O ambiente que propiciou maior acúmulo de sólidos solúveis nos frutos foi o túnel alto, diferindo significativamente dos demais ambientes de cultivo.Protected cultivation is an alternative to control the climatic effects in different places and times of planting, however, its effects and interactions with the strawberry crop are little known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of three cropping systems (high tunnel, low tunnel and field on yield, mean fruit mass and the soluble solids contents of strawberry cultivars Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie and Oso Grande in Guarapuava. Camarosa cultivar presents an excellent performance regarding yield and mean fruit mass in high and low tunnel cultivation; hence, these cropping system can be indicated. Fruits of Sweet Charlie cultivar had the highest content of soluble solids in all the cultivation environments. Yield and mean fruit mass obtained from high and low tunnels were significantly higher than in the field. The environment high tunnel allowed

  1. Preparation of the Pt/CNTs Catalyst and Its Application to the Fabrication of Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Containing a Low Content of Trans Fatty Acids Using the Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanyu; Ding, Yangyue; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Cui, Yueting; Han, Jianchun; Zhu, Xiuqing; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou; Liu, Lilai

    2018-08-01

    Pt/CNTs were synthesized with an ethylene glycol reduction method, and the effects of carboxyl functionalization, ultrasonic power and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid on the catalytic activity of Pt/CNTs were investigated. The optimal performance of the Pt/CNTs catalyst was obtained when the ultrasonic power was 300 W and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid was 40 mg/mL. The durability and stability of the Pt/CNTs catalyst were considerably better compared to Pt/C, as shown by cyclic voltammetry measurement results. The trans fatty acids content of the obtained hydrogenated soybean oil (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) using Pt/CNTs as the cathode catalyst in a solid polymer electrolyte reactor was only 1.49%. The IV of hydrogenated soybean oil obtained using CNTs as carrier with Pt loading 0.1 mg/cm2 (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) was lower than carbon with a Pt loading of 0.8 mg/cm2 (IV: 109.9 gl2/100 g oil). Thus, to achive the same IV, the usage of Pt was much less when carbon nanotubes were selected as catalyst carrier compared to traditional carbon carrier. The changes of fatty acid components and the hydrogenated selectivity of octadecenoic acid were also discussed.

  2. Multiscale Analysis of the Water Content Output the NWP Model COSMO Over Switzerland and Comparison With Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, D.; Gires, A.; Berne, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The resolution of operational numerical prediction models is typically of the order of a few kilometres meaning that small-scale features of precipitation can not be resolved explicitly. This creates the need for representative parametrizations of microphysical processes whose properties should be carefully analysed. In this study we will focus on the COSMO model which is a non-hydrostatic limited-area model, initially developed as the Lokal Model and used operationally in Switzerland and Germany. In its operational version, cloud microphysical processes are simulated with a one-moment bulk scheme where five hydrometeor classes are considered: cloud droplets, rain, ice crystals, snow, and graupel. A more sophisticated two-moment scheme is also available. The study will focus on two case studies: one in Payerne in western Switzerland in a relatively flat region and one in Davos in the eastern Swiss Alps in a more complex terrain.The objective of this work is to characterize the ability of the COSMO NWP model to reproduce the microphysics of precipitation across temporal and spatial scales as well as scaling variability. The characterization of COSMO outputs will rely on the Universal Multifractals framework, which allows to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variabile over a wide range of scales with the help of a reduced number of parameters. First COSMO outputs are analysed; spatial multifractal analysis of 2D maps at various altitudes for each time steps are carried out for simulated solid, liquid, vapour and total water content. In general the fields exhibit a good quality of scaling on the whole range of available scales (2 km - 250 km), but some loss of scaling quality corresponding to the emergence of a scaling break are sometimes visible. This behaviour is not found at the same time or at the same altitude according to the water state and does not necessarily spread to the total water content. It is interpreted with the help of the underlying

  3. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  4. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  5. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  6. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  7. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  8. Production of improved infant porridges from pearl millet using a lactic acid fermentation step and addition of sorghum malt to reduce viscosity of porridge with high protein, energy and solids (30%) content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaoge, ML

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving the safety and nutritional quality of traditional African weaning porridge, the reduction of the viscosity of high solids fermented pearl millet porridge by addition of sorghum malt (amylase rich flour, ARF...

  9. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  10. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  11. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  12. Characterization of carbonaceous solids by oxygen chemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.; Duguay, D.G.; McConnell, D.G.; Henson, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Oxygen chemisorption of high and low carbon carbonaceous solids was measured in an electro-microbalance at 200 degrees C in air. A linear correlation between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and H/C ratio as well as aromaticity was established for the high carbon solids. For the low carbon solids a linear correlation was established between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and the content of organic matter. Experimental observations are discussed in terms of structural aspects of the solids. Oxygen chemisorption is a suitable technique for a rapid characterization of carbonaceous solids including coal. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  14. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  15. (ajst) intersystem interference due to hydrometeor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    telecommunication services and to expand existing ones continues to receive ..... Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy for travel support and the facilities used in ... Commission of the European Communities on Cooperation in the Fields of ...

  16. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  17. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  18. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  19. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  20. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  1. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  2. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  3. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  4. Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Alice A.; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants? initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4?35?months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-...

  5. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  6. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  7. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  8. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  9. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575 deg. C is covered for ash content.

  10. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  11. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  12. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  13. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  14. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  16. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  17. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  18. Efeito do teor de sólidos e da concentração de sacarose na acidificação, firmeza e viabilidade de bactérias do iogurte e probióticas em leite fermentado Effect of total solids and sucrose contents on acidity, firmness and viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricê N. Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Doze lotes de leites fermentados foram preparados a 42ºC nos quais as variáveis estudadas foram o teor de sólidos totais (12 e 15%, o teor de sacarose (0% e 8% e o tipo de co-cultura (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Parâmetros cinéticos para a diminuição do pH até 4,5 foram calculados. Determinações físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas após um e sete dias de armazenamento dos produtos a 4ºC. Com o aumento do teor de sólidos totais e adição de sacarose, a atividade de água do leite diminuiu e o tempo para atingir pH 4,5 variou conforme a co-cultura empregada. Os leites fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. acidphilus (STLA apresentaram pós-acidificação mais acentuada. Aqueles fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. rhamnosus (STLR foram mais estáveis. Os leites contendo maiores teores de sólidos totais foram aqueles com maior acidez total independente da co-cultura usada. Com o aumento do teor de sacarose e de sólidos solúveis houve um aumento da firmeza usando-se as co-culturas STLR e STLA. Após sete dias, o número de bactérias do iogurte e as probióticas não variou significativamente. Em todos os lotes, o número de bactérias probióticas ficou acima do sugerido pela literatura.Twelve batches of fermented milk were prepared at 42ºC where the studied variables were total solids content (12 and 15%, sucrose concentration (0 and 8%, and co-culture type (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Kinetic parameters to decrease pH until 4.5 were calculated. Physico-chemical and microbiological determinations were carried out on products after 1 and 7 days of storage at 4ºC. The increase in total solids and

  19. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  20. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  1. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  2. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Waste derived fuels such as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are increasingly being used in the cement industry as a means to reduce cost [1]. SRF is produced by separating the combustible fraction from industrial or municipal solid waste (MSW). The recovered fraction has a higher content of combustibl...

  3. A MOSSBAUER STUDY ON SOLID KRYPTON PRECIPITATES IN ALUMINUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L

    1993-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy on the 9.40 keV transition Kr-83 is used to obtain information about solid Kr precipitates in Al. Three different (RbI)-Rb-83 sources differing in water content were used, which, when measured against a solid Kr absorber, show a quadrupole component in addition to a dominating

  4. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A numerical cloud model to interpret the isotope content of hailstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouzel, J.; Brichet, N.; Thalmann, B.; Federer, B.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of the isotope content of hailstones are frequently used to deduce their trajectories and updraft speeds within severe storms. The interpretation was made in the past on the basis of an adiabatic equilibrium model in which the stones grew exclusively by interaction with droplets and vapor. Using the 1D steady-state model of Hirsch with parametrized cloud physics these unrealistic assumptions were dropped and the effects of interactions between droplets, drops, ice crystals and graupel on the concentrations of stable isotopes in hydrometeors were taken into account. The construction of the model is briefly discussed. The resulting height profiles of D and O 18 in hailstones deviate substantially from the equilibrium case, rendering most earlier trajectory calculations invalid. It is also seen that in the lower cloud layers the ice of the stones is richer due to relaxation effects, but at higher cloud layers (T(a) 0 C) the ice is much poorer in isotopes. This yields a broader spread of the isotope values in the interval 0>T(a)>-35 0 C or alternatively, it means that hailstones with a very large range of measured isotope concentrations grow in a smaller and therefore more realistic temperature interval. The use of the model in practice will be demonstrated

  6. Introduction of solid food to young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2011-11-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4-35 months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-sampled. Analyses in this report include bivariate tests and logistic regressions. 62% of parents reported introducing solids to their child between 4-6 months of age. African-American mothers (OR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]), English-speaking Latino mothers (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.7]), White mothers with more than high school education (OR=0.5 [0.2, 1.0]), and mothers who breastfed for 4 months or longer (OR=0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) were less likely to introduce solids early. Most parents (92%) of children 4-9 months of age reported that their pediatric provider had discussed introduction of solids with them since the child's birth, and provider discussion of feeding was not associated with the timing of introduction of solids. Although most parents recall discussing the introduction of solid foods with their child's physician, several subgroups of mothers introduce solid foods earlier than the AAP recommendation of 4-6 months. More effective discussion of solid food introduction linked to counseling and support of breastfeeding by the primary health care provider may reduce early introduction of solids.

  7. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  8. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  9. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    additional details are provided below as recommendations. From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system; Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid; The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future; Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing; Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  10. Description of solid waste expected from a large commercial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keely, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Both low-level and high-level solid wastes generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are characterized in this paper with respect to source, quantity, content, radioactivity, potential volume reduction, and transuranic content

  11. Efeito do composto de resíduo sólido urbano no teor de metais pesados em solo e goiabeira Effect of the urban solid waste compost in the heavy content of metals in soil and guava orchard (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Santos Collier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no município de Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ com o objetivo de avaliar as várias formas dos metais Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn em solo Gleissolo pouco húmico tratado com composto de resíduos urbanos, e as concentrações desses metais nas folhas e nos frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.. Foram utilizadas três áreas com históricos distintos: área que recebeu doses de 40 t.ha¹ de composto de resíduo sólido urbano (CRSU na superfície por onze anos consecutivos; área com uma única aplicação de CRSU na cova; e área-controle que não utilizou CRSU e sem goiabeiras. As amostras de solo foram tomadas dentro de cada área, nas camadas de 05; 515 e 1530 cm. A extração seqüencial dos metais contidos nas amostras (05 cm de terra demonstrou uma tendência de redução das formas móveis ou mais biodisponíveis de metais pesados no solo com uso do CRSU. Houve aumento nos teores de metais pesados em folhas e frutos de goiabeira cultivadas em áreas que receberam CRSU; porém os teores obtidos estavam dentro da faixa considerada normal. Há necessidade de monitoramento dos teores totais de metais no solo e nas plantas, devido ao incremento dos teores de metais pesados em solos tratados com CRSU.The work was performed in the municipal district of Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State and had as objective to obtain information on the contents of chemical forms of Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil Gleissolo pouco húmico treated with composted urban residues, and the concentrations in the leaves and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.. Three areas with different land use history were used: area that received doses of 40 t.ha¹ of composted of urban solid residue (CRSU in the surface for eleven consecutive years; area with only one application of CRSU in the hole; and control area, with no guava and no CRSU. The soil samples were taken from each area, in the layers of 05, 515 and 15-30 cm. The sequential extraction of

  12. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  13. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Halbheer, Daniel; Stahl, Florian; Koenigsberg, Oded; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  14. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, EKRE

    2000-01-01

    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site,

  15. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  16. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  17. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  19. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  20. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  1. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  2. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  4. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  5. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  6. 16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expression. The net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of weight or mass, measure, numerical... consumers. The net quantity of contents statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the commodity is liquid, or in terms of weight or mass if the commodity is solid, semi-solid, or viscous, or a mixture of...

  7. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  8. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  9. Laboratory test investigations on soil water characteristic curve and air permeability of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianyong; Wu, Xun; Ai, Yingbo; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-05-01

    The air permeability coefficient has a high correlation with the water content of municipal solid waste. In this study, continuous drying methodology using a tension meter was employed to construct the soil water characteristic curve of municipal solid waste (M-SWCC). The municipal solid waste air permeability test was conducted by a newly designed apparatus. The measured M-SWCC was well reproduced by the van Genuchten (V-G) model and was used to predict the parameters of typical points in M-SWCC, including saturated water content, field capacity, residual water content and water content at the inflection point. It was found that the M-SWCC was significantly influenced by void ratio. The final evaporation and test period of M-SWCC increase with the increase in void ratio of municipal solid waste. The evolution of air permeability coefficient with water content of municipal solid waste depicted three distinct characteristic stages. It was observed that the water contents that corresponded to the two cut-off points of the three stages were residual water content and water content at the inflection point, respectively. The air permeability coefficient of municipal solid waste decreased with the increase of the water content from zero to the residual water content. The air permeability coefficient was almost invariable when the water content increased from residual water content to the water content at the inflection point. When the water content of municipal solid waste exceeded the water content at the inflection point, the air permeability coefficient sharply decreased with the increase of water content.

  10. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  11. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  12. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  14. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  15. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  16. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  17. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  18. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  19. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  20. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  1. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  2. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  3. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  4. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  5. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  6. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  7. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  8. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  9. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  10. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  11. The Influence of Biopolym FTZ on the Content of Nitrogen Compounds in Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Petrášková; Jana Hnisová; Bohuslav Čermák; Šoch Miloslav; Bohuslav Vostoupal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of Biopolym FZT on the crude protein in the ruminal content. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions. Rumen content was removed from the Holstein breed cow fitted with ruminal fistula. The hydrolyzed brown seaweed was added to the samples of the ruminal content. After incubation of the samples the crude protein content was determined. In experiments with solid ruminal contents positive effects of Biopolym on the crude protein conten...

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  13. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  14. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  16. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  17. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  18. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  20. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  1. Evaluation of radar reflectivity factor simulations of ice crystal populations from in situ observations for the retrieval of condensed water content in tropical mesoscale convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fontaine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evaluation of a technique to estimate cloud condensed water content (CWC in tropical convection from airborne cloud radar reflectivity factors at 94 GHz and in situ measurements of particle size distributions (PSDs and aspect ratios of ice crystal populations. The approach is to calculate from each 5 s mean PSD and flight-level reflectivity the variability of all possible solutions of m(D relationships fulfilling the condition that the simulated radar reflectivity factor (T-matrix method matches the measured radar reflectivity factor. For the reflectivity simulations, ice crystals were approximated as oblate spheroids, without using a priori assumptions on the mass–size relationship of ice crystals. The CWC calculations demonstrate that individual CWC values are in the range ±32 % of the retrieved average CWC value over all CWC solutions for the chosen 5 s time intervals. In addition, during the airborne field campaign performed out of Darwin in 2014, as part of the international High Altitude Ice Crystals/High Ice Water Content (HAIC/HIWC projects, CWCs were measured independently with the new IKP-2 (isokinetic evaporator probe instrument along with simultaneous particle imagery and radar reflectivity. Retrieved CWCs from the T-matrix radar reflectivity simulations are on average 16 % higher than the direct CWCIKP measurements. The differences between the CWCIKP and averaged retrieved CWCs are found to be primarily a function of the total number concentration of ice crystals. Consequently, a correction term is applied (as a function of total number concentration that significantly improves the retrieved CWC. After correction, the retrieved CWCs have a median relative error with respect to measured values of only −1 %. Uncertainties in the measurements of total concentration of hydrometeors are investigated in order to calculate their contribution to the relative error of calculated CWC with respect to

  2. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  3. Branded content infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  4. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  5. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  6. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  7. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  8. A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca

    1997-01-01

    A solid tissue phantom made of agar, Intralipid and black ink is described and characterized. The preparation procedure is fast and easily implemented with standard laboratory equipment. An instrumentation for time-resolved transmittance measurements was used to determine the optical properties of the phantom. The absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients are linear with the ink and Intralipid concentrations, respectively. A systematic decrease of the reduced scattering coefficient dependent on the agar content is observed, but can easily be managed. The phantom is highly homogeneous and shows good repeatability among different preparations. Moreover, agar inclusions can be easily embedded in either solid or liquid matrixes, and no artefacts are caused by the solid - solid or solid - liquid interfaces. This allows one to produce reliable and realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with known optical properties, particularly interesting for studies on optical imaging through turbid media. (author)

  9. [Amylase production by Aureobasidium pullulans in liquid and solid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, P B; Forchiassin, F; Segovia de Huergo, M B

    1997-01-01

    Amylase production by a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated in the laboratory was evaluated in liquid media (complex and synthetic) and in solid medium (wheat bran). There was an inhibitory effect in amylase production or amylase secretion by glucose. Asparagine was the best nitrogen source for amylase production (4-6 g/l). Only chlamidospores and melanin but not, amylase activity, were obtained with ammonium sulfate. Amylase production in solid culture was higher than the production obtained in the liquid media assayed. Optimum initial moisture content in solid culture ranged between 57 and 74%. No difference was observed in amylase production between solid media inoculated with cells grown in liquid or solid media.

  10. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  11. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  12. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Feng; Bo Cui; Dongsheng Yang; Chunxin Wang; Zhanghua Zeng; Yan Wang; Changjiao Sun; Xiang Zhao; Haixin Cui

    2016-01-01

    The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w) screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion ...

  14. A Model of the Effect of the Microbial Biomass on the Isotherm of the Fermenting Solids in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Celuppi Marques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare isotherms for soybeans and soybeans fermented with Rhizopus oryzae, showing that in solid-state fermentation the biomass affects the isotherm of the fermenting solids. Equations are developed to calculate, for a given overall water content of the fermenting solids, the water contents of the biomass and residual substrate, as well as the water activity. A case study, undertaken using a mathematical model of a well-mixed bioreactor, shows that if water additions are made on the basis of the assumption that fermenting solids have the same isotherm as the substrate itself, poor growth can result since the added water does not maintain the water activity at levels favorable for growth. We conclude that the effect of the microbial biomass on the isotherm of the fermenting solids must be taken into account in mathematical models of solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  15. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  17. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  18. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  1. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  2. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  3. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  4. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  5. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  6. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  7. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  8. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  9. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  10. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  11. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  12. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  16. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  17. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  18. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  19. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  20. METHODS OF CONTENTS CURATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kukharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.

  1. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  2. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  3. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  4. Assessment of radionuclide contents in food in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Baseline values of concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra/ 232 Th, 210 Pb) and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co) in food and drinks (tap water, milk, and water-based drinks) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. All food and drinks were found to contain detectable 40 K contents: 0.1 to 160 Bq Kg -1 for food and 0.006 to 61 Bq L -1 for drinks. Most of the other natural radionuclides in solid food were found to have contents below the minimum detectable activities (MDA). More samples in the leafy vegetable, tomato, carrot and potato categories contained detectable amounts of 228 Ra than the meat, cereal, and fish categories, with concentrations up to 1.2 Bq kg -1 for the former categories and 0.35 Bq kg -1 for the latter categories. The 238 U and 226 Ra radionuclides were detectable in most of the water-based drink samples, and the 228 Ra and 210 Pb radionuclides were detectable in fewer water-based drink samples. The 137 Cs contents in solid food were detectable in most of the solid food samples (reaching 0.59 Bq kg -1 ), but in drinks the 137 Cs contents were very low and normally lower than the MDA values. Nearly all the 60 Co contents in food and drinks were below the MDA values and their contents were below those of 137 Cs

  5. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process....... The asphaltene content of the different oil samples were determined by the TP 143 method. The standard asphaltenes and the solid organic deposit recovered from the swelling tests were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC-SEC and H-1 NMR. The aim of these analyses is to reveal the molecular nature of the deposits formed...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  6. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  7. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  8. Microspheres with ultrahigh holmium content for radioablation of malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Krijger, G C; Visser, T; Kroon-Batenburg, L M J; Bakker, C J G; Hennink, W E; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  9. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; Van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  10. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  11. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  13. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  14. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  15. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  16. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  17. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  18. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  1. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  2. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  3. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  4. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  5. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  6. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  7. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  8. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  9. Deuteron NMR and modelling in solid polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deuteron NMR techniques are described and some recent applications to the study of rotational motions in solid polymers are reviewed. The information content and the domain of applicability of each technique are presented. Ultra-slow motions are studied in real time without any motional model consideration. For very fast motions, computer molecular dynamics simulations are shown to complement the NMR results. Experimental examples deal with the chain motion in the crystalline α-phase of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and nylon 6,6

  10. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  11. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  12. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  13. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  14. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  15. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  16. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of the 7. international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.

    2007-09-01

    The proceedings content more than 100 articles in different fields: interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects, interaction of plasma with surfaces, modification of properties of materials, creation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies

  17. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  19. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  20. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  1. Large particles increase viscosity and yield stress of pig cecal contents without changing basic viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    The viscosity of gut contents should influence digestion and absorption. Earlier investigators measured the viscosity of intestinal contents after the removal of solid particles. However, we previously found that removal of solid particles from pig cecal contents dramatically lowered the viscosity of the contents. Accordingly, we examined the contribution of large solid particles to viscoelastic parameters of gut contents in the present study. We removed large particles from pig cecal contents by filtration through surgical gauze. Then, we reconstructed the cecal contents by returning all, one half or none of the original amount of the large particles to the filtrate. We measured the viscosity, shear stress and shear rate of these reconstructed cecal contents using a tube-flow viscometer. The coefficient of viscosity was larger when the large-particle content was higher (P Bingham plastic nature irrespective of large-particle content. We calculated the yield stress of these fluids assuming that the fluids behave as Bingham plastic. The yield stress of the cecal contents was greater (P Bingham plastic characteristics to pig cecal contents.

  2. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  3. Sampling hydrometeors in clouds in-situ - the replicator technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Heike; Löffler, Mareike; Griesche, Hannes; Bühl, Johannes; Stratmann, Frank; Schmitt, Carl; Dirksen, Ruud; Reichardt, Jens; Wolf, Veronika; Kuhn, Thomas; Prager, Lutz; Seifert, Patric

    2017-04-01

    For the examination of ice crystals in clouds, concerning their number concentrations, sizes and shapes, often instruments mounted on fast flying aircraft are used. One related disadvantage is possible shattering of the ice crystals on inlets, which has been improved with the introduction of the "Korolev-tip" and by accounting for inter-arrival times (Korolev et al., 2013, 2015), but additionally, the typically fast flying aircraft allow only for a low spatial resolution. Alternative sampling methods have been introduced as e.g., a replicator by Miloshevich & Heymsfield (1997) and an in-situ imager by by Kuhn & Heymsfield (2016). They both sample ice crystals onto an advancing stripe while ascending on a balloon, conserving the ice crystals either in formvar for later off-line analysis under a microscope (Miloshevich & Heymsfield, 1997) or imaging them upon their impaction on silicone oil (Kuhn & Heymsfield, 2016), both yielding vertical profiles for different ice crystal properties. A measurement campaign was performed at the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) in Germany in October 2016, during which both types of instruments were used during balloon ascents, while ground-based Lidar and cloud-radar measurements were performed simultaneously. The two ice particle sondes were operated by people from the Lulea University of Technology and from TROPOS, where the latter one was made operational only recently. Here, we will show first results of the TROPOS replicator on ice crystals sampled during one ascent, for which the collected ice crystals were analyzed off-line using a microscope. Literature: Korolev, A., E. Emery, and K. Creelman (2013), Modification and tests of particle probe tips to mitigate effects of ice shattering, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 30, 690-708, 2013. Korolev, A., and P. R. Field (2015), Assessment of the performance of the inter-arrival time algorithm to identify ice shattering artifacts in cloud particle probe measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8(2), 761-777, doi:10.5194/amt-8-761-2015. Kuhn, T., and A. J. Heymsfield (2016), In situ balloon-borne ice particle imaging in high-latitude cirrus, Pure Appl. Geophys., 173(9), 3065-3084, doi:10.1007/s00024-016-1324-x. Miloshevich, L. M., and A. J. Heymsfield (1997), A balloon-borne continuous cloud particle replicator for measuring vertical profiles of cloud microphysical properties: Instrument design, performance, and collection efficiency analysis, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14(4), 753-768, doi:10.1175/1520-0426(1997)0142.0.co;2.

  4. Retrieval of hydrometeors from microwave radiances with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    typically represents the vertical structure of rain, ice and clouds and may ... the quality of the retrieval algorithm is directly connected to: ... forward model is available in an earlier article by the first three ... The angular variation of radia- ... (6) where σx is the one sigma error bar in x and xret is the mean x of the posterior PDF.

  5. Trustworthy content push

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, Nicolai; Schmidt, Andreas U.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of content to mobile devices gains increasing importance in industrial environments to support employees in the field. An important application are e-mail push services like the fashionable Blackberry. These systems are facing security challenges regarding data transport to, and storage of the data on the end user equipment. The emerging Trusted Computing technology offers new answers to these open questions.

  6. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  7. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...

  8. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  9. Comparison of solid food markers in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    In studies of gastric emptying of solid foods, it is essential that the radiolabel remain firmly bound to the food to trace its behavior. Initial studies with radiolabeled solid meals suffered from the apparent dissociation of the radiolabel from the solid food and actually traced the liquid phase of the gastric contents rather than the solid phase. This problem was eventually overcome by the introduction of technetium-99m-sulfur colloid labeled in vivo chicken liver, in which the radiocolloid is believed to the trapped intracellularly in the chicken liver. Although the in vivo chicken liver gives good results clinically, many patients do not care for chicken liver, and the agent requires the housing and slaughtering of live chickens, a process for which most Nuclear Medicine departments are not equipped. Some alternative radiolabeled solid foods have been evaluated for their stability in vitro and the best of these were then compared in vivo in normal subjects. When tested in vitro, the firmest label for solid food appears to be in vivo chicken liver, although Tc-ovalbumin-egg and Tc-sulfur colloid egg are almost as stable. Evaluation of solid food labels in vitro should be done in gastric juice, not HCl. Based on the studies of normal subjects, Tc-sulfur colloid-egg is equivalent to in vivo chicken liver for gastric emptying studies. In addition, it is more convenient to prepare, and has better patient acceptance

  10. The Influence of Biopolym FTZ on the Content of Nitrogen Compounds in Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of Biopolym FZT on the crude protein in the ruminal content. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions. Rumen content was removed from the Holstein breed cow fitted with ruminal fistula. The hydrolyzed brown seaweed was added to the samples of the ruminal content. After incubation of the samples the crude protein content was determined. In experiments with solid ruminal contents positive effects of Biopolym on the crude protein content was shown. The best results were achieved at the dilution of 1:2000.

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  12. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  13. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K

    1990-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  15. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  16. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  17. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  18. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  19. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  20. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  1. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  3. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  4. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  5. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  6. Solid-phase spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Marchenko, D.Yu.; Shpigun, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS), which is based on the direct measurement of light absorption of an ion exchanger containing a substance of interest, was reviewed. Since 1976, it has been known that aborbance of an ion exchanger is directly proportional to the concentration of a particular ion in solution. A similar dependence can also be followed for other sorbents, as well as for foams, membranes, films, etc., which do not exhibit ion exchange properties. One can use absorption, diffuse reflection, and luminescence spectra parameters as an analytical signal. Thus, SPS of ion exchangers is among the analytical techniques that combine the sorption concentration and surface determination of the substance of interest. This review summarizes the advancements in SPS over the last six years and demonstrates the prospects for its development. Special attention is paid to experimental methods for measuring solid-phase absorption and to the basic procedures of sample preparation, including new ones. These two facets are of great importance for obtaining precise results and extending the capabilities of SPS

  7. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  8. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  9. Efecto de surfactantes polimerizables en la distribución de tamaño de partícula, pH, viscosidad, contenidos de sólidos y de monómero residual de una resina estireno-butilacrilato Effect of polymerizable surfactants on particle size distribution, pH, viscosity, contents of solids and residual monomer of a styrene-butylacrylate resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la polimerización en emulsión de una resina acrílica estirenada usando surfactantes polimerizables, los cuales presentan ventajas técnicas como baja formación de espuma, alta resistencia de la película al contacto con agua y buena estabilidad en la polimerización. Se evaluó el efecto de estos surfactantes polimerizables en la distribución de tamaños de partícula de la resina; además se determinaron propiedades finales de la resina tales como porcentaje de sólidos, porcentaje de monómero libre, viscosidad y pH. Estos resultados se compararon con los obtenidos usando surfactantes convencionales no polimerizables del tipo alquil fenol etoxilado y alquilarilpoliglicol éter sulfato de sodio. Los resultados indican que que se pueden remplazar totalmente los surfactantes convencionales no polimerizables por los surfactantes poliméricos evaluados sin afectar significativamente las propiedades de la resina, mientras que la sustitución parcial de los surfactantes no polimerizables por los polimerizables induce, en algunos casos, a la formación de partículas con mayor tamaño a las presentes en la muestra estándar.Results on the emulsion polymerization of a styrenated acrylic resin using polymerizable surfactants are presented. These surfactants exhibit low foaming, high film strength upon contact with water and good stability in the polymerization. A comparison was made with results for conventional non-polymerizable alkyl aryl polyglycol ether sulphate, sodium salt and nonylphenolethoxylate surfactants. The effect of these polymerizable surfactants on the particle size distribution of the resin was evaluated; in addition to determining the final properties of the resin such as solids content, free monomer content, viscosity and pH. It is feasible to totally replace non-polymerizable surfactants by the polymerizable surfactants evaluated without affecting significantly the properties of the resin, while

  10. Simultaneous analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel using complex neutron gamma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrovskij, V.P.; Ajtsev, N.I.; Ryashchikov, V.I.; Frolov, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on complex neutron gamma method for simultaneous analysis of carbon content, ash content and humidity of solid fuel according to gamma radiation of inelastic fast neutron scattering and radiation capture of thermal neutrons. Metrological characteristics of pulse and stationary neutron gamma methods for determination of qualitative solid fuel parameters were analyzed, taking coke breeze as an example. Optimal energy ranges of gamma radiation detection (2-8 MeV) were determined. The advantages of using pulse neutron generator for complex analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel in large masses were shown

  11. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  13. Studies on the irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, D.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Irradiated Solids laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities concern the investigations on disordered solids (chemical or structural disorder). The disorder itself, its effects on the material physical properties and the particle-matter interactions, are investigated. The research works are performed in the following fields: solid state physics, irradiation and stoechiometric defects, and nuclear materials. The scientific reviews, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  14. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  15. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  16. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  17. Solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, J

    2001-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) uses a small volume of sorbent dispersed typically on the surface of small fibres, to isolate and concentrate analytes from sample matrix. After contact with sample, analytes are absorbed or adsorbed by the fibre phase (depending on the nature of the coating) until an equilibrium is reached in the system. The amount of an analyte extracted by the coating at equilibrium is determined by the magnitude of the partition coefficient of the analyte between the sample matrix and the coating material. After the extraction step, the fibres are transferred, with the help of a syringe-like handling device, to analytical instrument, for separation and quantitation of target analytes. This technique integrates sampling, extraction and sample introduction and is a simple way of facilitating on-site monitoring. Applications of this technique include environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, process monitoring, clinical, forensic, food, flavour, fragrance and drug analyses, in laboratory and on-site analysis.

  18. Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Risø National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 °C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6A/cm2 with app. 30% H2 + 70% H2O in the inlet...... it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US$/kg H2 with an electricity price of 1.3 US¢/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test ofabout two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 °C, -0.5 A/cm2 with 50 vol% H2 the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h...

  19. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  20. Solid hydrogen structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Unites, W.G.; Mapoles, E.R.; Magnotta, F.; Bernat, T.P.

    1994-11-01

    The J=0->2 Raman signal from solid J=0 D 2 or H 2 reveals HCP structure when deposited at a rate 0.1 ≤ R(μ/min) ≤ 40 onto MgF 2 at T d /T tp > 0.3, a mixture of HCP and FCC crystals at 0.2 d /T tp d /T tp tp is the triple point temperature. Non-HCP crystals transform to HCP continuously and irreversibly with increasing T. Finally, the crystal size decreases with decreasing T d and increasing R, from ∼ 1 mm at T d ∼ 0.8 T tp and R ∼ 2 μ/min to ∼ 1 μm at 0.25 T tp and R ∼ 40 μ/min

  1. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...... of SPME were examined for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, and a standard method for their quantitative analysis in aqueous samples was developed and validated in inter-laboratory studies on the basis of reference material and in comparison with the traditional methods....... The influences of some possible interferences on the SPME process were examined, and new SPME probes were tested for the in situ monitoring of groundwater pollutants. Inter-laboratory studies were carried out also for the validation of SPME for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organonitrogen...

  2. Atomistic Properties of Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Sirdeshmukh, Dinker B; Subhadra, K G

    2011-01-01

    The book deals with atomistic properties of solids which are determined by the crystal structure, interatomic forces and atomic displacements influenced by the effects of temperature, stress and electric fields. The book gives equal importance to experimental details and theory. There are full chapters dedicated to the tensor nature of physical properties, mechanical properties, lattice vibrations, crystal structure determination and ferroelectricity. The other crystalline states like nano-, poly-, liquid- and quasi crystals are discussed. Several new topics like nonlinear optics and the Rietveld method are presented in the book. The book lays emphasis on the role of symmetry in crystal properties. Comprehensiveness is the strength of the book; this allows users at different levels a choice of chapters according to their requirements.

  3. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  4. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  5. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  6. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  7. Linking precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture content for the improvement of predictability over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios are expected to show an intensification of the hydrological cycle together with modifications of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content. Evapotranspiration changes have been already evidenced for the end of the 20th century. The variance of evapotranspiration has been shown to be strongly related to the variance of precipitation over land. Nevertheless, the feedbacks between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and precipitation have not yet been completely understood at present-day. Furthermore, soil moisture reservoirs are associated to a memory and thus their proper initialization may have a strong influence on predictability. In particular, the linkage between precipitation and soil moisture is modulated by the effects on evapotranspiration. Therefore, the investigation of the coupling between these variables appear to be of primary importance for the improvement of predictability over the continents. The coupled manifold (CM) technique (Navarra and Tribbia 2005) is a method designed to separate the effects of the variability of two variables which are connected. This method has proved to be successful for the analysis of different climate fields, like precipitation, vegetation and sea surface temperature. In particular, the coupled variables reveal patterns that may be connected with specific phenomena, thus providing hints regarding potential predictability. In this study we applied the CM to recent observational datasets of precipitation (from CRU), evapotranspiration (from GIMMS and MODIS satellite-based estimates) and soil moisture content (from ESA) spanning a time period of 23 years (1984-2006) with a monthly frequency. Different data stratification (monthly, seasonal, summer JJA) have been employed to analyze the persistence of the patterns and their characteristical time scales and seasonality. The three variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. Interestingly, most of the signal of the

  8. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  9. [Effect of stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles using solid dispersion technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Teng; Shi, Feng; Yang, Gang; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2013-09-01

    To improve the stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles by solid dispersion. Using polyethylene glycol 6000 and poloxamer-188 as carriers, the solid dispersions were prepare by melting method. XRD, microscopic inspection were used to determine the status of realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions. The content and stability test of As(2)0(3) were determined by DDC-Ag method. Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the content of Arsenic and investigated the in vitro dissolution behavior of solid dispersions. The results of XRD and microscopic inspection showed that realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions were amorphous. The dissolution amount and rate of Arsenic from realgar nano-particles of all solid dispersions were increased significantly, the reunion of realgar nano-particles and content of As(2)0(3) were reduced for the formation of solid dispersions. The solid dispersion of realgar nano-particles with poloxamer-188 as carriers could obviously improve stability, dissolution and solubility.

  10. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  11. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  12. The calcium oxide influence on formation of manganese, calcium pyrovanadate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatolin, N.A.; Volkova, P.I.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.; Ovchinnikova, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The X-ray graphic, derivatographic, microscopic and chemical methods are used to study solid solutions of manganese, calcium pyrovanadates containing 1-10 mass% CaO and the products of interaction of reprocessing charges of vanadium-containing converter slags intended for he formation of manganese and calcium pyrovanadates with additions of calcium oxide within 10-90 mass%. It is established that in the case of 1-6 mass% CaO content in manganese pyrovanadate solid interstitial solutions appear, while at 6-20 mass% CaO - solid substitution solutions form. The results of calculating elementary cell parameters as well as melting temperatures and pyrovanadate solid solution solubility depending on CaO content are presented. The best solubility of introduction solid solutions during vanadium extraction according to the lime technology is found

  13. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total sugar and the brown color were increased. However, pH was decreased during the fermentation period. Furthermore, contents of total free amino acids in low-salt solid-state ...

  14. A combined SEM and CV Study of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Ofoegbu, Stanley; Mikkelsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to investigate the high temperature oxidation behavior of two solid oxide fuel cell interconnect steels. One alloy had a low content of manganese; the other alloy had a high content of manganese. Four reduction and four oxidation peaks...

  15. A numerical investigation of the influence of radiation and moisture content on pyrolysis and ignition of a leaf-like fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; C.W. Lautenberger; David Weise

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thermal radiation and moisture content on the pyrolysis and gas phase ignition of a solid fuel element containing high moisture content were investigated using the coupled Gpyro3D/FDS models. The solid fuel has dimensions of a typical Arctostaphylos glandulosa leaf which is modeled as thin cellulose subjected to radiative heating on...

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lithium Ion Conduction of the LiBH4–LiI Solid Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Blanchard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The LiBH4–LiI solid solution is a good Li+ conductor and a promising crystalline electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium based batteries. The focus of the present work is on the effect of heat treatment on the Li+ conduction. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25–50% were synthesized by high...

  17. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  18. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  19. Effect of dried solids of nejayote on broiler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Martinez, M; Angulo, O; Vazquez-Couturier, D L; Arroyo-Lara, A; Monroy-Rivera, J A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the suitability of the solids of nejayote (a waste product from the tortilla industry) in diets for broilers. The nejayote was obtained from two different tortilla-making factories and the solids were obtained by centrifuge then dried in a hot-air drier. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous according to the NRC dietary requirements (1994). Nejayote solids were supplemented at 2, 4, and 6% of the diet. Results show that the content of protein and calcium in the dried solids of nejayote were 5 and 13%, respectively. The performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dried nejayote did not differ from that of those fed the control diet. Therefore, it is concluded that nejayote solids are suitable for broiler feed and do not affect growth performance. Utilization of nejayote solids at higher levels is a possibility provided that no adverse effects on body weight, feed utilization, and feed:gain ratios are observed.

  20. Ethyl Carbamate Formation Regulated by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonconventional Yeasts in Solid-State Fermentation of Chinese Moutai-Flavor Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Song, Zhewei; Xu, Yan

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to identify specific microorganisms related to the formation of precursors of EC (ethyl carbamate) in the solid-state fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavor liquor. The EC content was significantly correlated with the urea content during the fermentation process (R 2 = 0.772, P solid-state fermentation can be controlled using lactic acid bacteria and nonconventional yeasts.

  1. Solid state fermentation of carinata (Brassica carinata) meal using various fungal strains to produce a protein-rich product for feed application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the efficacy of several fungal strains to reduce GLS (GLS) content and enhance protein content during solid state fermentation (SSF) of carinata meal was evaluated. Solid state fermentation of hexane extracted (HE) and cold pressed (CP) carinata meals were performed at 50% moisture co...

  2. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  3. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  5. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  7. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely bee...

  8. Potential of solid waste utilization as source of refuse derived fuel (RDF) energy (case study at temporary solid waste disposal site in West Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Lindu, M.; Denita, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to measure the volume of solid waste generated as well asits density, composition, and characteristics, to analyze the potential of waste in TPS to become RDF materials and to analyze the best composition mixture of RDF materials. The results show that the average of solid waste generation in TPS reaches 40.80 m3/day, with the largest percentage of its share is the organic waste component of 77.9%, while the smallest amount of its share is metal and rubber of 0.1%. The average water content and ash content of solid waste at the TPS is 27.7% and 6.4% respectively, while the average calorific potential value is 728.71 kcal/kg. The results of solid waste characteristics comparison at three TPS indicate thatTPS Tanjung Duren has the greatest waste potential to be processed into RDF materials with a calorific value of 893.73 kcal/kg, water content level of 24.6%, andlow ash content of 6.11%. This research has also shown that the best composition for RDF composite materials is rubber, wood, and textile mixtureexposed to outdoor drying conditions because it produced low water content and low ash content of 10.8% and 9.6%, thus optimizedthe calorific value of 4,372.896 kcal/kg.

  9. Containment analysis for Type B packages used to transport various contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents sample containment analyses and examples of leakage rate calculations for Type B packages used to transport various contents. Samples of acceptance standard leakage rates are developed for specific contents types at normal transport conditions and at hypothetical accident conditions. The leakage rates are expressed as allowable standard leakage rates. The type of contents considered include: (1) powders, (2) liquids, (3) irradiated fuel rods, (4) gases, and (5) solids

  10. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... strategic decisionsto move courses online however, some teachers involved are not well equippedto transition. The barriers are reported to be time constraints and a lack offamiliarity with the technology to make video. Also, there is a fear of the‘presented self’ where teachers may initially resent the idea...... do not secure theintegrity of the learning. This paper sets out the methods used to assist teacherstake the maximum benefit of their existing content as presentation style lecturesand utilize them for video recording suitable for both flipped and online classes.A central theme is removing the fear...

  11. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  12. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  13. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  14. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  15. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  16. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  17. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T

    2003-01-01

    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  18. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  19. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  20. Concepts in solids lectures on the theory of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Philip Warren

    1964-01-01

    These lecture notes constitute a course on a number of central concepts of solid state physics - classification of solids, band theory, the developments in one-electron band theory in the presence of perturbation, effective Hamiltonian theory, elementary excitations and the various types of collective elementary excitation (excitons, spin waves and phonons), the Fermi liquid, ferromagnetic spin waves, antiferromagnetic spin waves and the theory of broken symmetry. The book can be used in conjunction with a survey course in solid state physics, or as the basis of a first graduate-level course.

  1. Isostructural solid-solid transition of (colloidal) simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, C.F.; Daanoun, A.; Lakkerkerker, H.N.W.; Baus, M.

    1995-01-01

    A variational approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality is used in order to evaluate the free energy of simple fluids described by a double-Yukawa pair potential. A hard-sphere reference fluid is used to describe the fluid phases, and an Einstein reference crystal to describe the solid phases. Apart from the usual type of phase diagram, typical of atomic simple fluids with long-ranged attractions, we find two types of phase diagrams, specific to colloidal systems with intermediate and short-ranged attractions. One of the latter phase diagrams exhibits an isostructural solid-solid transition, which has not yet been observed experimentally

  2. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  3. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  4. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  5. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspension versus commercial solutions for dermal delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Karine; Cantiéni, Céline; Bertholle, Valérie; Bardel, Claire; Pirot, Fabrice; Falson, Françoise

    2011-09-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles have been reported as possible carrier for skin drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles are produced from biocompatible and biodegradable lipids. Solid lipid nanoparticles made of semi-synthetic triglycerides stabilized with a mixture of polysorbate and sorbitan oleate were loaded with 5% of minoxidil. The prepared systems were characterized for particle size, pH and drug content. Ex vivo skin penetration studies were performed using Franz-type glass diffusion cells and pig ear skin. Ex vivo skin corrosion studies were realized with a method derived from the Corrositex(®) test. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions were compared to commercial solutions in terms of skin penetration and skin corrosion. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions have been shown as efficient as commercial solutions for skin penetration; and were non-corrosive while commercial solutions presented a corrosive potential. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions would constitute a promising formulation for hair loss treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  8. Mobilization and mixing of settled solids in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted using submerged jets for the mobilization and mixing of settled solids to form a suspension that can easily be removed from storage tanks. These studies focus on the specific problems relating to horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks. Of primary consideration are the storage tanks located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory which are used for the collection of remote-handled, radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes are in two phases. A layer of undissolved, settled solids varying from 2 to 4 feet in depth under a layer of supernate. Using a surrogate of the tank contents and an approximate 2/3 dimensional scale tank, tests were performed to determine the optimum design and location of suction and discharge nozzles as well as the minimum discharge velocity required to achieve complete mobilization of the solids in the tank

  9. Determination of hydrogen content by neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J.R.; Granada, J.R.; Mayer, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The commonly available techniques for the determination of hydrogen dissolved in solids are usually destructive from the point of view of the sample. A new, nondestructive method for this kind of measurements has been developed at our laboratory, with the requirement of improved sensitivity for massive samples. This scattering method is based on the use of epithermal neutrons, and has been implemented through the design and construction of a spectrometer dedicated to that task. In addition, the traditional transmission method has been employed to determine hydrogen content in metals, using the full sub thermal and thermal neutron energy ranges. A pulsed neutron source based on an electron LINAC is employed, together with time-of-flight techniques. In this work we will present some results illustrative of the sensitivity achieved by these neutron techniques in different systems and for a wide range of hydrogen concentrations. (author) [es

  10. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... constant between 50 - 60 % wet weight and therefore holds a potential for bioenergy production. The degradable fraction has positive effects for anaerobic digestion when evaluated to desired parameters of anaerobic digestion plants. Wanted parameters are: 1) high organic content (high volatile solid...

  11. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  12. 31P NMR imaging of solid bone with solid echoes combined with refocused gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT; Kruger, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This note on 31 p NMR imaging presents some observations of the solid echoes acquired from solid bone and how the proposed solid echo imaging method can be employed to obtain the 31 images of solid bone. (UK)

  13. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  14. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  15. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  16. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing, These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environmental prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase showed that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  17. Polarized proton and deuteron solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1977-01-01

    A decade has now elapsed since HD was proposed as a polarized proton and deuteron target with exceptionally desirable properties. These include a very high free proton proportion, independently polarizable proton and deuteron systems, and a ''frozen-spin'' mode of operation which allows separation of the functions of production and utilization of the highly polarized target. A discussion is given of what can be expected of the polarized HD system right now, without further research. The basic features of solid HD pertinent to its use as a ''frozen-spin'' target are outlined, then a summary is given of the particular experimental results which support the contention that the target will perform successfully, and finally, some feasible operating modes and the expected performances from them are presented

  18. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  19. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  20. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies...... the comparison of waste data with various objectives. Analysis revealed that Danish residual household waste constitutes mainly food waste (42 – 45% mass per wet basis). Misplaced recyclable materials in residual waste bins, such as paper, board, glass, metal and plastic, amounted to 20% (mass per wet basis...

  1. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing. These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale section of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environment prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase show that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  2. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  3. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  4. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  5. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  6. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  7. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  9. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  10. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800 degree C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280 degree F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found

  11. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  13. Solid oxide electrolyser cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejgaard Jensen, S.

    2006-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Riso National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 deg. C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6 A/cm{sup 2} with app. 30% H{sub 2} + 70% H{sub 2}O in the inlet gas and a H{sub 2}O utilization of app. 40%. The tested SOECs were also used for CO{sub 2} electrolysis. Economy studies of CO and H2 production show that especially H{sub 2} production can be competitive in areas with cheap electricity. Assuming the above described initial performance and a lifetime of 10 years it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} with an electricity price of 1.3 US cent/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test of about two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 deg. C, -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} with 50 vol% H{sub 2} the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h. It was shown that the degradation happens at Ni/YSZ-electrode. The long term degradation is probably caused by coarsening of the Ni-particles. After onset of electrolysis operation a transient passivation/reactivation phenomena with duration of several days was observed. It was shown that the phenomenon is attributed to the SiO{sub 2} contamination at the Ni/YSZ electrode-electrolyte interface. The SiO{sub 2} arises from the albite glass sealing (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that surrounds the electrode. Si may enter the Ni/YSZ electrode via the reaction Si(OH){sub 4}(g) {r_reversible} SiO{sub 2}(l)+H{sub 2}O(g). At the active sites of the Ni/YSZ electrode steam is reduced via the reaction H{sub 2}O - 2e {yields} H{sub 2}+O{sup 2-} . This shifts the equilibrium of the first reaction to form SiO{sub 2}(l) at the active sites. After a certain time the sealing crystallizes and the SiO{sub 2}(l) evaporates from the active sites and the cell reactivates. The passivation is shown to relate to a build up of a

  14. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  15. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  16. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  17. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  18. The laboratory of irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After a brief recall of results obtained these last twenty years researches in progress are described. Are studied: Solid state physics, particle-matter interactions, crystal defects, nuclear materials. A list of main projects is given [fr

  19. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  20. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  1. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  3. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  4. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Drawing plan for solid works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hwan; Kim, Hyung Seop; Yu, Dae Won

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with beginning solid works 2003, setting system option, setting tool group, setting document and storing part template file. It also introduces works of basic solid works modeling such as making of square, circuit, plate washer, square column, block I, block II, link, cover plate, position block and housing. The last part explains drawing of fix block, stopper plate III, bracket, cover, belt pulley, circle plate, square, block, stopper block, angle block, washer, circle block and link.878

  6. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  7. Effect of Moisture Content of Chitin-Calcium Silicate on Rate of Degradation of Cefotaxime Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimry, Suhair S; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state. The moisture content was determined at the beginning and the end of the kinetic study using TGA. The degradation in solution was studied for comparison. Increasing the moisture content of the excipient of size range 63-180 μm (surface area 7.2 m 2 /g) from 3.88 to 8.06% increased the rate of degradation of the drug more than two times (from 0.0317 to 0.0718 h -1 ). While an opposite trend was observed for the excipient of size range moisture content moisture content of 8.54%, and the degradation in solid state at both moisture contents was higher than that in solution (0.0871 h -1 ). In conclusion, the rate of degradation in solid should be studied taking into consideration the specific surface area and moisture content of the excipient at the storage condition and it may be higher than that in solution.

  8. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  9. Solid intraocular xanthogranuloma in three Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfoss, Mitzi K; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2007-01-01

    Macrophages that contain abundant intracytoplasmic lipid are called 'foam cells'. In four canine globes submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW), foam cells formed a solid intraocular mass. The purpose of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in these cases. The electronic COPLOW database (1993-2006) was searched for the diagnosis of 'foam cell tumor'. Clinical history, gross pathology and histopathology (5-micron sections, hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue periodic acid Schiff) were reviewed in all cases. Cases were included if the globe was grossly filled by a solid mass and if all intraocular structures were effaced by lipid-laden foam cell macrophages admixed with birefringent, Alcian blue-positive crystals oriented in stellate patterns. All three patients (four globes) satisfying the selection criteria were Miniature Schnauzers. In all cases the clinical history included diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and chronic bilateral uveitis that was interpreted to be lens-induced. All globes were enucleated because of glaucoma. The term solid intraocular xanthogranuloma was used to describe these cases because the intraocular contents were effaced by a solid mass of foam cells and birefringent crystals. The cases in this report suggest that diabetic Miniature Schnauzers with hyperlipidemia are at risk for lipid and macrophage-rich uveitis, which may in some cases form a solid inflammatory intraocular mass, precipitate glaucoma, and lead to enucleation.

  10. Removal of batteries from solid waste using trommel separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S T; Cheung, W H; Kwong, C K; Wan, C P; Choy, K K H; Leung, C C; Porter, J F; Hui, C W; Mc Kay, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a trommel for separation of batteries from solid waste. A trommel is a cylindrical separation device that rotates and performs size separation. It has also been used in areas such as municipal solid waste (MSW) processing, classifying construction and demolition debris, screening mass-burn incinerator ash and compost processing. A trommel has been designed based on size separation to separate household batteries from solid waste, which can then be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste combustion, particularly where the metal content of the product is also a critical parameter, such as the Co-Co process for integrated cement and power production. This trommel has been tested with batches of university office and restaurant wastes against various factors. The recovery efficiency of batteries increases with decreasing inclination angle of the trommel and decreasing rotational speed. A physical characterization of the university solid waste has been performed with a 20-kg sample of the tested waste. It was found that there is a trend of decreasing recovery of batteries with increasing paper composition, and a trend of increasing recovery of batteries with increasing organic materials composition.

  11. Technical note - the incorporation of ash content into gas content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creech, M.; Mahoney, M. [Powercoal Pty. Ltd., Budgewoi, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    For gas content analysis in recent years, it has been standard procedure to report results on a `dry ash free` (daf) basis, under the assumption that gas only adsorbs onto coaly material. In order to test the relationship between ash and gas content, samples of various rock types were taken from two drillholes in the Newcastle Coalfield. The results of this study confirmed the correlation between gas content and ash, providing an accurate means of relating gas contents for all carbonaceous rock types. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of Briquette Produced from Tannery Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin processing produces large volumes of wastes, much of which are not utilized but disposed in the landfill. This study explored the possibility of producing briquettes from tannery waste that could be used for heating purposes for cottage factories and domestic cooking. Wastes studied are buffing dust, chrome shavings, fleshing, and hair. The briquette properties tested were moisture content, volatile matter, ash content, fixed carbon content, calorific value, compressive strength, density and durability. The moisture content of the raw materials ranged between 2.04 and 8.37% while the moisture content of the produced briquettes after 19 days of drying ranges between 1.17 and 4.13%. The volatile matter also decreases while the ash content increases after briquetting. The fixed carbon content ranges 73.79 and 93.23%. The heating values of the briquettes also showed a great increased after briquetting of between 19.82 and 21.86 MJ/kg. The compressive strength ranges between 0.17 and 0.21 kN/cm2, the durability ranges between 97.83 and 99.54%. The maximum densities of the briquettes also meet the required specifications of minimum value of 600 kg/m3. The briquettes produced also possess good qualities that make tannery solid waste a materials for production of briquettes for heating and in cottage industries

  13. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  14. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  15. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  16. Hubungan Antara Konsumsi Serat Kasar dan Lemak Kasar dengan Kadar Total Solid dan Lemak Susu Kambing Peranakan Ettawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Nurhajah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara konsumsi serat kasar dan lemak kasar dengan total solid dan lemak susu kambing Peranakan Ettawa. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dan purposive sampling. Sampel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah 35 ekor kambing Peranakan Ettawa dengan kriteria bulan laktasi 4-5, periode laktasi 2-3 dan frekuensi pemerahan 2 kali. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan analisis regresi linier sederhana dan non linier kuadratik dan korelasi. Variabel bebas (variabel X pada penelitian ini adalah konsumsi serat kasar dan lemak kasar, sedangkan variabel terikat (variabel Y pada penelitian ini adalah total solid dan lemak susu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan linier positif yang lemah antara konsumsi serat kasar dengan total solid dan lemak susu (r = 0,185 dan r = 0,160. Hubungan antara konsumsi lemak kasar dengan total solid dan lemak susu pada penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya hubungan kuadratik yang lemah (r = 0,316 dan r = 0,320. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan yang lemah antara konsumsi serat kasar dan lemak kasar dengan total solid dan lemak susu. Semakin tinggi konsumsi serat kasar akan meningkatkan kandungan total solid dan lemak susu, tetapi konsumsi lemak kasar yang semakin tinggi tidak selalu meningkatkan kandungan total solid dan lemak susu.    (Correlations between crude fiber and crude fat intake with total solid and milk fat contents in ettawa crossbreed goat  ABSTRACT. This study was aimed to determine the correlations between crude fiber and crude fat intake with total solid and milk fat contents. Samples used in this study were 35 Ettawa Crossbreed goats with lactation month of 4-5, lactation period of 2-3 and twice daily milking. Simple linear regression and non linear quadratic regression analysis were used in this study with crude fiber and crude fat intake as independent variables (X, meanwhile total solid and milk fat as

  17. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  18. An intelligent content discovery technique for health portal content management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Daswin; Burstein, Frada

    2014-04-23

    Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective

  19. Solid-state cultivation of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on alkali-pretreated sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamment, N; Robinson, C W; Hilton, J; Moo-Young, M

    1978-11-01

    Solid-state fermentations (78% initial moisture content) of alkali-pretreated Eastern Hard Maple sawdust were conducted in tray and tumble fermentors using Chaetomium cellulolyticum. Crude protein content of the solids rose from 0.9 to 11% in the tray fermentor and 8% in the tumble fermentor in 20 days. These levels were almost equal to those achieved in corresponding slurry-state fermentations (1 to 5% (w/v)) of the same substrate. Specific growth rates were two to four times lower in the solid-state fermentors but this was offset by their greater solids-handling capacity: the rate of protein production per unit volume of fermentation mixture was comparable to that of the 5% (w/v) slurry and two to three times higher than that of the 1% (w/v) slurry.

  20. Content analysis in information flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grusho, Alexander A. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.