WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid hazardous materials

  1. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... reduced iron (DRI) as briquettes molded at a temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher that have a density of 5... temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher or had a density of 5.0 g/cm[sup3] or greater. In this proposed rule, we... bulk materials of Hazard Classes 4 through 9. c. One comment recommended that a DCM be required for...

  3. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  4. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  5. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  6. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Jiwu; Zhang, Yihe; Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai; Chu, Paul K.; Ye, Zhengfang; Xing, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol. ► The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. ► The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC–MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S–S and/or C–S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  7. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles

  8. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  9. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  10. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  12. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  13. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Instrumentation for Detecting Hazardous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    equipment a detector for monitoring radioactivity . A portable device for detecting the presence of hazardous mate- rials should also be included in the...Acrylonitrile 2 Natural Gas/LNG 2 211 ----- Material Name (Cont’d.) Number of Times Listed Radioactive Materials 2 Fertilizers 1 Cellulose Nitrate 1 Acrolein...Birnbaum, and Curtis Fincher, L "Fluorescence Determination of the Atmospheric Polutant NO2 in Impact of Lasers in Spectroscopy, Vol. 49 of Proceed

  15. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  16. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  17. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  18. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  19. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  20. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  1. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  2. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  3. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  4. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  5. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  6. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  7. Auditors of safety in hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Lahoz, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The author describes the methodology for safety auditory and control, prevention, risks of hazardous materials transport through ship, airplane, rail, etc. In this way, The author presents the classification of damage materials transport, characteristic damage and different transport methods

  8. Investigating the presence of hazardous materials in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustitus, D.A.; Blaisdell, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental hazards in buildings can be found in the air, on exposed surfaces, or hidden in roofs, walls, and systems. They can exist in buildings in solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A sound methodology for investigating the presence of environmental hazards in buildings should include several components. The first step in planning an investigation of environmental hazards in buildings is to ascertain why the investigation is to be performed. Research should be performed to review available documentation on the building. Next, a visual inspection of the building should be performed to identify and document existing conditions, and all suspect materials containing environmental hazards. Lastly, samples of suspect materials should be collected for testing. It is important to sample appropriate materials, based on the information obtained during the previous steps of the investigation. It is also important to collect the samples using standard procedures. Pollutants of concern include asbestos, lead, PCBs, and radon

  9. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  10. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  11. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  12. Hazardous materials routing - risk management of mismanagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Along with emergency planning and preparedness, the placement of restrictions on routing has become an increasingly popular device for managing the highway and rail risks of hazardous materials transportation. Federal studies conducted in 1985 indicate that at that time there were 513 different state and local restrictions on the routing of hazardous materials for these two modes of transportation, and that there were 136 state and local notification requirements, that is, restrictions that take the form of a statute or ordinance requiring advance warning or periodic reporting about hazardous materials shipments. Routing restrictions also take the form of prohibiting the use of road, a tunnel, or a bridge for a specified set of hazardous materials

  13. A comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, A.

    1990-01-01

    An increased emphasis on the need for environmental protection indicates that engineers must now consider the disposition of unused hazardous materials as waste. Before specifying and ordering materials, the engineer must consider the impact of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Hazard Communication Standard. Many commonly used materials such as paint, solvents, glues, and sealants fall under the requirements of these regulations. This paper presents a plant to manage hazardous materials at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is managed and operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The basic elements of the plan are training, hazard communication, storage and handling, tracking, and disposal. Steps to be taken to develop the plan are outlined, problems and successes are addressed, and interactions among all affected departments are identified. The benefits of an organized and comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials are decreased worker injuries, reduction of accidental releases, minimization of waste, and compliance with federal, state, and local safety and environmental laws. In summary, the benefits of an organized program for the management of hazardous materials include compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements, demonstration of Westinghouse's role as a responsible corporate entity, and reduction of waste management costs

  14. 78 FR 24309 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, East Building...

  15. 76 FR 45332 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications for Modification of..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Record Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department...

  16. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  17. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  18. Transportation of hazardous and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Shaver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials is a vital part of the nation's economy. In recent years public concern over the relative safety of transporting hazardous materials has risen sharply. The United States has a long history of transporting hazardous and radioactive material; rocket propellants, commercial spent fuel, low-level and high-level radioactive waste has been shipped for years. While the track record for shipping these materials is excellent, the knowledge that hazardous materials are passing through communities raises the ire of citizens and local governments. Public outcry over shipments containing hazardous cargo has been especially prominent when shippers have attempted to transport rocket propellants or spent nuclear fuel. Studies of recent shipments have provided insight into the difficulties of shipping in a politically charged environment, the major issues of concern to citizens, and some of the more successful methods of dealing with public concerns. This paper focuses on lessons learned from these studies which include interviews with shippers, carriers, and regulators

  19. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  20. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-01-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  1. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  2. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  3. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberich, M.J. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Robinson, P. [Life Cycle Engineering, Inc., Charleston, SC (United States); Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  4. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  5. GIS risk analysis of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, C.; Olsten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess the risks and vulnerability of transporting hazardous materials and wastes (such as gasoline, explosives, poisons, etc) on the Arizona highway system. This paper discusses the methodology that was utilized, and the application of GIS systems to risk analysis problems

  6. 76 FR 51324 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... through use of electronic data interchange (EDI). The IVOHMA states ``differences in hazard communication... and on the possible effects EDI may have on distributing hazardous materials shipping paper... consider the use of EDI in other modes of transport in a future rulemaking. Petition No. P-1567 PHMSA...

  7. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  8. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  9. Hazardous materials sensing: An electrical metamaterial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Kitture, Rohini [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kumari, Dimple [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Rajesh, Harsh [Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER), IIT-Bombay Campus, Powai, Mumbai (India); Banerjee, Shaibal [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kale, S.N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Metamaterials are recently emerging materials exhibiting amazing properties such as extremely miniaturized antennas, waveguides, optical couplers, multiplexers and filters. Such structures also respond to the variation in their ambient conditions when exposed to toxic and hazardous materials, which are especially hazardous to human health. Through this manuscript, we document our studies on three different high energy materials; namely 2- bromo-2nitropropane-1,3-diol (BNP), bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) malonate (AM) and bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) glutarate (AG). A Complementary Split Ring Resonator has been fabricated at resonant frequency of 4.48 GHz using copper on FR4 substrate. The energetic materials were exposed to the sensor and results were monitored using Vector Network Analyzer. The volume of liquids was varied from 0.5 µL to 3 µL. Prominent and explicit shifts in the transmission resonant frequency and amplitude was seen as a signature of each energetic material. The signatures were not only sensitive to the specific toxic group in the material but also to the volume of the liquid subjected to this sensor. The results are correlated with the simulation results, basic chemistry of the materials and permittivity measurements. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability, with good sensitivity and specificity of these devices project their applications in sensitive locations, particularly to combat for human security and health issues.

  10. Perceived safety of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation was presented. The framework consisted of a conditional mathematical equation in which perceived safety was described by six basic terms (technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, utility assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time). The resulting framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better understand public perception

  11. Storage and transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, P.; Haferkamp, K.

    1986-01-01

    The attempt has been made to characterise the present risk scenario, and to set out approaches or methods for remedy and risk control. For this purpose, a retrospective analysis has been made of accidents, damage and consequential damage that occurred in the past either during storage of hazardous materials, or during road transport. A risk-benefit model facilitates assessment of accident frequency. The history of accidents during storage or transport allows assessment of the dangerousness of various materials. Another important aspect discussed is the property and behaviour of containers used for storage or transport. (DG) [de

  12. 46 CFR 151.03-30 - Hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material means a liquid material or substance that is— (a) Flammable or combustible; (b) Designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C... Agency designates hazardous substances in 40 CFR Table 116.4A. The Coast Guard designates hazardous...

  13. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  14. Radiation hazard of solid metallic tailings in Shangluo, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang Sukai; Lu Xinwei; Li Jiantao; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    The radiation hazards of five kinds of different solid metallic tailings collected from Shangluo, China were determined on the basis of natural radioactivity measurements using low background multichannel gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the tailings ranged from 5.1 to 204.3, 3.8 to 28.5, and 289.6 to 762.3 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activities and the external hazard indexes of all studied metall...

  15. Risk methodologies for offsite hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of suggestions have been advanced in recent years concerning the risks posed to nuclear power plants by offsite hazardous materials relative to (1) the regulatory approach including considerations of minimum and safe standoff distances, exclusion distances, site acceptance ceilings and floors, screening distances and screening probabilities, plant design, etc., and (2) the analysis and evaluation procedures such as material screening criteria, plant vulnerability, standarized physical models, etc. An evaluation of current analyses and approaches indicates that this complex problem, variety of approaches, and safety concerns may be better accommodated by developing criteria and treatments along the lines of a so-called conditional risk approach. Specifically, the probability (P) of some ultimate consequence (C) occurring from an accident (A) involving hazardous materials is given as P(C) = P(C/A) x P(A). Assuming that the plant to accident site standoff distance is the fundamental independent variable of the risk methodology, certain conditional risk designations and conditions can be made and are presented

  16. 75 FR 17111 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Combustible Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... the probability and quantity of a hazardous material release. Under the HMR, hazardous materials are... present during transportation. The HMR specify appropriate packaging and handling requirements for... hazardous materials in commerce. During our regulatory review process, we look for opportunities that may...

  17. 30 CFR 56.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 56.16004 Section 56.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous materials...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 57.16004 Section 57.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous materials...

  19. Decision Support for Environmental Management of Industrial Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials: New Analytical Methods Combined with Simulation and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requir...

  20. Surface mobilities on solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Mobilities on Solid Materials held in France in 1981. The goal of the two-week meeting was to review up-to-date knowledge on surface diffusion, both theoretical and experimental, and to highlight those areas in which much more knowledge needs to be accumulated. Topics include theoretical aspects of surface diffusion (e.g., microscopic theories of D at zero coverage; statistical mechanical models and surface diffusion); surface diffusion at the atomic level (e.g., FIM studies of surface migration of single adatoms and diatomic clusters; field emission studies of surface diffusion of adsorbates); foreign adsorbate mass transport; self-diffusion mass transport (e.g., different driving forces for the matter transport along surfaces; measurements of the morphological evolution of tips); the role of surface diffusion in some fundamental and applied sciences (e.g. adatomadatom pair interactions and adlayer superstructure formation; surface mobility in chemical reactions and catalysis); and recent works on surface diffusion (e.g., preliminary results on surface self-diffusion measurements on nickel and chromium tips)

  1. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  2. Hazardous materials and toxic substances - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerlad, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper first forecasts what the status of hazardous wastes should be in the year 2028. The author believes all the problems will be solved: no new hazardous wastes will be being generated and the current hazardous waste problems will have been cleared up by common sense engineering. He then describes the current status of waste management of hazardous wastes, the regulatory situation, as well as combustion test programs

  3. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer YILMAZ; Serpil EROL; Hakan Soner APLAK

    2016-01-01

    ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat tr...

  4. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  5. Dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1984-07-31

    Apparatus is shown for substantially increasing the feed rate of pulverized material into a pressurized container. The apparatus includes a rotor that is mounted internal to the pressurized container. The pulverized material is fed into an annular chamber defined by the center of the rotor. A plurality of impellers are mounted within the annular chamber for imparting torque to the pulverized material.

  6. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Surface and sub-surface regions of solids are modified by rapid melting and quenching, using a high-powered, pulsed (30 ns) ruby laser. The main emphasis of this work is on laser annealing, epitaxy and doping of silicon. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the heat-flow which takes place during pulsed laser irradiation. From such calculations, information can be obtained about temperature profiles, melt depths, recrystallization velocities and quench rates. 13 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  7. Program in change: shipment of hazardous materials at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Positive measures such as education, control, and auditing ability should be incorporated into each hazardous material shipping program to assure compliance with regulations and the safe movement of hazardous materials. This paper discusses these and other pertinent components of a shipping program. 3 references

  8. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  10. Distillation apparatus for solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurmann, F

    1860-06-26

    The distillation room is continuously charged by the charging mechanism with the material to be distilled. The distillation products pass into the chamber, where they are drawn out through the tube for purifying. The distillation residue is finally pushed out by the fresh material from the room and falls in the common room, from which it is removed through the air-tight door. In the canals enclosing the room heating gas circulates, which carries to the room the heat necessary for the distillation.

  11. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  12. 75 FR 60017 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... prevent shifting or significant relative motion between the packages; that the consolidation bins be... display of the hazard identity (e.g., labels instead of placards) would support a small, more flexible... direction for all or part of their journey. Dynamic forces may shift an unsecured load or cause lading to...

  13. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    1995-01-01

    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  14. Thermal conductivity of fusion solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tam, S.W.

    1986-06-01

    Several simple and useful formulae for estimating the thermal conductivity of lithium-containing ceramic tritium breeder materials for fusion reactor blankets are given. These formulae account for the effects of irradiation, as well as solid breeder configuration, i.e., monolith or a packed bed. In the latter case, a coated-sphere concept is found more attractive in incorporating beryllia (a neutron multiplier) into the blanket than a random mixture of solid breeder and beryllia spheres

  15. Hazards of solid waste management: bioethical problems, principles, and priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Margaret N.

    1978-01-01

    The putative hazards of solid waste management cannot be evaluated without placing the problem within a cultural climate of crisis where some persons consider such by-products of “high, hard technology” to have raised unresolved moral and ethical issues. In order to assist scientific and technical efforts to protect public health and safety, a bioethical perspective requires us to examine three controversial aspects of policy-making about public safety. Failure to recognize the qualitative difference between two cognitive activities—risk-measurements (objective, scientific probabilities) and safety-judgments (subjective, shifting value priorities)—has had three unfortunate consequences. Sophisticated methods of risk analysis have been applied in a piecemeal, haphazard, ad hoc fashion within traditional institutions with the false expectation that incremental risk-reducing programs automatically ensure public health and safety. Ethical priorities require, first and foremost, a whole new field of data arranged for comparable risk-analyses. Critics of cost/risk/benefit quantifications attack the absurdity of “putting a price on human life” but have not been confronted with its threefold ethical justification. The widening discrepancy in risk-perceptions and loss of mutual confidence between scientific experts and ordinary citizens has placed a burden of social responsibility on members of the scientific and technical community to engage in more effective public education through the political process, notwithstanding advocates of a nonscientific adversary process. The urgency of effective public education has been demonstrated by the extent to which we have lost our historically balanced judgment about the alleged environmental hazards posed by advanced technology. PMID:738238

  16. Health and safety information program for hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.P.; Fallon, N.J.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The system is used as a management tool in several safety and health programs. It is used to: trace the use of hazardous materials and to determine monitoring needs; inform the occupational physician of the potential health problems associated with materials ordered by a given individual; inform the fire and rescue group of hazardous materials in a given building; provide waste disposal recommendations to the hazardous waste management group; assist the hazardous materials shipping coordinator in identifying materials which are regulated by the Department of Transportation; and guide management decisions in the area of recognizing and rectifying unsafe conditions. The information system has been expanded from a manual effort to provide a brief description of health hazards of chemicals used at the lab to a computerized health and safety information system which serves the needs of all personnel who may encounter the material in the course of their work. The system has been designed to provide information needed to control the potential problems associated with a hazardous material up to the time that it is consumed in a given operation or is sent to the waste disposal facility

  17. 78 FR 60726 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Penalty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... new categories: Offeror Requirements for specific hazardous materials: Oxygen Generators and Batteries... protecting public health, welfare, safety, and our environment.'' Executive Order 13610 further instructs... the human environment. When developing potential regulatory requirements, PHMSA evaluates those...

  18. Hazardous Material Cargo Frustration at Military Aerial Ports of Embarkation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Neil E

    2006-01-01

    Since military units often require critical hazardous materials in an expedited manner, identifying choke points within the supply chain is necessary to improve logistic support to front line forces...

  19. Regional risk associated with the transport of hazardous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, L.; Aparicio, L.; Bandoni, A.; Tonelli, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    An increasing concern over the level of risk associated with hazardous materials transportation has led international efforts to focus on risk assessment at regional level. Following this trend, the aim of this work is to review the latest procedures for analysing the regional risks resulting from hazardous materials transportation by means of road and rail. In particular, two methodologies are reviewed and discussed, a method recently developed at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [1] an...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  2. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; McDonald, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800 degree C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280 degree F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found

  4. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  5. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing, These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environmental prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase showed that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  6. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing. These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale section of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environment prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase show that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  7. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 ,O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized

  8. Preventing method and device for underground permeation of hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kurokawa, Hideaki; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    In a method of preventing hazardous materials from permeating into ground by burying adsorbing materials underground, a plurality of adsorbing layers are laminated being spaced apart from each other, the concentration of the hazardous materials between each of the adsorbent layers is measured. When the concentration reaches a predetermined value, the adsorbent layers are regenerated. A suppression means for preventing hazardous materials from permeating into the ground are formed by an upper adsorbent layer and a lower adsorbent layer, and a means for measuring the concentration of hazardous materials passing through the upper adsorbent layer and a means for charging and discharging regenerated liquid are disposed. When it is detected that the poisonous materials can not be eliminated, the poisonous materials are already permeated to the adsorbent layer, and they start to inflow into underground water. In order to prevent it, an adsorbent layer is additionally disposed at the lower side of the place of detection to eliminate the poisonous materials completely thereby enabling to prevent poisonous materials from permeating into underground for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  9. An optimization model for transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, M.; Kheirkhah, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal routing problem for transportation of hazardous materials is studied. Routing for the purpose of reducing the risk of transportation of hazardous materials has been studied and formulated by many researcher and several routing models have been presented up to now. These models can be classified into the categories: the models for routing a single movement and the models for routing multiple movements. In this paper, according to the current rules and regulations of road transportations of hazardous materials in Iran, a routing problem is designed. In this problem, the routs for several independent movements are simultaneously determined. To examine the model, the problem the transportations of two different dangerous materials in the road network of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran is formulated and solved by applying Integer programming model

  10. Quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has required for many years that quality assurance programs be established and implemented for the packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. This paper identifies various requirement principles and related actions involved in establishing effective quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. A primary purpose of these quality assurance program activities is to provide assurance that the packaging and transportation of hazardous materials, which includes radioactive and fissile materials, are in conformance with appropriate governmental regulations. Applicable regulations include those issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DOE Order 5700.6A establishes that quality assurance requirements are to be applied in accordance with national consensus standards where suitable ones are available. In the nuclear area, ANSI/ASME NQA-1 is the preferred standard

  11. 78 FR 14702 - Hazardous Materials: Miscellaneous Petitions for Rulemaking (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Division 4.1, Self-reactive solids and Self-reactive liquids Types B through F; allowing smokeless powder... provide a limited quantity exception for Division 4.1, Self-reactive solids and Self-reactive liquids... preference that PHMSA state that variations of material density within ASTM D4976- 06 would not constitute a...

  12. Numerical investigation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Matsushima, T.

    2018-05-01

    The volume of debris flows occurred in mountainous areas is mainly affected by the volume of debris materials deposited at the valley bottom. Quantitative evaluation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards is important to predict and prevent hazards. At midnight on 7th August 2010, two catastrophic debris flows were triggered by the torrential rain from two valleys in the northern part of Zhouqu City, NW China, resulting in 1765 fatalities and huge economic losses. In the present study, a depth-integrated particle method is adopted to simulate the debris materials, based on 2.5 m resolution satellite images. In the simulation scheme, the materials are modeled as dry granular solids, and they travel down from the slopes and are deposited at the valley bottom. The spatial distributions of the debris materials are investigated in terms of location, volume and thickness. Simulation results show good agreement with post-disaster satellite images and field observation data. Additionally, the effect of the spatial distributions of the debris materials on subsequent debris flows is also evaluated. It is found that the spatial distributions of the debris materials strongly influence affected area, runout distance and flow discharge. This study might be useful in hazard assessments prior to debris flow hazards by investigating diverse scenarios in which the debris materials are unknown.

  13. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  14. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-A19897, R.H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280degF. Table 1 lists the neutron shield materials tested. The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found. The Bisco modified NS-4 and Reactor Experiments HMPP are both acceptable materials from a thermal accident standpoint for use in the shipping cask. Tests of the Kobe PP-R01 and Envirotech HDPE were stopped for safety reasons, due to inability to deal with the heavy smoke, before completion of the 30-minute heating phase. However these materials may prove satisfactory if they could undergo the complete heating. (J.P.N.)

  15. SOLID-STATE CONTROLLED FIRE HAZARD DETECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcontrol/er based fire hazard detection and quenching .system is developed, tested and found working satisfactory. Its response is very fast to quench thefire hazard before it spreads out. It is smart to ffiJoid any false alarming in case of momentary fire occurrence. ,Special emphasis has been laid down in choosing.

  16. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Knecht, Dieter A [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Burchfield, Larry A [W. Richland, WA; Anshits, Alexander G [Krasnoyarsk, RU; Vereshchagina, Tatiana [Krasnoyarsk, RU; Tretyakov, Alexander A [Zheleznogorsk, RU; Aloy, Albert S [St. Petersburg, RU; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V [St. Petersburg, RU

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  17. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  18. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  19. Radiotoxic hazard measure for buried solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.

    1975-01-01

    The radiotoxic hazards resulting from the disposal of highlevel reprocessing wastes into a deep geological formation are reviewed. The term radiotoxic hazard measure (RHM), used to measure the hazard from buried radioactive wastes, is based on the maximum radionuclide concentration permissible in water. Calculations are made of the RHM levels for the high-level reprocessing wastes of both light-water-reactor and fast breeder reactor fuels. In comparing these RHM levels with that for the natural activity of an equivalent amount of uranium ore and its mill tailings, it is concluded that an actual additional radiotoxic hazard for buried high-level reprocessing waste only exists for the first 300 to 500 years after burial. (U.S.)

  20. 77 FR 39662 - Hazardous Materials; Reverse Logistics (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... logistics providers estimate that up to 7% of an enterprise's gross sales are return costs. The third-party... logistic shipments for hazardous materials? III. Issues To Be Considered As previously noted, the purpose... documentation costs to develop and maintain risk assessments and operational procedures? If so, what is a fair...

  1. 76 FR 73011 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on Special Permit Applications. SUMMARY: In... reissue the Nuclear 173.56(b)(3)(i special permit Security ). originally issued Administration on an...

  2. 77 FR 24885 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... special provisions, clarify the lab pack requirements for temperature-controlled materials, and revise the... in Dewar flasks. Clarify the lab pack provisions in Sec. 173.12 pertaining to temperature-controlled... shipping names, hazard classes, packing groups, special provisions, packaging authorizations, air transport...

  3. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation Organization...) to address the air transportation risks posed by lithium cells and batteries. Some of the proposals...

  4. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  5. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  6. 78 FR 1119 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... lithium cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation... edition, when transporting batteries domestically by air. Incorporation by reference of the 2013-2014...

  7. Developments in consequence modelling of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of consequences of releases of hazardous materials in the Netherlands has mainly been based on the “Yellow Book”. Although there is no updated version of this official publication, new insights have been developed during the last decades. This article will give an overview of new

  8. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer YILMAZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat trucks. The emergency response models and network design problems for hazmat transportation were also studied by some researchers. The transportation of hazmats can also be classified according to the mode of transport. Mainly roads are used for hazmat transportation but some shipments are intermodal. There has been a great amount of effort spent to find convenient ways for hazmat transportation. In this study, a literature survey for the articles about hazmat transportation is prepared. After pointing out the importance of hazmat transportation by the example of US hazmat transportation data, the studies on hazmat transportation since 2005 have been examined. Totally 88 articles are classified as risk, routing, routing and scheduling, emergency response, network design and accident analysis. What can be studied in future researches is pointed out.Keywords: Hazardous materials, Network design, Transportation, Routing, Risk assessment

  9. 49 CFR 171.16 - Detailed hazardous materials incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing any hazardous material suffers structural damage to the lading retention system or damage that..., explosion or dangerous evolution of heat (i.e., an amount of heat sufficient to be dangerous to packaging or personal safety to include charring of packaging, melting of packaging, scorching of packaging, or other...

  10. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  11. Pressure hydrogenation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Kroenig, W

    1942-09-28

    A process is described for the continuous pressure hydrogenation of solid, nonfusible carbonaceous material, such as coal, oil shale, or peat, in a pasted condition, characterized in that the charge is heated in a known way under pressure, together with water, nearly to the reaction temperature, then it is led into a pressure vessel, whose volume amounts to 20 to 40% of the usual reaction space without any change at the same temperature, and the charge then goes through the reaction vessel, after which its temperature is raised to the reaction height.

  12. Extraction products of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-04

    A method is described for the manufacture of liquid products from pressure extracts of solid carbon-containing material by destructive hydrogenation, characterized in that the pressure extracts are hydrogenated in admixture with products of high-molecular weight formed during a previous destructive hydrogenation of another part of the same or other pressure extract and which has been collected as liquid without extensive cooling of the hot products of the reaction, which came from the reaction chamber where the previous destructive hydrogenation took place.

  13. The current status of hazardous solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H B

    1978-01-01

    Growth of the population and of industrialization, and substandard disposal of the increased waste products thus generated, have resulted in numerous documented cases of harm to human, plant, and animal health. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976), its stated goals, and its intended means of implementation, are discussed relative to hazardous waste problems. Subtitle C of this Act, and the authority granted by it to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, are explained. Standards and regulations have been imposed upon those responsible for generating and transporting hazardous wastes, to ensure the ultimate safe disposal of such wastes in environmentally suitable, properly licensed facilities. PMID:738237

  14. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center

  15. Nonmetallic and composite materials as solid superleaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschvartz, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter discusses the devices in general solid porous materials in which the so-called diameter of the pores, gaps, inter-crystalline spaces, or small channels, etc, are equal or smaller than 100 0 A. Examines silicon carbide, wonderstone, talc-stone, rocks as superleaks, magnetic superleaks, the onset point of a superleak, determination of the onset point, and some applications of superleaks (as a filter, as an isotope separator, as a separator in the 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator, in a vortex refrigerator, in a servo-valve for liquid helium two (the cocatron), method of measuring the size of sub-microscopic pores, ultra cold neutrons, superconductors pressed into porous materials)

  16. Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste collected during 1961 from the laboratories of the Institute amounted to 22.5 m 3 . This report contains data about activity of the waste collected from january to November 1961. About 70% of the waste are short lived radioactive material. Material was packed in metal barrels and stored in the radioactive storage in the Institute. There was no contamination of the personnel involved in these actions. Liquid radioactive wastes come from the Isotope production laboratory, laboratories using tracer techniques, reactor cooling; decontamination of the equipment. Liquid wastes from isotope production were collected in plastic bottles and stored. Waste water from the RA reactor were collected in special containers. After activity measurements this water was released into the sewage system since no activity was found. Table containing data on quantities and activity of radioactive effluents is included in this report

  17. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jr., Holt

    1995-01-01

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal.

  18. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  19. Status of the solid breeder materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1995-01-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material were critically reviewed and evaluated as part of the ITER/CDA design effort (1988-1990). The results have been documented in a detailed technical report. Emphasis was placed on the physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium retention/release, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Materials properties correlations were selected for use in design analysis, and ranges for input parameters (e.g., temperature, porosity, etc.) were established. Also, areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology were highlighted and prioritized. For Li 2 O, the most significant increase in the database has come in the area of tritium retention as a function of operating temperature and purge flow composition. The database for postirradiation inventory from purged in-reactor samples has increased from four points to 20 points. These new data have allowed an improvement in understanding and modeling, as well as better interpretation of the results of laboratory annealing studies on unirradiated and irradiated material. In the case of Li 2 ZrO 3 , relatively little data were available on the sensitivity of the mechanical properties of this ternary ceramic to microstructure and moisture content. The increase in the database for this material has allowed not only better characterization of its properties, but also optimization of fabrication parameters to improve its performance. Some additional data are also available for the other two ternary ceramics to aid in the characterization of their performance. In particular, the thermal performance of these materials, as well as beryllium, in packed-bed form has been measured and characterized

  20. 78 FR 60755 - Hazardous Materials: Enhanced Enforcement Procedures-Resumption of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... material,'' we envisioned etiological agents, such as biological products, infectious substances, medical... accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material. In order to achieve a uniform... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...

  1. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  2. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  3. Assessment of hazardous solid waste of industries in Dashtestan county in the point of view of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ameri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Wastes are defined as a solid, liquid and gas materials that is produced from human activities, as direct or indirect. There is the possibility of linking between different complex of Geographic Information, which have a descriptive and locative relationship, simultaneously. GIS (Geographic Information System is as a bridge that it can relate resources  and management database together. The objective of this study was to investigate the condition of hazardous solid waste of industries in Dashtestan township and specification of volume and type of solid pollutants which probably can bring them in the environment and use of these outcomes for more recognition of establishment position of industries.   Methods   This study was evaluated on 8 industries according to type of products and type of each industry's hazardous solid waste. Then the 1/25000 scale digital topographic map was  provided and geographical coordination of each industries was determined by a GPS system. All of the obtained data were transferred to a GIS. Also a designed checklist and the existing standards were applied to determination of the list and the hazardous code of each industry.   Results   The obtained results showed that, 3 industries from 8, don't exactly conformed to the standards and in the sixth industry had susceptibility to be in the P category match to hazardous  waste list. All of the eight industries produced 174.5 ton/year of solid waste that 99.1% of them recycled after daily, monthly and seasonal storage.   Conclusion   62.5% of studied industries conformed to Iran protection agency's criteria, but some industries have a little problem in distance index from educational and residential centers.  Disposal of wastes in most industries didn't have any problem except in the sixth industries that   needs more investigation by experts and managers.

  4. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  5. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  6. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Barkan, Christopher P.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  7. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  8. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  9. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  10. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  11. Risk management of onsite transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Field, J.G.

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has recently undergone a significant change in its mission. The focus of site-wide operations has been shifted from production to environmental restoration. As a result, there is a significant increase in quantities of the radioactive wastes and other hazardous materials to be packaged and transported onsite. In response to the elevated transportation activities, the operations and engineering contractor for the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to further enhance the safe operations of the onsite packaging and transportation activities involving radioactive and other hazardous materials. This paper summarizes Westinghouse Hanford's proposed risk assessment and risk management methodology for onsite transportation of hazardous materials. The proposed Westinghouse Hanford risk assessment and management methodology for onsite packaging and transportation has three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization process. The purposes are to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable, and to further reduce the overall risk for current and future onsite transportation activities

  12. Mission: Possible. Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Prather-Stroud, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management (CEHMM) was established in May 2004 as a nonprofit research organization. Its purpose is to develop a sustainable technical/scientific community located in Carlsbad, New Mexico, that interacts worldwide to find solutions to hazardous materials management issues. An important part of the mission is to achieve improved protection of worker safety, human health, and the environment. Carlsbad has a large technical community due to the presence of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and its many contractors and support organizations. These groups include the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, Washington Group International, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. These organizations form the basis of a unique knowledge community with strengths in many areas, such as geosciences, actinide chemistry, environmental monitoring, and waste transportation. CEHMM works cooperatively with these organizations and others to develop projects that will maintain this knowledge community beyond the projected closure date of WIPP. At present, there is an emphasis in bio-monitoring, air monitoring, hazardous materials educational programs, and endangered species remediation. CEHMM is also currently working with a group from the American Nuclear Society to help facilitate their conference scheduled for April 2006 in Carlsbad. CEHMM is growing rapidly and is looking forward to a diverse array of new projects. (authors)

  13. Hazardous gas production by alpha particles in solid organic transuranic waste matrices. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    'This project uses fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the transportation of these radionuclides. The environmental management of mixed waste containing transuranic radionuclides is difficult because these nuclides are alpha particle emitters and the energy deposited by the alpha particles causes chemical transformations in the matrices accompanying the waste. Most radiolysis programs focus on conventional radiation such as gamma rays, but the chemical changes induced by alpha particles and other heavy ions are typically very different and product yields can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The objective of this research is to measure the production of gases, especially molecular hydrogen, produced in the proton, helium ion, and carbon ion radiolysis of selected solid organic matrices in order to obtain fundamental mechanistic information on the radiolytic decomposition of these materials. This knowledge can also be used to directly give reasonable estimates of explosive or flammability hazards in the storage or transport of transuranic wastes in order to enhance the safety of DOE sites. This report summarizes the work after eight months of a three-year project on determining the production of hazardous gases in transuranic waste. The first stage of the project was to design and build an assembly to irradiate solid organic matrices using accelerated ion beams. It is necessary to measure absolute radiolytic yields, and simulate some of the conditions found in the field. A window assembly was constructed allowing the beam to pass consecutively through a collimator, a vacuum exit window and into the solid sample. The beam is stopped in the sample and the entire end of the assembly is a Faraday cup. Integration of the collected current, in conjunction

  14. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  15. 78 FR 69745 - Safety and Security Plans for Class 3 Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... material (considering the material's underlying chemical properties, corrosivity, and other characteristics) is fundamental to ensuring the selection of proper packaging and that the hazards of the materials...

  16. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  17. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  18. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....50 1 1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating substances 173.50 2 2.1 Flammable gas 173.115 2 2.2 Non-flammable compressed gas 173.115 2 2.3 Poisonous gas 173.115 3 Flammable and combustible liquid 173.120 4 4.1 Flammable solid 173.124 4 4.2 Spontaneously combustible material 173.124 4 4.3 Dangerous when wet...

  19. Feasibility study--computerized application of the hazardous material regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Green, V.M.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-09-01

    The feasibility of developing a full expert system for transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials was initiated within the framework of three subtasks: (1) analysis of commercial packages related to regulation scanning, (2) analysis of computer languages to develop the expert system, and (3) development of expert system prototypes. The strategy to develop the latter subtask was to first,develop modules to capture the knowledge of different areas of transportation and packaging and second, to analyze the feasibility of appending these different modules in one final full package. The individual modules development contemplated one prototype for transporting and packaging of radioactive material and another for transporting hazardous chemical materials. In the event that it is not feasible to link these two packages, the modules can always be used as stand-alone tools, or linked as a single package with some restrictions in their applicability. The work done during this fiscal year has focused on developing a prototype for transporting radioactive materials

  20. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Peng; Gu Xiaohua; Cheng Bowen; Wang Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Here we reported a two-step procedure for preparing a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material. Firstly, a copolymer monomer containing a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG) phase change unit and a vinyl unit was synthesized via the modification of hydrogen group of MPEG. Secondly, by copolymerization of the copolymer monomer and phenyl ethylene, a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material was prepared. The composition, structure and properties of the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, DSC, WAXD, and POM, respectively. The results show that the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material possesses of excellent crystal properties and high phase change enthalpy.

  2. 78 FR 66326 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Advance Notice of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...

  3. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...

  4. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  5. A multisignal detection of hazardous materials for homeland security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamaniotis Miltiadis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of hazardous materials has been identified as one of the most urgent needs of homeland security, especially in scanning cargo containers at United States ports. To date, special nuclear materials have been detected using neutron or gamma interrogation, and recently the nuclear resonance fluorescence has been suggested. We show a new paradigm in detecting the materials of interest by a method that combines four signals (radiography/computer tomography, acoustic, muon scattering, and nuclear resonance fluorescence in cargos. The intelligent decision making software system is developed to support the following scenario: initially, radiography or the computer tomography scan is constructed to possibly mark the region(s of interest. The acoustic interrogation is utilized in synergy to obtain information regarding the ultrasonic velocity of the cargo interior. The superposition of the computer tomography and acoustic images narrows down the region(s of interest, and the intelligent system guides the detection to the next stage: no threat and finish, or proceed to the next interrogation. If the choice is the latter, knowing that high Z materials yield large scattering angle for muons, the muon scattering spectrum is used to detect the existence of such materials in the cargo. Additionally, the nuclear resonance fluorescence scan yields a spectrum that can be likened to the fingerprint of a material. The proposed algorithm is tested for detection of special nuclear materials in a comprehensive scenario.

  6. A multisignal detection of hazardous materials for homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamaniotis, M.; Terrill, S.; Perry, J.; Gao, R.; Tsoukalas, L.; Jevremovic, T.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of hazardous materials has been identified as one of the most urgent needs of homeland security, especially in scanning cargo containers at United States ports. To date, special nuclear materials have been detected using neutron or gamma interrogation, and recently the nuclear resonance fluorescence has been suggested. We show a new paradigm in detecting the materials of interest by a method that combines four signals (radiography/computer tomography, acoustic, muon scattering, and nuclear resonance fluorescence) in cargos. The intelligent decision making software system is developed to support the following scenario: initially, radiography or the computer tomography scan is constructed to possibly mark the region(s) of interest. The acoustic interrogation is utilized in synergy to obtain information regarding the ultrasonic velocity of the cargo interior. The superposition of the computer tomography and acoustic images narrows down the region(s) of interest, and the intelligent system guides the detection to the next stage: no threat and finish, or proceed to the next interrogation. If the choice is the latter, knowing that high Z materials yield large scattering angle for muons, the muon scattering spectrum is used to detect the existence of such materials in the cargo. Additionally, the nuclear resonance fluorescence scan yields a spectrum that can be likened to the fingerprint of a material. The proposed algorithm is tested for detection of special nuclear materials in a comprehensive scenario. (author)

  7. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Route selection for the transport of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F A

    1988-12-01

    The factors governing the risk-weighted selection of routes for transport of hazardous materials are analyzed. Starting from a formulation for the total risk of these transports that assumes complete information, approximations for the more realistic case of partial and uncertain information are discussed. These approximations involve well-known risk assessment techniques and mathematical methods; among the latter, Monte Carlo calculations hold the most promise. The actual route selection is based on an index of total societal cost, evaluated for a set of potential routes. (author)

  9. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  10. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  11. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  12. LISREL Model Medical Solid Infectious Waste Hazardous Hospital Management In Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Verawaty; Siahaan, Ungkap; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste resulting from activities at most hospitals contain various elements of medical solid waste ranging from heavy metals that have the nature of accumulative toxic which are harmful to human health. Medical waste in the form of gas, liquid or solid generally include the category or the nature of the hazard and toxicity waste. The operational in activities of the hospital aims to improve the health and well-being, but it also produces waste as an environmental pollutant waters, soil and gas. From the description of the background of the above in mind that the management of solid waste pollution control medical hospital, is one of the fundamental problems in the city of Medan and application supervision is the main business licensing and control alternatives in accordance with applicable regulations.

  13. Hazard evaluation of The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it

    2005-01-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for fusion. Liquid lithium is being circulated through a loop and is kept at a temperature above its freezing point. In the frame of the design phase called Key Element technology Phase (KEP), jointly performed by an international team to verify the most important risk factors, safety assessment of the whole plant has been required in order to identify the hazards associated with the plant operation. This paper discusses the safety assessments that were performed and their outcome: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) approach has been adopted in order to accomplish the task. Main conclusions of the study is that, on account of the safety and preventive measures adopted, potential plant related hazards are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries and great care must be exercised to protect workers and site personnel from operating the plant. The analysis has provided as a result a set of Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs), that is off-normal events, that could result in hazardous consequences for the plant, together with the total frequency and the list of component failures which could induce the PIE: this assures the exhaustive list of major initiating events of accident sequences, helpful to the further accident sequence analysis phase. Finally, for each one of the individuated PIEs, the evaluation of the accident evolution, in terms of effects on the plant and relative countermeasures, has allowed to verify that adequate measures are being taken both to prevent the accident occurrence and to cope with the accident consequences, thus assuring the fulfilment of the safety requirements.

  14. Hazardous materials incidents on major highways -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Personnel from both the public and private sectors have been involved for many years in pre-planning for hazardous materials releases at fixed installations all over the world. As a result of several major petroleum releases during marine transportation, oil companies, private contractors and government agencies have been preparing contingency plans for oil spills and other petroleum product releases in marine settings. Various industry groups have also developed plans for railway and pipeline disasters. These response plans are of varying quality, complexity and usefulness. Organizations such as plant emergency response teams, government agencies, contract response and clean-up crews and fire departments use these plans as a basis for training and resource allocation, hopefully becoming familiar enough with them that the plans are truly useful when product releases occur. Planners and emergency responders to hazardous materials releases must overcome some of the deficiencies which have long stood in the way of efficient and effective response and mitigation efforts. Specifically they must recognize and involve all resources with which they may respond or interact during an incident. This involvement should begin with the planning stages and carry through to training and emergency response and recovery efforts. They must ensure that they adopt and utilize a common command and control system and that all potential resources know this system thoroughly and train together before the incident occurs. It is only through incorporating these two factors that may successfully combat the ever growing number of unwanted product releases occurring in the more difficult realm of transportation

  15. A structure for models of hazardous materials with complex behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Most atmospheric dispersion models used to assess the environmental consequences of accidental releases of hazardous chemicals do not have the capability to simulate the pertinent chemical and physical processes associated with the release of the material and its mixing with the atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is to present a materials sub-model with the flexibility to simulate the chemical and physical behaviour of a variety of materials released into the atmosphere. The model, which is based on thermodynamic equilibrium, incorporates the ideal gas law, temperature-dependent vapor pressure equations, temperature-dependent dissociation reactions, and reactions with atmospheric water vapor. The model equations, written in terms of pressure ratios and dimensionless parameters, are used to construct equilibrium diagrams with temperature and the mass fraction of the material in the mixture as coordinates. The model's versatility is demonstrated by its application to the release of UF 6 and N 2 O 4 , two materials with very different physical and chemical properties. (author)

  16. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  17. Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Li-Fang, E-mail: hulif127@163.com [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Jiang, Chen-Jing [The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC{sub 50} at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72 h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detoxification process of hazardous solid waste was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best exposure time of ecological toxicity assessment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible toxicity of the hazardous solid waste at different disposal stage on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was explored from cell tissue.

  18. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  19. 77 FR 60935 - Hazardous Materials: Minor Editorial Corrections and Clarifications (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... flammable cryogenic liquid is not received by the consignee within 20 days from the date of shipment.... * * * * * Container ship * * * * * * * * Hazardous material means a substance or material that the Secretary of... transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants...

  20. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).

  1. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Donaldson, A. B.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.; Bystrom, E.; Haug, A.; Sharp, L.; Surmick, D. M.

    2014-11-01

    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified.

  2. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, W; Cruz-Cabrera, A A; Bystrom, E; Donaldson, A B; Haug, A; Sharp, L; Lim, J; Sivathanu, Y; Surmick, D M

    2014-01-01

    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Certifications for Professional Hazardous Materials and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for determining a curriculum to provide qualified hazardous waste personnel. Describes the needed role of colleges and universities and current hazardous materials certification requirements. Lists requirements for 18 professional certifications. (MVL)

  4. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  5. Particle-solid interactions and 21st century materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Lupke, G.; Tolk, N.H.; Lopez, R.; Haglund, R.F.; Haynes, T.E.; Boatner, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic physics that governs the interaction of energetic ion beams with solids has its roots in the atomic and nuclear physics of the last century. The central formalism of Jens Lindhard, describing the 'particle-solid interaction', provides a valuable quantitative guide to statistically meaningful quantities such as energy loss, ranges, range straggling, channeling effects, sputtering coefficients, and damage intensity and profiles. Modern materials modification (nanoscience, solid state dynamics) requires atomic scale control of the particle-solid interaction. Two recent experimental examples are discussed: (1) the control of the size distribution of nanocrystals formed in implanted materials and (2) the investigation of the site-specific implantation of hydrogen into silicon. Both cases illustrate unique solid-state configurations, created by ion implantation, that address issues of current materials science interest

  6. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  7. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  8. Isotope exchange reaction on solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Nishikawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Kawagoe, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ceramic materials such as Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 are considered to be as candidate for the tritium breeding material in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor. In the recent blanket designs, helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas to reduce tritium inventory and promote tritium release from the breeding material. In addition, the rate of isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of the breeding material is necessary to analyze the tritium release behavior from the breeding materials. However, the rate of isotope exchange reactions between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of those materials has not been quantified until recently. Recently, the present authors quantified the rate of isotope exchange reaction on Li 2 O and Li 2 ZrO 3 . The overall mass transfer coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between H 2 and D 2 O on breeding materials or the same between D 2 and H 2 O are experimentally obtained in this study. Comparison to isotope exchange reaction rates on various breeding materials is also performed in this study. Discussions about the effects of temperature, concentration of hydrogen in the purge gas or flow rate of the purge gas on the conversion of tritiated water to tritium gas are also performed

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Developing materials for SOFC applications is one of the key topics in energy research. The book focuses on manganite structured materials, such as doped lanthanum chromites and lanthanum manganites, which have interesting properties: thermal and chemical stability, mixed ionic and electrical conductivity, electrocatalytic activity, magnetocaloric property and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR).

  10. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  11. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  12. Proposal of risk evaluation methodology for hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The increasing concern with the level of risk associated with the transportation of hazardous materials took some international institutions to pledge efforts in the evaluation of risk in regional level. Following this trend, the objective of this work was to analyze the most recent processes of analysis of risks from road transportation of hazardous materials. In the present work 21 methodologies of analysis of risks, developed by some authors and for diverse localities have been evaluated. Two of them, in special, have been reviewed and discussed: a method recently developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Nicolet-Monnier and Gheorghe, 1996) and the strategy delineated by the Center for Chemical Process Safety CCPS (1995), taking into consideration the estimate of the individual and social risk. Also, the models of Harwood et al. (1990) and of Ramos (1997), adapted by Hartman (2003) have been applied to the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo. The extension of these methodologies was explored, in order to find its advantages and disadvantages. As a study case the present work considered the ammonia transportation throughout two routes evaluating the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo, including a significant parcel of evaluation in a densely populated area, getting the results using risk, at least, one of the methodologies mentioned above. The innovation proposed by this work was the research, the development and the introduction of two variables to the model considered by Harwood et al. (1990). These variables that influence in the value of the risk are: the age of the driver of truck and the zone of impact that is function type of product, period of the day where the transport was carried and the volume that has been transported. The aim of the proposed modifications is to let the value of the risk more sensible in relation to the type of the product carried and the age of the truck driver. The main related procedural stages

  13. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  14. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  15. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  16. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  17. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  18. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  19. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  20. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  1. Separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W W

    1915-10-19

    A process is set forth for the separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials, in which the vapors produced from the carbonaceous material at higher temperatures and withdrawn into the separate vapor chamber are led in succession through the lower temperature vapors as continuously to deposit their condensible ingredients in the chamber by the action of the successive cooler vapors.

  2. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and the electrochemical reactions take place at elevated temperatures from 300 and up to 1000 C. This has as consequence that the region around the threephase- boundary (TPB), where the electron conducting electrode, the electrolyte and the gas phase reactants meet, is the region where the electrochemical processes take...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  3. Semiconductor properties of solid combustible materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrushev, S G; Kamneva, A I; Galaktionov, S S; Aleksandrov, I V

    1980-01-01

    The photoelectric e.m.f. with p-type conductivity and the photodielectric effect were examined in specimens of a number of coals and coal microcomponents. These effects are largest in hard coal fusinite. Photosensitive materials show increased dielectric losses in the dark. The authors determined charge carrier mobility, and showed that the charge carriers are injected by oxygen in the presence of an electrolyte, and that the coals oxidise as in electrochemical corrosion.

  4. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    High Level Waste supernates are hazardous due to the presence of small quantities of mercury, chromium, lead, silver and barium. The fate of these components based on process knowledge was evaluated. The supernates were grouped into Traditional (normal storage and evaporation), Dilute (stored in Type IV tanks), and Sludge Processing categories, and a review of the limited quantity of available sample data for each type of supernate was performed. The maximum concentration of each hazardous constituent was determined. The most restrictive hazardous constituent in Traditional and Sludge Processing supernates was determined to be mercury, and the most restrictive component in Dilute supernate was chromium. Containers of solid waste contaminated with these supernates must be manifested as nonhazardous before disposal as Low Level Waste in the engineered vaults in the EAV. A method was developed to screen waste containers in order to identify those containers that are nonhazardous. A criterion for 137 Cs content was arbitrarily set to 0.1 Ci, and the volume of supernate required to deposit 0.1 Ci was calculated. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 85 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from normal storage and evaporation operations are nonhazardous. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 170 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from sludge processing operations are nonhazardous. All containers of waste contaminated with supernate from Type IV tanks were evaluated as being nonhazardous. The screening method is readily applicable in the field - if the 137 Cs content of a container is below 0.1 Ci and the weight of the waste is greater than 85 or 170 lb (depending on waste type), the waste container is nonhazardous. Containers not satisfying both criteria will be segregated for additional evaluation

  5. Solid and hazardous waste management practices onboard ocean going vessels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Yeddanapudi V R P P

    2012-01-01

    Shipping or carriage of goods play an important role in the development of human societies and international shipping industry, which carries 90% of the world trade, is the life blood of global economy. During ships operational activity a number of solid and hazardous wastes, also referred as garbage are produced from galleys, crew cabins and engine/deck departments stores. This review provides an overview of the current practices onboard and examines the evidence that links waste management plan regulations to shipping trade. With strict compliance to International Maritime Organization's MARPOL regulations, which prevents the pollution of sea from ships various discharges, well documented solid and hazardous waste management practices are being followed onboard ships. All ship board wastes are collected, segregated, stored and disposed of in appropriate locations, in accordance with shipping company's environmental protection policy and solid and hazardous waste management plan. For example, food residues are ground onboard and dropped into the sea as fish food. Cardboard and the like are burned onboard in incinerators. Glass is sorted into dark/light and deposited ashore, as are plastics, metal, tins, batteries, fluorescent tubes, etc. The residue from plastic incineration which is still considered as plastic is brought back to shore for disposal. New targets are being set up to reduce the volume of garbage generated and disposed of to shore facilities, and newer ships are using baling machines which compress cardboard etc into bales to be taken ashore. The garbage management and its control system work as a 'continual improvement' process to achieve new targets.

  6. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Munemoto, Takashi; Sakai, Minoru; Yagi, Shintaro

    2011-01-01

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO 3 ·H 2 O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO 4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO 4 in solution (>30 μM) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO 4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO 4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly higher than simple

  7. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Munemoto, Takashi; Sakai, Minoru; Yagi, Shintaro

    2011-12-01

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO3·H2O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO4 in solution (>30 μM) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly higher than simple adsorption

  8. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fukushi, Takashi Munemoto, Minoru Sakai and Shintaro Yagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO3centerdotH2O, as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO4 in solution (>30 μM can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly

  9. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  10. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  11. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  12. 77 FR 36607 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... hazardous materials. 12102-M EQ Industrial 49 CFR 173.56(i); To modify the special Services, Inc. 173.56(b... 4.1. 13102-M Robertshaw Industrial 49 CFR 173.150(b); To modify the special Products dba 173.222(c...

  13. 49 CFR 172.202 - Description of hazardous material on shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... papers. 172.202 Section 172.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Shipping Papers § 172.202 Description of hazardous material on shipping papers. (a) The shipping description of a hazardous material on the shipping paper...

  14. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... $250 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death... and functions. Federal hazardous materials transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) directs the... regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the...

  15. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may be...

  16. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E.

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines

  17. Preparedness of hazardous materials emergencies in railyards: Guidance for railroads and adjacent communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Railroads are a key part of the distribution system for hazardous materials and, thus, much hazardous material passes through railyards en route to intermediate or final consumers. While the vast majority of these materials are shipped without incident, both the number of shipments and the nature of the materials themselves dictate that railyards and surrounding communities be prepared to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. This report contains information on 11 emergency preparedness functions and 150 guidance recommendations.

  18. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  19. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  20. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushi, Keisuke [Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Munemoto, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Minoru [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yagi, Shintaro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO{sub 4} and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO{sub 4} in solution (>30 {mu}M) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO{sub 4} than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO{sub 4} uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC

  1. Automated accountability of hazardous materials at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depew, P.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), currently operated by AlliedSignal Inc. has developed a comprehensive Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS). The purpose of this system is to provide a practical and automated method to collect, analyze and distribute hazardous material information to DOE, KCP associates, and regulatory agencies. The drivers of the HMIS are compliance with OSHA Hazard Communications, SARA reporting, pollution prevention, waste minimization, control and tracking of hazards, and emergency response. This report provides a discussion of this system

  2. GGVS. Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), in their wording. Annexes A and B. Ordinances regarding exceptions from GGVS and from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials, GGVE. Reasons. Selected guidelines. List of materials. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains the following texts: (1) Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials (GGVS), including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), as of 1990: Skeleton ordinance, annexes A and B, reasons given for the first version, and for the first amendment in 1988, execution guidelines - RS 002 (guidelines for executing the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, with catalogue of penalties), guidelines for drawing up written instructions for the event of accidents - RS 006, guiding principles for the training of vehicle conductors; (2) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials; (3) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials; (4) selected guidelines: Technical guidelines TR IBC K 001, TRS 003, TRS 004, TRS 005, TRS 006; (5) listing of materials and objects governed by the ordinance on hazardous materials transport; (6) catalogue of penalties relative to road transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowers, Paul, E-mail: paul.blowers@cefas.co.uk [Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Caborn, Jane, E-mail: jane.a.caborn@nnl.co.uk [NNL, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Dell, Tony [Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB (United Kingdom); Gingell, Terry [DSTL, Radiation Protection Services, Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom); Harms, Arvic [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Long, Stephanie [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland (United Kingdom); Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stewart, Charlie [UKAEA (Waste Management Group), Chemical Support Services, D1310/14, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom); Walker, Jill [Radiocarbon Dating, The Old Stables, East Lockinge, Wantage, Oxon OX12 8QY (United Kingdom); Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the {sup 14}C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing {sup 14}C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  4. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E.

    2011-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the 14 C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing 14 C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  5. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations

  6. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  7. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni'meh; Al-Sari', Majed I

    2015-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens' collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent's educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the results will indicate the measure taking required to avoid accidents occurred in those regions (burns from toxics, cuts from sharps, etc). National policy and legislation development based on the research outcomes will ensure equitable and accessible services are in place in order to move towards a healthier environment. Specialized health education and training programs on national scale are also needed to enhance awareness on hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Some issues for blast from a structural reactive material solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.

    2018-03-01

    Structural reactive material (SRM) is consolidated from a mixture of micro- or nanometric reactive metals and metal compounds to the mixture theoretical maximum density. An SRM can thus possess a higher energy density, relying on various exothermic reactions, and higher mechanical strength and heat resistance than that of conventional CHNO explosives. Progress in SRM solid studies is reviewed specifically as an energy source for air blast through the reaction of fine SRM fragments under explosive loading. This includes a baseline SRM solid explosion characterization, material properties of an SRM solid, and its dynamic fine fragmentation mechanisms and fragment reaction mechanisms. The overview is portrayed mainly from the author's own experimental studies combined with theoretical and numerical explanation. These advances have laid down some fundamentals for the next stage of developments.

  9. Ion-solid interactions for materials modification and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ila, D.; Cheng, Y.T.; Harriott, L.R.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Topics ranged from the very fundamental ion-solid interactions to the highly device-oriented semiconductor applications. Highlights of the symposium featured in this volume include: nanocrystals in insulators, plasma immersion ion implantation. Focused ion beams, molecular dynamics simulations of ion-surface interactions, ion-beam mixing of insulators, GeV ion irradiation, electro-optical materials, polymers, tribological materials, and semiconductor processing. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  10. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  11. Hazardous Materials Pharmacies - A Vital Component of a Robust P2 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, S.

    2006-01-01

    Integrating pollution prevention (P2) into the Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management (ISM) - Environmental Management System (EMS) approach, required by DOE Order 450.1, leads to an enhanced ISM program at large and complex installations and facilities. One of the building blocks to integrating P2 into a comprehensive environmental and safety program is the control and tracking of the amounts, types, and flow of hazardous materials used on a facility. Hazardous materials pharmacies (typically called HazMarts) provide a solid approach to resolving this issue through business practice changes that reduce use, avoid excess, and redistribute surplus. If understood from concept to implementation, the HazMart is a powerful tool for reducing pollution at the source, tracking inventory storage, controlling usage and flow, and summarizing data for reporting requirements. Pharmacy options can range from a strict, single control point for all hazardous materials to a virtual system, where the inventory is user controlled and reported over a common system. Designing and implementing HazMarts on large, diverse installations or facilities present a unique set of issues. This is especially true of research and development (R and D) facilities where the chemical use requirements are extensive and often classified. There are often multiple sources of supply; a wide variety of chemical requirements; a mix of containers ranging from small ampoules to large bulk storage tanks; and a wide range of tools used to track hazardous materials, ranging from simple purchase inventories to sophisticated tracking software. Computer systems are often not uniform in capacity, capability, or operating systems, making it difficult to use a server-based unified tracking system software. Each of these issues has a solution or set of solutions tied to fundamental business practices. Each requires an understanding of the problem at hand, which, in turn, requires good communication among all

  12. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  13. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  14. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  15. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  16. 49 CFR 176.99 - Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials. 176.99 Section 176.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Special Requirements for Barges § 176.99 Permit requirements for certain hazardous...

  17. 78 FR 16044 - Hazardous Materials Packaging-Composite Cylinder Standards; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Toughiry, Engineering and Research Division, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous... the HMR, ISO 11119 Parts-1, -2 and -3, contain design, construction and testing requirements that are.../permits-approvals/special-permits . II. Public Meeting Topics During this public meeting, PHMSA will...

  18. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  19. 78 FR 46940 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) invites comment on additional information obtained in conjunction with the proposed rule: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From Electric Utilities that was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010. This information is categorized as: additional data to supplement the Regulatory Impact Analysis and risk assessment, information on large scale fill, and data on the surface impoundment structural integrity assessments. EPA is also seeking comment on two issues associated with the requirements for coal combustion residual management units. The Agency is not reopening any other aspect of the proposal or underlying support documents, and will consider comments on any issues other than those raised in the NODA to be late comments and not part of the rulemaking record.

  20. Solid material evaporation into an ECR source by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkewicz, R.; Stacy, J.; Greene, J.; Pardo, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to explore new methods of producing ion beams from solid materials, we are attempting to develop a laser-ablation technique for evaporating materials directly into an ECR ion source plasma. A pulsed NdYaG laser with approximately 25 watts average power and peak power density on the order of 10 7 W/cm 2 has been used off-line to measure ablation rates of various materials as a function of peak laser power. The benefits anticipated from the successful demonstration of this technique include the ability to use very small quantities of materials efficiently, improved material efficiency of incorporation into the ECR plasma, and decoupling of the material evaporation process from the ECR source tuning operation. Here we report on the results of these tests and describe the design for incorporating such a system directly with the ATLAS PII-ECR ion source

  1. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  2. 77 FR 49167 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ..., but are not limited to, the authorization to allow wood as a material of package construction for... to the regulated community with respect to the material of construction authorized for such packages... amendments include, but are not limited to, the authorization to use wood as a material of package...

  3. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph; Pages, P

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago.

  4. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago

  5. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  6. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  7. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  8. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials – Selection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different

  9. Report: EPA Provided Quality and Timely Information on Hurricane Katrina Hazardous Material Releases and Debris Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00023, May 2, 2006. After Hurricane Katrina, EPA was the agency with lead responsibility to prevent, minimize, or mitigate threats to public health and the environment caused by hazardous materials and oil spills in inland zones.

  10. Understanding and managing the movements of hazardous material shipments through Texas population centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Every day almost a million shipments of hazardous materials move safely and securely along our nations transportation system, via any combination of modes. Only a small fraction of total shipments interrupt their planned journey due to an incident...

  11. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hollingsworth, M. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services Co., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  12. Notification: Audit of Security Categorization for EPA Systems That Handle Hazardous Material Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY18-0089, January 8, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA classified the sensitivity of data for systems that handle hazardous waste material information as prescribed by NIST.

  13. Hazardous materials safety and security technology field operational test. Volume II, evaluation final report synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-11

    The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing war on terrorism have heightened the level of concern from Federal government officials and the transportation industry regarding the secure transport of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Secu...

  14. Probabilistic Approach to Conditional Probability of Release of Hazardous Materials from Railroad Tank Cars during Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-13

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to estimate the conditional probability of release of hazardous materials from railroad tank cars during train accidents. Monte Carlo methods are used in developing a probabilistic model to simulate head ...

  15. Hazardous-materials-management system: a guide for local emergency managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.T.; Roe, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    An increase in the manufacture, storage, and transportation of hazardous materials is occurring across the nation. Local jurisdictions have realized that they have the responsibility to assure a reasonable level of safety to their community members and visitors alike. Such a responsibility can be met by developing methods of preventing hazardous materials incidents; enforcing laws related to transporting and storing hazardous materials; the initiating of an appropriate first response, and activating available resources of government agencies and commercial organizations that deal with containment and cleanup. This manual has been written to help in the development of a total Hazardous Material Management System. The manual describes one approach but allows for variations as may be appropriate for the specific jurisdiction

  16. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site's environmental, safety ampersand health (ES ampersand H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site's multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model

  17. Hazardous materials responder training in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Betsinger, G.B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Merchant, S. [Environmental Tectonics Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created to provide on-site professional expertise as well as health and safety guidance to Federal on-scene coordinators during accidental oil and chemical releases. ERT provides practical technical solutions to response activities based on theory as well as actual experience. Its creation in 1978 fulfilled the requirements of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Members of the team have developed a 40-hour Hazardous Waste Responders training course and have themselves, attended a hands-on chemical and biological warfare personnel protective clothing course provided by the U.S. Army. The course demonstrated decontamination showers, moon suits, and entry procedures to a contaminated battlefield situation. ERT continues to emphasize the importance of hands-on training and exercises. Various training programs are underway where students can learn real-time monitoring techniques and respond to simulated hazardous waste incidents. They also learn how to assess environmental, public and occupational health and safety information on the Internet. The students also run air plume models and perform wet bench chemistry experiments. With the advent of more powerful computers, the current objective is to continue with these training activities using Instructor Controlled Interactive Computer Training (ICICT).

  18. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  19. Improvements in or relating to a fluidizing process and apparatus for treating comminuted solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-02-15

    A fluidizing process of treating comminuted solid materials cyclically with different gaseous materials in different treatment zones, which comprises fluidizing comminuted solid material in contiguous treatment zones with different gaseous materials, and establishing unequal fluid-static heads in said zones to effect cyclic flow of said solid material through said zones which are in communication adjacent their respective top and bottom portions and permit the overflow of said solid material from one of said zones to another.

  20. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities

  1. 76 FR 56304 - Hazardous Materials: Minor Editorial Corrections and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of the revisions in this final rule, new entries, ``Paint related material, flammable, corrosive... are correcting the HMT by adding the entries for ``Paint related material, flammable, corrosive...-3971 (HM-226) [67 FR 53118], entitled ``Revision to Standards for Infectious Substances.'' A transition...

  2. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  3. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  4. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A., E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kontogianni, Stamatia [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dpt. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Al-Sari’, Majed I. [The Joint Services Council for Solid Waste Management for Hebron and Bethlehem Governorates JSC-H& B, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  5. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Reuther, T.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding

  6. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation. 8 claims

  7. Method for decreasing radiation hazard in transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    At the end of their useful life, fuel rods are removed from a nuclear reactor and transferred underwater into a shipping cask. The water in the pool of the nuclear reactor system (or fuels reprocessing plant) may contain troublesome amounts of radioactive isotopes, creating biological hazards for any shipping cask unless adequately cleaned after contacting pool water. Potential contamination of substantially all of the entire exterior of the shipping cask is avoided because such shipping cask is at least predominantly immersed in fresh water within a vertically shiftable container which can be, for example, shifted between the bottom and the surface of the pool. Fresh water is supplied to the interior of the shiftable container whereby substantially all of the exterior of the shipping cask is immersed in fresh water, maintained at a pressure and/or flow velocity preventing the pool water from contacting the exterior of the shipping cask

  8. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  9. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  10. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Vitrification of lead-rich solid ashes from incineration of hazardous industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, P.; Kaimakamis, G.; Ioannidis, Th. A.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Kokkou, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Antonopoulos, I.; Sofoniou, M.; Zouboulis, A.; Hadjiantoniou, C.P.; Nouet, G.; Prakouras, A.; Karakostas, Th.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-rich solid industrial wastes were vitrified by the addition of glass formers in various concentrations, to produce non-toxic vitreous stabilized products that can be freely disposed or used as construction materials. Toxicity of both the as-received industrial solid waste and the stabilized products was determined using standard leaching test procedures. The chemically stable vitreous products were subjected to thermal annealing in order to investigate the extent of crystal separation that could occur during cooling of large pieces of glass. Leaching tests were repeated to investigate the relation between annealing process and chemical stability. X-ray, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed to identify the microstructure of stabilized products before and after thermal treatment. Relation between synthesis and processing, chemical stability and microstructure was investigated

  12. A five-year history of hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorten, C.V.; McNamara, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 established Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) to oversee emergency response planning at the community level. In Pennsylvania, each county was assigned its own LEPC, and Chester County held its first LEPC meeting on October 15, 1987. From the data of that meeting through September 1992, 300 hazardous materials incidents have been reported. The majority of these incidents were met with fire department response, but several warranted response by hazardous materials teams. This report presents an analysis of the database of reported hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, including chemical identification, amount released, type of response, location, and trends. Over 235 of the reported spills were either gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, or kerosene, often in five to 50 gallon amounts from transportation accidents. A number of extremely hazardous substance (EHS) incidents were reported, however, including sulfuric acid, chlorine, ammonia, phosphorus, formaldehyde, bromine, methyl mercaptan, and hydrofluoric acid. The most commonly released EHS's were ammonia and chlorine. The number of hazardous materials incidents reported in Chester County increased from only 14 in 1988 to 95 in 1991, with 67 in 1992 through September. This dramatic increase is attributable to both increased reporting and an increased number of incidents. This database clearly indicates both the success of EPCRA reporting system and the magnitude of hazardous materials incidents in this part of Pennsylvania

  13. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  14. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  15. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  16. 78 FR 987 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... of wood as a material of package construction for certain explosives; (2) authorize the use of metals... protection caps and valve guards for industrial and medical gas cylinders--Design, construction and tests... protection caps and valve guards--Design, construction and tests, Second edition, 2008-09-01.'' The entry...

  17. 78 FR 15303 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... previous rulemaking. Add the inadvertently omitted entries for ``Paint related material, flammable..., flammable, corrosive (including paint thinning or reducing compound)'' UN3469, PG II, and PG III to the Sec... the more appropriate generic entries for organometallic compounds and substances. Add the entries for...

  18. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  19. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hydrolysis of aluminum dross in tap water generates pure hydrogen. ► Aluminum particles from dross are activated by mechanically milling technique. ► The process is completely greenhouse gases free and is cleanly to environment. ► Hydrolysis process leads to recycling of waste aluminum by hydrogen production. - Abstract: A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation.

  20. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... CONTACT: If you have questions about this document, contact Mr. Richard Bornhorst at 202-372-1426 or [email protected] . If you have questions about viewing the docket (USCG-2009-0091), call Ms... AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On October 19, 2010...

  1. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue... is categorically excluded under section 2.B.2, figure 2-1, paragraphs (34)(a) and (d) of the... followed after unloading. 148.115 Report of incidents. Subpart D--Stowage and Segregation 148.120 Stowage...

  2. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L -1 and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process

  3. Materials for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells show great promise for economical production of electricity. These cells are based upon the ability of stabilized zirconia to operate as an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures. The design of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell being pursued at Westinghouse is illustrated. The cell uses a calcia-stabilized zironcia porous support tube, which acts both as a structural member onto which the other cell components are fabricated in the form of thin layers, and as a functional member to allow the passage, via its porosity, of air (or oxygen) to the air electrode. This paper summarizes the materials and fabrication processes for the various cell components

  4. Transportation of hazardous materials in Iran: A strategic approach for decreasing accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghazinoory

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available .“Hazardous materials” refer to those substances that seriously endanger human lives and/or the environment. The transportation of these materials will be inevitable in the increasingly industrialized economy of Iran. Nonetheless, numerous deadly accidents caused by the movement of these materials necessitate the design and implementation of preventive plans on several levels. This article looks into the present condition of transportation of hazardous materials in Iran and the resulting accidents. Optimal condition for the general transportation system of hazardous materials is delineated with due focus on transportation risk as the main parameter. Strategies for reaching the optimal condition are laid out and the impacts of these strategies on the reduction of accidents are analyzed.

  5. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  6. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  7. 77 FR 22504 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Convention on International Civil Aviation--also known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with... known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with international transport standards may... material release. Releases of hazardous materials can result in explosions or fires, while radioactive...

  8. 76 FR 63252 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...This Notice announces and invites comment on additional information obtained by the Environmental Protection Agency (Agency or EPA) in conjunction with the proposed rule: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From Electric Utilities that was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010 (75 FR 35127). This information is generally categorized as: Chemical constituent data from coal combustion residuals (CCRs); Facility and waste management unit data; Information on additional alleged damage cases; Adequacy of State programs; and Beneficial Use. In addition, EPA is considering a variety of possible approaches to update and enhance the risk assessment and the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) supporting the development of the final rule. EPA is specifically soliciting comments on the validity and propriety of the use of all new information, data, and potential analyses being noticed today. The Agency is only requesting comment on the information either specifically identified in this Notice or located in the docket for this Notice and is not reopening any other aspect of the proposal or the underlying support documents that were previously available for comment. Comments submitted on any issues other than those specifically identified in this Notice will be considered ``late comments,'' and EPA will not respond to such comments, nor will they be considered part of the rulemaking record.

  9. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  10. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  11. Separation of some hazardous elements by natural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Shehata, M.K.K.; Sharaf El Deen, S.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study has been conducted to study the uptake of radio europium and radiocesium as representatives of fission products in addition to the element chromium as a heavy metal ion, straw and sugarcane residue as representatives of natural cheap materials. Radiometric measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of concerned elements were the techniques adopted in this work. Factors affecting the uptake behavior of the studied elements on different types of straw (Rice, wheat and maize) in addition to sugarcane residue were studied. Such factors are the Ph, contact time, ion concentration and type of media. The uptake % of Cr(III) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to reach 100% at Ph=1, while that of Cr(Vi) does not exceed 15% on the same samples at higher Ph values. While uptake % of Eu(III) reaches 75% with all studied materials. The uptake % of Cs(I) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to be 80% in a short time then decreases sharply

  12. Solid-state quantum chemistry and materials science: Solid compounds of the d and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods have been developed for calculating electron structures for solid compounds of d and f elements and for simulating physicochemical properties of materials based on them. Cluster and band calculations are considered for refractory compounds of d metals formed with light elements. There are bond and property regularities in doping by meals and metalloids, and defects and impurities have certain effects, where studies have been made on the electron structures for disordered phases and solid solutions in relation to sublattice compositions. Quantum-chemical simulation methods have been developed for optically active and fluorescent materials based on d and f metal oxides, fluorides, and chalcogenides, and compositions have been proposed for new optically active composites and protective coatings. New approaches have been defined to the magnetic parameters of metals, alloys, and compounds; these can be applied in simulating new magnetic materials. Calculations are given on energy spectra for high-temperature oxide superconductors. There is interesting scope for quantum-chemical methods in application to many topics in materials science

  13. Integrated Life-Cycle Hazardous Material Management: A Logistics Imperative for USAREUR and the 7th Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werle, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    This report examines the benefit to be gained by integrating traditional "pharmacy" business practices in the existing supply system rather than building a parallel system for hazardous material/hazardous waste (HM/HW) management...

  14. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  15. Removal of hazardous dye congored from waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste material sawdust as adsorbent. Sawdust, a biosorbent, was successfully utilized in removing a water soluble azo dye, congored from wastewater. The paper incorporates effect of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, particle size on adsorption. Specific rate constants of the processes were calculated by kinetic measurements and a first order adsorption kinetics was observed in each case. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were then applied to calculate thermodynamics parameters as well as to suggest the plausible mechanism of the ongoing adsorption processes. In order to observe the quality of wastewater COD measurements were also carried out before and after the treatments. A significant decrease in the COD values was observed, which clearly indicates that adsorption method offer good potential to remove congored from wastewater

  16. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  17. Development of an expert system for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Rawl, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transportation Management Division (EM-261), the Transportation Technologies Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and developed an expert system prototype application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The objective of this task was to provide a proof-of-concept for developing a computerized expert system that will ensure straightforward, consistent, and error-free application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The expert system prototype entailed the analysis of what an expert in hazardous materials shipping information could/should do. From the analysis of the different features required for the expert system prototype, it was concluded that the developmental efforts should be directed to a Windows trademark 3.1 hypermedia environment. Hypermedia technology usually works as an interactive software system that gives personal computer users the ability to organize, manage, and present information in a number of formats--text, graphics, sound, and full-motion video

  18. Converters and electric machines. Solid insulating materials. Electrical characteristics; Convertisseurs et machines electriques. Materiaux isolants solides. Caracteristiques electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A. [Institut National Superieur de Chimie Industrielle, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this article is to allow a preselection of a solid insulating material using the most common electrical characteristics: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity, dielectric rigidity, superficial resistivity, transverse resistivity, resistance to high voltage creeping spark currents, index of creeping resistance. The characteristics of the main solid insulating materials are presented in tables for: thermoplastics, thermosetting materials, natural insulating materials, mineral insulating materials, rubber and synthetic elastomers, stratified insulating materials, thermoplastic films, composite synthetic papers. A comparison is made between the different materials using the three properties: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity and resistance to HV spark creeping currents. (J.S.)

  19. Simulated study of solid materials used as phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte, Eduardo P.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.; Pinto, Nivia G.Villela; Braz, Delson; Pereira Junior, Sielso B.; Lima, Gilberto S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of electrons in water and compares them with the behavior in the materials you want to analyze. It were simulated, using Monte Carlo code EGS4 (MC), 24 irradiation with electrons of 6 and 20 MeV in different materials (polyethylene C 2 H 4 ) n , polystyrene (C 8 H 8 ) n , lucite (C 5 H 8 O 2 ), nylon (C 6 H 11 NO), water (H 2 O) and solid water (55% polyethylene, polystyrene and 5% 40% calcium oxide). The data show that for the two energies most of radiation does not interact with the first 20 mm materials. However, when analyzed plates of 1 cm, most of the energy is deposited in the first 4 plates in case 6 MeV and in the first ten to 20 MeV electrons, for all materials. In case of similarity in behavior of radiation in water and other materials, it is observed that is in polyethylene and polystyrene that the behaviour of electrons more resembles the behavior in water

  20. Pulsed laser photoacoustic spectrometer for study of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.D.; Kartha, V.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of photoacoustic spectroscopy has wide applications bacause it is extremely sensitive, and can be used to obtain spectra in wide spectral range for solids, liquids, gases, solutions, crystals etc. which may be usually difficult by conventional methods. For studying a variety of materials, a pulsed laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been set up in the laboratory. The report discusses the design and performance of the instrument. Some of the spectra of materials like Nd 2 O 9 powder, Nd-YAG crystal, CoCl 2 6H 2 O etc. are shown. A detailed discussion on assignment of the spectra of Nd-YAG is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  2. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  3. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  4. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  5. Calculation of Airborne Radioactivity Hazard from Machining Volume-Activated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.T. Marshall; S.O. Schwahn

    1997-01-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  6. Calculation of airborne radioactivity hazard from machining volume-activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-10-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  7. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  8. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental result...

  9. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project

  10. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  11. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  13. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagiri, G.; Rajamannan, B.; Suresh Jawahar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  14. Microencapsulated Comb-Like Polymeric Solid-Solid Phase Change Materials via In-Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the thermal stability and permeability resistance, a comb-like polymer with crystallizable side chains was fabricated as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs inside the cores of microcapsules and nanocapsules prepared via in-situ polymerization. In this study, the effects on the surface morphology and microstructure of micro/nanocapsules caused by microencapsulating different types of core materials (i.e., n-hexadecane, ethyl hexadecanoate, hexadecyl acrylate and poly(hexadecyl acrylate were systematically studied via field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The confined crystallization behavior of comb-like polymer PCMs cores was investigated via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Comparing with low molecular organic PCMs cores, the thermal stability of PCMs microencapsulated comb-like polymer enhanced significantly, and the permeability resistance improved obviously as well. Based on these resultant analysis, the microencapsulated comb-like polymeric PCMs with excellent thermal stability and permeability resistance showed promising foreground in the field of organic solution spun, melt processing and organic coating.

  15. Evaluation of methods to compare consequences from hazardous materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; Franklin, A.L.; Lavender, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a framework for making meaningful comparisons of the consequences from transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. The project was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, methods that could potentially be used to develop the consequence comparisons for hazardous material transportation accidents were identified and reviewed. Potential improvements were identified and an evaluation of the improved methods was performed. Based on this evaluation, several methods were selected for detailed evaluation in Phase II of the project. The methods selected were location-dependent scenarios, figure of merit and risk assessment. This evaluation included application of the methods to a sample problem which compares the consequences of four representative hazardous materials - chlorine, propane, spent nuclear fuel and class A explosives. These materials were selected because they represented a broad class of hazardous material properties and consequence mechanisms. The sample case aplication relied extensively on consequence calculations performed in previous transportation risk assessment studies. A consultant was employed to assist in developing consequence models for explosives. The results of the detailed evaluation of the three consequence comparison methods indicates that methods are available to perform technically defensible comparisons of the consequences from a wide variety of hazardous materials. Location-dependent scenario and risk assessment methods are available now and the figure of merit method could be developed with additional effort. All of the methods require substantial effort to implement. Methods that would require substantially less effort were identified in the preliminary evaluation, but questions of technical accuracy preclude their application on a scale. These methods may have application to specific cases, however

  16. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  17. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  18. Radiological and hazardous material characterization report for the south portion of the 313 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the characterization was to determine the extent of radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials, to allow the preparation of an accurate cost estimate, and to plan for pre-demolition cleanup work to support building isolation. The scope of services for the project included the following tasks: Records Review and Interviews; Site Reconnaissance; Radiological Survey; and Sampling and Analysis

  19. 75 FR 45195 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14860-M Alaska... authorizing the transportation in commerce of compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other...

  20. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  1. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during transport; (3) For transportation... 2137-AE54 Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery... batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors in the January 14, 2009 final...

  2. 78 FR 22798 - Hazardous Materials: Revision of Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    .... 5101 et seq.). Section 5123(a) of that law provides civil penalties for knowing violations of Federal... 107--Guidelines for Civil Penalties * * * * * IV. * * * C. * * * Under the Federal hazmat law, 49 U.S... Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...

  3. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 5258 - Hazardous Materials Transportation; Registration and Fee Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) train public sector hazardous materials emergency response employees to respond to accidents and... officers, and 500,000 emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Due to the high turnover rates of... planning grants; A new $4,000,000 grant program for non-profit hazmat employee organizations to train...

  5. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  6. Guidelines for applying criteria to designate routes for transporting hazardous materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    These guidelines were prepared to assist State and local officials in the analysis of alternate routes to be used by highway vehicles transportating hazardous materials. A methodology for assessing comparative risks of routing alternatives is discussed and demonstrated through a hypothetical example. Mathematical models are provided for situations in which measured local data may not be easily obtained or adequate

  7. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  8. The Hazardous Material Technician Apprenticeship Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, S.D.

    1987-07-01

    This document describes an apprenticeship training program for hazardous material technician. This entry-level category is achieved after approximately 216 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. Procedures for evaluating performance include in-class testing, use of on-the-job checks, and the assignment of an apprentice mentor for each trainee

  9. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... seat-belt pretensioner devices to a capacity not greater than fifty (50) percent of the drum's total... transported; transportation operations conducted under a special permit; the potential for broad application... utilized by 31 grantees with no known safety problems. A review of the Hazardous Materials Incident Data...

  10. 75 FR 57830 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... special permit Application No. Docket No. Applicant affected thereof 7951-M ConAgra Foods, 49 CFR To... outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14953-M Applied 49 CFR To modify the...

  11. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  12. Development of LIBS for online analysis of solid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to implement a fast, online analysis technique for control of solid metal nuclear materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is developed for quantitative analysis in uranium and plutonium. Since these matrices have a very dense emission spectrum in the UV-Visible range, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range, less rich in lines, is explored. The aim of this thesis is to perform the analytical development of VUV-LIBS for quantitative analysis between 500 and 5000 ppm with an uncertainty of 3%. For that purpose, four steps were defined. First, for practical and safety reasons, it is generally better to perform experiments on surrogate materials. LIBS based on laser-material interaction, it is relevant to seek a surrogate of material of interest from the viewpoint of the ablated mass. Thus, a complete study of laser ablation of several metals was enabled to build a predictive model of the ablation efficiency. Titanium and stainless steel were defined as surrogate materials of plutonium and uranium for laser ablation. Secondly, the VUV-LIBS setup analytical performances were optimized for several elements of interest in four metals. Then, two calibration methods are used to determine the analytical performances. The limits of quantification are of the order of a few hundreds of ppm for all studied matrices, which validates the objective of impurities quantitation in the 500-5000 ppm range. Uncertainty is lower than 3% in the best cases. Finally, the calibration transfer between the four matrices was studied. A normalization of the nickel net signal measured in three matrices was presented. (author) [fr

  13. New decontamination processes for liquid effluents and solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    New decontamination processes are being studied in order to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. 2 decontamination processes for liquid nuclear wastes are under studies. First, the coprecipitation process whose improvement is based on a better control of the 2 coupled mechanisms involved in the process: the formation of adsorbent particles and the uptake of radionuclides. Secondly, the column process whose development focuses on new materials that can be used to absorb cesium in a reversible way. 3 new decontamination processes for solid materials are being developed. First, processes using drying gels are under investigation in order to treat materials like lead, aluminium, iron and stainless steel. Real decontamination of hot cells by drying gel process has been performed and a decontamination factor between 16 and 25 has been obtained on stainless steels. Secondly, new foam decontamination processes have been developed, they are based on the use of new foams stabilized by biodegradable non-ionic surfactants: alkyl-poly-glucosides and viscofiers or nano-particles. The aim is to increase the foam lifetime. Thirdly, new surfactants in solution decontamination processes have been studied, the aim is to decontaminate through degreasing by using acidic surfactants. The idea is to combine emulsification and wetting power. (A.C.)

  14. Inorganic and Hazardous Solid Waste Management: Current Status and Challenges for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprilia, A.; Tezuka, T.; Spaargaren, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on household waste management in Indonesia, with particular emphasis on inorganic and hazardous waste. It seeks to identify the current situation and also aims to provide a review of the existing policies that are particularly related to inorganic and hazardous waste management.

  15. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  16. Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.S.; Borgstrom, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site. The HSW EIS updates analyses of environmental consequences from previous documents and provides evaluations for activities that may be implemented consistent with the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Records of Decision (RODs). Waste types considered in the HSW EIS include operational low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and transuranic (TRU) waste (including TRU mixed waste). MLLW contains chemically hazardous components in addition to radionuclides. Alternatives for management of these wastes at the Hanford Site, including the alternative of No Action, are analyzed in detail. The LLW, MLLW, and TRU waste alternatives are evaluated for a range of waste volumes, representing quantities of waste that could be managed at the Hanford Site. A single maximum forecast volume is evaluated for ILAW. The No Action Alternative considers continuation of ongoing waste management practices at the Hanford Site and ceasing some operations when the limits of existing capabilities are reached. The No Action Alternative provides for continued storage of some waste types. The other alternatives evaluate expanded waste management practices including treatment and disposal of most wastes. The potential environmental consequences of the alternatives are generally similar. The major differences occur with respect to the consequences of disposal versus continued storage and with respect to the range of waste volumes managed under the alternatives. DOE's preferred alternative is to dispose of LLW, MLLW, and ILAW in a single, modular, lined facility near PUREX on Hanford's Central Plateau; to treat MLLW using a combination of onsite and

  17. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  19. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigang Chao; Xinwei Lu; Mengmeng Zhang; Long Pang

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  20. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazardous of main building materials in Yan'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Zhao Caifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the rapidly economic development and urbanization in Yan'an city, more building materials were consumed in building construction. While the natural radioactivity level of building materials from Yan'an is limited in the literatures. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity level and to analyze the associated radiation hazards of building materials in Yan'an. Methods: The specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials from Yan'an city were determined using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry, and their radiation hazards were evaluated according to the standard methods. Results: The results show that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building materials are 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9 and 258.9-1055.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The activities of 226 Ra and 232 Th, except for sand and gravel aggregate, in all other building materials are higher than the corresponding means of local soil, and the activities of 40 K in hollow brick, red-clay brick, sand and gravel aggregate exceed the means of 40 K in soil. However, the values of internal exposure index, external exposure index and gamma radiation index in all investigated building materials are less than 1. Conclusions: The radiation levels of all analyzed building materials are within the national safety standard, which indicates that all analyzed building materials can be used anywhere and they can't cause radiation hazard to the local residents. (authors)

  1. 49 CFR 178.275 - Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... device. A pressure gauge or suitable tell-tale indicator for the detection of disc rupture, pin-holing or... the portable tank operator to check to determine if the disc is leak free. The frangible disc must...

  2. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  3. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)], E-mail: jennifer.gottfried@arl.army.mil; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  4. Final Rule: 2013 Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a regulation page for the final rule EPA issued on July 31, 2013 that modifies the hazardous waste management regulations for solvent-contaminated wipes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., building paper, and thermal insulation materials Asbestos cloth which has loose fibers or particles that... shipment. 5965 Headsets, handsets, microphones, and speakers Items containing magnetic material. 5970... hazardous chemicals, solvents. 6625 Electrical and electronic properties measuring and testing instruments...

  6. Natural radioactivity in some building materials and assessment of the associated radiation hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumovic, Amira; Hankic, Ema; Kasic, Amela; Adrovic, Feriz [Tuzla Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The results of the specific activities of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K measured in samples of commonly used building materials in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. Measurements were performed by gamma-ray spectrometer with coaxial HPGe detector. The surface radon exhalation and mass exhalation rates for selected building materials were also measured. The determined values of specific activities were in range from 3.16 ± 0.81 Bq kg{sup -1} to 64.79 ± 6.16 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 2.46 ± 0.95 Bq kg{sup -1} to 53.89 ± 3.67 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 28.44 ± 7.28 Bq kg{sup -1} to 557.30 ± 93.38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent activity, the activity concentration index, the external and internal hazard indices as well as the absorbed dose rate in indoor air and the corresponding annual effective dose, due to gamma-ray emission from the radioactive nuclides in the building material, were evaluated in order to assess the radiation hazards for people. The measured specific activities of the natural radioactive nuclides in all investigated building materials were compared with the published results for building materials from other European countries. It can be noted that the results from this study are similar to the data for building materials from neighbouring countries and for building materials used in the EU Member States. The radiological hazard parameters of the building materials were all within the recommended limits for safety use.

  7. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  8. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  9. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  10. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  11. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  12. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson

    2006-09-30

    the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity

  13. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  14. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting in unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  15. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  16. An integrated risk communication system for the transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, J.W. IV; Abkowitz, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the prototype of an an internet-based, risk communication system prototype for the transport of hazardous materials. The system was designed with the objectives of: (1) incorporating functionality and features that are useful for meeting a variety of risk communication needs, and (2) demonstrating a high degree of interaction among system components, enabling customisation to meet the specific transport risk communication needs requirements of the host organisation. To demonstrate 'proof of concept', the system is applied to two scenarios: 1) building knowledge and awareness, focusing on how information can be entered, organised and disseminated to the public and other transport stakeholders, and 2) emergency management, utilising the system for securely managing information in responding to a transport incident involving hazardous materials transport incident. The effectiveness of the system in these applications is subsequently discussed. (author)

  17. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel

  18. Material Selection for Cable Gland to Improved Reliability of the High-hazard Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchuk, S. P.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Deeva, V. S.; Vashchuk, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    The sealed cable glands (SCG) are available to ensure safest connection sheathed single wire for the hazard production facility (nuclear power plant and others) the same as pilot cable, control cables, radio-frequency cables et al. In this paper, we investigate the specifics of the material selection of SCG with the express aim of hazardous man-made facility. We discuss the safe working conditions for cable glands. The research indicates the sintering powdered metals cables provide the reliability growth due to their properties. A number of studies have demonstrated the verification of material selection. On the face of it, we make findings indicating that double glazed sealed units could enhance reliability. We had evaluated sample reliability under fire conditions, seismic load, and pressure containment failure. We used the samples mineral insulated thermocouple cable.

  19. Project management plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the Hanford Site will involve the handling and cleanup of toxic substances. Thousands of workers involved in these new activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and associated risks. This project is an important part of the Hanford Site mission and will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet high standards for safety. The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER) project will construct a centralized regional training center dedicated to training hazardous materials workers and emergency responders in classrooms and with hands-on, realistic training aids representing actual field conditions. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a cost-effective, high-quality way to meet the Hanford Site training needs. The training center creates a partnership among DOE; government contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and selected institutions of higher education

  20. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  1. New infrared solid state laser materials for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Tunable infrared laser light may serve as a useful means by which to detect the presence of the targeted effluents. Since optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have proven to be a versatile method of generating coherent light from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, this technology is a promising choice by which to service the CALIOPE applications. In addition, since some uncertainty remains regarding the precise wavelengths and molecules that will be targeted, the deployment of OPOs retains the greatest amount of wavelength flexibility. Another approach that the authors are considering is that of generating tunable infrared radiation directly with a diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). One important advantage of a DPSSL is that it offers flexible pulse format modes that can be tailored to meet the needs of a particular application and target molecule. On the other hand, direct generation by a tunable DPSSL will generally be able to cover a more limited wavelength range than is possible with OPO technology. In support of the CALIOPE objectives the authors are exploring the potential for laser action among a class of materials comprised of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals (i.e., ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe). The Cr 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ dopants were selected as the most favorable candidates, on the basis of their documented spectral properties in the scientific literature. Thus far, the authors have characterized the absorption and emission properties of these ions in the ZnS and ZnSe crystals. The absorption spectra are used to determine the preferred wavelength at which the crystal should be pumped, while the emission spectra reveal the extent of the tuning range potentially offered by the material. In addition, measurements of the emission lifetime as a function of temperature turn out to be quite useful, since this data is suggestive of the room temperature emission yield

  2. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, M. Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation.

  4. Just-in-Time techniques as applied to hazardous materials management

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study investigates the feasibility of integrating JIT techniques in the context of hazardous materials management. This study provides a description of JIT, a description of environmental compliance issues and the outgrowth of related HAZMAT policies, and a broad perspective on strategies for applying JIT to HAZMAT management. http://archive.org/details/justintimetechn00spic Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

  5. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  6. Effect of radioactive radiation on catalytic properties of solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol' skii, D V; Kuzembaev, K K; Kel' man, I V [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Organicheskogo Kataliza i Ehlektrokhimii

    1977-05-01

    General survey is made of the problem of radiation modification of the action of solid catalysts with respect to the various types of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Consideration is given to the key mechanisms responsible for radiation damage in the interaction of high-energy radiation with a solid body. The effect of ionizing radiation on the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of solid bodies is discussed.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of some solid materials by inverse gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamieh, T.; Abdessater, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.New equations and models on two-dimensional state of solid surfaces were previously elaborated in many other studies. results obtained were used in this paper to the determination and the quantification of some physicochemical properties of some solid surfaces, and especially, to study the acid-base superficial characteristics of some solid substrates like oxides and/or polymer adsorbed on oxides, carbon fibers, cements, etc. The technique used was the inverse gas chromatography (CGI) at infinite dilution. The acid-base constants were calculated for many solid surfaces: Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , MgO, ZnO, some cements, textiles and carbon fibers

  8. Statistical treatment of hazards result from radioactive material in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.F.; Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive sources have a wide range of uses in medicine and industry. Radioactive materials entering the public domain in an uncontrolled manner may creating a serious risk of radiation exposure for workers and the public as well as excessive costs for plant decontamination and waste of product to be borne by the metal industry. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last decades due to radioactive material in metal scrap, provides assessment of associated hazards and lessons learned. This will help Regulatory Authority to introduce measures capable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. The study highlights the situation for metal scrap incidents in Egypt.

  9. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaoja, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1997-12-31

    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable `equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material` denoted by {sigma}{sup M}. Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for {sigma}{sup M}. This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor {sigma} and {sigma}M. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression

  10. Thermomechanics of solid materials with application to the Gurson-Tvergaard material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaoja, K.

    1997-01-01

    The elastic-plastic material model for porous material proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard is evaluated. First a general description is given of constitutive equations for solid materials by thermomechanics with internal variables. The role and definition of internal variables are briefly discussed and the following definition is given: The independent variables present (possibly hidden) in the basic laws for thermomechanics are called controllable variables. The other independent variables are called internal variables. An internal variable is shown always to be a state variable. This work shows that if the specific dissipation function is a homogeneous function of degree one in the fluxes, a description for a time-independent process is obtained. When damage to materials is evaluated, usually a scalar-valued or tensorial variable called damage is introduced in the set of internal variables. A problem arises when determining the relationship between physically observable weakening of the material and the value for damage. Here a more feasible approach is used. Instead of damage, the void volume fraction is inserted into the set of internal variables. This allows use of an analytical equation for description of the mechanical weakening of the material. An extension to the material model proposed by Gurson and modified by Tvergaard is derived. The derivation is based on results obtained by thermomechanics and damage mechanics. The main difference between the original Gurson-Tvergaard material model and the extended one lies in the definition of the internal variable 'equivalent tensile flow stress in the matrix material' denoted by σ M . Using classical plasticity theory, Tvergaard elegantly derived an evolution equation for σ M . This is not necessary in the present model, since damage mechanics gives an analytical equation between the stress tensor σ and σM. Investigation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality shows that in compression, states occur which are not

  11. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years

  12. Criticality analysis for hazardous materials transportation; Classificacao da criticidade das rotas do transporte rodoviario de produtos perigosos da BRASKEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Katia; Brady, Mariana [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, Americo [BRASKEM S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The bad conditions of Brazilians roads drive the companies to be more exigent with the transportation of hazardous materials to avoid accidents or materials releases with actions to contain the releases to community and water sources. To minimize this situation, DNV and BRASKEM developed a methodology for risk analysis called Criticality Analysis for Hazardous Materials Transportation. The objective of this methodology is identifying the most critical points of routes to make actions to avoid accidents. (author)

  13. Hazardous materials emergency response training program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) as the engineering vocational training arm of the Texas A ampersand M University system has conducted oil-spill, hazardous-material, and related safety training for industry since 1976 and fire suppression training since 1931. In 1987 TEEX conducted training for some 66,000 persons, of which some 6000 were in hazardous-materials safety training and 22,000 in fire suppression or related fields. Various laws and regulations exist relative to employee training at an industrial facility, such as the Hazard Communication Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly Superfund), the Community Right to Know Law, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Titles I and III. The TEEX programs developed on the foundation emphasize the hands-on approach (60% field exercises) to provide a comprehensive training curriculum resulting in regulatory compliance, an effective emergency response capability, a prepared community, and a safe work environment

  14. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment

  15. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document references information pertaining to the presence of hazardous materials in the Mississippi River Basin. Topics discussed include: The biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous wastes; biological uptake and metabolism; sentinels of aquatic contamination; bioremediation; microorganisms; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity; expert geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; and enhancement of environmental education at Tulane and Xavier

  16. Potential electrode materials for symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Morales, J. C.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromites, titanates and Pt-YSZ-CeO2 cermets have been investigated as potential electrode materials for an alternative concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, the symmetrical SOFCs (SFC. In this configuration, the same electrode material is used simultaneously as anode and cathode. Interconnector materials, such as chromites, could be considered as potential SFC electrodes, at least under pure hydrogen-fed at relatively high temperatures, as they do not exhibit significant catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon oxidation. This may be overcome by partially substituting Cr in the perovskite B-sites by other transition metal cations such as Mn. La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM is a good candidate for such SFCs, rendering fuel cell performances in excess of 500 and 300mW/cm2 using pure H2 and CH4 as fuel, at 950 oC. Similarly, typical n-type electronic conductors traditionally regarded as anode materials, such as strontium titanates, may also operate under oxidising conditions as cathodes by substituting some Ti content for Fe to introduce p-type conductivity. Preliminary electrochemical experiments on La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ-based SFCs show that they perform reasonably well under humidified H2, at high temperatures. A third group of materials is the support material of any typical cermet anode, i.e. YSZ, CeO2 plus a current collector. It has been found that this combination could be optimised to operate as SFC electrodes, rendering performances of 400mW/cm2 under humidified pure H2 at 950oC.

    Cromitas, titanatos y cermets de Pt-YSZ-CeO2 han sido investigados como potenciales materiales de electrodo para un concepto alternativo de Pilas de Combustible de Óxidos Sólidos (SOFC, las pilas SOFC simétricas (SFC. En

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-3 - Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offeror is the actual manufacturer of these items. Failure to submit the Material Safety Data Sheet prior... data. (f) Neither the requirements of this clause nor any act or failure to act by the Government shall... resistant envelope. [56 FR 55375, Oct. 25, 1991, as amended at 60 FR 34740, July 3, 1995; 62 FR 238, Jan. 2...

  18. Development of Neutron Probes for Characterization of Hazardous Materials in the Sub-surface Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, R.P.; McGrath, C.A.; Lopez, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron probes are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the detection, identification and quantification of hazardous materials in the ground. Such materials include plutonium, uranium, americium, chlorine and fluorine. Both a Neutron Gamma (NG) probe and a Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) probe are being developed. The NG probe is used primarily for nuclide identification and quantification measurements. The PFN is used mostly for the detection and measurement of fissile material, but also for the determination of thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross sections of the various elements comprising the ground matrix. Calibration of these probes will be carried out at the INEEL using an indoor facility that has been designed for this activity

  19. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon) and Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com; Garavaglia, M. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Giovani, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Kwato Njock, M.G. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR7500 CNRS-IN2P3 et Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 Rue du Loess, BP 28, F-67037, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-01-15

    The concentration of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in 13 building materials obtained from factories and collected in field in Cameroon were investigated by {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The activity ranged from 1.76 to 49.84Bqkg{sup -1}, 0.32 to 147Bqkg{sup -1} and 18 to 1226Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The highest {sup 238}U activity was found in compressed red soil brick type I (49.6+/-0.3Bqkg{sup -1}) produced by a local manufacturer while the highest {sup 232}Th (139+/-13Bqkg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (1162+/-108Bqkg{sup -1}) activities were found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in Logbadjeck. The activities are compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra{sub eq}, the external hazard index H{sub ex}, the indoor absorbed dose rate D-bar in air and the annual effective dose equivalent E-bar were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. All building materials have shown Ra{sub eq} (range from 10 to 313Bqkg{sup -1}) lower than the limit of 370Bqkg{sup -1} set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD, 1979. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. OECD, Paris] report which is equivalent to a {gamma}-dose of 1.5mSvyr{sup -1}. Except for the gravel from Logbadjeck, all the materials examined are acceptable for use as building materials as defined by the OECD criterion.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in 13 building materials obtained from factories and collected in field in Cameroon were investigated by γ-ray spectrometry. The activity ranged from 1.76 to 49.84Bqkg -1 , 0.32 to 147Bqkg -1 and 18 to 1226Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The highest 238 U activity was found in compressed red soil brick type I (49.6+/-0.3Bqkg -1 ) produced by a local manufacturer while the highest 232 Th (139+/-13Bqkg -1 ) and 40 K (1162+/-108Bqkg -1 ) activities were found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in Logbadjeck. The activities are compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the external hazard index H ex , the indoor absorbed dose rate D-bar in air and the annual effective dose equivalent E-bar were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. All building materials have shown Ra eq (range from 10 to 313Bqkg -1 ) lower than the limit of 370Bqkg -1 set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD, 1979. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. OECD, Paris] report which is equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5mSvyr -1 . Except for the gravel from Logbadjeck, all the materials examined are acceptable for use as building materials as defined by the OECD criterion

  2. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  3. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  4. Processing of hazardous material, or damage treatment method for shallow layer underground storage structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Takehiko; Nishioka, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    In radioactive waste processing facilities and shallow layer underground structures for processing hazardous materials, sheet piles having freezing pipes at the joint portions are spiked into soils at the periphery of a damaged portion of the shallow layer underground structure for processing or storing hazardous materials. Liquid nitrogen is injected to the freezing pipes to freeze the joint portions of adjacent sheet piles. With such procedures, continuous waterproof walls are formed surrounding the soils at the peripheries of the damaged portion. Further, freezing pipes are disposed in the surrounding soils, and liquid nitrogen is injected to freeze the soils. The frozen soils are removed, and artificial foundation materials are filled in the space except for the peripheries of the damaged portion after the removal thereof, and liquid suspension is filled in the peripheries of the damaged portion, and restoration steps for closing the damaged portion are applied. Then, the peripheries of the damaged portion are buried again. With such procedures, series of treatments for removing contaminated soils and repairing a damaged portion can be conducted efficiently at a low cost. (T.M.)

  5. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ► The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ► Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ► Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  6. Development of the photo catalytic materials for the purification and deodorization of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gye Woon; Park, Ji Yeon; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Weon Ju

    1999-12-01

    A hazardous material treatment system utilizing photochemical reaction is a new technology which does not produce any secondary pollutants after dissolving treatment because it is activated by solar photo energy. Photo catalysis reaction apparatus using photo catalytic reaction of TiO 2 was fabricated and installed to food waste treatment system for removing bad smell during treatment of food waste. Evolved gas was analysed by gas chromatograph and active carbon fiber sheet and yarn were used as adsorption media for photo catalysis in order to increase the effectiveness of filter system. (author)

  7. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, Barbara H.; Richins, William D.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  8. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  9. Project T100 -- Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is to provide a system of Quality Assurance reviews and verifications on the design and construction of the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center, project 95L-EWT-100 at Hanford. The reviews and verifications will be on activities associated with design, procurement, and construction of the HAMMER project which includes, but is not limited to earthwork, placement of concrete, laying of rail, drilling of wells, water and sewer line fabrication and installation, communications systems, fire protection/detection systems, line tie-ins, building and mock-up (prop) construction, electrical, instrumentation, pump and valves and special coatings

  10. Expert geographical information system for assessing hazardous materials in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, J.L.; White, L.; Wright, J.D.; Rene, A.; Mielke, H.; Bakeer, R.; Belkhouche, B.; Barber, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hazardous substances, including radionuclides, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and industrial solvents, pose unique challenges in terms of environmental restoration and waste management, especially in aquatic environments. When stored, used or disposed of improperly, hazardous materials including transuranic wastes, high level wastes, low level wastes, greater than class C wastes, mixed wastes or chemical wastes can contaminate an array of environmental receptors ranging from soils, sediments, groundwater to surface water. Depending on the specific hazardous substance and site attributes, environmental restoration and waste management can be a complex, problematic activity. This is particularly true for the major Defense Programs facilities managed by the Department of Energy (DOE). This research cluster consists of two discrete elements. Project Element No. 1 develops and applies GIS-based approaches to decision support for environmental restoration by delineating potential exposures and health risks at the Rocky Flats Plant and profiling contemporary and historical demographic/land use patterns at Sandia National Laboratories. Project Element No. 2 develops ESS software for surface water and ground water contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin

  11. Solid waste management: hazardous waste. Abstracts from the literature, 1974-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, R.E.; Mitchell, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    This document presents literature contained on the Solid Waste Information Retrieval System (SWIRS) data base maintained until 1979 by the US EPA. References are to literature published between 1974 and 1978. The abstracts are grouped into sections in the bibliography as follows: general; economics; laws and regulations; health and safety; transportation; processing, disposal, and siting, analysis, research, and development; metals and toxic substances; pesticides; and radioactive wastes

  12. The environmental and medical geochemistry of potentially hazardous materials produced by disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Meeker, G.P.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Hageman, Philip L.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Many natural or human-caused disasters release potentially hazardous materials (HM) that may pose threats to the environment and health of exposed humans, wildlife, and livestock. This chapter summarizes the environmentally and toxicologically significant physical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of materials produced by a wide variety of recent disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and extreme storms, spills of mining/mineral-processing wastes or coal extraction by-products, and the 2001 attacks on and collapse of the World Trade Center towers. In describing these characteristics, this chapter also illustrates the important roles that geochemists and other earth scientists can play in environmental disaster response and preparedness. In addition to characterizing in detail the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of HM generated by the disasters, these roles also include (1) identifying and discriminating potential multiple sources of the materials; (2) monitoring, mapping, and modeling dispersal and evolution of the materials in the environment; (3) understanding how the materials are modified by environmental processes; (4) identifying key characteristics and processes that influence the materials' toxicity to exposed humans and ecosystems; (5) estimating shifts away from predisaster environmental baseline conditions; and (6) using geochemical insights learned from past disasters to help estimate, prepare for, and increase societal resilience to the environmental and related health impacts of future disasters.

  13. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Kopsick, Deborah A; Warren, Tracy A; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hill, David E.; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  14. Development of сertified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Sobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with data of research for development of certified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators (OPTB SO UNIIM Set Certified Reference Materials GSO 10583-2015. The certified values of opened porosity of metal cylinders were established by the method of hydrostatic weighing before and after boring of holes in. The certified reference materials are intended for calibration and verification of measuring instruments of opened porosity, based on the Boyle - Mariotte's law.

  15. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  16. Monitoring and Inventory of Hazardous Pollutants Emissions from Solid Waste Open Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    Open burning remains a way to dispose of solid waste in developing countries, commonly practiced in places where municipal solid waste (MSW) management is not sufficiently efficient. This open burning practice emits huge amounts of toxic air pollutants, including semi-VOC of dioxins (PCDD/F) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate matters (PM), and toxic gases. This study measured toxic substances released from simulated open burning experiments of MSW (5 batches) and plastic waste (3 batches) to determine emission factors (EFs). Carbon content of the waste before and after burning was measured and the EFs were calculated using the carbon balance method. The obtained EFs of CO; CO2; NO2 and SO2 were 102±61; 1,684±96; 0.69±0.54; and 1.44±1.18 g/kg of dry MSW. The corresponding values for plastic waste were 13.0±6.0; 1,824±10; 0.12±0.07; and 0.14±0.09 g/kg, respectively. The EF of coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM2.5 and BC in PM2.5 were, respectively, 6.1±5.6; 6.4±5.1 and 1.1±0.7 g/kg of MSW, and 2.3±0.1; 2.5±0.3; and 0.2±0.2 g/kg of plastic waste. The EFs of 17 dioxins and 16 PAHs were respectively 1,050±500 ng-TEQ dioxins (70% in gas phase) and 117± 21 mg PAHs (92% in gas phase) per kg of MSW, while those for plastic waste were 8.6 ng TEQ dioxins (36% in gas phase) and 85.2±0.06 mg PAHs (99% in gas phase). Using the activity data from own surveys and literature, we estimated the annual emissions from solid waste open burning in Southeast Asia for 2015. Higher emissions in the domain were seen during the dry months and over large urban areas. The large amounts of toxic pollutants emitted from this open burning activity call for actions to stop this practice which in turn requires integrated environmental management approach simultaneously considering both solid waste and air pollution.

  17. Transportation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes: Material identification is the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancell, D.F.; Willaford, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will discuss how material identification and classification will result in an accurate determination of regulatory requirements, and will assure safe and compliant shipment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The primary focus of the paper is a discussion of lessons learned by the Department of Energy in making waste shipments, and how this can be applied to future mixed waste shipments. There will be a brief discussion of the Department's regulatory compliance program, including a presentation of compliance audit results, and how regulatory issues are addressed through effective information exchange, technical assistance, and compliance training. A detailed discussion will follow, which describes cases involving material identification and classification problems. Examples will include both RCRA waste and uranium mill tailings shipments. The paper will conclude with a discussion concerning the application of these lessons to future mixed waste shipments proposed by the Department. (author)

  18. Developing high-risk scenarios and countermeasure ideas for mitigation of hazardous materials incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.R. Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Kansas State University (KSU) conducted a comprehensive study of the development of a set of prioritized, extreme-risk scenarios, the development of a set of feasible, practical and implementable protective systems, and a report to summarize guidelines on the use of these protective systems to mitigate potential, extreme-risk situations that could occur during the transport of hazardous materials (Hazmat) on our highway system. This paper covers the methodology used to compete the first tow objectives with use of a state's panel. The research study was limited to materials (such as LNG, propane, gasoline, etc.) spilled within the highway system. It focused on potential risks which would result in severe, long-term, permanent, irreparable or catastrophic consequences, and existing technology and state-of-the-art knowledge for development of protective systems to mitigate these consequences. The protective systems within the scope of this study were systems constructed or physically incorporated into the highway system or modifications thereto

  19. Selecting the minimum risk route in the transportation of hazardous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Žura

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The transportation of hazardous materials is a broad and complex topic. Percent and iveight of accidents of vehicles carrying dangerous goods are growing fast. Modern computer based information system for dangerous materials management is becoming more and more important. In this paper I present an interactive software system for minimum risk route selection based on the PC ARC/INFO. The model computes optimal path based on accident probability is computed from traffic accident rates, highway operational speed, traffic volume and technical characteristic of the roadwidth, radius and slope. Dangerous goods are classified into nine classes according to their impact to different sensible environment elements. Those sensible elements are drinking water resourses, natural heritage, forestry, agricultural areas, cultural heritage, urban areas and tourist resorts. Some results of system implementation on Slovenia road network are be presented.

  20. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  1. Musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic hazards among material handlers in grocery retail industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Grocery retail work can be physically demanding as material handler’s tasks involve manual lifting, lowering, carrying, pushing and pulling loads. The nature of this work puts them at a risk for serious low back pain, shoulder pain and other musculoskeletal injuries. This study was conducted by using two different types of tools which were Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) as a survey and Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) Checklist as a direct observation method. Among 46 males and 14 females material handlers were involved throughout this study. For NMQ, the highest body part trouble in the last 12 months was low back pain (88.3%), followed by upper back (68.3%), neck (55.3%) and shoulder (36.7%). While for WISHA Checklist, most of them experienced hazard level involving awkward posture and high hand force. From the research conducted, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and ergonomic risk factors (ERFs) do related as it showed that musculoskeletal disorders may arise if the workers ignored the safety in ergonomic hazards.

  2. Two Chaotic Patterns of Dynamic Risk Definition for Solving Hazardous Materials Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of determining routes for hazardous material transportation, risk is considered as a main attribute. Transport risk, which is usually combined with other attributes such as cost or travel time, plays a significant role in determining paths for hazardous materials transportation. Since, risk is chaotically affected by road incidents, decision makers are dealing with selecting a method for defining chaotic risk factors in hazmat transportation. In this paper, transport risk has been defined as a chaotic variable using two different methods of generating chaotic patterns. In an experimental road network, which consists of eighty-nine nodes and one hundred and one two-way links, two different methods of generating chaotic variables have been used for applying the proposed procedure. In addition, results for different amounts of risk and cost have also been analyzed in case study. Results revealed that different cost and risk priorities change the frequencies of selected paths determined for hazmat transportation, but the route convergence of the route to chaos method is better than that of the logistic map equation.

  3. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  4. The impact measure of solid waste management on health: the hazard index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Musmeci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk associated with waste exposure depends on the level of emissions arising from waste disposal and from the effects of these emissions on human health (dose-reponse. In 2007 an epidemiological study was conducted in two Italian provinces of the Campania Region, namely Naples and Caserta, with the aim of assessing the health effects deriving from exposure to waste. In these studies, the important aspect is the population exposure assessment, in relation to the different types of waste disposal. The Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA Campania has identified and characterized the various authorized/unauthorized dumping sites in the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Most of the waste disposals used are illegal and invisible (sunken or buried; thus, the toxic substances therein contained are unknown and difficult to identify. In order to locate the possible areas exposed to a higher waste-related health risk, a synthetical "hazard index" (at the municipality level was designed. By means of GIS, the number of waste impact areas was identified for each of the 196 municipalities in the two provinces; then, Census data (ISTAT 2001 was used to estimate the proportion of the population living in the impact areas. The synthetical hazard index at municipality level accounts for three elements: a the intrinsic characterization of the waste disposal, determining the way in which the pollutant is released; b the impact area of the dumping site (within 1 km radius, same areas are influenced by more than one site; c the density of the population living in the "impact area" surrounding the waste disposal site.

  5. Hazardous properties and environmental effects of materials used in solar heating and cooling (SHAC) technologies: interim handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, J.Q.

    1978-12-01

    General background informaion related to SHAC systems, how a particular material was chosen for this handbook, and codes and standards are given. Materials are categorized according to their functional use in SHAC systems as follows: (1) heat transfer fluids and fluid treatment chemicals, (2) insulation materials, (3) seals and sealant materials, (4) glazing materials, (5) collector materials, and (6) storage media. The informaion is presented under: general properties, chemical composition, thermal degradation products, and thermoxidative products of some commercial materials; toxic properties and other potential health effects; fire hazard properties; and environmental effects of and disposal methods for SHAC materials. (MHR)

  6. Abstracts of 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals Materials Science and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The solid state crystals are the modern materials being very interesting from the view point of actual and possible applications in microelectronics, optics, laser materials, detectors etc. 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals, Materials Science and Applications, Zakopane'99 created the review forum for broad range of investigations on topics related to; crystal growth and doping, new materials preparation, thin layer structure, physical properties and special methods for electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties measurements of obtained materials. The insulating, semiconducting and superconducting monocrystals, polycrystals and also amorphous glasses have been investigated and their possible applications discussed. 52 oral lectures and 128 posters have been presented in the course of the conference

  7. Solid ionic: these unusual materials applications in high-energy-density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, D.F.; Farrington, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The idea that ions can diffuse as rapidly in a solid as in an aqueous salt solution may seem strange to many chemists. But a variety of solids with high ionic conductivities are known. Compounds have been discovered that conduct anions (including F - and O 2- ) and cations (including monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations). These substances range from hard, refractory materials, such as sodium β-alumina, through softer compounds, such as silver iodide (AgI) to the very soft polymer electrolytes. They include compounds that are stoichiometric (AgI), nonstoichiometric (sodium β-alumina), or doped (calcia-stabilized zirconia). A variety of names have been applied to these materials: among them, solid electrolytes, superionic conductors, and fast-ion conductors. Fast-ion transport in solids is a lively area of study in solid-state chemistry and physics. High-conductivity solid electrolytes have revolutionized conventional concepts of ionic compounds, and their potential uses range from high-energy-density battery and fuel-cell electrolytes to chemical sensors and from lasers to phosphors. Devices using solid electrolytes are already available commercially-oxygen detectors for automotive pollution-control systems employ solid O 2- electrolytes, and solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are employed in heart pacemakers

  8. Microstructural evolution of nanograin nickel-zirconia cermet anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the structure, microstructure, porosity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of the anode material thus synthesized in order to find its suitability for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode application

  9. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Methodperformance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  10. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  11. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types--based on BGO, NaI and LaBr 3 crystals is presented.

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity and the associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2005-09-01

    The concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K in natural and fabricated building materials used in Cameroon was investigated by a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry system with a co-axial HPGe detector. Fourteen kinds of building materials were collected from factories and in the field. Each sample was therefore kept in a 500 ml plastic Marinelli beakers and measured in a very low-background laboratory. The measured activity concentrations range from 1.76 to 49.84 Bq kg -1 , from 0.32 to 147.2 Bq kg -1 and from 18.16 to 1226.29 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K respectively. The highest mean value of 238 U concentration was found in red compressed soil-brick type I (49.57±0.33 Bq kg -1 ) produced by MIPROMALO whereas the highest average concentration of 232 Th (138.89±12.51 Bq kg -1 ) and 40 K (1161.46±107.57 Bq kg -1 ) was found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in LOGBADJECK. The activity concentrations obtained were compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the external hazard index H ex as well as the indoor absorbed dose rate D radical in air and the annual effective dose equivalent H radical E were evaluated to assess the radiation hazards for people living in dwellings made of studied materials. All building materials have shown Ra eq activity (range from 10.15 to 312.57 Bq kg -1 ) lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg -1 set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979) report, and which is equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5 mSv yr -1 All the examined materials are acceptable for use as building materials in accord with the OECD criterion. (author)

  13. Environmental Assessment For the Proposed Construction of A Hazardous Materials Issue Facility and a Hazardous Wastes Storage Facility at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    hazardous materials in accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety Administration ( OSHA ) storage standards. This facility would make the...subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia , Pakistan, or the Philippine Islands; and • Native Hawaiian and Other...regulated by the USEPA and the OSHA . The state of Colorado also has regulations pertaining to ACM abatement. Emissions of asbestos fibers into the

  14. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  15. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  17. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  18. Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, D.Z.; Sharafudeen, K.N.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    solved, especially concerning the interaction of strong, ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with matter, and also because potential advanced technologies will emerge due to the impressive capability of the intense femtosecond laser to create new material structures and hence functionalities. When......The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials is a topic that has caused great interest of scientists over the past two decades. It will continue to be a fascinating field in the coming years. This is because many challenging fundamental problems have not been......–matter interaction, and fabricate various integrated micro-devices. In recent years we have witnessed exciting development in understanding and applying femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent materials. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials relies on non...

  19. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. W.; Bonin, J. H.; Daniel, A. D. Jr.

    1983-03-15

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues. 19 figs.

  20. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  1. Selection of Liner Materials and Design of Hazardous Water Facilities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel N. Abduljauwad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in Saudi Arabia has produced a broad spectrum of wastes.  In the last two decades, several refineries and petrochemical industries have been established. These industries have produced sludges and other toxic wastes which need proper planning for their handling and disposal. This paper covers design and selection of liner materials for two hazardous waste disposal sites. One of them is located in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, while the second one is located in the Western part. The paper will present complete design details of the natural compacted and geosynthetic soil liners and the leachate collection and removal system for primary liners and leak detection/leachate collection and removal system for secondary liners.

  2. Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, July 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    About 1.5 billion tons of hazardous materials per year are moved in the US by truck, rail, barge, and air. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act was the first attempt at a comprehensive Federal scheme for regulation. This hearing looks at the Secretary of Transportation's implementation of the statute for oversight and reauthorization responsibilities. Testimony was heard from 16 witnesses, representatives of Chemical Manufacturers Association, the American Trucking Association, the Association of American Railroads, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Environmental Policy Institute, Office of Technology Assessment, Hazardous Materials Advisory Council, National Tank Truck Carriers, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Paint and Coatings Association, and a representative from Ohio.

  3. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Gul, R.; Ara, T.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in laterite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), internal hazard index (H in ), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E eff ) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. (authors)

  4. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W.; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS 2 p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane

  5. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W. [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS{sub 2} p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  6. Pressure effect on hysteresis in spin-crossover solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Integrated Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Advanced Materials, Nanotechnologies, and Distributed Systems for fabrication and control, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    A generalized microscopic Ising-like model is proposed to describe behavior of compressible spin-crossover solids with two states: low-spin and high-spin. The model was solved in mean-field approximation and shows hysteretic behavior at low energy difference between the states. We study the thermal transition between states under external hydrostatic pressure taking into account the changes in the volume of spin-crossover molecules in different states. Depending on the applied pressure, a spin-crossover system can have three types of behavior of molecular fraction in the high-spin state: hysteretic, second-order phase transition and no-phase transition. For the hysteretic regime, it is shown that the transition temperature under pressure is increased while the width of the hysteresis reduced.

  7. Hazardous materials transportation. Part 2. Radioactive materials and wastes (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Final report for 1964--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimherr, G.W.

    1978-06-01

    The bibliography cites studies on the hazards, risks, and uncertainty of transporting radioactive wastes and materials. The design of shipping containers and special labels for identification purposes for transporting fuels and wastes are also cited. Studies are included on legislation dealing with the safety and health of the population and the environmental problems associated with transporting radioactive materials

  8. Effects of irradiation on four solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The tritium breeding material with the highest lithium atom density, Li 2 O has been observed to incur significant swelling (>4%) under fast reactor irradiation. Such swelling, if unrestrained leads to either unacceptable, induced-strains in adjacent structural material or undesirable design compromises. Fortunately, however, Li 2 O deforms at low temperatures so that swelling strains may be internally accommodated. Laboratory dilational creep experiments were conducted on unirraciated Li 2 O between 500 and 700 0 C in order to provide data for structural analysis of in-reactor experiments and blanket design studies. A densification model agreed with most of the available data. 15 refs

  9. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  10. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  11. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  12. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  13. Compression Characteristics of Solid Wastes as Backfill Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Li; Jixiong Zhang; Rui Gao

    2016-01-01

    A self-made large-diameter compression steel chamber and a SANS material testing machine were chosen to perform a series of compression tests in order to fully understand the compression characteristics of differently graded filling gangue samples. The relationship between the stress-deformation modulus and stress-compression degree was analyzed comparatively. The results showed that, during compression, the deformation modulus of gangue grew linearly with stress, the overall relationship bet...

  14. Decision support for environmental management of industrial non-hazardous secondary materials: New analytical methods combined with simulation and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Keith W; Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Northeim, Coleen M; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2017-07-01

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requires estimates of their probable environmental impacts among disposal as well as BU options. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently approved new analytical methods (EPA Methods 1313-1316) to assess leachability of constituents of potential concern in these materials. These new methods are more realistic for many disposal and BU options than historical methods, such as the toxicity characteristic leaching protocol. Experimental data from these new methods are used to parameterize a chemical fate and transport (F&T) model to simulate long-term environmental releases from flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) when disposed of in an industrial landfill or beneficially used as an agricultural soil amendment. The F&T model is also coupled with optimization algorithms, the Beneficial Use Decision Support System (BUDSS), under development by EPA to enhance INSM management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cluster model calculations of the solid state materials electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelikan, P.; Biskupic, S.; Banacky, P.; Zajac, A.; Svrcek, A.; Noga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Materials of the general composition ACuO 2 are the parent compounds of so called infinite layer superconductors. In the paper presented the electron structure of the compounds CaCuO 2 , SrCuO2, Ca 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 and Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 were calculated. The cluster models consisting of 192 atoms were computed using quasi relativistic version of semiempirical INDO method. The obtained results indicate the strong ionicity of Ca/Sr-O bonds and high covalency of Cu-bonds. The width of energy gap at the Fermi level increases as follows: Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 2 . This order correlates with the fact that materials of the composition Ca x Sr 1-x CuO 2 have have the high temperatures of the superconductive transition (up to 110 K). Materials partially substituted by Sr 2+ have also the higher density of states in the close vicinity at the Fermi level that ai the additional condition for the possibility of superconductive transition. It was calculated the strong influence of the vibration motions to the energy gap at the Fermi level. (authors). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  16. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials; Strahlende Geschaefte. Gefahren des internationalen Atomschmuggels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges berichten die Medien immer haeufiger ueber Schmuggel von Atomtechnologie und spaltbarem Material. Bis heute ist uns eine Katastrophe erspart geblieben. Was geschieht aber, wenn Uran oder Plutonium in die Haende von Terroristen, Fanatikern oder mafiaaehnlichen Kartellen faellt? Der Autor ist im Auftrag des Generalsekretaers der Vereinten Nationen dieser Frage nachgegangen. Rund um die Welt fuehrten ihn seine Nachforschungen und Gespraeche. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seinem brisanten Bericht enthuellt er in diesem Buch. (orig./HP)

  17. Developing emergency exercises for hazardous material transportation: process, documents and templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Margaret; Kelly, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Multi-agency emergency exercises establish and reinforce relationships, and bring people from different areas together to work as a team, realise clear goals, understand roles and responsibilities, and get to know and respect each agency's strengths and weaknesses. However, despite the long-held belief in and respect for exercises in their provision of benefits to the individual and the organisation, there is little evidence of a consistent and clear process for exercise design, especially identifying the documents that may need to be completed to ensure efficient exercise preparation and performance. This paper reports the results of a project undertaken on behalf of the organisations that form the radioactive material transportation mutual-aid agreement, RADSAFE, to develop a standardised process to design emergency exercises. Three stages, from identifying the requirement for an exercise (Stage I), through to obtaining approval for operational orders (Stage II), then conducting a management review as part of the continuous improvement cycle (Stage III), were developed. Although designed for radioactive material transportation events, it is suggested that many of the factors within these three stages can be generalised for the design of exercises in other high-hazard industries.

  18. Simulation Engine for Fluid Solid Interaction Problems and its Application to the Modelling of Air Blast Hazards in Block Cave Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Ruest, M.

    2016-12-01

    Air blasts that may occur in a block caving mining operation represent a significant hazard for personnel as well as to mining infrastructure. Uncontrolled caving of a large volume of broken rock into a mine void causes compression of the air within, forcing it to flow at high velocities into connecting tunnels such as extraction points beneath the cave or observation points intersecting the cave. This high velocity flow of air can cause injury to personnel and significant damage to equipment. In this presentation, we introduce a simulation engine for the air blast problem. The solid material is modelled using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the fluid (air) is modelled using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The combined DEM-LBM approach has been introduced by our group at the University of Queensland[1]. LBM allows us to introduce an appropriate equation of state for the air that simulates compressibility as a function of the speed of sound. Validation examples are presented to justify the use of this tool for an air blasting situation. A section view of one simulation is provided in Fig 1. An investigation into the risk of developing air pockets as a function of fragment size distribution is also conducted and described. The fragment size distribution can be assessed during mining and the risk of air pockets forming (and consequently of air blast occurring) can be deduced and mitigation measures put in place. The effect of other key variables that can be determined from geotechnical investigations, such as fracture frequency, are also systematically explored. It is expected that the results of this study can elucidate key features of the air blasting phenomenon in order to formulate safer mining protocols. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the simulation of fluid-solid interaction with particles of general shapes. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2013. 265(0): p. 107-119.

  19. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  20. Hazard caused by radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants in comparison with both natural hazards and those caused by solid wastes from coal-fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1988-01-01

    The risks concerned with radioactive solid wastes deposited deeply underground as well as with low-, intermediate- and high-level radioactive wastes are compared with natural radioactivity and thermal plants solid wastes threats. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs. (A.S.)

  1. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  2. Thermodynamics of water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Pharmaceutical materials, crystalline and amorphous, sorb water from the atmosphere, which affects critical factors in the development of drugs, such as the selection of drug substance crystal form, compatibility with excipients, dosage form selection, packaging, and product shelf-life. It is common practice to quantify the amount of water that a material sorbs at a given relative humidity (RH), but the results alone provide minimal to no physicochemical insight into water-solid interactions, without which pharmaceutical scientists cannot develop an understanding of their materials, so as to anticipate and circumvent potential problems. This research was conducted to advance the science of pharmaceutical materials by examining the thermodynamics of solids with sorbed water. The compounds studied include nonhygroscopic drugs, a channel hydrate drug, a stoichiometric hydrate excipient, and an amorphous excipient. The water sorption isotherms were measured over a range of temperature to extract the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of sorbed water as well as the same quantities for some of the solids. It was found that water-solid interactions spanned a range of energy and entropy as a function of RH, which was unique to the solid, and which could be valuable in identifying batch-to-batch differences and effects of processing in material performance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFC's. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFC's, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions

  4. A survey on multiproperty measurement techniques of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The term 'multiproperty measurement' has not as yet been widely used. It is defined as the simultaneous (or continuous) measurement of several properties of material using one sample and one set of equipment. It is highly advantageous to measure several properties of a sample simultaneously. Various aspects of the nature of a substance can be clarified by evaluating its nature in terms of many properties. In particular, advanced techniques for measuring thermal properties of material are needed in the fields of atomic energy industry, aerospace industry, energy industry, electronics industry and academic community. Conventional thermal property measurement techniques which can be applied to multiproperty measurement or minute test sample measurement are outlined focusing on measurement of the thermal conductivity (axial flow method, radial flow method, plate method, unsteady state heating coil method, direct current heating method), specific heat (adiabatic method, drop calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, AC calorimetric method, pulse heating method, and laser heating method), thermal diffusivity (laser-flash method), and emissivity (separated black body method, incorporated black body method). (N,K.)

  5. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.)

  7. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  8. Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing

  9. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuda, Atsushi, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Takeuchi, Tomonari, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori [Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute for Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda (Japan)

    2016-05-10

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg{sup −1}) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li{sub 3}NbS{sub 4}, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g{sup −1} suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without

  10. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg −1 ) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li 3 NbS 4 , have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g −1 suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  11. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. ► No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. ► PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. ► Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. ► The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by

  12. Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Fuenmayor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms.

  13. Preparation of cathode materials for solid oxide solid fuel (SOFC) using gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.; Aquino, F. de M.; Macedo, D.A. de; Sa, A.M.; Galvao, G.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These devices are basically divided into interconnectors, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Recently, studies of improvements in microstructural and morphological properties of calcium cobaltate (Ca_3Co_4O_9, C349) has been made regarding its potential use as SOFC cathode for intermediate temperature. Gelatin has proven to be effective as a polymerizing agent in the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of the C349 cathode using commercial gelatin. The structural properties of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of the crystalline phase at 900 °C, indicating the effectiveness of the gelatin in the preparation of cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  14. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  15. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  16. Finite element modeling for integrated solid-solid PCM-building material with varying phase change temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Fung, A.S.; Siddiqui, O. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Solid-solid phase change materials (SSPCMs) are used to enhance thermal storage performance and reduce indoor temperature fluctuations in buildings. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was used to investigate the thermal properties of different types of SSPCMs. An effective heat capacity method was used to develop the model. An integrated PCM-building material was analyzed in relation to temperature and heat flux profiles. Governing equations for the heat transfer process were composed of Navier-Stokes momentum equations; a mass conservation equation; and an energy conservation equation. Effective heat capacity was described as a linear function of the latent heat of fusion on both the heating and cooling processes. Data from the simulation were then compared with an experiment suing drywall, concrete and gypcrete samples. Heat flux across the surfaces and temperatures on the surfaces of the materials were measured. Data were used to validate the finite element model (FEM). Results of the study suggested that heat flux profiles are an effective means of understanding phase change processes. It was concluded that PCMs with lower phase change temperatures lengthened energy releases and improved thermal comfort in the building. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Cattle Ranching and Farming 1121 Warehouse 493 Hog and Pig Farming 1122 Retail 442-454 Poultry and Egg Production 1123 Education 611 Sheep and Goat Farming 1124 Social Assistance...... 624 Horses and Other Equine...

  18. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...* Industrial Boilers: Crop Production 111 Food Manufacturing........ 311, 312, Cattle Ranching and Farming 1121 Pulp and Paper Mills...... 3221 Hog and Pig Farming 1122 Petroleum Refining........ 32411 Poultry and Egg Production 1123 Chemical Manufacturing.... 325 Sheep and Goat Farming 1124 Primary Metal 331...

  19. Design and fabrication hazard stakes golf course polymeric foam material empty bunch (EFB) fiber reinforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfahmi; Syam, B.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    A golf course with obstacles in the forms of water obstacle and lateral water obstacle marked with the stakes which are called golf course obstacle stake in this study. This study focused on the design and fabrication of the golf course obstacle stake with a solid cylindrical geometry using EFB fiber-reinforced polimeric foam composite materials. To obtain the EFB fiber which is free from fat content and other elements, EFB is soaked in the water with 1% (of the watre total volume) NaOH. The model of the mould designed is permanent mould that can be used for the further refabrication process. The mould was designed based on resin-compound paste materials with talc powder plus E-glass fiber to make the mould strong. The composition of polimeric foam materials comprised unsaturated resin Bqtn-Ex 157 (70%), blowing agent (10%), fiber (10%), and catalyst (10%). The process of casting the polimeric foam composit materials into the mould cavity should be at vertical casting position, accurate interval time of material stirring, and periodical casting. To find out the strength value of the golf course obstacle stake product, a model was made and simulated by using the software of Ansys workbench 14.0, an impact loading was given at the height of 400 mm and 460 mm with the variation of golf ball speed (USGA standard) v = 18 m/s, v = 35 m/s, v = 66.2 m/s, v = 70 m/s, and v = 78.2 m/s. The clarification showed that the biggest dynamic explicit loading impact of Fmax = 142.5 N at the height of 460 mm with the maximum golf ball speed of 78.2 m/s did not experience the hysteresis effect and inertia effect. The largest deformation area occurred at the golf ball speed v = 66.2 mm/s, that is 18.029 mm (time: 2.5514e-004) was only concentrated around the sectional area of contact point of impact, meaning that the golf course obstacle stakes made of EFB fiber-reinforced polymeric foam materials have the geometric functional strength that are able to absorb the energy of golf ball

  20. On-site transportation and handling of uranium-233 special nuclear material: Preliminary hazards and accident analysis. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solack, T.; West, D.; Ullman, D.; Coppock, G.; Cox, C.

    1995-01-01

    U-233 Special Nuclear Material (SNM) currently stored at the T-Building Storage Areas A and B must be transported to the SW/R Tritium Complex for repackaging. This SNM is in the form of oxide powder contained in glass jars which in turn are contained in heat sealed double polyethylene bags. These doubled-bagged glass jars have been primarily stored in structural steel casks and birdcages for approximately 20 years. The three casks, eight birdcages, and one pail/pressure vessel will be loaded onto a transport truck and moved over an eight day period. The Preliminary Hazards and Accident Analysis for the on-site transportation and handling of Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Material, documented herein, was performed in accordance with the format and content guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, dated July 1994, specifically Chapter Three, Hazard and Accident Analysis. The Preliminary Hazards Analysis involved detailed walkdowns of all areas of the U-233 SNM movement route, including the T-Building Storage Area A and B, T-Building truck tunnel, and the roadway route. Extensive discussions were held with operations personnel from the Nuclear Material Control Group, Nuclear Materials Accountability Group, EG and G Mound Security and the Material Handling Systems Transportation Group. Existing documentation related to the on-site transportation of hazardous materials, T-Building and SW/R Tritium Complex SARs, and emergency preparedness/response documentation were also reviewed and analyzed to identify and develop the complete spectrum of energy source hazards

  1. Materials modeling by design: applications to amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Parthapratim; Tafen, D N; Inam, F; Cai Bin; Drabold, D A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review a host of methods used to model amorphous materials. We particularly describe methods which impose constraints on the models to ensure that the final model meets a priori requirements (on structure, topology, chemical order, etc). In particular, we review work based on quench from the melt simulations, the 'decorate and relax' method, which is shown to be a reliable scheme for forming models of certain binary glasses. A 'building block' approach is also suggested and yields a pleading model for GeSe 1.5 . We also report on the nature of vulcanization in an Se network cross-linked by As, and indicate how introducing H into an a-Si network develops into a-Si:H. We also discuss explicitly constrained methods including reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) and a novel method called 'Experimentally Constrained Molecular Relaxation'. The latter merges the power of ab initio simulation with the ability to impose external information associated with RMC.

  2. Scaling similarities of multiple fracturing of solid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kapiris

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently reported that electromagnetic flashes of low-energy -rays emitted during multi-fracturing on a neutron star, and electromagnetic pulses emitted in the laboratory by a disordered material subjected to an increasing external load, share distinctive statistical properties with earthquakes, such as power-law energy distributions (Cheng et al., 1996; Kossobokov et al., 2000; Rabinovitch et al., 2001; Sornette and Helmstetter, 2002. The neutron starquakes may release strain energies up to erg, while, the fractures in laboratory samples release strain energies approximately a fraction of an erg. An earthquake fault region can build up strain energy up to approximately erg for the strongest earthquakes. Clear sequences of kilohertz-megahertz electromagnetic avalanches have been detected from a few days up to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. A question that arises effortlessly is if the pre-seismic electromagnetic fluctuations also share the same statistical properties. Our study justifies a positive answer. Our analysis also reveals 'symptoms' of a transition to the main rupture common with earthquake sequences and acoustic emission pulses observed during laboratory experiments (Maes et al., 1998.

  3. Application of United States Department of Transportation regulations to hazardous material and waste shipments on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    All hazardous material and waste transported over roadways open to the public must be in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. The DOT states that the hazardous material regulations (HMR) also apply to government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) transportation operations over any U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site roadway where the public has free and unrestricted access. Hazardous material and waste in packages that do not meet DOT regulations must be transported on DOE site roadways in a manner that excludes the public and nonessential workers. At the DOE Richland Field Office (the Hanford Site), hazardous material and waste movements that do not meet DOT requirements are transported over public access roadways during off-peak hours with the roadways barricaded. These movements are accomplished using a transportation plan that involves the DOE, DOE contractors, and private utilities who operate on or near the Hanford Site. This method, which is used at the Hanford Site to comply with DOT regulations onsite, can be communicated to other DOE sites to provide a basis for achieving consistency in similar transportation operations. (author)

  4. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rail tank car due to chemical self-reaction and expansion of the toluene diisocyanate matter wastes. On...: Cheryl West Freeman, Division of Engineering and Research, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... catastrophically ruptured at a transfer station at the BASF Corporation chemical facility in Freeport, Texas. The...

  5. Robust routing for hazardous materials transportation with conditional value-at-risk on time-dependent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    New methods are proposed for mitigating risk in hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation, based on Conditional : Value-at-Risk (CVaR) measure, on time-dependent vehicular networks. While the CVaR risk measure has been : popularly used in financial...

  6. A Decision Support Model Using Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis to Select Cost-Effective Alternatives for Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    AF89-071. Washington: GPO, 1989. 159 14. Diaz , SSgt Laura, 648 Med Sq/SGHL. Personal interview. Brooks AFB, San Antonio TX, 14 July 1993. 15. EA...Training Strateav of the Acauisition Management of Hazardous Materials Program. Draft Report. McLean VA, August 1991. 36. Moore, SSgt Alicia . AL/OEVP

  7. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Variable neighborhood search to solve the vehicle routing problem for hazardous materials transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, Gustavo Alfredo; Prodhon, Caroline; Gonzalez, Fabio Augusto; Afsar, H Murat; Velasco, Nubia

    2017-02-15

    This work focuses on the Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing problem (HFVRP) in the context of hazardous materials (HazMat) transportation. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total expected routing risk. This is a nonlinear function, and it depends on the vehicle load and the population exposed when an incident occurs. Thus, a piecewise linear approximation is used to estimate it. For solving the problem, a variant of the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) algorithm is employed. To improve its performance, a post-optimization procedure is implemented via a Set Partitioning (SP) problem. The SP is solved on a pool of routes obtained from executions of the local search procedure embedded on the VNS. The algorithm is tested on two sets of HFVRP instances based on literature with up to 100 nodes, these instances are modified to include vehicle and arc risk parameters. The results are competitive in terms of computational efficiency and quality attested by a comparison with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) previously proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Routing and scheduling of hazardous materials shipments: algorithmic approaches to managing spent nuclear fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds government regulation of routing and scheduling of Hazardous Materials Transportation (HMT). Increases in operating costs must be balanced against expected benefits from local HMT bans and curfews when promulgating or preempting HMT regulations. Algorithmic approaches for evaluating HMT routing and scheduling regulatory policy are described. A review of current US HMT regulatory policy is presented to provide a context for the analysis. Next, a multiobjective shortest path algorithm to find the set of efficient routes under conflicting objectives is presented. This algorithm generates all efficient routes under any partial ordering in a single pass through the network. Also, scheduling algorithms are presented to estimate the travel time delay due to HMT curfews along a route. Algorithms are presented assuming either deterministic or stochastic travel times between curfew cities and also possible rerouting to avoid such cities. These algorithms are applied to the case study of US highway transport of spent nuclear fuel from reactors to permanent repositories. Two data sets were used. One data set included the US Interstate Highway System (IHS) network with reactor locations, possible repository sites, and 150 heavily populated areas (HPAs). The other data set contained estimates of the population residing with 0.5 miles of the IHS and the Eastern US. Curfew delay is dramatically reduced by optimally scheduling departure times unless inter-HPA travel times are highly uncertain. Rerouting shipments to avoid HPAs is a less efficient approach to reducing delay

  10. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual report 1991 on R and D work by the Institute for Materials and Solid State Research (IMF), Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The annual report summarises the activities of the IMF in the following subject areas: 1) Contributions to the PKF (fusion technology project (refewing to structural materials, superconducting magnets, blanket development); 2) PSU, project for the management of pollutants in the environment (treatment and recycling of hazardous waste); 3) solid state and materials research (high-temperature materials, ceramic materials as protective coatings, polymer materials, high-performance ceramics, high-TC superconducting materials; biomechanics, laser technology); 4) microtechnology (development and testing of compact or layered materials in microtechnology); 5) PSF project, nuclear safety, research (safety and materials aspects of fast breeder reactors, transient behaviour of fuel elements in fact breeder reactors, LWR-specific safety research, containment design concepts for the next generation of PWR-type reactors); 6) NE project, nuclear waste management (analysis of solid wastes from the dissolution of spent LWR fuels, materials testing in nitric acid). The primary reports and other publications of the Institute issued in 1991 are listed in an annex. (orig./MM) [de

  12. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous... (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of... demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous secondary material that is not legitimately recycled...

  13. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide (α-HgI 2 ) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  15. Quantum chemistry of solids and materials technology: solid-phase compounds of d- and f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studies aimed at the development of methods of theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of solid phase compounds of α- and f-elements and the modelling of physicochemical properties of materials developed on their basis, are presented. The possibilities of cluster and zone calculations of the electronic structure of refractory compounds of d-metals with light elements are considered. The regularities of changes in the chemical bond and properties during crystal lattice alloying with metals, metalloids are found. The methods of quantum chemical modeling of optically active and luminescent materials on the base of oxides, fluorides, chalcogenides of d- and f-metals are developed. The compositions of new optically active compositions and protective coatings are suggested. New approaches to the study of magnetic properties of metals, alloys and compounds are developed. The results of calculations of the energy spectra of high-temperature oxide superconductors are given

  16. Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.

  17. Residual thermal stresses in a solid sphere cast from a thermosetting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, M.; Shaffer, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the residual thermal stresses in a solid sphere cast from a chemically hardening thermosetting material in a rigid spherical mold. The description of the heat generation rate and temperature variation is derived from a first-order chemical reaction. Solidification is described by the continuous transformation of the material from an inviscid liquidlike state into an elastic solid, with intermediate properties determined by the degree of chemical reaction. Residual stress components are obtained as functions of the parameters of the hardening process and the properties of the hardening material. Variation of the residual stresses with a nondimensionalized reaction rate parameter and the relative compressibility of the hardened material is discussed in detail.

  18. Solid triphenylmethanol: A molecular material that undergoes multiple internal reorientational processes on different timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchin, Simon J.; Xu Mingcan; Serrano-Gonzalez, Heliodoro; Coates, Laura J.; Zaka Ahmed, S.; Glidewell, Christopher; Harris, Kenneth D.M.

    2006-01-01

    In solid triphenylmethanol, the molecules are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tetramers, and it is already well established that the hydrogen bonding in this material undergoes a dynamic switching process between different hydrogen bonding arrangements. In addition to this motion, we show here, from solid-state 2 H NMR studies of the deuterated material (C 6 D 5 ) 3 COH, that each phenyl ring in this material undergoes a 180 deg.-jump reorientation about the C 6 D 5 -C(OH) bond, with an activation energy of ca. 50 kJ mol -1 . The timescale for the phenyl ring dynamics is several orders of magnitude longer than the timescale for the hydrogen bond dynamics in this material, and is uncorrelated with the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding arrangement

  19. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  20. An automatic granular structure generation and finite element analysis of heterogeneous semi-solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Hamid; Larouche, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of cast metal products depends on the capacity of the semi-solid metal to sustain the stresses generated during the casting. Predicting the evolution of these stresses with accuracy in the solidification interval should be highly helpful to avoid the formation of defects like hot tearing. This task is however very difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of the material. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of a metal during solidification using a mesh generation technique of the heterogeneous semi-solid material for a finite element analysis at the microscopic level. This task is done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain in which the granular structure of the solid phase is generated surrounded by an intergranular and interdendritc liquid phase. Some basic solid grains are first constructed and projected in the 2D domain with random orientations and scale factors. Depending on their orientation, the basic grains are combined to produce larger grains or separated by a liquid film. Different basic grain shapes can produce different granular structures of the mushy zone. As a result, using this automatic grain generation procedure, we can investigate the effect of grain shapes and sizes on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the semi-solid material. The granular models are automatically converted to the finite element meshes. The solid grains and the liquid phase are meshed properly using quadrilateral elements. This method has been used to simulate the microstructure of a binary aluminium–copper alloy (Al–5.8 wt% Cu) when the fraction solid is 0.92. Using the finite element method and the Mie–Grüneisen equation of state for the liquid phase, the transient mechanical behaviour of the mushy zone under tensile loading has been investigated. The stress distribution and the bridges, which are formed during the tensile loading, have been detected. (paper)

  1. Past, present and future of materials, methodology and instrumentation in particle tracks in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation I would like to give a brief review of the development of materials, methods and instrumentation in Solid State Nuclear Track Detection, nowadays referred to by the more general term of Particle Tracks in Solids (PTS). We all are convinced of the advantages, good characteristics and qualities of this method which has served to establish a number of procedures in several areas such as Environmental and Personal Dosimetry, Radon Research, Geology, Nuclear Physics, etc. Nevertheless, we have to be conscious of its disadvantages and limitations and above all, the future developments, taking into account all aspects, ranging from track formation models to etching and reading procedures. Above all, I want to emphasize the importance of doing research in new materials with improved properties. The other important challenge refers to instrumentation development, mainly that concerned with reading systems, which is necessary if standard procedures for the measurement and evaluation of particle tracks in solids are to be established. (author)

  2. Fluid-mechanic/thermal interaction of a molten material and a decomposing solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Lee, D.O.

    1976-12-01

    Bench-scale experiments of a molten material in contact with a decomposing solid were conducted to gain insight into the expected interaction of a hot, molten reactor core with a concrete base. The results indicate that either of two regimes can occur: violent agitation and splattering of the melt or a very quiescent settling of the melt when placed in contact with the solid. The two regimes appear to be governed by the interface temperature condition. A conduction heat transfer model predicts the critical interface temperature with reasonable accuracy. In addition, a film thermal resistance model correlates well with the data in predicting the time for a solid skin to form on the molten material

  3. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  4. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  5. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  6. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog; Kim, Hong Suk

    2015-01-01

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%

  7. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  8. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  9. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  10. 77 FR 60334 - New Marking Standards for Parcels Containing Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... dimension of each side must be 100 mm (3.94 inches), unless the package size requires a reduced size marking...: * * * * * 10.12 Gases (Hazard Class 2) * * * * * 10.12.2 Mailability [Revise the third and fourth sentences of...

  11. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1990 Ship Production Symposium, Paper No. 4B-1: Solving SARA Compliance with Computerized Hazardous Materials Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Don; Schoenleber, Dave

    1990-01-01

    ...) has forced facilities to keep track of hazardous materials as never before. EPCRA contains five major reporting requirements including planning notification, emergency release notification, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS...

  12. Flow evaluation of the leaching hazardous materials from spent nickel-cadmium batteries discarded in different water surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingmei; Song, Yan; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    The leaching characteristics of hazardous materials from Ni-Cd batteries immersed in four typical water samples, i.e., water with NaCl, river water, tap water, and deionized water, were investigated to evaluate the potential environmental harm of spent Ni-Cd batteries in the water surroundings. It is shown that four water surroundings all could leach hazardous materials from the Ni-Cd batteries. The water with NaCl concentration of 66.7 mg L -1 had the highest leaching ability, the hazardous materials were leached after only approximately 50 days (average time, with a standard deviation of 4.1), while less than 100 days were needed in the others. An electrochemical corrosion is considered to be the main leaching mechanism leading to battery breakage, while the dissolution-deposition process and the powder route result in the leakage and transference of nickel and cadmium materials from the electrodes. The anions, i.e., SO 4 2- and Cl - , and dissolved oxygen in water were demonstrated to be the vital factors that influence the leaching processes. Thus, it is proposed that spent Ni-Cd batteries must be treated properly to avoid potential danger to the environment.

  13. Apparatus for waste disposal of radioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burack, R.D.; Stenger, W.J.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for concentrating dissolved and solid radioactive materials carried in a waste water solution containing a hazardous chelating agent used for cleaning nuclear equipment. It comprises oxidizing chamber means, separator means coupled to the oxidizing chamber means; ion exchange means containing an ion exchange resin; dryer means for receiving the radioactive solids from the separator means and for producing dry solids; and packaging means for receiving the dry solids and spent ion exchange resins containing the removed dissolved radioactive materials and for packaging the dry solids and spent resins in solid form

  14. Analysis of the Hazardous Material Reutilization Facilities at SUBASE Bangor and NS San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    soprene * styrene methyl acrylate methyl methacrylate *turpentine? varnish 9 GROUP IV: OXIDES AND PEROXIDE -rORKING COMPOUNDS a) Gases b) Liquids...lead fluorine GROUP XV: POISON a GROUP XVI: OXIDIZERS .a) Solid a) Solid phosphorus red ammonium nitrate phosphorus white/, ammonium perchlorate yellow

  15. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  16. Review of Solid State Hydrogen Storage Methods Adopting Different Kinds of Novel Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renju Zacharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of advances in the technology of solid state hydrogen storage methods applying different kinds of novel materials is provided. Metallic and intermetallic hydrides, complex chemical hydride, nanostructured carbon materials, metal-doped carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, metal-doped metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks (COFs, and clathrates solid state hydrogen storage techniques are discussed. The studies on their hydrogen storage properties are in progress towards positive direction. Nevertheless, it is believed that these novel materials will offer far-reaching solutions to the onboard hydrogen storage problems in near future. The review begins with the deficiencies of current energy economy and discusses the various aspects of implementation of hydrogen energy based economy.

  17. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  18. 78 FR 65453 - Hazardous Materials: Corrections and Response to Administrative Appeals (HM-215K, HM-215L, HM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... energy storage capacity less than or equal to 10 Wh, provided in special provision of A186 of the ICAO TI... Division 4.1 (Flammable Solid) material for transportation by motor vehicle, rail car, vessel, or cargo... transportation by motor vehicle, rail car, vessel, or cargo-only aircraft, subject to the following conditions...

  19. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  20. Developing strategies to reduce the risk of hazardous materials transportation in iran using the method of fuzzy SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kheirkhah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in hazardous materials transportation in Iran along with the industrial development and increase of resulted deadly accidents necessitate the development and implementation of some strategies to reduce these incidents. SWOT analysis is an efficient method for developing strategies, however, its structural problems, including a lack of prioritizing internal and external factors and inability to consider two sided factors reducing its performance in the situations where the number of internal and external factors affecting the risk of hazardous materials is relatively high and some factors are two sided in nature are presented in the article. Fuzzy SWOT analysis is a method the use of which helps with solving these problems and is the issue of employing an effective methodology. Also, the article compares the resulted strategies of the fuzzy method with the strategies developed following SWOT in order to show the relative supremacy of the new method.

  1. The Use of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash in Various Building Materials: A Belgian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aneeta Mary; Snellings, Ruben; Van den Heede, Philip; Matthys, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    Huge amounts of waste are being generated, and even though the incineration process reduces the mass and volume of waste to a large extent, massive amounts of residues still remain. On average, out of 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid wastes generated per year, around 130 and 2.1 million tons are incinerated in the world and in Belgium, respectively. Around 400 kT of bottom ash residues are generated in Flanders, out of which only 102 kT are utilized here, and the rest is exported or landfilled due to non-conformity to environmental regulations. Landfilling makes the valuable resources in the residues unavailable and results in more primary raw materials being used, increasing mining and related hazards. Identifying and employing the right pre-treatment technique for the highest value application is the key to attaining a circular economy. We reviewed the present pre-treatment and utilization scenarios in Belgium, and the advancements in research around the world for realization of maximum utilization are reported in this paper. Uses of the material in the cement industry as a binder and cement raw meal replacement are identified as possible effective utilization options for large quantities of bottom ash. Pre-treatment techniques that could facilitate this use are also discussed. With all the research evidence available, there is now a need for combined efforts from incineration and the cement industry for technical and economic optimization of the process flow. PMID:29337887

  2. The Use of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash in Various Building Materials: A Belgian Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Mary Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge amounts of waste are being generated, and even though the incineration process reduces the mass and volume of waste to a large extent, massive amounts of residues still remain. On average, out of 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid wastes generated per year, around 130 and 2.1 million tons are incinerated in the world and in Belgium, respectively. Around 400 kT of bottom ash residues are generated in Flanders, out of which only 102 kT are utilized here, and the rest is exported or landfilled due to non-conformity to environmental regulations. Landfilling makes the valuable resources in the residues unavailable and results in more primary raw materials being used, increasing mining and related hazards. Identifying and employing the right pre-treatment technique for the highest value application is the key to attaining a circular economy. We reviewed the present pre-treatment and utilization scenarios in Belgium, and the advancements in research around the world for realization of maximum utilization are reported in this paper. Uses of the material in the cement industry as a binder and cement raw meal replacement are identified as possible effective utilization options for large quantities of bottom ash. Pre-treatment techniques that could facilitate this use are also discussed. With all the research evidence available, there is now a need for combined efforts from incineration and the cement industry for technical and economic optimization of the process flow.

  3. UTILIZATION OF PINE NEEDLES AS BED MATERIAL IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID BY LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Ghosh

    Full Text Available Pine needles, which are abundantly found as underexploited biomass in coniferous forests, are responsible for fire hazards and air pollution. Utilization of pine needles as bed material in lactic acid production with solid state fermentation (SSF has been studied here. This investigation compared lactic acid production by pure strains of Lactobacilli, (1 L. delbrueckii (NCIM2025; (2 L. pentosus (NCIM 2912; (3 Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM 2734; (4 Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM2084; and a co-culture of the first two strains. The studies required 6 g per flask powdered dry pine needles as bed material, 2 g/L (inoculum, liquid production media based on pure glucose or whey substituted glucose, at 60, 80, and 120 g/L sugar levels, 37 oC, and an initial pH of 6.5. Co-culture attained a maximum lactic acid concentration of 45.10 g/L, followed by that of strain-1, 43.87 g/L and strain-4, 26.15 g/L, in 80 g/L pure glucose media. With 120g/L total sugar in whey-substituted media, the co-culture attained maximum lactic acid production of 44.88 g/L followed by that of strain-1, 43.67 g/L. The present experimental studies indicated better compatibility of pine needle bed with co-culture in solid state fermentation of lactic acid, which may prove to be an eco-friendly technology for utilization of biomass as well as minimizing fires in coniferous forests.

  4. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther W de Bekker-Grob

    Full Text Available To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens' protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens' protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce.A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19-64 years living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects' protective behaviour.The response was 44% (881/1,994. The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, 'escaping' was more preferred than 'seeking shelter', although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people.Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects' protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs to be targeted differently depending on

  5. Materializing Exposure: Developing an Indexical Method to Visualize Health Hazards Related to Fossil Fuel Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wylie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How can STS researchers collaborate with communities to design environmental monitoring devices that more effectively express their experiences and address gaps in regulation? This paper describes and shows the results of a novel method of visualizing environmental emissions of corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S exposure using photographic paper. H2S is a neurotoxic and flammable gas that smells like rotten eggs and is frequently associated with oil and natural gas extraction. Communities living with oil and gas development in Wyoming report odors of rotten eggs and describe symptoms of H2S exposure. H2S is recognized as an acute and chronic threat to human and environmental health and oil and gas companies are required to have plans in place to prevent and respond to accidental, high concentration releases of H2S. They are not, however, required to monitor, report or prevent routine daily emissions. Yet 15-25% of the oil and gas wells in the US are predicted to contain H2S, and some communities surrounded by multiple wells report chronic, routine exposure. Chronic exposure is difficult to represent with current tools for monitoring H2S because they are designed to measure acute workplace exposure. Informed by STS theories of black boxes and regimes of imperceptibility that focus on the need to revise not only regulations but also material tools of science, this paper describes the development of an indexical approach to visualizing this hazard. In indexical design, the reactive sensing element of a scientific instrument is brought to the foreground. The silver in the photopaper is an index as it tarnishes with H2S exposure. Discolored tests strips can be arranged together to form data-rich maps of the exposure landscape where this discoloration both represents how the gas spreads through a space and is a physical trace of the gas. Preliminary results in the form of data-rich maps show that regulating H2S emissions as primarily

  6. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  7. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials in a generic way allowing in-situ measurement and verification. Depending on a material''s classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. With these large costs at risk, the issues involved in making defensible decisions are ripe for closer scrutiny. In many cases, key issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding. The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Ultimate responsibility for this, of course, rests with radiological control or health physics organization of the individual site, but there are many measurements which can be performed by operations and generation organizations to simplify the process and virtually guarantee acceptance. Although this is not possible for all potential solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures, particularly some of large volumes and realizable cost savings. Mostly what is needed for this to happen are a few guiding rules, measurement procedures, and cross checks for potential pitfalls. Several examples are presented here and discussed that demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination

  8. Synthesis and characterization of novel electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, Nityanand; Chattopadhyaya, M.C.; Wani, B.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The high operating temperature of SOFCs using zirconia based electrolyte have several restrictions on materials used as interconnect and sealing and also requires use of expensive ceramics. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 600-800 deg C will enable to use cheaper materials and reduce the cost of fabrication while keeping the high power density. Lanthanide gallates are considered to be very promising solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature (600-800 deg C) solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) due to their high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. These materials are prepared at very high temperature (∼1400 deg C), since it is known that at around 1100 deg C, solubilities of Sr and Mg in LaGaO 3 were close to zero. Hence in the present work perovskite oxides of Ln 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (Ln= Sm, Gd and x = 0.10, y=0.20) have been prepared by different methods i.e. solid state reaction, gel combustion and co-precipitation methods

  9. An improved SOIL*EX trademark process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rust's patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust's Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements

  10. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionic liquid-modified materials for solid-phase extraction and separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Canals, Antonio

    2012-02-17

    In recent years, materials science has propelled to the research forefront. Ionic liquids with unique and fascinating properties have also left their footprints to the developments of materials science during the last years. In this review we highlight some of their recent advances and provide an overview at the current status of ionic liquid-modified materials applied in solid-phase extraction, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrochromatography with reference to recent applications. In addition, the potential of ionic liquids in the modification of capillary inner wall in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The main target material modified with ionic liquids is silica, but polymers and monoliths have recently joined the studies. Although imidazolium is still clearly the most commonly used ionic liquid for the covalently modification of materials, the exploitation of pyridinium and phosphonium will most probably increase in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A mucosa-mimetic material for the mucoadhesion testing of thermogelling semi-solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jéssica Bassi; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Bruschi, Marcos L; Cook, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-d-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mucosae in the mucoadhesion testing of tablets and solution formulations. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this mucosa-mimetic material in the testing of thermogelling semi-solid formulations, which transition from solution to gel upon warming. Two methods for assessing mucoadhesion have been used; tensile testing and a flow-through system, which allow for investigation under dramatically different conditions. It was found that the mucosa-mimetic material was a good surrogate for buccal mucosa using both testing methods. This material may be used to replace animal tissue in these experiments, potentially reducing the number of laboratory animals used in studies of this type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron spin resonance and its implication on the maximum nuclear polarization of deuterated solid target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.

    2006-01-01

    ESR spectroscopy is an important tool in polarized solid target material research, since it allows us to study the paramagnetic centers, which are used for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The polarization behavior of the different target materials is strongly affected by the properties of these centers, which are added to the diamagnetic materials by chemical doping or irradiation. In particular, the ESR linewidth of the paramagnetic centers is a very important parameter, especially concerning the deuterated target materials. In this paper, the results of the first precise ESR measurements of the deuterated target materials at a DNP-relevant magnetic field of 2.5 T are presented. Moreover, these results allowed us to experimentally study the correlation between ESR linewidth and maximum deuteron polarization, as given by the spin-temperature theory

  14. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing

  15. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  16. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  17. 46 CFR 153.900 - Certificates and authorization to carry a bulk liquid hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ship must have a Subchapter D or I Certificate of Inspection that is endorsed to allow the cargo tank... requirements for the bulk liquid cargo; and (2) The ship— (i) Has a Certificate of Inspection, Certificate of...) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...

  18. 41 CFR 101-42.404 - Special requirements for the sale of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... special storage and handling. It is the responsibility of the holding agency to properly store hazardous...

  19. 41 CFR 101-42.304 - Special requirements for donation of certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... is the responsibility of the Federal holding agency or State agency to properly store hazardous...

  20. 75 FR 52069 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...) Association of Hazmat Shippers, Inc. (AHS; PHMSA-2009-0126- 0009); (7) U.S. Fuel Cell Council (USFCC; PHMSA... flammability criteria for Class 3, PG II, and toxicity criteria for Division 6.1, PG I, poisonous-by-inhalation... inhalation hazard of each crude oil batch they transport and switch to other placards and shipping papers...